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Office: Genetics
Mail Code: 94305-5120
Phone: (650) 723-3335
Web Site:

Courses offered by the Department of Genetics are listed under the subject code GENE on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

An underlying theme in the department is that genetics is not merely a set of tools but a coherent and fruitful way of thinking about biology and medicine. To this end, the department emphasizes a spectrum of approaches based on molecules, organisms, populations, and genomes. It provides training through laboratory rotations, dissertation research, seminar series, didactic and interactive course work, and an annual three-day retreat of nearly 200 students, faculty, postdoctoral fellows, and research staff.

The mission of the department includes education and teaching as well as research; graduates from our program pursue careers in many different venues including research in academic or industrial settings, health care, health policy, and education. The department is especially committed to increasing diversity within the program, and to the training of individuals from traditionally underrepresented minority groups.





Master of Science in Human Genetics

The University requirements for the M.S. are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

The Department of Genetics offers an M.S. in Human Genetics, which is accredited by the American Board of Genetic Counseling. This program prepares students to practice in the healthcare profession of genetic counseling. The program is a full time two-year program, and accepts students to begin the program only in Autumn Quarter. Students must be admitted directly into this program, and cannot automatically transfer from the Ph.D. programs within the department, or vice versa. While courses are oriented primarily towards genetic counseling students, they may also be taken by medical students, other graduate students, residents or post-doctoral fellows, and (with permission) undergraduates.

The degree requires the completion of clinical rotations and an approved research project.

Students must also complete:

GENE 271Human Molecular Genetics3
GENE 272Introduction to Medical Genetics2-3
GENE 273Introduction to Clinical Genetics Testing2
GENE 274AA Case Based Approach to Clinical Genetics2
GENE 274BA Case Based Approach to Clinical Genetics2
GENE 275Role Play and Genetic Counseling Observations2
GENE 276Genetic Counseling Clinical Rotations4-7
GENE 278Prenatal Genetic Counseling1
GENE 279Pediatric and Adult Genetic Counseling1
GENE 280Metabolic Genetic Counseling1
GENE 281Cancer Genetic Counseling1
GENE 282AGenetic Counseling Research Seminar1
GENE 282BGenetic Counseling Research Seminar1
GENE 283Genetic Counseling Research1-8
GENE 284Medical Genetics Seminar1
GENE 285AGenetic Counseling Seminar3
GENE 285BGenetics Counseling Seminar3
GENE 285CGenetic Counseling Seminar3
GENE 286Advanced Genetic Counseling Seminar2
  • required course work:
  • several additional required courses (bioethics, research ethics and developmental biology),
  • and are encouraged to take 2-4 elective courses of their choice, including a research methods elective.

Faculty members include members of the Stanford faculty from Genetics, Pediatrics, Obstetrics, Pathology, Developmental Biology, Biomedical Ethics, Law, and Psychology, and practicing genetic counselors and clinical geneticists in various medical centers across the Bay Area.

Applications are due in December (see web site) for admission in the following Autumn Quarter. Applicants should demonstrate a combination of academic preparation, exposure to genetic counseling, and counseling and/or laboratory experiences. Exposure to persons with disabilities or chronic illness is also helpful. Additional information about the program is available at Stanford's Master's Program in Human Genetics web site.

Doctor of Philosophy in Genetics

University requirements for the Ph.D. degree are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

The Ph.D. program in the Department of Genetics offers graduate students the opportunity to pursue a discipline that encompasses both a set of tools and a coherent way of thinking about biology and medicine. All major areas of genetics and genomics are represented in the department, including human genetics (molecular identification of Mendelian traits and the pathophysiology of genetic disease, gene therapy, genetic epidemiology, analysis of complex traits, genome functional analysis and human evolution), and application of model organisms such as bacteria, yeast, flies, worms, and mice to basic and translational areas of biomedical research. The department is especially strong in genomic and bioinformatic approaches to genome biology and evolution, and includes several genome-scale databases and Centers such as the Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine (SCGPM), Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD), the Stanford Microarray Database (SMD), and the Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base (PharmGKB), the ENCODE project, Stanford Genome Technology Center (SGTC), ClinGen, eGTEX, and iPOP.

