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The School of Medicine offers courses of study leading to the M.S., Ph.D., and M.D. degrees.

Undergraduate Programs in the School of Medicine

Many courses in the School of Medicine are open to any registered Stanford student who has fulfilled the prerequisites, subject to the usual limits of course enrollment and faculty approval. The school also offers courses specifically for undergraduates, as well as graduate-level courses where advanced undergraduates with backgrounds in the life sciences are welcome. Among the undergraduate offerings are numerous Stanford Introductory Seminars for freshmen and sophomores, the Emergency Medical Technician program, Stanford Immersion in Medicine Physician Shadowing, Pre-Vet Advisory, and courses in Community Health, including participation in the Stanford Free Clinics. The school also offers several undergraduate courses through the Department of Biology and the Interdisciplinary Program in Human Biology in the School of Humanities and Sciences. See the school's Undergraduate Studies web site for additional information.

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in the School of Medicine

The School of Medicine is home to graduate programs covering a broad range of disciplines within biomedicine leading to Ph.D. or M.S. degrees. These programs focus on interdisciplinary training with in-depth investigation of an original problem of fundamental importance to the biosciences. Each degree program sets its own curriculum, but many courses are taught by groups of faculty from multiple programs and departments. Flexibility is a priority to ensure that all students obtain the best possible training for pursuing careers in their areas of interest. The school is dedicated to training students from diverse backgrounds, and to the promotion of diversity in graduate education. Admission is through one of about 15 home programs. These home programs enable students to carry out dissertation research and training with School of Medicine faculty, as well as investigators in the departments of Biology and Biophysics in the School of Humanities and Sciences. Detailed information on School of Medicine M.S. and Ph.D. programs, curricula, and research can be found at Stanford's School of Medicine Master's Degree Programs and Ph.D. Programs web site. Application information can be found at Stanford's Office of Graduate Admissions web site. 

M.D. Program in the School of Medicine

The School of Medicine seeks to attract students who are passionate about scholarship and wish to improve the health of the world's people through research, innovation, and leadership. The Stanford M.D. Discovery Curriculum provides education in biomedical and clinical sciences along with study and independent research through scholarly concentrations. Emphasis is placed on interdisciplinary learning, with streamlined content, interactive approaches, and melding of basic science and clinical instruction across the curriculum. Blocks of unscheduled time allow for individual or group study, participation in elective courses, research, and reflection. The flexible Discovery Curriculum supports student’s scientific discovery and self-discovery by offering multiple learning pathways at a more individualized pace and opportunities for pursuing a second degree, such as an M.P.H., M.B.A., Master's of Science in Epidemiology or Health Services Research, a Ph.D., or participating in longitudinal and global health research experiences.

The Discovery Curriculum features robust basic science content, integrated organ based learning, and compassionate patient-centered clinical training. Core foundational content is presented in the first year and broad clinical science education occurs throughout the curriculum with ample exposure to patient care and the practice of medicine. Students may begin clinical clerkships as early as May of the second year. The structure of clinical training is flexible, allowing customization of the order in which core clerkships are completed and offering a wide variety of selective/elective clerkships. The curriculum also features a strong emphasis on population health with courses that include classroom and experiential learning to provide understanding of the socioeconomic determinants of the health of patients and communities.

The required Scholarly Concentrations offer opportunities for developing skills that enhance basic science and clinical training in areas such as bioengineering, biomedical ethics and medical humanities, biomedical informatics, clinical research, community health, health services and policy research, and the molecular basis of medicine. Through the Scholarly Concentration program, these skills may be applied in clinical areas housed within centers at Stanford such as the Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Cardiovascular Institute, the Neuroscience Institute, the Institute of Immunity, Transplantation, and Infection, and Women's Health at Stanford. Study in a scholarly concentration typically includes course work and research activities. Funding for research and other scholarly opportunities may be supported through the Medical Scholars program, which funds student research projects at Stanford and overseas.

The Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) MD-PhD program provides a select group of medical students with an opportunity to pursue a training program designed to equip them for careers in academic investigative medicine. Individualization of the curricular and research programs of each trainee is the hallmark of the Program. Training for a combined MD-PhD includes the same content encountered by students who pursue each degree separately, but the total time of training should be less than the sum of the time normally taken for each degree. To this end, students must plan their training carefully and commit to a rigorous and intensive period of study. The flexible curriculum at Stanford Medical School allows each student to satisfy the requirements for the MD degree and to pursue an independent research program. In what follows, we provide a general outline of what to expect.

In addition to a variety of other dual degree opportunities, Stanford also collaborates with the University of California, Berkeley, to offer students opportunities for M.D./M.P.H. training. Details about these programs may be found at Stanford's Dual Degree and Multi-Degree Programs web site.

Stanford is committed to representing the diversity of the U.S. and California populations by seeking a diverse body of students who are interested in the intellectual substance of medicine and committed to advancing the field of health care, broadly defined. Provided an applicant to the school has completed basic courses in physics, chemistry, and biology, the choice of an undergraduate major may reflect other interests, including the arts and humanities. Course work in advanced biology such as biochemistry, molecular biology, or genetics and the behavioral sciences is recommended because of their importance in understanding health care. Breadth of interests and depth of experiences play an important role in the selection of students from among those applicants having superior academic records.

The M.D. degree requires 12 quarters of registration at full Med-MD tuition; the joint M.D./Ph.D. degree requires 15 quarters. Completion of the M.D. degree must be achieved within six years, unless a petition is granted to extend this time frame. For further details on the M.D. degree, including admission requirements, see the Stanford MD Program website.

Multiple-Degree Programs in the School of Medicine

M.D./Ph.D.

Many M.D. students undertake a Ph.D. while they are at Stanford. Popular choices are School of Medicine programs in Bioengineering , Biomedical Informatics, or one of the 13 Biosciences home departments. At the School of Engineering, the Biomechanical Engineering M.D./Ph.D. program also makes a special effort to work with M.D. students.

Medical Scientist Training Program

The Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) provides medical students with an opportunity to pursue an individualized program of research and course work leading to both the M.D. and Ph.D. degrees. It is designed to equip students for careers in academic investigative medicine, and emphasizes flexibility of curricular and research programs for each trainee. Training for a combined M.D.-Ph.D. includes the same content encountered by students who pursue each degree separately, but the total training time is less than the sum of the time normally required for each degree. The flexible curriculum at Stanford's School of Medicine allows each student, in consultation with a preceptor and other advisers, to pursue a plan of study that satisfies the requirements for the M.D. and allows performance of doctoral-level research leading to the Ph.D. Students interested in joining the MSTP are considered for admission at the time of their application to the School of Medicine M.D. program and are asked to provide supplemental information relevant to their research background. Current Stanford M.D. students may also apply for admission to the MSTP.

M.D./M.B.A.

M.D.. students interested in combining their medical training with training in business can take advantage of a dual degree M.D./M.B.A. program that allows students to obtain both degrees after completion of a 5-year curriculum.  Students must apply to and be admitted by the Stanford Graduate School of Business, at the time of their admission to the medical school or after beginning their M.D. studies.

M.D./M.P.H.

A unique collaboration with UC Berkeley allows M.D.. students to pursue and obtain a Master of Public Health degree while still at the Stanford School of Medicine. This dual degree M.D./M.P.H. program is open to M.D. students who participate in the Scholarly Concentration in Community Health. Students must apply to and be admitted by the UC Berkeley program; course work is undertaken at the UC Berkeley campus.

Ph.D./M.S.M.

The Master of Science in Medicine program admits current Stanford Ph.D. students who have a commitment to translational research, but are not interested in becoming clinicians. The goal of the program is to train researchers in human biology and disease to be better equipped to translate new scientific discoveries into useful medical advances. Students offered admission into any Ph.D. program at Stanford may apply for admission to the master's program. During their first five quarters, students take basic biomedical science courses with Stanford M.D. students. The School of Medicine M.D. curriculum is presented in a succinct format that allows time for students to concurrently complete their Ph.D. course requirements and lab rotations. By early in their second year, students choose a lab for their Ph.D. thesis research and complete their medical course work. They also elect a clinical co-mentor to discuss translational research needs and help to arrange a short clinical experience. Upon completion of the Program., participating students receive an M.S. in Medicine.  

M.D./M.S. Degrees

Health Policy: the master's degree program in Health Policy seeks to train students in the quantitative analysis of issues in health and medical care. The program is based upon an individual development plan, and includes both course work and completion of a master's project under the direction of a program core faculty member. The typical student in the program is a physician who has completed residency training and is preparing for a research career; the program also admits Stanford medical students and others with a strong background in health policy analysis. The core faculty interests include outcomes research, health economics, health care organization, health care access, quality of care, decision analysis, clinical guidelines, and assessment of patient preferences and quality of life.

Epidemiology: The Graduate Interdisciplinary Program in Epidemiology is a research oriented program that offers instruction and research opportunities leading to the M.S. degree in Epidemiology, the study of the distribution and determinants of diseases in populations.

Biomedical Informatics: An option for anyone who wishes to either perform research in Biomedical Informatics as clinical faculty at a school of medicine or for those who wish to continue into the health care industry or government. There is high need for trained individuals who understand the practice of medicine and who are able to develop and implement applications in biomedical informatics.

Biomechanical Engineering: Bioengineering is a fusion of engineering and the life sciences that promotes scientific discovery and the invention of new technologies and therapies through research and education. It encompasses both the use of biology as a new engineering paradigm and the application of engineering principles to medical problems and biological systems. The discipline embraces biology as a new science base for engineering.

M.D./M.P.P. Degree

Matriculated M.D. students from Stanford's School of Medicine may apply for admission to the joint M.P.P./M.D. degree program.  Applications are accepted anytime after a student has completed one year in the M.D. program. Students must obtain the permission of the School of Medicine to participate in the joint degree program. Students are required to devote two continuous years of full-time study to the completion of the first two years of the core M.D. curriculum. Students then devote one continuous academic year of study to the completion of the M.P.P. core curriculum. At other times, the student may be enrolled in either unit and may take courses from either unit to satisfy the joint degree requirements. 

Departmental Dual Degrees

Education: The Individually designed M.A. in Education is designed for Stanford doctoral students enrolled outside of the School of Education. Individuals enrolled at the doctoral level at Stanford can be considered for this program.

E-IPER: Stanford’s Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources  (E-IPER) gives students a focused science, engineering, and technology background, allowing them to integrate science with law and business to address critical environmental and sustainability issues.

Public Policy: Stanford University offers two master's programs in Public Policy.  A Master's of Public Policy (M.P.P.) is a two-year professional degree and the Masters of Arts in Public Policy (M.A.) is a one-year non-professional degree. Students currently enrolled in other Stanford graduate programs, and applicants to those programs, may apply for either of the Public Policy master's programs. M.D. students are eligible to apply for a dual M.A. degree program. See above for the joint M.D./M.P.P. program.

Dean: Lloyd Minor

Senior Associate Dean for Graduate Education and Postdoctoral Affairs: William Talbot

Senior Associate Dean for Medical Education: Charles Prober

Medicine Interdisciplinary Courses

INDE 201. Practice of Medicine I. 8 Units.

Six quarter series extending throughout the first two years of the MD program, interweaving core skills training in medical interviewing and the physical examination with other major threads addressing the context of medical practice: information literacy, nutrition principles, clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, evidence-based practice, psychiatry, biomedical ethics, health policy, population health. Core clinical skills are acquired through hands-on practice, and evaluated through an extensive program of simulated medical encounters, in which students interview, examine, and manage patients in a mock clinic. The information literacy thread introduces students to informatics and knowledge management, biomedical informatics, and evidence-based medicine searching. Nutrition principles are acquired through interactive, web-based instruction, and reinforced through problem-based learning cases, which run in parallel to the basic science components over the first year. In epdemiology students learn the taxonomy of epidemiological studies, how to critically read a journal article, and how to recognize and understand the concepts behind different clinical study designs. Topics include bias, confounding, diagnostic testing and screening, and "how statistics can lie." Psychiatry introduces students to the unique role of medical students in talking with patients, the difference between process and content in patient communication, how to respond to breaks in the patient-physician relationship, and the relationship between the quality of the patient-physician interaction and health outcomes. Health care policy covers such topics as health insurance, physician payment, health care costs, access, measurement and improvement of quality, regulation and health care reform. Biomedical ethics includes important ethical issues in medical practice, such as confidentiality, privacy, and ethical issues relating to medical students. The population health curriculum exposes students to concepts of public health, community action, and advocacy, and includes a year-long, community-based project. At the end of this quarter students participate in a performance-based assessment of the medical interview skills.nCourse offered to MD and MSPA students only.

INDE 202. Practice of Medicine II. 5 Units.