Exposure to the intellectual scope of the department is provided by laboratory rotations, dissertation research, advanced courses in genetics and other areas of biomedical science, seminar series, journal clubs, and an annual three-day retreat of faculty, students, postdoctoral fellows, and staff scientists. Emphasis is placed on interactions and collaborations among students, postdoctoral students, and faculty within the department and throughout the campus.

During their first year, graduate students in the department take graduate courses and sample areas of research by carrying out rotations in three or four laboratories. At the end of the first three quarters, students may select a laboratory in which to do their dissertation research. While the dissertation research is generally performed in one laboratory, collaborative projects with more than one faculty member are encouraged. In addition to interacting with their faculty adviser, graduate students receive advice regularly from other faculty members who serve as members of their dissertation committee. Study for the Ph.D. generally requires between four and five years of graduate work, most of which is focused on dissertation research.

Students are primarily enrolled in the program to receive the Ph.D. degree, although a limited number of M.D. candidates can combine research training in genetics with their medical studies. Ph.D. candidates who have passed the qualifying exam in the second year can opt to receive the M.S. as a terminal degree.

There are opportunities for graduate students to teach in graduate-level and professional-school courses. In addition, students have the opportunity to participate in educational outreach activities coordinated by the department, which include opportunities to interact with secondary school students and teachers, lay groups, and local science museums.

Students who have recently received a bachelor's, master's, M.D., or Ph.D. degree in related fields may apply for graduate study. Prospective students must have a background in biology, mathematics, physics, and chemistry. Decisions for admission are based on comparison of the relative merits of all the candidates' academic abilities and potential for research and the department's interest in promoting a diverse learning environment. Interviews take place in late February or early March and successful applicants are offered admission by early spring. Students who wish to pursue a combined M.D./Ph.D. degree are considered for admission into the graduate program in the department after they have been admitted to the M.D. program in the School of Medicine.

Students begin graduate studies in Autumn Quarter. Prospective students are encouraged to start the application process early to ensure that they are able to submit a complete application by the December deadline. All students accepted into the Ph.D. program in the Department of Genetics are provided with full tuition and a stipend. Three training grants, two from the National Institutes of Health and one from National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, provide major support for the graduate training program in the department. Other student support is provided by departmental funds, the School of Medicine, and from research grants, both federal and private, of the faculty. In addition, a number of graduate students are funded by fellowships, including those from the National Science Foundation and the Stanford Graduate Fellows program.

Graduate Advising Expectations

The Department of Genetics is committed to providing academic advising in support of graduate student scholarly and professional development. When most effective, this advising relationship entails collaborative and sustained engagement by both the adviser and the advisee. As a best practice, advising expectations should be periodically discussed and reviewed to ensure mutual understanding. Both the adviser and the advisee are expected to maintain professionalism and integrity.

Faculty advisers guide students in key areas such as selecting courses, designing and conducting research, developing of teaching pedagogy, navigating policies and degree requirements, and exploring academic opportunities and professional pathways.

Graduate students are active contributors to the advising relationship, proactively seeking academic and professional guidance and taking responsibility for informing themselves of policies and degree requirements for their graduate program.

For a statement of University policy on graduate advising, see the "Graduate Advising" section of this bulletin.

Emeritus: (Professor) Greg Barsh, Uta Francke

Chair: Michael Snyder

Professors: Russ Altman, Laura Attardi, Julie Baker, Anne Brunet, Carlos Bustamante, Michele Calos, Stanley Cohen, Ronald Davis, Andrew Fire, James Ford, Judith Frydman, Margaret Fuller, Aaron Gitler, Mark Kay, Karla Kirkegaard, Joseph Lipsick, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Jonathan Pritchard, John Pringle, Julien Sage, Arend Sidow, Tim Stearns, Lars Steinmetz, Hua Tang, Alice Ting, Alex Urban, Anne Villeneuve

Professor (Research): Leonore Herzenberg, J. Michael Cherry

Professors (Teaching): Kelly Ormond

Associate Professors: William Greenleaf, Jin Billy Li, Gavin Sherlock, Douglas Vollrath

Associate Professor (Clinical): Mary Ann Campion

Assistant Professors: Maria Barna, Michael Bassik, Ami Bhatt, Le Cong, Christina Curtis, Polly Fordyce, Anshul Kundaje,  Stephen Montgomery, Monte Winslow

Assistant Professor (Clinical): Andrea Hanon-Kahn


GENE 19SI. Impact Investing in Neuroscience. 2 Units.

The course will feature seminar-style lectures to examine various scenarios of investing for impact, incorporating both social and financial return metrics. Primary focus will be on developing ideas on best practices that will guide efficient allocation of funding in research, and early and later stage ventures for the advancement of the neuroscience sector and its impact on patients worldwide. Students will be able to engage with invited guest speakers, professionals within academia, non-profit and for-profit sectors, and learn about current practices in impact investing.

GENE 104Q. Law and the Biosciences. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Focus is on human genetics; also assisted reproduction and neuroscience. Topics include forensic use of DNA, genetic testing, genetic discrimination, eugenics, cloning, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, neuroscientific methods of lie detection, and genetic or neuroscience enhancement. Student presentations on research paper conclusions.

GENE 199. Undergraduate Research. 1-18 Unit.

Students undertake investigations sponsored by individual faculty members. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

GENE 200. Genetics and Developmental Biology Training Camp. 1 Unit.

Open to first year Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology students, to others with consent of instructors. Introduction to basic manipulations, both experimental and conceptual, in genetics and developmental biology.
Same as: DBIO 200

GENE 202. Human Genetics. 4 Units.

Utilizes lectures and small group activities to develop a working knowlege of human genetics as applicable to clinical medicine. Basic principles of inheritance, risk assessment, and population genetics are illustrated using examples drawn from diverse areas of medical genetics practice including prenatal, pediatric, adult and cancer genetics. Practical aspects of molecular and cytogenetic diagnostic methods are emphasized. Existing and emerging treatment strategies for single gene disorders are also covered. Prerequisites: basic genetics. Only available to MD and MOM students.

GENE 204. Essentials of Multidimensional Flow Cytometry. 1 Unit.

Keep pace with automated flow cytometry data analysis via hands-on training. Learn how to design multicolor flow cytometry experiments. Elements of quantitative flow cytometry. Course for all students, staff and faculty. Prerequisite is background in topic.

GENE 205. Advanced Genetics. 3 Units.

For PhD students in any of the Biosciences Departments and Programs at Stanford University. Emphasis on developing the ability to solve problems using genetic ideas and methods, to understand the nature and reliability of genetic inference, and to apply genetic reasoning to biological research. Weekly paper discussions based on original research papers that define or illustrate the ideas and techniques covered in the lecture.

GENE 207. Microfluidic Device Laboratory. 3-4 Units.

This course exposes students to the design, fabrication, and testing of microfluidic devices for biological applications through combination of lectures and hands-on lab sessions. In teams of two, students will produce a working prototype devices designed to address specific design challenges within the biological community using photolithography, soft lithography, and imaging techniques.
Same as: BIOE 301D

GENE 208. Gut Microbiota in Health and Disease. 2-3 Units.

Preference to graduate students. Focus is on the human gut microbiota. Students enrolling for 3 units receive instruction on computational approaches to analyze microbiome data and must complete a related project.
Same as: BIOE 221G, MI 221

GENE 209. Current Topics in Human, Population, and Statistical Genomics. 2 Units.

Intensive seminar/workshop. Topics, drawn from current and past literature, may include: assessing and population genetic analysis of genomic variation; genome-to-phenome mapping; reconstructing demographic history from genome sequence data; domestication genomics; host-pathogen genome evolution; detecting signatures of selection; experimental design in human genetics; linkage and association mapping; ethical and social issues in human, plant, and animal genetics research. Emphasis on analysis and logic or experimental and observational genomics research. Faculty-led discussion with evaluation of response papers, problem sets, and intensive course project. May be repeated for credit.