Medical interview and physical examination skills, information literacy, nutrition principles, evidence-based practice, health policy, and population health are covered. At the end of this quarter, students participate in a performance-based assessment of their medical interview and physical examination skills. See INDE 201 for a complete description of the Practice of Medicine course series. Course open to MD and MSPA students only.

INDE 203. Practice of Medicine III. 6 Units.

Medical interview and physical examination skills, biomedical literature retrieval and appraisal, nutrition principles, evidence-based practice, biomedical ethics, and population health are covered. Students begin clinical problem-solving sessions to learn the approach to common and important clinical problems. Cases integrate other course themes of population health, evidence-based practice, clinical ethics, nutrition, health policy, and behavioral medicine. Students begin transition from comprehensive to problem-focused patient encounters. Students also gain exposure to geriatrics, pediatrics, and interprofessional healthcare teams, and practice mental health interview skills. At the end of this quarter, students participate in a performance-based assessment of their medical interview and physical examination skills. See INDE 201 for a complete description of the Practice of Medicine course series. Course open to MD and MSPA students only.

INDE 204A. Practice of Medicine IV-A. 4 Units.

The second year of the Practice of Medicine series (INDE 204 and 205) emphasizes clinical reasoning, clinical practicum, and clinical procedures. Students continue clinical problem-solving sessions to learn the approach to common and important clinical problems. Cases integrate other course themes of population health, evidence-based practice, clinical ethics, nutrition, health policy, and behavioral medicine. Students spend one-half day per week in a clinical setting, practicing medical interview, physical examination skills, oral presentations, and clinical note-writing under the mentorship of a clinical tutor. In the practicum, students also gain experience with other practical aspects of patient care. The Clinical Procedures segment introduces common and important procedures in clinical practice, including phlebotomy, intravenous line insertion, and electrocardiography.

INDE 204B. Practice of Medicine IV-B. 4 Units.

The second year of the Practice of Medicine series (INDE 204 and 205) emphasizes clinical reasoning, clinical practicum, and clinical procedures. Students continue clinical problem-solving sessions to learn the approach to common and important clinical problems. Cases integrate other course themes of population health, evidence-based practice, clinical ethics, nutrition, health policy, and behavioral medicine. Students spend one-half day per week in a clinical setting, practicing medical interview, physical examination skills, oral presentations, and clinical note-writing under the mentorship of a clinical tutor. In the practicum, students also gain experience with other practical aspects of patient care. The Clinical Procedures segment introduces common and important procedures in clinical practice, including phlebotomy, intravenous line insertion, and electrocardiography.

INDE 205. Practice of Medicine V. 6 Units.

Continued emphasis on clinical reasoning, clinical practicum, and clinical procedures. Students continue clinical problem-solving sessions to learn the approach to common and important clinical problems Cases integrate other course themes of population health, evidence-based practice, clinical ethics, nutrition, health policy, and behavioral medicine. Students spend one-half day per week in a clinical setting, practicing medical interview, physical examination skills, oral presentations, and clinical note-writing under the mentorship of a clinical tutor. In the practicum, students also gain experience with other practical aspects of patient care. For the Clinical Procedures segment, students will have an opportunity in the Emergency Department to practice performing procedures learned in the previous quarter. At the end of this quarter, students participate in a comprehensive four-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) performance-based assessment of their medical interview, physical examination, and clinical problem-solving skills.

INDE 206. Practice of Medicine VI. 9 Units.

This last segment of the Practice of Medicine series is an intensive, four-week learning experience to consolidate clinical skills from prior quarters, and a final preparation for transition to clerkships. An extensive series of workshops covers topics such as dermatology, ophthalmology, advanced clinical reasoning, advanced presentations, bedside skills, ethics, palliative medicine, advanced sexual history, electronic medical record, ekg interpretation, intravenous fluid and electrolyte management. Students practice clinical procedures with task trainers and on a cadaver. This quarter also includes a professionalism series to prepare students for entry into clinical practice. Special clinical practice sessions are held as a capstone to clinical skills preparation.

INDE 207A. Medical Mandarin I: Beginning. 2-3 Units.

Develops conversational communication skills and essential medical vocabularies. Teaches in pinyin pronunciation system, which provides an accessible method of learning basic phrases. The foundations of taking a comprehensive patient history in Mandarin and doing medical interviews at individual hospital divisions, including making introductions, soliciting symptoms, explaining health concepts (e.g. diseases and prescriptions) as well as daily survival conversations. Main goals are to improve rapport with Chinese patients through Mandarin fluency in the medical setting and to promote understanding of Chinese culture in the context of health care as well as daily life. Students registering for 3 units participate in clinic visits and field activities.

INDE 207B. Medical Mandarin II: Intermediate. 2-3 Units.

For students who already have a basic command of spoken Chinese. Conversational communication skills practiced in a more advanced setting, including more sophisticated assessment of patient history and different tasks such as giving medical instructions and doing labs and tests. Builds working vocabulary for organ system, disease assessment to conduct a full physical exam, and to describe treatment modalities for Chinese-speaking patients (diagnostic and therapeutic). Students registering for 3 units participate in clinic visits and field activities. Prerequisite: one year of college-level Chinese or instructor assessment of fluency.

INDE 207C. Medical Mandarin III: Advanced. 2-3 Units.

Access advanced professional medical vocabulary, conduct medical research, and engage in discussions in Chinese. Aims at a proficiency level of medical interpreting or doing other independent work in Chinese. Students are also assisted in doing a project or projects related to a specific field of medicine. Students registering for 3 units participate in clinic visits, field activities or projects. Prerequisite: completion of Medical Mandarin II, or advanced Chinese proficiency.

INDE 207D. Professional Mandarin I. 2-3 Units.

Designed for students who seek professional development via Mandarin. Coursework includes lectures, online classes, language partnerships, selected topics, projects and field activities. Goal is to enhance students' language abilities as professionals and facilitate a career. Students choose to enroll for 2 units or 3 units depending upon an agreed- upon workload approved by the instructor.

INDE 208A. Medical Mandarin I: Beginning. 2-3 Units.

Continuation of 207A. See description for 207A. Students participating in classroom and online instruction only register for 2 units. Students registering for 3 units participate in clinic visits and field activities as well.

INDE 208B. Medical Mandarin II: Intermediate. 2-3 Units.

Continuation of 207B. See description for 207B. Students participating in classroom and online instruction only register for 2 units. Students registering for 3 units participate in clinic visits and field activities as well.

INDE 208C. Medical Mandarin III: Advanced. 2-3 Units.

Access advanced professional medical vocabulary, conduct medical research, and engage in discussions in Chinese. Aims at a proficiency level of medical interpreting or doing other independent work in Chinese. Students are also assisted in doing a project or projects related to a specific field of medicine. 3 units Includes clinic visits and field activities. Prerequisite: completion of 207C, or advanced Chinese proficiency.

INDE 208D. Professional Mandarin II. 2-3 Units.

Continuation of INDE 207D. Designed for students who seek professional development via Mandarin. Coursework includes lectures, online classes, language partnerships, selected topics, projects and field activities. Goal is to enhance students' language abilities as professionals and facilitate a career. Students choose to enroll for 2 units or 3 units depending upon an agreed- upon workload approved by the instructor. Prerequisite: INDE 207D.

INDE 209A. Medical Mandarin III: Beginning. 2-3 Units.

Continuation of 207A/208A. See description for 207A. Students participating only in classroom and online instruction register for 2 units. Students registering for 3 units participate in clinic visits and field activities as well.

INDE 209B. Medical Mandarin III: Intermediate. 2-3 Units.

Continuation of 207B/208B. See description for 207B. Students participating only in classroom and online instruction register for 2 units. Students registering for 3 units participate in clinic visits and field activities as well.

INDE 209C. Medical Mandarin III: Advanced. 2-3 Units.

Access advanced professional medical vocabulary, conduct medical research, and engage in discussions in Chinese. Aims at a proficiency level of medical interpreting or doing other independent work in Chinese. Students are also assisted in doing a project or projects related to a specific field of medicine. 3 units Includes clinic visits and field activities. Prerequisite: completion of 208C or advanced Chinese proficiency.

INDE 209D. Professional Mandarin III. 2-3 Units.

Continuation of INDE 208D. Designed for students who seek professional development via Mandarin. Coursework includes lectures, online classes, language partnerships, selected topics, projects and field activities. Goal is to enhance students' language abilities as professionals and facilitate a career. Students choose to enroll for 2 units or 3 units depending upon an agreed- upon workload approved by the instructor. Prerequisite: INDE 208D.

INDE 211. Creative Writing. 1 Unit.

For medical students - all levels of writing skill. Examines uses of creative writing, including understanding the experience of medical training. May be repeated for credit.

INDE 212. Medical Humanities and the Arts. 2 Units.

The interdisciplinary field of medical humanities: the use of the arts and humanities to examine medicine in personal, social, and cultural contexts. Topics include the doctor/patient relationship, the patient perspective, the meaning of doctoring, and the meaning of illness. Sources include visual and performing arts, film, and literary genres such as poetry, fiction, and scholarly writing. Designed for medical students in the Biomedical Ethics and Medical Humanities Scholarly Concentration, but all students are welcome.

INDE 214. Stanford Medical Student Journal. 1 Unit.

Provides an opportunity for editors of all levels to cultivate their skills and assist in preparing pieces submitted by colleagues for publication in the Stanford Medical Student Journal. Students enrolled in the course work closely with student authors as well as other editors. Editors examine multiple categories of writing, including opinion pieces, poetry, memoirs, book reviews, case reports and investigative reports. The Journal is published two to three times per year and highlights the diverse talents of Stanford medical students in both scientific writing and the humanities.

INDE 215. Queer Health & Medicine. 1 Unit.

Explores specific, pertinent, and timely issues impacting the health of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community; examines the role of the primary care physician in addressing the health care needs of this community. Guest lecturers provide a gender-sensitive approach to the medical care of the LGBT patient, breaking down homophobic barriers and reaffirming patient diversity. May be repeated for credit.

INDE 217. Physician Scientist Hour. 1 Unit.

Enrollment is limited to MD, PhD, or MD-PhD students interested in careers as physician scientists. Focus is on aspects of developing careers in biomedical research through a mix of research lectures, clinical case presentations, and physician-scientist guest speakers.

INDE 218. Histology. 1 Unit.

This course focuses on the microscopic structure of the major organ systems, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal, and reproductive systems. Sessions examine the unique features of the cells and tissues that comprise the major organs, describe how they contribute to the organs' functions, and explore how the form the foundation for many pathologic processes.

INDE 221. Science of Medicine I. 12 Units.

First course in three-sequence Science of Medicine block. Focus is on structure, function, disease, and therapeutics of the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. The Science of Medicine block presents organ system-based histology, pathology, physiology, pharmacology, and infectious disease in a sequence of interdisciplinary courses. Each organ-specific integrated course includes a review of the anatomy and related histology, normal function of that organ system, how the organ system is affected by and responds to disease including infection, and how diseases of that organ system are treated (therapeutics).

INDE 222A. Science of Medicine II-A. 7 Units.

Focus is on structure, function, disease, and therapeutics of the renal, gastrointestinal, and hepatic systems. Science of Medicine presents organ system-based histology, pathology, physiology, pharmacology, and infectious disease in a sequence of interdisciplinary courses. Each integrated course includes a review of the anatomy, related histology, and normal function of one or more organ systems, how the organ systems are affected by and respond to disease including infection, and how diseases of those organ systems are treated (therapeutics).

INDE 222B. Science of Medicine II-B. 7 Units.

Focus is on structure, function, disease, and therapeutics of the endocrine and musculoskeletal systems and on Women's Health. Science of Medicine presents organ system-based histology, pathology, physiology, pharmacology, and infectious disease in a sequence of interdisciplinary courses. Each integrated course includes a review of the anatomy, related histology, and normal function of one or more organ systems, how the organ systems are affected by and respond to disease including infection, and how diseases of those organ systems are treated (therapeutics).nPrerequisites if applicable: INDE-221, completed or concurrent INDE-222-A.

INDE 223A. Science of Medicine III-A. 6 Units.

Focus is on structure, function, disease, and therapeutics of the nervous system and skin. Science of Medicine presents organ system-based histology, pathology, physiology, pharmacology, and infectious disease in a sequence of interdisciplinary courses. Each integrated course includes a review of the anatomy, related histology, and normal function of one or more organ systems, how the organ systems are affected by and respond to disease including infection, and how diseases of those organ systems are treated (therapeutics).nnPrerequisites if applicable: INDE-221, INDE-222-A.

INDE 223B. SCIENCE OF MEDICINE III-B. 6 Units.