GENE 210. Genomics and Personalized Medicine. 3 Units.

Principles of genetics underlying associations between genetic variants and disease susceptibility and drug response. Topics include: genetic and environmental risk factors for complex genetic disorders; design and interpretation of genome-wide association studies; pharmacogenetics; full genome sequencing for disease gene discovery; population structure and genetic ancestry; use of personal genetic information in clinical medicine; ethical, legal, and social issues with personal genetic testing. Hands-on workshop making use of personal or publicly available genetic data. Prerequisite: GENE 202, GENE 205 or BIOS 200.
Same as: DBIO 220

GENE 211. Genomics. 3 Units.

The goal of this course is to explore different genomic approaches and technologies, to learn how they work from a molecular biology view point, and to understand how they can be applied to understanding biological systems. In addition, we teach material on how the data generated from these approaches can be analyzed, from an algorithmic perspective. The papers that are discussed are a mixture of algorithmic papers, and technological papers. Finally, the course has a strong programming component, with Python being the language that we teach. All of our problem sets require Python programming - while beginning programmers succeed in our course, it is a steep learning curve, and the problem sets can require a significant time investment.

GENE 212. Introduction to Biomedical Informatics Research Methodology. 3-5 Units.

Capstone Biomedical Informatics (BMI) experience. Hands-on software building. Student teams conceive, design, specify, implement, evaluate, and report on a software project in the domain of biomedicine. Creating written proposals, peer review, providing status reports, and preparing final reports. Issues related to research reproducibility. Guest lectures from professional biomedical informatics systems builders on issues related to the process of project management. Software engineering basics. Because the team projects start in the first week of class, attendance that week is strongly recommended. Prerequisites: BIOMEDIN 210 or 214 or 215 or 217 or 260. Preference to BMI graduate students. Consent of instructor required.
Same as: BIOE 212, BIOMEDIN 212, CS 272

GENE 214. Representations and Algorithms for Computational Molecular Biology. 3-4 Units.

Topics: introduction to bioinformatics and computational biology, algorithms for alignment of biological sequences and structures, computing with strings, phylogenetic tree construction, hidden Markov models, basic structural computations on proteins, protein structure prediction, protein threading techniques, homology modeling, molecular dynamics and energy minimization, statistical analysis of 3D biological data, integration of data sources, knowledge representation and controlled terminologies for molecular biology, microarray analysis, machine learning (clustering and classification), and natural language text processing. Prerequisite: CS 106B; recommended: CS161; consent of instructor for 3 units.
Same as: BIOE 214, BIOMEDIN 214, CS 274

GENE 215. Frontiers in Biological Research. 1 Unit.

Students analyze cutting edge science, develop a logical framework for evaluating evidence and models, and enhance their ability to design original research through exposure to experimental tools and strategies. The class runs in parallel with the Frontiers in Biological Research seminar series. Students and faculty meet on the Tuesday preceding each seminar to discuss a landmark paper in the speaker's field of research. Following the Wednesday seminar, students meet briefly with the speaker for a free-range discussion which can include insights into the speakers' paths into science and how they pick scientific problems.
Same as: BIOC 215, DBIO 215

GENE 216. Practical Considerations and Industry Perspective on Academic-Industry Collaborations. 1 Unit.

Provides an overview, fundamentals and practical considerations for different aspects of academic-industry collaborations by inviting current industrial experts to share their views and to answer questions. The different aspects include collaboration models, proposal building, IP right sharing, funding opportunities, sabbatical and internship in industry, industry job searching, etc. This class also serves as a platform to connect with Bay Area biotech and pharmaceutical executives and experts.

GENE 217. Translational Bioinformatics. 4 Units.

Computational methods for the translation of biomedical data into diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications in medicine. Topics: multi-scale omics data generation and analysis, utility and limitations of public biomedical resources, machine learning and data mining, issues and opportunities in drug discovery, and mobile/digital health solutions. Case studies and course project. Prerequisites: programming ability at the level of CS 106A and familiarity with biology and statistics.
Same as: BIOE 217, BIOMEDIN 217, CS 275

GENE 218. Computational Analysis of Biological Information: Introduction to Python for Biologists. 2 Units.

Computational tools for processing, interpretation, communication, and archiving of biological information. Emphasis is on sequence and digital microscopy/image analysis. Intended for biological and clinical trainees without substantial programming experience.
Same as: MI 218, PATH 218

GENE 221. Current Issues in Aging. 2 Units.

Current research literature on genetic mechanisms of aging in animals and human beings. Topics include: mitochondria mutations, insulin-like signaling, sirtuins, aging in flies and worms, stem cells, human progeria, and centenarian studies. Prerequisite: GENE 203, 205 or BIOS 200.

GENE 224. Principles of Pharmacogenomics. 3 Units.

This course is an introduction to pharmacogenomics, including the relevant pharmacology, genomics, experimental methods (sequencing, expression, genotyping), data analysis methods and bioinformatics. The course reviews key gene classes (e.g., cytochromes, transporters) and key drugs (e.g., warfarin, clopidogrel, statins, cancer drugs) in the field. Resources for pharmacogenomics (e.g., PharmGKB, Drugbank, NCBI resources) are reviewed, as well as issues implementing pharmacogenomics testing in the clinical setting. Reading of key papers, including student presentations of this work; problem sets; final project selected with approval of instructor. Prerequisites: two of BIO 41, 42, 43, 44X, 44Y or consent of instructor.
Same as: BIOMEDIN 224

GENE 232. Advanced Imaging Lab in Biophysics. 4 Units.

Laboratory and lectures. Advanced microscopy and imaging, emphasizing hands-on experience with state-of-the-art techniques. Students construct and operate working apparatus. Topics include microscope optics, Koehler illumination, contrast-generating mechanisms (bright/dark field, fluorescence, phase contrast, differential interference contrast), and resolution limits. Laboratory topics vary by year, but include single-molecule fluorescence, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, microendoscopy, and optical trapping. Limited enrollment. Recommended: basic physics, basic cell biology, and consent of instructor.
Same as: APPPHYS 232, BIO 132, BIO 232, BIOPHYS 232

GENE 233. The Biology of Small Modulatory RNAs. 2 Units.

Open to graduate and medical students. Explores recent progress and unsolved questions in the field of RNA intereference and microRNA biology. Students are required to read assigned primary literature before each class and actively participate in guided discussions on related technical and conceptual issues during class meetings. Assignments include critiques of assigned papers and developing a novel research proposal.
Same as: MI 233, PATH 233

GENE 234. Fundamentals of RNA Biology. 2 Units.

For graduate or medical students and (if space allows) to active participants from other segments of the Stanford Community (e.g., TGR students); undergraduates by instructor consent. Fundamental issues of RNA biology, with the goal of setting a foundation for students to explore the expanding world of RNA-based regulation. Each week a topic is covered by a faculty lecture and journal club presentations by students.
Same as: MI 234, PATH 234

GENE 235. C. Elegans Genetics. 2 Units.

Genetic approaches to C. elegans, practice in designing experiments and demonstrations of its growth and anatomy. Probable topics include: growth and genetics, genome map and sequence, mutant screens that start with a desired phenotype, reverse genetics and RNAi screens, genetic duplications, uses of null phenotype non-null alleles, genetic interactions and pathway analysis, and embryogenesis and cell lineage. Focus of action, mosaic analysis, and interface with embryological and evolutionary approaches.

GENE 236. Deep Learning in Genomics and Biomedicine. 3 Units.