Focus is on structure, function, disease, and therapeutics in the areas of Hematology and Autoimmune Disease. Science of Medicine presents organ system-based histology, pathology, physiology, pharmacology, and infectious disease in a sequence of interdisciplinary courses. Each integrated course includes a review of the anatomy, related histology, and normal function of one or more organ systems, how the organ systems are affected by and respond to disease including infection, and how diseases of those organ systems are treated (therapeutics).

INDE 225. Popular and Clinical Nutrition: Food Facts, Fads, and Pharmacology. 1 Unit.

Designed for medical students and other health care professionals. Lunchtime lectures review the epidemiological and clinical research related to eating patterns and misconceptions of the public, the mechanisms of pharmacological effects of food, and related topics common to patient nutritional concerns. Topics include fad diets, the impact of dietary addiction, longevity associated with caloric restriction, toxins in foods and the action of phytonutirents. Epidemiological, clinical, and biochemical studies are reviewed in the discussion of these and other topics.

INDE 226. History of Medicine Online. 1 Unit.

Via Internet. Topics include: ancient medicine, Egypt and Babylonia, ancient Greece and Rome, Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 18th-century schools of thought, and technological medicine. Sources include Kleinman's core clinical functions, and text, pictures, hypertext links, and sound clips. For assistance accessing the course, email: cwpsupport@lists.stanford.edu. Enroll in Axess, then ask cwpsupport to be added to the course site as a student.

INDE 227. Careers in Medicine: Pathways in the Medical Sciences. 1 Unit.

Open to medical students, graduate and undergraduate students. Interactive, seminar-style sessions expose students to diverse career opportunities and the challenges of developing work-life balance in medicine. Recognized experts in clinical medicine and biomedical research who have been innovators in their careers discuss their work, decision-points in their career pathways, and lifestyle aspects of their choices.

INDE 228. Career Transition Planning: Taking Action Today for a Successful Tomorrow. 1 Unit.

Open to School of Medicine MD and graduate students; post-docs and clinical fellows may audit by consent of instructor. How to prioritize career goals and develop an effective job search campaign. Topics: translating scientific and clinical training into a variety of workplace environmennts, professional network development, professional interest assessment, recruiters' perspectives, credentials development, and creating a marketing plan. Guest speakers from myriad career fields. May be repeated for credit.

INDE 229. Managing Difficult Conversations. 1 Unit.

(Same as GSBGEN 568) This elective 1- unit course is offered to all medical students, residents, and fellows, and to 2nd-year MBA students who aspire to improve their ability to deal effectively with difficult interpersonal situations. The course will be taught by William F. Meehan III, the Lafayette Partners Lecturer in Strategic Management, Stanford Graduate School of Business and Charles G. Prober, M.D., Professor of Pediatrics, Microbiology & Immunology and Senior Associate Vice Provost for Health Education, Stanford School of Medicine. The course, which will be case-based, will involve frequent student-to-student and student-to-instructor role-playing in authentic medical interactions and difficult interpersonal situations. Topic-specific experts often will be present to participate as class guests. Relevant principles of professionalism, leadership, and psychology underlie the course pedagogy. There will be eight classes held on Wednesdays beginning September 26th and concluding on November 14th. Each class will begin promptly at 12:30 and end shortly after 2. Students will be expected to attend all classes unless excused in advance. Class preparation will include reading of assigned cases; analysis of the cases and recommendations as to how to confront specific difficult conversations (consistent with assigned study questions); and reading of assigned background material. It is important that all students participate actively in classroom discussions. For GSB students, 50% of the final grade will depend on classroom performance; the remainder will be based on a final written assignment of 3-5 pages. . GSB students will be graded on a Pass/Fail basis. The course will be ungraded for medical students, residents and fellows. All students will be expected to complete the written assignment. Class size will be limited to 35 students per the following: (1) a maximum of 15 MBA2 students and (2) a maximum of 20 medical students, residents, and fellows.

INDE 230. Topics in Scientific Management. 1 Unit.

Designed for postdocs and advanced graduate students. Reviews management skills necessary for successfully assuming leadership roles in scientific research. Addresses some of the most difficult aspects of developing, directing, and managing people and projects and running a research group, especially issues that new faculty have traditionally learned by trial and error over a number of years. Topics include: the faculty job search process and strategies, key elements in starting a lab, basic principles regarding legal dimensions of scientific activity (intellectual property, royalties, links with industry), team science, research ethics, communication and negotiation skills, and writing and securing grants.

INDE 231A. Career Transitions: Academia. 1 Unit.

Preference to PhD students in their fourth year or beyond and postdocs/fellows in their intended final year. Restricted to students in Biosciences and the School of Medicine. Focus is on practical, hands-on preparation of application materials (including interview and job talk) for academic positions. Provides practical, hands-on preparation for Bioscience PhD students, postdoctoral fellows and research/clinical trainees ready to apply to academic positions. It not only previews the academic hiring process, including tips from experienced faculty from different types of institutions, but also guides participants in the preparation and polishing of their application materials for success on the job market.

INDE 231B. Career Prep and Practice: Academia. 1 Unit.

Open to all Biosciences PhD students, postdocs/fellows and medical students/residents/fellows planning to pursue academic careers. Focus is on gaining a deeper understanding of faculty roles and responsibilities. Topics include how to balance teaching, research, service, lab set-up, grantwriting and publishing at different types of institutions. Features panels of experienced faculty members from different academic environments. More information available on course website: web.stanford.edu/class/inde231b.

INDE 232. Introduction to Academic Medicine for Physician-Scientists. 3 Units.

Open only to accepted MSTP students. Presentations by Stanford faculty on professional development topics, including: choosing a dissertation advisor, giving oral presentations, writing a grant proposal, attending scientific meetings, developing a research career. Substantial writing component.

INDE 233. Medical Education Seminar Series. 1 Unit.

For pre-clinical and clinical medical students. A series of sessions rotating among the following formats: Medical Education journal club; education works-in-progress; topics in medical education design, implementation, and evaluation; teaching M&M; hot topics and controversies in medical education. May be repeated for credit.

INDE 234. Introduction to Writing Research Proposals. 3 Units.

Practical instruction in research proposal writing. Suitable for advanced graduate students. Substantial writing component. Enrollment by instructor approval only.

INDE 236. Introduction to Teaching and Mentoring. 1 Unit.

Enrollment limited to medical students. An introduction to medical education teaching priniciples and skills. Topics include assessment of current teaching skills, reviews of performance, giving appropriate learner feedback, and best practices for interactive teaching. Also introduces the literature around the value of peer mentoring in the medical setting and how to apply this information. Recommended for medical students interested in or currently serving as teaching assistants or interested in future academic positions.

INDE 239SI. Analysis of Public Companies in the Life Sciences. 2 Units.

Life Science companies are often valued with a different methodology than traditional valuation metrics. This course will serve to teach students how to analyze a publicly traded life science company or sector using publicly available materials online such as 10-K, 13-F, conference calls, and financial & technical analysis. In addition, students will learn how to access various Stanford resources (analyst reports, Bloomberg, etc). Students will work in teams throughout class and publish an investment analysis at the end of the course.

INDE 255A. Health Policy, Finance and Economics I. 1 Unit.

Open to medical students and resident physicians. Introduction to basic concepts and current issues in health policy, health finance, and health economics. Goals are to promote understanding of the forces that shape healthcare; to integrate medical students with graduate medical education (residents); to motivate participants to pursue further scholarly activity in these subjects through coursework, graduate programs or research . Team taught by world-renowned experts in their respective fields. Prerequisite: instructor consent.

INDE 255B. Health Policy, Finance and Economics II. 1 Unit.

Continuation of INDE 255A. Open to medical students and resident physicians. Introduction to basic concepts and current issues in health policy, health finance, and health economics. Goals are to promote understanding of the forces that shape healthcare; to integrate medical students with graduate medical education (residents); to motivate participants to pursue further scholarly activity in these subjects through coursework, graduate programs or research . Team taught by world-renowned experts in their respective fields. For medical students 255A is not prerequisite to 255B. Prerequisite: instructor consent.

INDE 257. Global Health Storytelling. 1 Unit.

Global health storytelling is a hands-on workshop that teaches global health students the art of performing compelling stories. Participants will focus on seeking, structuring, and sharing stories culminating in a live performance in front of their peers. Through the workshop, students will learn the narrative structure of a story, practice active listening, examine the importance of body language and dramatic techniques, and understand the power of narrativizing medical research and clinical experiences.

INDE 260. Journeys in Women's Health and Sex and Gender in Medicine. 1 Unit.

Sponsored by the Stanford WSDM Center. Course focuses on health research on women and sex differences in medicine, acknowledges the "wisdom" of research and education on sex (e.g. chromosomes, gonads, gonadal hormones) and gender (sociocultural) factors influencing health. Brings alumni to share their professional journeys in the world of Women and Sex Differences in Medicine. Meets Women's Health Scholarly Concentration Requirement.
Same as: FEMGEN 260X

INDE 263. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases I. 4 Units.

First course in a two-course series exploring microbiology, pathogenesis, and clinical issues associated with infectious diseases. Patient cases springboard discussion on viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal and helminthic pathogens. Online videos and self-assessments followed by interactive sessions and problem sets.

INDE 265. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases III. 2 Units.

Second course in a two-course series exploring microbiology, pathogenesis, and clinical issues associated with infectious diseases. Patient cases springboard discussion on microbiomes, diarrhea, hepatitis, STIs, helminths, zoonoses. and systemic diseases. Online videos and self-assessments followed by interactive sessions and problem sets.

INDE 273. Medical Improvisation. 1 Unit.

Medicine, like theater, is both a skill set and an art form. The practice of medicine demands exceptional communicative, cognitive, and interpersonal skills in order to respond to unpredictable situations while interacting with a wide variety of individuals. Improvisational theater skills have a surprising and substantial overlap with those required of clinicians. Improv is a genre of performance art grounded in principles of spontaneity, adaptability, collaboration, and skilled listening. In this course, the principles and training techniques of improvisational theater are used to highlight and improve awareness, communication, and teamwork in the field of medicine. Limited enrollment/class size will be 10; however should add'l students want to enroll pls contact Dr. Drew Nevins at anevins@stanford.edu.

INDE 290A. Walk With Me: A Patient and Family Centered Exploration of Health & The Health Care System. 1 Unit.

This innovative course for first year medical student places patients, families, and caregivers front and center in the journey to explore health from a person-centered perspective, and better understand the challenges of managing optimal health in a complex health care system. The curriculum is organized around a monthly workshop series, which explores a different health systems science topic each month through lectures from experts from Stanford and the community, and from the perspectives of an individual patient or caregiver, or panel, with time to engage in discussion. Students are also paired with a patient partner with whom they meet monthly outside of class at a mutually convenient time at the school, medical center, or other location key to learning about the patient and caregiver journey, and to further explore together the impact of the monthly topic at the individual level. This course is a partnership of the School of Medicine¿s Stanford Healthcare Innovations and Experiential Learning Directive (SHIELD) program, the Stanford Health Care Patient & Family Partner Program, and the Stanford Division of Primary Care and Population Health.
Same as: PAS 280A

INDE 290B. Walk With Me: A Patient & Family Centered Exploration of Health & The Health Care System. 1 Unit.

Continuation of monthly workshop series begun in INDE 290A, with new monthly topics. Students will continue to follow the journey of their patient partner, and gain further understanding of the challenges of managing optimal health in a complex health care system. This course is a partnership of the School of Medicine¿s Stanford Healthcare Innovations and Experiential Learning Directive (SHIELD) program, the Stanford Health Care Patient & Family Partner Program, and the Stanford Division of Primary Care and Population Health. Preference to given students to continuing from INDE 290. Director approval required.
Same as: PAS 280B

INDE 290C. Walk With Me: A Patient & Family Centered Exploration of Health & The Health Care System. 1 Unit.

Continuation of monthly workshop series begun in INDE 290A and INDE 290B, with new monthly topics. Students will continue to follow the journey of their patient partner and gain further understanding of the challenges of managing optimal health in a complex health care system. This course is a partnership of the School of Medicine¿s Stanford Healthcare Innovations and Experiential Learning Directive (SHIELD) program, the Stanford Health Care Patient & Family Partner Program, and the Stanford Division of Primary Care and Population Health. Preference given to students continuing from INDE 290A/B. Director approval required.
Same as: PAS 280C

INDE 291. A Patient & Family Centered Exploration of Health & The Health Care System Practicum. 1 Unit.

This course is the clinical companion to INDE 290. Students are matched with a mentor at a clinical site where they will gain additional clinical insight into the challenges of working within a complex health care system, and an appreciation for the roles of the members of the interdisciplinary team. 1/2 day clinical immersion, two times monthly, by arrangement with clinical site mentor. Co-enrollment with INDE 290 required.
Same as: PAS 281

INDE 292. Exploration of The Health Care System : Clinical Partnership Development. 1-2 Unit.