Recent breakthroughs in high-throughput genomic and biomedical data are transforming biological sciences into "big data" disciplines. In parallel, progress in deep neural networks are revolutionizing fields such as image recognition, natural language processing and, more broadly, AI. This course explores the exciting intersection between these two advances. The course will start with an introduction to deep learning and overview the relevant background in genomics and high-throughput biotechnology, focusing on the available data and their relevance. It will then cover the ongoing developments in deep learning (supervised, unsupervised and generative models) with the focus on the applications of these methods to biomedical data, which are beginning to produced dramatic results. In addition to predictive modeling, the course emphasizes how to visualize and extract interpretable, biological insights from such models. Recent papers from the literature will be presented and discussed. Students will be introduced to and work with popular deep learning software frameworks. Students will work in groups on a final class project using real world datasets. Prerequisites: College calculus, linear algebra, basic probability and statistics such as CS109, and basic machine learning such as CS229. No prior knowledge of genomics is necessary.
Same as: BIODS 237, BIOMEDIN 273B, CS 273B

GENE 243. Intellectual Propery: Scientific Evidence in Patent Litigation. 3 Units.

(Same as LAW 343) Open to clinical MD and graduate students. Explores the role of scientific experts in patent infringement litigation. In other areas of the law where scientific experts are used -- medical malpractice, environmental law, criminal law -- the science itself is often in dispute. In patent cases, however, the parties generally agree on the science. This affects the relationship between the lawyer and the expert and the substantive content of their interactions. Patent experts need to be able to explain science to the judge and jury. But they also must help the litigators choose which legal issues to press and which to concede, and to be aware of how the complications of the science might help, hurt, obscure or reveal how the law should be applied to the facts. The class examines judicial decisions and trial documents involving scientific evidence in patent litigation, followed by work in teams on final projects: simulations of expert testimony in a patent case. Simulations are performed at the end of the quarter before panels of practicing patent lawyers. Prerequisite: graduate students must have completed their required coursework and have TGR status.

GENE 244. Introduction to Statistical Genetics. 3 Units.

Statistical methods for analyzing human genetics studies of Mendelian disorders and common complex traits. Probable topics include: principles of population genetics; epidemiologic designs; familial aggregation; segregation analysis; linkage analysis; linkage-disequilibrium-based association mapping approaches; and genome-wide analysis based on high-throughput genotyping platforms. Prerequisite: STATS 116 or equivalent or consent of instructor.
Same as: STATS 344

GENE 245. Statistical and Machine Learning Methods for Genomics. 3 Units.

Introduction to statistical and computational methods for genomics. Sample topics include: expectation maximization, hidden Markov model, Markov chain Monte Carlo, ensemble learning, probabilistic graphical models, kernel methods and other modern machine learning paradigms. Rationales and techniques illustrated with existing implementations used in population genetics, disease association, and functional regulatory genomics studies. Instruction includes lectures and discussion of readings from primary literature. Homework and projects require implementing some of the algorithms and using existing toolkits for analysis of genomic datasets.
Same as: BIO 268, BIOMEDIN 245, CS 373, STATS 345

GENE 247. Genomic approaches to the study of human disease. 3 Units.

This course will cover a range of genetic and genomic approaches to studying human phenotypic variation and disease. We will discuss the genetic basis of Mendelian and complex diseases, as well as clinical applications including prenatal testing, and pediatric and cancer diagnostics. The course will include lectures as well as critical reading and discussion of the primary literature. Prerequisite: BIO 82 or equivalent. Open to advanced undergraduate students.
Same as: BIO 247

GENE 260. Supervised Study. 1-18 Unit.

Genetics graduate student lab research from first quarter to filing of candidacy. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

GENE 267. Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Disease. 4 Units.

The epidemic of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease occasioned by an aging human population. Genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms. Clinical aspects through case presentations.nnThis class is open to both graduate and undergraduate students, but requires sufficient backgrounds in college level genetics, cell biology and biochemistry. Undergraduates who are interested are required to contact the course director first.
Same as: BIO 267, NENS 267

GENE 268. Biology and Applications of CRISPR/Cas9: Genome Editing and Epigenome Modifications. 1 Unit.

This course is designed to provide a broad overview of the biology and applications of the revolutionary CRISPR/Cas9 system, with detailed exploration of several areas: / / --Basic biology of the CRISPR/Cas9 system / --High-throughput screening using CRISPR/Cas9 / --Epigenetic modifications and transcriptional regulation using dCas9 / --Therapeutic applications of gene editing with CRISPR / --Disease modeling with CRISPR / --Ethical considerations of the use of CRISPR/Cas9 / / The course will be geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, and will assume a basic background in molecular biology and genetics. The course will be lecture-based, with frequent opportunities for discussion and questions.
Same as: BIOS 268

GENE 271. Human Molecular Genetics. 3 Units.

For genetic counseling students, graduate students in genetics, medical students, residents, and postdoctoral fellows interested in the practice of medical genetics and genomics. Gene structure and function; the impact of mutation and polymorphism as they relate to developmental pathways and human disease; mitochondrial genetics; approaches to the study of complex genetic conditions; GWAS and genome sequencing technologies; variant interpretation; gene therapy, stem cell biology, and pharmacogenetics. Undergraduates require consent of instructor and a basic genetics course.
Same as: CHPR 271

GENE 272. Introduction to Medical Genetics. 2-3 Units.

For genetic counseling students, graduate students in human genetics, medical students, residents, and fellows; undergraduates with consent of instructor. Principles of medical genetics practice, including taking a family history, modes of inheritance and risk assessment, and mathematical principles of medical genetics (Bayes theorem, population genetics). An additional problem set is required for 3 units.
Same as: CHPR 272

GENE 273. Introduction to Clinical Genetics Testing. 2 Units.

For genetic counseling students, medical students, residents, and fellows. Uses a combination of case based assignments, laboratory observation and didactic lectures to introduce techniques and technology used in cytogenetics, molecular genetics and biochemical genetic testing, and to introduce clinical features of common genetic conditions that are commonly diagnosed through genetic testing.

GENE 274A. A Case Based Approach to Clinical Genetics. 2 Units.

For genetic counseling students, graduate students in genetics, medical students, residents and fellows. Case-based scenarios and guest expert lectures. Students learn skills in case preparation, management, and presentation, as well as content around common genetic disorders.
Same as: CHPR 274A

GENE 274B. A Case Based Approach to Clinical Genetics. 2 Units.

For genetic counseling students, graduate students in genetics, medical students, residents, and fellows. Case-based scenarios and guest expert lectures. Students learn skills in case preparation, management, and presentation, as well as content around common genetic disorders. This course is a continuation of GENE 274A, but may be taken individually with instructor permission.
Same as: CHPR 274B

GENE 275. Role Play and Genetic Counseling Observations. 2 Units.

Students role play aspects of genetic counseling sessions and learn through clinical observations. Observation includes genetic counseling sessions in prenatal, pediatric, and specialty settings.

GENE 276. Genetic Counseling Clinical Rotations. 1-7 Unit.

For genetic counseling students only. Supervised clinical experiences. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: GENE 275.

GENE 278. Prenatal Genetic Counseling. 1 Unit.

Online course for genetic counseling students, graduate students in genetics, medical students, residents, fellows, and nurses interested in prenatal genetics. Genetic counseling students should take this course in conjunction with their initial prenatal genetics rotation. Topics include: prenatal screening and diagnostic testing, ultrasound, genetic carrier screening, teratology, fetal treatment and intervention, perinatal loss, termination, and infertility.
Same as: CHPR 278

GENE 279. Pediatric and Adult Genetic Counseling. 1 Unit.

Internet based course for genetic counseling students, graduate students in genetics, medical students, residents, and fellows; genetic counseling students should take this course in conjunction with their initial general genetics rotation. Topics include: common genetic conditions, assessment of child development and medical history in the context of a genetic workup, the pediatric genetics medical examination, dysmorphology, introduction to laboratory genetic testing, development of a differential diagnosis, and resources for case management and family support.
Same as: CHPR 279

GENE 280. Metabolic Genetic Counseling. 1 Unit.

Internet based course for genetic counseling students, graduate students in genetics, medical students, residents, and fellows genetic counseling students should take this course in conjunction with their metabolic genetics rotation. Topics include: overview of metabolic diseases; common pathways; diagnosis, management, and treatment of metabolic disorders; and newborn screening.
Same as: CHPR 280

GENE 281. Cancer Genetic Counseling. 1 Unit.