For second year medical students who wish to continue their clinical partnership begun in INDE 291. 1/2 day clinical immersion, by arrangement. 2-unit option includes clinical quality improvement or other approved project. Prerequisite: INDE 291. Director approval required.

INDE 295. Bioethics and Anthropology Interdisciplinary Directed Individual Study. 3-5 Units.

Supervised individualized study in bioethics and anthropology for a qualifying paper, research proposal, or project with an individual faculty member. May be repeated for credit.

INDE 297. Reflections, Research, and Advances in Patient Care. 4 Units.

Required for all MD students enrolled in clerkships at Stanford affiliated sites. Two-year curriculum designed to provide structured time for students to step back from clerkships, in order to promote reflection on and reinforcement for their learning in the clinical environment. Goals are: to discuss and reflect upon critical experiences in clerkships; to provide continuity of instruction in translational science topics across the curriculum; to reinforce and extend the study of behavioral, cultural, ethical, social and socioeconomic topics introduced in the Practice of Medicine course sequence; to expose students to recent advances in medical discoveries, emphasizing their application to clinical practice (translational medicine); and to develop research and critical thinking skills, acquiring new information in areas related to the Scholarly Concentrations. Components of this curriculum include Doctoring with CARE small groups, the Advances and Reflections in Medicine lecture/seminar series, and Scholarly Concentration breakout groups. The Friday afternoon lecture/seminars explore advances in biomedical sciences with applications to medical practice (translational medicine) as well as faculty career pathways, reflections on doctoring, and the context of medicine in society. All students in clinical clerkships must participate in all aspects of RRAP Days. Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in clinical clerkships.

INDE 298. Women's Health Independent Project. 1 Unit.

Women's Health Scholarly Concentration. Students pursue individual projects under the supervision of a faculty member. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

Medicine Courses

MED 1A. Leadership in Multicultural Health. 2 Units.

Designed for undergraduates serving as staff for the Stanford Medical Youth Science Summer Residential Program (SRP). Structured opportunitie to learn, observe, participate in, and evaluate leadership development, multicultural health theories and practices, and social advocacy. Utilizes service learning as a pedagogical approach to developing an understanding of the intersections between identity, power and privilege and disparities (health, education, environment), fostering knowledge and skills to become social advocates to address forms of inequities. Students explore approaches for identifying and tackling issues of equity (health and education) as well as learn fundamental skills necessary to implement activities for the Summer Residential Program.

MED 1B. Identity, Power and Privilege in Multicultural Health. 1 Unit.

An independent study service learning course designed to develop students' understanding of the intersection between identity, power, privilege, and disparities (health, education, environment). Students submit a written reflective term paper based on their experience as staff for the Summer Residential Program as well as their understanding of how constructs of identity, power and privilege impact low-income and underrepresented students in their pursuit of higher education. Prerequisite MED 1A.

MED 10Q. Literature, Medicine and Empathy. 3 Units.

In recent years, there has been a groundswell of interest in empathy as a key competency of the emotionally intelligent, and a primary motivator of moral behavior. But what is empathy, exactly? This seminar will seek to find out, exploring the concept through the lens of literature and medicine. nReading novels and exploring the philosophical beginnings of the term empathy, we will learn about the range of ways in which human beings have attempted to know and understand the other. Guided by research studies and our own experience, we will explore the critical question of whether empathy really does lead to altruism. We will consider why it can be so hard for human beings to walk in another's shoes and why we so often fail to do so. Through memoirs of suffering, we will learn about empathy in medicine and about what the latest studies in biology and neuroscience can teach us about how we relate to each other. Lastly, we will explore the dangers and limitations of empathy, reading scholarly circuits and discussing the role of empathy in life and society.

MED 23. ASB The Cuisine of Change: Promoting Child Health and Combating Food Insecurity. 1 Unit.

Topics include obesity rates in America, the health and food education in our schools, the fundamentals of nutrition, the challenges of processed foods, the various lifestyle choices and fads surrounding healthy eating, and the complex ecology of food insecurity and welfare.

MED 27SI. Alternative Spring Break: Healthcare of Underserved Communities in Central California. 1 Unit.

Pre-field group directed reading for Alternative Spring Break: Healthcare of Underserved Communities in Central California.

MED 28SI. Alternative Spring Break: Health Accessibililty. 1 Unit.

Alternative Spring Break class. Pre-field course for students participating in the Health Accessibility Alternative Spring Break trip. Focuses on the Bay Area and the current state of the U.S. healthcare system, how it has developed, and how it can be transformed to ensure greater accessibility for all.

MED 50N. Translational Research: Turning Science into Medicine. 3 Units.

Investigates how scientific research informs how physicians take care of patients and how clinical research informs how scientific experiments are conducted. Topics include how these two processes have improved health and have resulted in innovation and scientic progress; specific human disease areas in allergy and immunology that affect all ages of patients globally, including food allergy; scientific concepts of research that helped in discovery of novel diagnostics and treatment of disease; ethical roles of physicians and scientists in conducting translational research in human disease.

MED 50Q. Respiration. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Topics include: the biological basis for use of oxygen for aerobic metabolism in animals, human lung physiology and pathophysiology, comparative physiology of respiration in fish, birds and mammals, new insights into mammalian lung development, current challenges in human respiratory health including air pollution and lung cancer. Student presentations on specific topics based on literature research developed in consultation with the instructor. Application required.

MED 51B. Compassionate Presence at the Bedside: The Healer's Art. 3 Units.

Students in this class must have already completed MED51Q. This quarter is a skill-based practicum. The skills component of this course is focused on communication and presence at the patient's bedside. Students will learn the theoretical aspects of respectful communication and cultural competence. They will then participate in a variety of immersive simulation activities including role-play, video enacting, class presentations, reflective exercises to understand the nuances of empathetic communication. The focus of the second quarter is to practice the art of communication honestly and compassionately with patients, learning empathy and cultivating the skill of being present at the bedside of a patient. Students will be assigned a panel of seriously ill patients and they do mentored house calls and provide support to patients and families as a volunteer. The idea here is that the knowledge and skills acquired in the first quarter will be utilized in real-life settings to practice compassionate and respectful communication strategies, learn how to be a cam, compassionate and healing presence at the bedside of seriously ill patients. We believe that medical school curricula do not have a strong focus on essential doctoring skills related to communication and a compassionate presence at the bedside. By offering this course to pre-med students, we believe that the doctors of the future will become skilled and compassionate healers.

MED 51Q. Compassionate presence at the bedside: A palliative practicum. 4 Units.

This is a Community Engaged Learning course for undergraduate students at all levels. This course is designed to prepare students to critically examine values, attitudes, and contexts that govern perspectives toward and engagements of patients within the context of chronic and serious illness(es). The course prepares students to responsibly and reflectively interact with aging and seriously ill patients in a mentored setting. Using the bio-psycho-socio-spiritual-cultural framework, students learn about the history, evolution, principles and practice of palliative care, how modern medicine has altered the dying experience, and the cost implications of end-of-life care. They will be exposed to the challenges faced by the family members of dying patients, caregiver stress and bereavement. The class has a strong practicum aspect by which students will be trained to cultivate a compassionate and healing presence at the bedside of the patient. After completing hospice volunteer training, each student will be assigned a small panel of patients. Students will work with an inter-disciplinary team, conduct regular house calls on patients in their panel, and write progress notes, which will become a part of the patients' electronic medical records. Through mentored fieldwork, students will learn the basic competencies of communicating with older adults and seriously ill patients in an effective and compassionate manner. Students will be taught to discuss their panel of patients in class every week using the standard medical clinical rounds approach. Weekly assignments will help students reflect on their interactions with the patients and lessons they learned. Our goal is to train future leaders in the fields of healthcare, law, sociology, public policy, and humanities in the vital area of aging and end-of-life care for diverse Americans.

MED 52Q. What is a Human? Scientific and Mythological Approaches to Meaning. 3 Units.

Reconciling our mythology and current scientific consensus is a worthwhile pursuit to establish a balanced, congruent personal philosophy toward life. nIn this sophomore seminar, we will first explore scientific perspectives on the origin and evolution of humans utilizing archaeology, genetics, and evolutionary psychology. With this framework secured, we will sample major religious texts such as Genesis, The New Testament, and Eastern texts. Throughout the course, each student will have opportunities to reflect deeply on his or her own personal worldview (past, present, and future) to tailor a personalized philosophy for life. This course will provide you with an overview of a fascinating subject that can impact progress on your life journey and career.

MED 70Q. Cancer and the Immune System. 2 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Myths and facts surrounding the idea that the immune system is capable of recognizing malignant cells. The biological basis and function of effector arms of the immune system; how these mechanisms may be used to investigate the biological basis and potential therapy of cancer. How the immune system functions.

MED 71N. Hormones in a Performance-Enhanced Society. 3 Units.

(Formerly 117Q) Prefersnce to freshmen. Explores how the availability of hormone therapy has affected various aspects of daily lives. Topics include the controversies concerning menopause and its treatment; use of hormones in athletics; cosmetic use of hormones to enhance growth, strength, and libido; use of hormones as anti-aging drugs; and how the hormone system has influenced our notions of gender. Includes the biochemistry and physiology of the human endocrine system; how hormones influence behavior, and how to read a scientific paper.

MED 73N. Scientific Method and Bias. 3 Units.

Offers an introduction to the scientific method and common biases in science. Examines theoretical considerations and practical examples where biases have led to erroneous conclusions, as well as scientific practices that can help identify, correct or prevent such biases. Additionally focuses on appropriate methods to interweave inductive and deductive approaches. Topics covered include: Popper¿s falsification and Kuhn¿s paradigm shift, revolution vs. evolution; determinism and uncertainty; probability, hypothesis testing, and Bayesian approaches; agnostic testing and big data; team science; peer review; replication; correlation and causation; bias in design, analysis, reporting and sponsorship of research; bias in the public perception of science, mass media and research; and bias in human history and everyday life. Provides students an understanding of how scientific knowledge has been and will be generated; the causes of bias in experimental design and in analytical approaches; and the interactions between deductive and inductive approaches in the generation of knowledge.

MED 86Q. Seeing the Heart. 2 Units.

Introduction to biomedical technology, science, clinical medicine, and public policy through cardiovascular imaging. Invasive and noninvasive techniques to detect early stage heart disease and to see inside the heart and blood vessels. Topics include: common forms of heart disease, how they develop, and why they affect so many people; imaging technologies such as ultrasound, CT, MRI, PET, and optical; a cost-effective public screening program. Field trips to Stanford Medical Center imaging centers.

MED 87Q. Women and Aging. 5 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Biology, clinical issues, social and health policies of aging; relationships, lifestyles, and sexuality; wise women and grandmothers. Sources include scientific articles, essays, poetry, art, and film. Service-learning experience with older women. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center).

MED 88Q. Dilemmas in Current Medical Practice. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Social, political, scientific, and economic forces influencing medical practice. Spiraling costs, impaired access to health care, and disillusionment toward the health care system. Attempts by government and medical insurers to control costs through managed care and health maintenance organizations. Medical education and how it has affected the practice of medicine. Alternative health care, preventive medicine, and the doctor-patient relationship. The paradox of health in America: why do so many people who are healthy feel unhealthy? Mandatory observation of instructors in their medical practices.

MED 94Q. Hormones, Health, and Disease. 2 Units.

Preference to sophomores. The role of hormones in maintaining health; how abnormalities in hormones cause disease. Topics include: the pituitary, the master gland; thyroid hormones and metabolism; insulin and diabetes; adrenal steroids and hypertension; vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and osteoporosis; sex hormones, birth control, pregnancy, and menopause; androgens, erectile dysfunction, and athletic performance; cholesterol, obesity, and cardiovascular risk. Recommended: background in human biology and physiology.

MED 108Q. Human Rights and Health. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. History of human-rights law. International conventions and treaties on human rights as background for social and political changes that could improve the health of groups and individuals. Topics such as: regional conflict and health, the health status of refugees and internally displaced persons; child labor; trafficking in women and children; HIV/AIDS; torture; poverty, the environment and health; access to clean water; domestic violence and sexual assault; and international availability of drugs. Possible optional opportunities to observe at community sites where human rights and health are issues. Guest speakers from national and international NGOs including Doctors Without Borders; McMaster University Institute for Peace Studies; UC Berkeley Human Rights Center; Kiva. PowerPoint presentation on topic of choice required.

MED 120N. Cardiovascular Physiology in Normal and Disease States. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Introduces students to the anatomy, physiology, pathology and clinical aspects that comprise the discipline of cardiovascular medicine. Topics will include explanations of such pathologic states as heart attack, stroke, congestive heart failure, cardiac rhythm disturbances, and sudden cardiac death. Introduction to the underlying principles of diagnosis and treatment of heart disease are included in the syllabus.

MED 121. Translational Research and Applied Medicine. 2-3 Units.

(Same as MED 121; undergraduate students enroll in MED 121) Open to graduate students and medical students, this course enables students to learn basic principles in the design, performance and analysis of translational medical research studies. The course includes both didactic seminars from experts in translational medicine as well as the opportunity to design and present a translational research project. Students enrolling for 3 units are paired with a TRAM translational research project and work as a team with TRAM trainees and faculty on a weekly basis, as arranged by the instructor, and present a final project update at the end of the quarter.
Same as: MED 221

MED 124. Global Child Health. 3-5 Units.

This course introduces students to key challenges to the health and well being of children worldwide. We explicitly focus on child and public health problems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to reflect the global burden of disease among children. We will review the scope and magnitude of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, as well as examine regional variations. We will then identify both medical and non-medical causes, effects of, as well as interventions to address, some of the biggest child health problems. The course will also prevent an overview of the role of culture, gender, and non-state actors (NGOs, foundations, etc.) on health and health policy. Upper division course with preference given to upperclassmen.
Same as: HUMBIO 124C, PEDS 124

MED 129. Health Care Systems Around the World. 4 Units.

This course will explore the role of health care systems in societies around the world, identifying the common challenges facing health care systems and how different institutional structures in different countries perform in response to these challenges. We will structure the course around general conceptual frameworks related to key health system institutions (including financing, insurance, provider payment, patient cost-sharing, and the regulation of medical technology). From this foundation, we will draw on the experience of individual countries (high and low income, with heavy chronic disease and infectious disease burdens) to illustrate the function of these institutions under real-world circumstances observed around the globe. Prerequisite: Human Biology Core or Biology Foundations or equivalent or consent of instructor.
Same as: HUMBIO 129W

MED 130. Yesplus: Meditation practices for wellbeing. 1 Unit.

Meditation Practices for Wellbeing" is a 1-unit course that provides students with tools and strategies to develop a sustainable approach to their happiness and wellbeing. Students will learn breathwork and meditation based techniques to decrease stress and increase peace and focus in day to day life. Students will also study happiness-based research and participate in community building discussions, yoga, and mindfulness processes to learn how wellness can be sustained as a personal practice. Class meets 5 evenings throughout the quarter, along with a mandatory mini retreat during the third week (Thursday 7 - 10 pm, Friday 7 - 10 pm, Saturday 12 - 3 pm). Open to all students, including freshmen and those new to meditation. Enrollment limited to 25. Admission by application, details at first class. See yesplus.stanford.edu for more information.

MED 143C. Patient Health Education in Community Clinics - Practicum. 2 Units.

Open to undergraduate, graduate, and medical students. For students currently volunteering in one of the course-affiliated clinic sites. Objective is to expand health education skills, discuss more complex health education topics, and reflect upon experiences in the clinic. Includes readings and online reflections. Pre-requisites: MED 143A/243A, Med 143B/243B.
Same as: MED 243C

MED 145. Alternative Spring Break: Confronting HIV/AIDS in San Francisco. 1 Unit.

Preparation for the Alternative Spring Break trip. Current issues regarding HIV/AIDS worldwide and in the United States, with a specific focus on San Francisco. Topics include biology, transmission, prevention, pharmaceutical development, discrimination, stigma, access to health care, and perspectives of affected communities. Students enrolling for 3 units attend both Monday and Wednesday sections; medical students who can only attend Wednesday session have option to enroll for 2 units. See asb.stanford.edu for more information.

MED 147. Methods in Community Assessment, Evaluation, and Research. 3 Units.

Development of pragmatic skills for design, implementation, and analysis of structured interviews, focus groups, survey questionnaires, and field observations. Topics include: principles of community-based participatory research, including importance of dissemination; strengths and limitations of different study designs; validity and reliability; construction of interview and focus group questions; techniques for moderating focus groups; content analysis of qualitative data; survey questionnaire design; and interpretation of commonly-used statistical analyses.
Same as: CHPR 247, MED 247

MED 157. Foundations for Community Health Engagement. 3 Units.

Open to undergraduate, graduate, and MD students. Examination and exploration of community health principles and their application at the local level. Designed to prepare students to make substantive contributions in a variety of community health settings (e.g. clinics, government agencies, non-profit organization, advocacy groups). Topics include community health assessment; health disparities; health promotion and disease prevention; strategies for working with diverse, low-income, and underserved populations; and principles of ethical and effective community engagement.

MED 158A. From Foodies to Freegans: Food Popular Topics in the Silicon Valley. 2 Units.

This is a discussion-based survey course to introduce the complexities of many "pop topics" in food, such as obesity, sustainability, and local vs. organic food. Course offered over two quarters; second part is MED 158B. The course focuses on Silicon Valley and is taught through a food justice lens. The goal is to provide knowledge and new frameworks for conceptualizing food that transform the way students think about, eat, and purchase food. Furthermore, course content is aligned with Community Engaged Learning (CEL) so that students have the opportunity to collaborate with local partners to complete community-based projects relevant to course topics. Coursework involves class participation, critical reflection, and three papers written for different audiences in the food space.

MED 158B. From Foodies to Freegans Practicum. 2 Units.

Students work toward making change in the food system. This course matches students with a community partner in the local area who is working to address food issues, broadly defined. There are many ways to make meaningful impact, including working at Second Harvest Food Bank as a Health Ambassador, or to assist with the Healthy Cornerstore initiatives or Garden to Table with the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. Provides students with the opportunity to apply their academic area of concentration within a community-based context that fits their interests. MED 158A highly recommended but not required as a prerequisite.

MED 159. Oaxacan Health on Both Sides of the Border. 2 Units.

Required for students participating in the Community Health in Oaxaca summer program. Introduction to the health literacy and health-seeking behaviors of Oaxacan and other Mexican migrants; the health challenges these groups face. Through discussion and reflection, students prepare for clinical work and community engagement in Oaxaca, while also gaining knowledge and insight to make connections between their experiences in Mexico and their health-related work with Mexican immigrants in the Bay Area. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center). Prerequisite: application and acceptance into the Community Health in Oaxaca Summer Program (http://och.stanford.edu/oaxaca.html).

MED 159A. Service-Learning in Migrant Health. 2 Units.

Examines the intersection of migration, poverty and health; provides opportunities for engagement directly with community partners working with Bay Area Mexican migrant populations. Weekly knowledge and skills-building sessions covering the process of migration; the demographic characteristics of the local migrant population; the health and socioeconomic status of local migrant populations; current initiatives to improve their quality of life and well-being. Service opportunities include participation in community organizing; health education seminars; and health screening activities. Prerequisite: intermediate/advanced level of Spanish language proficiency.

MED 159B. Service-Learning in Migrant Health. 2 Units.

Second quarter of two-quarter series. Examines the intersection of migration, poverty and health; provides opportunities for engagement directly with community partners working with Bay Area Mexican migrant populations. Weekly knowledge and skills-building sessions covering the process of migration; the demographic characteristics of the local migrant population; the health and socioeconomic status of local migrant populations; current initiatives to improve their quality of life and well-being. Service opportunities include participation in community organizing; health education seminars; and health screening activities. Prerequisites: intermediate/advanced level of Spanish language proficiency, MED 159A.

MED 160. Physician Shadowing: Stanford Immersion in Medicine Series. 1 Unit.

Undergraduates are paired with a physician mentor at Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, or the Veteran's Administration Hospital. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: Application and acceptance to the SIMS program.
Same as: SIMS

MED 161A. Community Health Advocacy. 2-3 Units.

MED161 Community Health Advocacy is a three-quarter course series that provides students with knowledge and concrete skills for working with and advocating for underserved populations. Through coursework and placements in community health clinics and social service agencies, students will broaden and deepen their understanding of the structural determinants of health, how they impact underserved populations, and the various levels at which these challenges can ¿ and should ¿ be addressed. Students will participate in weekly activities that support the mission of their placement organization, engage in direct service with clients, and collaborate on the design and implementation of a capacity-building project. Weekly classroom sessions will serve as a forum for teaching and training, discussion of class readings and placement experiences, project development, and troubleshooting and support.

MED 161B. Community Health Advocacy. 2-3 Units.

MED161 Community Health Advocacy is a three-quarter course series that provides students with knowledge and concrete skills for working with and advocating for underserved populations. Through coursework and placements in community health clinics and social service agencies, students will broaden and deepen their understanding of the structural determinants of health, how they impact underserved populations, and the various levels at which these challenges can ¿ and should ¿ be addressed. Students will participate in weekly activities that support the mission of their placement organization, engage in direct service with clients, and collaborate on the design and implementation of a capacity-building project. Weekly classroom sessions will serve as a forum for teaching and training, discussion of class readings and placement experiences, project development, and troubleshooting and support.

MED 161C. Community Health Advocacy. 2-3 Units.

MED161 Community Health Advocacy is a three-quarter course series that provides students with knowledge and concrete skills for working with and advocating for underserved populations. Through coursework and placements in community health clinics and social service agencies, students will broaden and deepen their understanding of the structural determinants of health, how they impact underserved populations, and the various levels at which these challenges can ¿ and should ¿ be addressed. Students will participate in weekly activities that support the mission of their placement organization, engage in direct service with clients, and collaborate on the design and implementation of a capacity-building project. Weekly classroom sessions will serve as a forum for teaching and training, discussion of class readings and placement experiences, project development, and troubleshooting and support.

MED 181. Preparation for Early Clinical Experience at the Cardinal Free Clinics. 1-2 Unit.

Training course for new undergraduate volunteers at the Cardinal Free Clinics (CFCs). Topics include introduction to methods for providing culturally appropriate, high quality transitional medical care for undeserved patient populations, clinic structure and roles, free clinics in the larger context of American healthcare, foundations in community health, cultural humility and implicit bias in healthcare, motivational interviewing and patient advocacy skills, and role-specific preparation. Application only; must be an accepted CFC volunteer. Visit https://cfc.stanford.edu for more information. 1-2 units.

MED 182. Early Clinical Experience at the Cardinal Free Clinics. 1-2 Unit.

The Cardinal Free Clinics, consisting of Arbor and Pacific Free Clinic, provide culturally appropriate, high quality transitional medical care for undeserved patient populations in the Bay Area. Students volunteer in various clinic roles to offer services including health education, interpretation, referrals, and labs. In clinic students are guided in the practice of medical interviews, history-taking and physical examinations as appropriate, and work with attending physicians to arrive at a diagnosis and management plan. Visit http://cfc.stanford.edu for more information.
Same as: MED 282

MED 184. Team Leadership in the Cardinal Free Clinics I. 1 Unit.

Introduction to skills for effective leadership, including topics such as conflict resolution, team dynamic. Applied learning through shifts at the Cardinal Free Clinics and related project work. Enrollment limited to Cardinal Free Clinic Managers.
Same as: MED 284

MED 199. Undergraduate Research. 1-18 Unit.

Students undertake investigations sponsored by individual faculty members. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

MED 200. Primary Care Presentations. 1 Unit.

This course is a lecture series offered during the winter quarter. The aim of this seminar is to allow medical students to experience the mindset of primary care physicians in real time. Classes feature presentations of patient cases submitted by Stanford faculty. Faculty presenters are provided with the diagnostic information for the cases in a sequential manner during and not in advance of each class, allowing students to learn from the thought process of physicians in real time as they put together the differential diagnosis, interpret diagnostic information, deliberate treatment and management options, and discuss other thoughts about the cases.

MED 201. Internal Medicine: Body as Text. 1 Unit.

Body as Text refers to the idea that every patient's body tells a story. The narrative includes the past and present of a person's social and medical condition; it is a demonstration of the phenotype. The art of reading the body as text was at its peak in the first half of the 20th century, but as technology has become ascendant, bedside skills and the ability to read the text have faded. Beyond scientific knowledge and medical facts, it is this often forgotten craft which is at the heart of the excitement of being an internist. This course introduces students to the art of the clinical exam, to developing a clinical eye, and learning to see the body in a completely different way. Enrollment will be based on a lottery system, for which details will be sent to first year students at the end of mini quarter.

MED 202. Alternative Spring Break: Rosebud Resilience: Community, Health and Learning in Lakota Nation. 1 Unit.