Internet based course for genetic counseling students, graduate students in genetics, medical students, residents, and fellows; genetic counseling students should take this course in conjunction with their initial cancer genetics rotation. Topics include: cancer biology and cytogenetics; diagnosis and management of common cancer genetic syndromes¿ predictive testing; psychology of cancer genetic counseling; and topics recommended by ASCO guidelines.
Same as: CHPR 281

GENE 282A. Genetic Counseling Research Seminar. 1 Unit.

For genetic counseling students only. Facilitated discussions on identifying a topic and mentor for genetic counseling departmental research projects.

GENE 282B. Genetic Counseling Research Seminar. 1 Unit.

For genetic counseling students only. Lectures and facilitated discussions on research methodology for genetic counseling departmental research projects. Prerequisite: GENE 282A.

GENE 283. Genetic Counseling Research. 1-8 Unit.

Genetic counseling students conduct clinical research projects as required by the department for graduation. May be repeated for credit. Pre- or corequisite: GENE 282.

GENE 284. Medical Genetics Seminar. 1 Unit.

Presentation of genetics research and cases from the medical genetics and biochemical genetics services. Course may be completed online or in person. Non-GC students: please contact the instructor when you enroll.
Same as: CHPR 284

GENE 285A. Genetic Counseling Seminar. 3 Units.

Year-long seminar primarily for genetic counseling students. Fall: An introduction to genetic counseling principles, techniques, and professional development.

GENE 285B. Genetics Counseling Seminar. 3 Units.

Year-long seminar primarily for genetic counseling students. Winter: The impact of chronic illness and genetic disease across the lifespan.

GENE 285C. Genetic Counseling Seminar. 3 Units.

Year-long seminar primarily for genetic counseling students. Spring: The application of counseling theories, models, and therapy to the practice of genetic counseling.

GENE 286. Advanced Genetic Counseling Seminar. 2 Units.

For genetic counseling students only. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic counseling cases are discussed through presentation of cases that students have seen throughout their training. Professional development topics will be included. Must be taken for 3 quarters. Prerequisites: GENE 285 A,B,C and 276.


Online course for genetic counseling students, graduate students in genetics, medical students, residents, fellows, and nurses interested in inherited cardiovascular conditions. Genetic counseling students should take this course in conjunction with their cardiovascular genetics rotation. Topics include: Basic cardiology principles, including relevant anatomy and physiology; diagnosis, management and genetic testing as it relates to common inherited cardiovascular conditions in both the pediatric and adult setting; predictive genetic testing issues specific to inherited cardiovascular conditions; psychological issues related to sudden death conditions.
Same as: CHPR 287

GENE 288. Neurogenetics. 1 Unit.

Internet-based course for genetic counseling students, graduate students in genetics, medical students, residents, and fellow; genetic counseling students should take this course in conjunction with their neurogenetics rotation. Topics include: introduction to neurology for beginners, including an overview of neurologic exam and localization, to provide non-neurologist trainees a foundation for understanding the differential diagnosis process in neurology; common and exemplary neurogenetics disorders spanning the adult and pediatric neurologic sub-specialties; key genetic concepts such as triple repeat disorders and FSHD; ethical and psychological topics as well as gene-targets therapeutics. nnMedical students and graduate students outside of genetic counseling should obtain permission from instructor prior to enrollment. No prerequisite for genetic counseling students, genetics or neurology residents/fellows or post-docs.

GENE 299. Directed Reading in Genetics. 1-18 Unit.

Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

GENE 346. Advanced Seminar on Prokaryotic Molecular Biology. 1 Unit.

Enrollment limited to PhD students associated with departmental research groups in genetics or molecular biology.
Same as: BIO 346, CSB 346

GENE 399. Graduate Research. 1-18 Unit.

Investigations sponsored by individual faculty members. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

GENE 801. TGR Project. 0 Units.


GENE 802. TGR Dissertation. 0 Units.