Open to MD, graduate, and undergraduate students. Classroom preparation followed by a one week spring break service learning experience on a reservation in South Dakota. Introduces students to the challenges and promise of Native American and rural health care, and the role of communities as leaders and problem solvers. Includes lectures, discussion and readings pertaining to Native American culture, current research in Native American health, and the methods and practice of community based participatory research.

MED 204. Access and Delivery of Essential Medicines to Poor and Underserved Communities. 1 Unit.

Student initiated lecture series. Guest speakers. Topics include: neglected diseases, underserved and impoverished markets, disease profiles of lower and middle income countries, pricing and distribution of biomedical end products, intellectual property in medicine and its effect on delivery of healthcare.

MED 206. Meta-research: Appraising Research Findings, Bias, and Meta-analysis. 3 Units.

Open to graduate, medical, and undergraduate students. Appraisal of the quality and credibility of research findings; evaluation of sources of bias. Meta-analysis as a quantitative (statistical) method for combining results of independent studies. Examples from medicine, epidemiology, genomics, ecology, social/behavioral sciences, education. Collaborative analyses. Project involving generation of a meta-research project or reworking and evaluation of an existing published meta-analysis. Prerequisite: knowledge of basic statistics.
Same as: CHPR 206, HRP 206, STATS 211

MED 207. History of Medicine. 1 Unit.

Begins with studying Shamanistic medicine, practiced by humans throughout the globe, for millennia. Covers magico-religious medicine developed in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece; the 4th Century BC with Hippocrates beginning to separate medicine from religion and magic; the slow progress in ancient Rome, the medieval period, and during the Renaissance; and the acceleration in the pace of discoveries In the last few centuries, as medicine became more scientific, complex, and specialized as Pasteur developed the germ theory of disease, Darwin and Mendel publications begin the development of Evolution and of Genetics, Watson and Crick solved the mystery of DNA structure, organ transplants began, and imaging procedures such as CT and MRI came into being. Lectures are profusely illustrated, and, for the sake of comparison, two equally ancient systems of medicine, the traditional Chinese and the Vedic, are briefly reviewed.

MED 209. Health Law: Quality and Safety of Care. 3 Units.

(Same as LAW 3002) Concerns about the quality of health care, along with concerns about its cost and accessibility, are the focal points of American health policy. Considers how legislators, courts, and professional groups attempt to safeguard the quality and safety of the health care patients receive. The course approaches "regulation" in a broad sense. Focuses on regimes for determining who may deliver health care services (e.g. licensing and accreditation agencies), legal and ethical obligations providers owe to patients (e.g. confidentiality, informed consent), individual and institutional liability for substandard care, and various proposals for reforming the medical malpractice system. Includes discussion of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (aka, "Obamacare"), which is launching many new initiatives aimed at assuring or improving health care quality.

MED 210. Principles and Practice of Healthcare Quality Improvement. 1 Unit.

This course will introduce students to foundational concepts in healthcare quality improvement, and provide tools for translating these principles into practice. Topics include: current state, A3, SMART goals, root-cause analysis, metrics and measures, PDCA cycles, process controls, systems, and sustainability. Students have the option of completing the course curriculum in conjunction with a quality improvement/patient safety project offered by the SMS Quality Improvement Interest Group. This course will meet for three in-class sessions throughout the quarter, with students reviewing the online materials before each session. Dinner will be served. May be repeated for credit up to three quarters with continued work on a quality improvement project, and all units count towards the Quality Improvement Scholarly Concentration.

MED 212. Methods for Health Care Delivery Innovation, Implementation and Evaluation. 2 Units.

Preference given to postgraduate fellows and graduate students. Focus is on implementation science and evaluation of health care delivery innovations. Topics include implementation science theory, frameworks, and measurement principles; qualitative and quantitative approaches to designing and evaluating new health care models; hybrid design trials that simultaneously evaluate implementation and effectiveness; distinction between quality improvement and research, and implications for regulatory requirements and publication; and grant-writing strategies for implementation science and evaluation. Students will develop a mock (or actual) grant proposal to conduct a needs assessment or evaluate a Stanford/VA/community intervention, incorporating concepts, frameworks, and methods discussed in class. Priority for enrollment for CHPR 212 will be given to CHPR master's students.
Same as: CHPR 212, HRP 218

MED 213. Compassion Cultivation for the Physician-in-Training. 1 Unit.

Provides mentored practice and growth in students' knowledge, skills and attitudes in compassion cultivation for one's self and others. Integrates traditional contemplative practices with contemporary psychology and scientific research on compassion.

MED 214. PHS/Public Health Seminar Series. 1 Unit.

This course is open to all MD students as well as undergraduate and graduate students and not restricted to any major. Each session of the seminar will focus on a population based/public health related issue that has a broad multidisciplinary appeal. There will be a presentation as well as opportunity for discussion. Topics include environmental health, work-life, learning health systems, health disparities, immigration and health, aging, and other population health sciences based subjects. Faculty from across campus as well as distinguished speakers from across the country and internationally, who are experts in the field, will present at each session. The purpose of the course is in line with the mission of the Stanford Center for Population Health Sciences, which is to improve individual and population health by bringing together diverse disciplines and data to understand and address social, environmental, behavioral, and biological factors.nThis class can be repeated for credit. See http://med.stanford.edu/phs.html for more information on the Center for Population Health Sciences and the many resources it provides.

MED 215A. Health Policy PhD Core Seminar I--First Year. 1-2 Unit.

Seminar series is the core tutorial for first-year Health Policy and Health Services Research graduate students. Major themes in fields of study including health insurance, healthcare financing and delivery, health systems and reform and disparities in the US and globally, health and economic development, health law and policy, resource allocation, efficiency and equity, healthcare quality, measurement and the efficacy and effectiveness of interventions. Blocks of session led by Stanford expert faculty in particular fields of study. 2 unit registration requires written responses to assigned reading questions.
Same as: HRP 201A

MED 215B. Health Policy PhD Core Seminar II--First Year. 1-2 Unit.

Second in a three-quarter seminar series is the core tutorial for first-year Health Policy and Health Services Research graduate students. Major themes in fields of study including health insurance, healthcare financing and delivery, health systems and reform and disparities in the US and globally, health and economic development, health law and policy, resource allocation, efficiency and equity, healthcare quality, measurement and the efficacy and effectiveness of interventions. Blocks of session led by Stanford expert faculty in particular fields of study.
Same as: HRP 201B

MED 215C. Health Policy PhD Core Seminar III--First Year. 1-2 Unit.

Third in a three-quarter seminar series is the core tutorial for first-year Health Policy and Health Services Research graduate students. Major themes in fields of study including health insurance, healthcare financing and delivery, health systems and reform and disparities in the US and globally, health and economic development, health law and policy, resource allocation, efficiency and equity, healthcare quality, measurement and the efficacy and effectiveness of interventions. Blocks of session led by Stanford expert faculty in particular fields of study.
Same as: HRP 201C

MED 216. Clinical Integration. 1 Unit.

The practice of clinical medicine requires the integration of several fields of knowledge including Embryology, Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Pharmacology, and Microbiology. In this exciting course, we will systematically review subjects such as Cardiology, Gastroenterology, Nephrology, Pulmonology, Endocrinology, Neurology, and Hematology/Oncology. I will provide power points and an outline as a reference point for the content. The majority of the classroom time will be spend with guided review of an excellent question bank. This will serve as an excellent review of the subjects after they have been formally taught during the M2 year. I have almost a decade of experience guiding students through the USMLE Step 1 exam with significant success. Utilizing my experience, I hope to help ¿connect the dots¿ in the above fields and prepare the student to think about ¿pathophysiology¿ as a guide to clinical reasoning.

MED 217SI. Being Mortal: Medicine, Mortality and Caring for Older Adults. 1 Unit.

Mortality is the inevitable, final outcome of human health. Though medical education focuses on treating illness and prolonging life, healthcare professionals in practice must face the fact that patients¿ lives cannot always be saved. This course will explore the difficult issues such as end-of-life planning, decision-making, and cost of care, that figure in hospitals, hospice, and assisted living centers. Guest speakers will include elderly care workers, medical writers and filmmakers, and physicians in geriatrics, oncology and palliative care, who will lead student discussions following their lectures. Upon finishing the course, students will learn how to better handle aging and death in their medical practice, in order to improve the quality of their patients¿ lives¿and that of their families¿ as well.

MED 218SI. Diabetes 101 for Healthcare Providers. 1 Unit.

Diabetes is an extremely high-prevalence disease, that you will likely encounter on a consistent basis regardless of your medical specialty, so learning about the practical aspects of treatment is extremely useful. This course is designed to teach these practical skills about diabetes care, treatment and the latest research in the field. Diabetes 101 for healthcare providers is a lunch seminar style course with lectures on subjects like: A meal in the life of a diabetic; Pumps/ CGMs/ Artificial Pancreases; Beyond Types 1 and 2; The Psychology of diabetes and chronic disease; and Rare complications and future treatments.

MED 219. What Patients and Families Want You to Know About Becoming Their Doctor. 1 Unit.

Students will learn directly from patients and families about whole-person care, including topics such as compassion, challenging conversations, shared decision-making and end-of-life care. Patients, families, hospital staff and medical students will co-teach this course. The goal is to develop knowledge that enables students to keep the perspective and needs of patients, families, and personal caregivers as a primary focus, while operating within the complex reality of practicing medicine. By the end, students will have sharpened their ability to partner with patients and families as part of their care team and develop a more meaningful practice.

MED 221. Translational Research and Applied Medicine. 2-3 Units.

(Same as MED 121; undergraduate students enroll in MED 121) Open to graduate students and medical students, this course enables students to learn basic principles in the design, performance and analysis of translational medical research studies. The course includes both didactic seminars from experts in translational medicine as well as the opportunity to design and present a translational research project. Students enrolling for 3 units are paired with a TRAM translational research project and work as a team with TRAM trainees and faculty on a weekly basis, as arranged by the instructor, and present a final project update at the end of the quarter.
Same as: MED 121

MED 222. The Medical Malpractice System. 2 Units.

Focus is on policy and law pertaining to the medical malpractice system in the U.S. Readings include a mix of articles from the medical, law and health policy literatures, as well as some legal cases. Includes problem-based learning and small group work.

MED 223. Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Sciences Seminar. 3 Units.

The focus of MED223 is to fine tune critical thinking skills by analyzing original publications and understanding the current complexities of the cardiovascular system. Students will attend a lecture series presented by prominent external speakers on Tuesdays and learn new approaches and technology from Stanford faculty on Thursdays. Assigned reading will be discussed and interpreted in class (1-2 papers per class).

MED 224. Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation Lab (SE Lab) - Global & Planetary Health. 3 Units.

Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation Lab (SE Lab) - Global & Planetary Health is a new Collaboratory workshop for students/fellows to design/develop innovative social ventures/solutions addressing key challenges in public health and the environment, in support of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs 2030). SE Lab is open to students/fellows across Stanford and combines design thinking exercises, short lectures & case studies, workshops, small group teamwork, presentations, guest speakers, and faculty, practitioner and peer feedback to support/advance development of your ideas/plans. Join SE Lab with an idea or simply the desire to join a team. Enrollment limited to 32. Instructor's permission required.
Same as: HRP 224, PUBLPOL 224

MED 226. Practical Approaches to Global Health Research. 3 Units.

(Formerly IPS 290) How do you come up with an idea for a useful research project in a low resource setting? How do you develop a research question, prepare a concept note, and get your project funded? How do you manage personnel in the field, complex cultural situations, and unexpected problems? How do you create a sampling strategy, select a study design, and ensure ethical conduct with human subjects? This course takes students through the process of health research in under-resourced countries from the development of the initial research question and literature review to securing support and detailed planning for field work. Students progressively develop and receive weekly feedback on a concept note to support a funding proposal addressing a research question of their choosing. Aimed at graduate students interested in global health research, though students of all disciplines interested in practical methods for research are welcome. Undergraduates who have completed 85 units or more may enroll with instructor consent.
Same as: HRP 237, INTLPOL 290

MED 227. Bedside Ultrasound. 1-2 Unit.

For preclinical or clinical medical students, and others with permission. Introduces students to diagnostic ultrasound at the bedside. The normal anatomy of the heart, abdomen, and pelvis pertinent to ultrasound is taught. Some pathology involving these areas is also introduced. As the students' proficiency increases, those electing to can visit the Pacific Free Clinic to be introduced to scanning patients. 1 unit for class attendance only 2 units for class attendance and observation in Stanford Echo Labs.

MED 228. Physicians and Social Responsibility. 1 Unit.

Social and political context of the roles of physicians and health professionals in social change; policy, advocacy, and shaping public attitudes. How physicians have influenced governmental policy on nuclear arms proliferation; environmental health concerns; physicians in government; activism through research; the effects of poverty on health; homelessness; and gun violence. Guest speakers from national and international NGOs.

MED 229. Introduction to Global Health. 1 Unit.

Provides an overview of global health and how it is similar to and different from public health and tropical medicine. Topics include the evolution, economics, politics of global health, major players in global health, and issues of geography, politics, humanitarianism, human rights, science, research, culture and disease.

MED 230SI. Perspectives on Cancer. 1 Unit.

Cancer consumes the lives of those associated with it: patients and their loved ones, their medical staff, and often the larger community. This course will address the broad impact of cancer from multiple fronts (medical, social, mental, etc.) by providing perspectives beyond the cut-and-dry scientific issue that the disease is often made out to be, enabling students to explore the "human-side" to the disease. In alternating weeks, students will participate in a Socratic seminar based on light reading about relevant topics and personally interact with guest speakers, who may include medical professional, cancer survivors and their loved ones, and activists. This course will meet weeks 2-9.

MED 232. Virtual Student Exchange in Global Health between Lebanon and Stanford. 1-3 Unit.

Timely topics in global health will be presented in a unique virtual student exchange with the joint participation of the Modern University for Business & Science in Beirut, Lebanon. The goal of this interactive series will be to encourage students to think about a broad range of topics in global health including coordinated responses to crises, ethical approaches to research and implementation work in low-income countries, and focused sessions on refugee health which will connect classrooms in Beirut and in Palo Alto. Complex humanitarian emergencies require cross-cultural collaboration, and this class will be structured to encourage working with overseas counterparts on the pressing Syrian refugee crisis. By integrating lectures, guest speakers, and a cross-cultural collaborative capstone project, students will gain an in-depth understanding of the global-health landscape and methods of addressing complex issues with partners abroad. Undergraduates must take this course for a letter grade and 3 units. MD students can enroll for 1-2 units, yet the course will require 2 units worth of work. Students enrolling in the course for a third unit will create a podcast related to a topic of their choice on refugee health. These students will participate in a weekly section to develop their podcast with the teaching team as well as learn from guest speakers different podcast communication skills. This extra section time will be announced based off of students' and the teaching teams' schedules. The student who makes the best podcast will travel to Beirut to meet and work with their counterparts for a week during winter break. This course will be limited to 20 students. Students will fill out an application after the first day of class to determine enrollment.

MED 233. Global Health: Beyond Diseases and International Organizations. 4 Units.

Provides multidisciplinary trainees insight into over-arching themes of global health. Topics include systemic issues affecting healthcare progress globally, ethical and thoughtful approaches to solving these issues, as well as economics, water sanitation, public health, organizations in global health, human rights, involvement in NGOs, ethics of overseas work, and other non-medical aspects of this subject. This course will cover some of the essentials of patient care while working in the field as well including child health care, malaria, TB, and HIV. Course only open to graduate and MD/MSPA students. Undergraduates are not eligible to enroll.

MED 235. Designing Research-Based Interventions to Solve Global Health Problems. 3-4 Units.

The excitement around social innovation and entrepreneurship has spawned numerous startups focused on tackling world problems, particularly in the fields of education and health. The best social ventures are launched with careful consideration paid to research, design, and efficacy. This course offers students insights into understanding how to effectively develop, evaluate, and scale social ventures. Using TeachAIDS (an award-winning nonprofit educational technology social venture used in 78 countries) as a primary case study, students will be given an in-depth look into how the entity was founded and scaled globally. Guest speakers will include world-class experts and entrepreneurs in Philanthropy, Medicine, Communications, Education, and Technology. Open to both undergraduate and graduate students.
Same as: AFRICAST 135, AFRICAST 235, EDUC 135, EDUC 335, HRP 235, HUMBIO 26

MED 236. Economics of Infectious Disease and Global Health. 3 Units.

Introduction to global health topics such as childhood health, hygiene, drug resistance, and pharmaceutical industries from an economic development perspective. Introduces economic concepts including decision-making over time, externalities, and incentives as they relate to health. Prerequisite: Human Biology Core or Biology Foundations or equivalent or consent of the instructor.
Same as: HUMBIO 124E

MED 237. Health Law: Improving Public Health. 3 Units.

(Same as Law 762) Examines how the law can be used to improve the public's health. Major themes explored include: what authority does the government have to regulate in the interest of public health? How are individual rights balanced against this authority? What are the benefits and pitfalls of using laws and litigation to achieve public health goals? Investigates these issues in several contexts, including the control and prevention of infectious disease, laws aimed at preventing obesity and associated noncommunicable diseases, tobacco regulation, ensuring access to medical care, reproductive health, lawsuits against tobacco, food and gun companies, and public health emergencies.

MED 238. Leading and Managing Health Care Organizations: Innovation and Collaboration. 3 Units.

Same as OB 348. Leading and managing in complex, high stakes settings, like health care, where lives and livelihoods are on the line, presents distinctive challenges and constraints. This course challenges you to apply seminal and contemporary theories in organizational behavior to evaluate managerial decisions and develop evidence-based strategies for leading and managing health care teams and organizations. Topics include leading systems that promote learning; implementing change; and interdisciplinary problem-solving, decision-making, and collaboration. Group work and exercises will simulate high pressure and risk-taking under uncertainty. While the focus of this course will be on health care situations, lessons are relevant to other settings including consulting, banking, and high tech, and prior experience in the health sector is not required.

MED 239. Workshop For Ending Diagnostic Odysseys. 1-3 Unit.

Many patients referred to the Center for Undiagnosed Diseases have eluded diagnosis despite multi-specialty consultations and advanced testing. In this project-based course, teams of students will work together to study rare and novel diseases. Like Dr. House, students will attempt to solve these medical mysteries. Course directors and team facilitators will introduce methods and approaches successful in solving past cases. Teams are expected to report on their findings at the completion of each quarter. Interested students may pursue follow-up research as Med Scholars. Co-Enrollment in MED 244 is a pre-requisite for enrollment in the first quarter of MED 239.

MED 240. Sex and Gender in Human Physiology and Disease. 2-3 Units.

(HumBio students must enroll in HUMBIO 140.) Chromosomal, hormonal and environmental influences that lead to male and female and intersex reproductive anatomy and physiology and neuroendocrine regulation. Masculinizing and feminizing effects of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones and sociocultural factors, in particular gender identity, (social) gender norms and relationships, on the musculoskeletal, neurological, cardiovascular, immunological and other systems and tissues, e.g. adipose, skin, etc. over the lifecourse, from conception to puberty, through reproductive phases (including changes during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy up to and beyond menopause in women, and with aging in both sexes). Transgender health issues. Guest lecturers. Prerequisite: Human Biology core or Biology Foundations or equivalent, or consent of instructor. HUMBIO students must enroll for 3 units.
Same as: FEMGEN 241, HUMBIO 140

MED 241. Clinical Skills for Patient Care in Free Clinics. 1 Unit.

Enrollment in this course is by application only for advanced volunteers at the Cardinal Free Clinics. Focus is on preparing students to gain early clinical experience by teaching basic skills such as taking patient histories, working with interpreters, providing motivational interviewing, and presenting cases to medical students or physicians. Students learn through classroom lectures and practice sessions. Upon successful completion of a competency assessment, students are able to serve in a clinic role in the Cardinal Free Clinics. Prerequisite: Advanced standing as a volunteer at the Cardinal Free Clinics.

MED 242. Physicians and Human Rights. 1 Unit.

Weekly lectures on how human rights violations affect health. Topics include: regional conflict and health, the health status of refugees and internally displaced persons; child labor; trafficking in women and children; HIV/AIDS; torture; poverty, the environment and health; access to clean water; domestic violence and sexual assault; and international availability of drugs. Guest speakers from national and international NGOs including Doctors Without Borders; McMaster University Institute for Peace Studies; UC Berkeley Human Rights Center; Kiva.

MED 243C. Patient Health Education in Community Clinics - Practicum. 2 Units.

Open to undergraduate, graduate, and medical students. For students currently volunteering in one of the course-affiliated clinic sites. Objective is to expand health education skills, discuss more complex health education topics, and reflect upon experiences in the clinic. Includes readings and online reflections. Pre-requisites: MED 143A/243A, Med 143B/243B.
Same as: MED 143C

MED 244. Diagnostic Odysseys In Medicine. 1 Unit.

Medicine is rapidly evolving, with increasing emphasis on genetic testing, immunophenotyping and integration of technology to guide diagnosis. In this course, experts from Stanford and Silicon Valley will highlight exciting developments. Topics include the latest developments in genetics and genomics (including genome testing in clinical practice, direct to consumer testing, and frontiers in neurogenetics), immunophenotyping, utilization of databases to research diseases and the emerging field of machine learning and clinical decision support in optimizing diagnostic strategies. Students who wish to engage in a mentored multi-disciplinary team-based research project related to advanced diagnostic techniques can additionally enroll in MED 239.
Same as: HUMBIO 44

MED 245. Leadership in Medicine: Developing your Moral Identity. 1 Unit.

In this leadership course students will either view videos of well-known leaders being interviewed or watch a live interview of the leader by a professional communications officer each week. With these interviews we will be highlighting the ethical challenges that these leaders faced and how they rose to these challenges, or fell short. These famous leaders will come from a variety of fields including academia, government, law, public service, the military or journalism. We will then hold small group discussions after the interviews to debate the decisions made by these leaders. Through discourse and deep reflection we aim to prepare students for their own leadership challenges of the future. The course will be held on Monday evenings 5:30-7pm with dinner provided.nUndergraduates must request instructor approval.

MED 246. The Medical Interview for Spanish Speakers. 1 Unit.

Student led forum for practicing and learning medical Spanish related specifically to the medical interview. Prepares clinical students to interact more effectively with Spanish speaking patients in clinics. Classes are topical; each class includes a demonstration, medical vocabulary practice, and conversational practice on the topic of the day.

MED 247. Methods in Community Assessment, Evaluation, and Research. 3 Units.

Development of pragmatic skills for design, implementation, and analysis of structured interviews, focus groups, survey questionnaires, and field observations. Topics include: principles of community-based participatory research, including importance of dissemination; strengths and limitations of different study designs; validity and reliability; construction of interview and focus group questions; techniques for moderating focus groups; content analysis of qualitative data; survey questionnaire design; and interpretation of commonly-used statistical analyses.
Same as: CHPR 247, MED 147

MED 248. Student Rounds. 1 Unit.

Teams of preclinical students meet weekly with a clinical student to hear the history and physical of a recent case the clinical student encountered on the wards. Following the presentation, the preclinical students work together under the guidance of the clinical student to develop a problem list and plan, which are then compared with the problem list, plan, and orders made by the actual admitting team. In the course of presenting the cases, the clinical student describes personal experiences and practical components of ward work and daily clinical routine.

MED 249. Topics in Health Economics I. 2-5 Units.

Course will cover various topics in health economics, from theoretical and empirical perspectives. Topics will include public financing and public policy in health care and health insurance; demand and supply of health insurance and healthcare; physicians' incentives; patient decision-making; competition policy in healthcare markets, intellectual property in the context of pharmaceutical drugs and medical technology; other aspects of interaction between public and private sectors in healthcare and health insurance markets. Key emphasis on recent work and empirical methods and modelling. Prerequisites: Micro and Econometrics first year sequences (or equivalent). Curricular prerequisites (if applicable): First year graduate Microeconomics and Econometrics sequences (or equivalent).
Same as: ECON 249, HRP 249

MED 251. Measurement for Health Policy. 3 Units.

Conceptual, technical and empirical basis for measurement essential to health policy. Principles and good practice for designing measures fit for purpose. Practical application of measurement concepts and methods. Main emphasis on measuring levels of health in individuals and populations, combining mortality/longevity and quality of life/functioning. Additional topics include measurement of inequalities and health care quality. Examples and applications include high income and low/middle-income settings.
Same as: HRP 232

MED 252. Outcomes Analysis. 4 Units.

Methods of conducting empirical studies which use large existing medical, survey, and other databases to ask both clinical and policy questions. Econometric and statistical models used to conduct medical outcomes research. How research is conducted on medical and health economics questions when a randomized trial is impossible. Problem sets emphasize hands-on data analysis and application of methods, including re-analyses of well-known studies. Prerequisites: one or more courses in probability, and statistics or biostatistics.
Same as: BIOMEDIN 251, HRP 252

MED 254. Engineering Better Health Systems: modeling for public health. 4 Units.

This course teaches engineering, operations research and modeling techniques to improve public health programs and systems. Students will engage in in-depth study of disease detection and control strategies from a "systems science" perspective, which involves the use of common engineering, operations research, and mathematical modeling techniques such as optimization, queuing theory, Markov and Kermack-McKendrick models, and microsimulation. Lectures and problem sets will focus on applying these techniques to classical public health dilemmas such as how to optimize screening programs, reduce waiting times for healthcare services, solve resource allocation problems, and compare macro-scale disease control strategies that cannot be easily evaluated through randomized trials. Readings will complement the lectures and problem sets by offering critical perspectives from the public health history, sociology, and epidemiology. In-depth case studies from non-governmental organizations, departments of public health, and international agencies will drive the course. Prerequisites: A course in introductory statistics, and a course in multivariable calculus including ordinarily differential equations. Open to upper-division undergraduate students and graduate students. Human Biology majors enroll in HUMBIO 154A. Prerequisite: MATH 51 or CME 100 and Human Biology Core or BIO 141 or BIOHOPK 174H.
Same as: HRP 234, HUMBIO 154A

MED 255. The Responsible Conduct of Research. 1 Unit.

Forum. How to identify and approach ethical dilemmas that commonly arise in biomedical research. Issues in the practice of research such as in publication and interpretation of data, and issues raised by academic/industry ties. Contemporary debates at the interface of biomedical science and society regarding research on stem cells, bioweapons, genetic testing, human subjects, and vertebrate animals. Completion fulfills NIH/ADAMHA requirement for instruction in the ethical conduct of research. Prerequisite: research experience recommended.

MED 255C. The Responsible Conduct of Research for Clinical and Community Researchers. 1 Unit.

Engages clinical researchers in discussions about ethical issues commonly encountered during their clinical research careers and addresses contemporary debates at the interface of biomedical science and society. Graduate students required to take RCR who are or will be conducting clinical research are encouraged to enroll in this version of the course. Prequisite: research experience recommended.
Same as: CHPR 255

MED 256SI. Race, Class and Global Health. 2 Units.

This course's goal is to critically engage students in the socioeconomic and racial disparities in healthcare outcomes and encourage students to think broadly about the complex relationship between institutions, healthcare providers, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. The topics will center on conceptual issues important for understanding how socioeconomic and minority status can lead to poor health outcomes examining how conscious and unconscious institutional biases affect treatment, care, and access, and addressing proposals for how to reduce disparities in health care. nThe focus of the course is broad. The first three weeks will center on public health issues due to global healthcare trends, including the results of disparities in the United States. These discussions will frame our sessions int he latter sic weeks, which will each consist of a case study of specific cases of disparities and response to such inequities worldwide, from India to Rwanda. nEach class's discussion will be guided by case studies. The readings will come from a variety of sources, including academic journals, more popular journals and magazines, books and government documents. Student will be expected to complete the readings and a reflection in advance of class each week. Each week will additionally include optional readings that will guide additional discussion.
Same as: CSRE 256SI

MED 258A. Policy Advocacy in Community Health. 2 Units.

In order to affect broad-based change in the health of populations, advocates must look upstream to the social and economic factors that impact health. Most powerful among these factors are the policies that shape our lives and the context in which we make individual and collective decisions. This course gives students the skills and tools to influence the policy process through various avenues, including legislative and media advocacy. Students select a current community health issue of interest and track relevant policy initiatives and media coverage of the issue to serve as the foundation for the application of real-time advocacy strategies. Prerequisites: MED 257A or consent of instructor.

MED 262. Economics of Health Improvement in Developing Countries. 5 Units.

Application of economic paradigms and empirical methods to health improvement in developing countries. Emphasis is on unifying analytic frameworks and evaluation of empirical evidence. How economic views differ from public health, medicine, and epidemiology; analytic paradigms for health and population change; the demand for health; the role of health in international development. Prerequisites: ECON 50 and ECON 102B.
Same as: ECON 127

MED 263. Advanced Decision Science Methods and Modeling in Health. 3 Units.

Advanced methods currently used in published model-based cost-effectiveness analyses in medicine and public health, both theory and technical applications. Topics include: Markov and microsimulation models, model calibration and evaluation, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Prerequisites: a course in probability, a course in statistics or biostatistics, a course on cost-effectiveness such as HRP 392, a course in economics, and familiarity with decision modeling software such as TreeAge.
Same as: HRP 263

MED 264. Social Epidemiology. 2 Units.

Preference to graduate students with prior coursework in Epidemiology. Focuses on understanding the theory and empirical evidence that shows support for the relationships between social environments and health. Covers four main topics: the historical development of social epidemiology, and a survey of the major theories in social epidemiology; the three main empirical approaches used to generate new knowledge in social epidemiology: traditional observational studies, quasi-experimental studies and experimental approaches; how the constructs of social class, race/ethnicity and gender are used in social epidemiology; new emerging empirical approaches within the field including the application of causal, machine learning and complex systems methods.

MED 265. Advanced Topics in the Economics of Health and Medical Care. 2 Units.

Emphasis is on research studies in health economics. Seminar style course focuses on Health Economics. To be taken with HRP 256. Students will be expected to read and present papers to the group and discuss concepts with faculty. Restricted to second year PhD students in economics & economics-related disciplines.
Same as: HRP 257

MED 266. Literacy: A Fundamental Human Right Toward Health and Advocacy. 1-3 Unit.

This is a Community Engaged learning seminar style course that meets once a week for an hour and a half. We will have seminar discussions and readings related to local health literacy issues, and the systemic factors affecting health literacy through collaborative problem-solving processes through course readings and community engagement experiences. Emphasis will be on active learning, with assignments calling for data gathering through interaction with community members to explore and address these issues for more positive health outcomes. The course is open to pre-clinical medical, undergraduate and graduate students. No prerequisites.

MED 267. Ideo, Presence & The Human Experience in Medicine. 3 Units.

Presence. The Art and Science of Human Connection in Medicine is a new center, founded and lead by Dr. Abraham Verghese (http://med.stanford.edu/presence.html). This course partners with IDEO (https://www.ideo.com/) to bring design thinking to address the challenges of diagnostic error in medicine. Dr. Verghese and colleagues will outline the consequences of the lack of presence in the clinical encounter. IDEO's design thinking will be taught by Dr. Jayant Menon, Dr. Farzad Azimpour and Grace Hwang. Class participants will be divided into small groups and designated coaches. Each group will work with the course leadership to define a specific challenge and utilize the design thinking process to create deployable solutions. In class lectures and workshops will be held on campus on Tuesdays from 3.30-5 p.m., and IDEO (Forest Av, Palo Alto) based small group meetings will be held on Thursdays from 5.30-6.20pm. Admission is selective and requires all applicants submit an application before March 1, 2017. Applications can be found at https://goo.gl/forms/7mCI7vf8PbcdVG0m1 nQuestions should emailed to sonoot@stanford.edu.

MED 268. Tackling Cross-Cultural Health Challenges: Emphasis on the Asian/Pacific Islander Community. 1 Unit.

Why do certain diseases like hepatitis B affect Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs) disproportionately? How can public policy advance health equity among ethnic groups? Weekly lectures examine health challenges endemic to the API community, recognizing underreported health issues in a prevalent ethnic demographic. Students will emerge with an understanding of topics including stigmas attached to traditional medicine, prevalent diseases in APIs, API health politics, and cultural/linguistic barriers that health professionals encounter. Guest speakers include professionals from the Ravenswood Family Health Center, the Santa Clara County Public Health Department, Hep B Free, the Stanford School of Medicine, etc. (Light supper served).

MED 271. Global Biodesign: Medical Technology in an International Context. 1 Unit.

This course (BIOE371, MED271, OIT587) exposes students to the challenges and opportunities of developing and implementing innovative health technologies to help patients around the world. Non-communicable diseases, such as metabolic and chronic respiratory disease, now account for 7 in 10 deaths worldwide, presenting a need for health technology innovation that works across diverse global markets. Early in the quarter, faculty will provide an overview of the dynamic global health technology industry and how the position of the US is shifting relative to other geographies. Then, the course will explore four important regions; Europe, China, Japan, and India and key similarities and differences between them. Additionally, students will engage with expert guests from the industry in debating controversial topics affecting health technology innovation in these regions. Finally, students will have the opportunity to network and explore career paths in the broad field of global health technology innovation.
Same as: BIOE 371

MED 272A. Biodesign Innovation: Needs Finding and Concept Creation. 4 Units.

In this two-quarter course series ( BIOE 374A/B, MED 272A/B, ME 368A/B, OIT 384/5), multidisciplinary student teams identify real-world unmet healthcare needs, invent new health technologies to address them, and plan for their implementation into patient care. During the first quarter (winter 2018), students select and characterize an important unmet healthcare problem, validate it through primary interviews and secondary research, and then brainstorm and screen initial technology-based solutions. In the second quarter (spring 2018), teams select a lead solution and move it toward the market through prototyping, technical re-risking, strategies to address healthcare-specific requirements (regulation, reimbursement), and business planning. Final presentations in winter and spring are made to a panel of prominent health technology experts and/or investors. Class sessions include faculty-led instruction and case studies, coaching sessions by industry specialists, expert guest lecturers, and interactive team meetings. Enrollment is by application only, and students are expected to participate in both quarters of the course. Visit http://biodesign.stanford.edu/programs/stanford-courses/biodesign-innovation.html to access the application, examples of past projects, and student testimonials. More information about Stanford Biodesign, which has led to the creation of more than 40 venture-backed healthcare companies and has helped hundreds of student launch health technology careers, can be found at http://biodesign.stanford.edu/.
Same as: BIOE 374A, ME 368A

MED 272B. Biodesign Innovation: Concept Development and Implementation. 4 Units.

In this two-quarter course series ( BIOE 374A/B, MED 272A/B, ME 368A/B, OIT 384/5), multidisciplinary student teams identify real-world unmet healthcare needs, invent new health technologies to address them, and plan for their implementation into patient care. During the first quarter (winter 2018), students select and characterize an important unmet healthcare problem, validate it through primary interviews and secondary research, and then brainstorm and screen initial technology-based solutions. In the second quarter (spring 2018), teams select a lead solution and move it toward the market through prototyping, technical re-risking, strategies to address healthcare-specific requirements (regulation, reimbursement), and business planning. Final presentations in winter and spring are made to a panel of prominent health technology experts and/or investors. Class sessions include faculty-led instruction and case studies, coaching sessions by industry specialists, expert guest lecturers, and interactive team meetings. Enrollment is by application only, and students are expected to participate in both quarters of the course. Visit http://biodesign.stanford.edu/programs/stanford-courses/biodesign-innovation.html to access the application, examples of past projects, and student testimonials. More information about Stanford Biodesign, which has led to the creation of more than 40 venture-backed healthcare companies and has helped hundreds of student launch health technology careers, can be found at http://biodesign.stanford.edu/.
Same as: BIOE 374B, ME 368B

MED 273. Biodesign for Digital Health. 3 Units.

Health care is facing significant cross-industry challenges and opportunities created by a number of factors including: the increasing need for improved access to affordable, high-quality care; growing demand from consumers for greater control of their health and health data; the shift in focus from sick care to prevention and health optimization; aging demographics and the increased burden of chronic conditions; and new emphasis on real-world, measurable health outcomes for individuals and populations. Moreover, the delivery of health information and services is no longer tied to traditional brick and mortar hospitals and clinics: it has increasingly become "mobile," enabled by apps, sensors, wearables; simultaneously, it has been augmented and often revolutionized by emerging digital and information technologies, as well as by the data that these technologies generate. This multifactorial transformation presents opportunities for innovation across the entire cycle of care, from wellness, to acute and chronic diseases, to care at the end of life. But how does one approach innovation in digital health to address these health care challenges while ensuring the greatest chance of success? At Stanford Biodesign, we believe that innovation is a process that can be learned, practiced, and perfected; and, it starts with a need. In Biodesign for Digital Health, students will learn about digital health and the Biodesign needs-driven innovation process from over 50 industry experts. Over the course of ten weeks, these speakers join the teaching team in a dynamic classroom environment that includes lectures, panel discussions, and breakout sessions. These experts represent startups, corporations, venture capital firms, accelerators, research labs, health organizations, and more. Student teams will take actual digital and mobile health challenges and learn how to apply Biodesign innovation principles to research and evaluate needs, ideate solutions, and objectively assess them against key criteria for satisfying the needs. Teams take a hands-on approach with the support of need coaches and mentors. On the final day of class, teams present to a panel of digital health experts and compete for project extension funding. Limited enrollment, by application only. Friday section will be used for team projects and for scheduled workshops.
Same as: BIOE 273

MED 274. Design for Service Innovation. 4 Units.

(Same as OIT 343/01) Open to graduate students from all schools and departments. An experiential project course in which students work in multidisciplinary teams to design new services to address the needs of medically patients. Project teams partner with "safety net" hospitals and clinics to find better ways to deliver care to the low income and uninsured patients these institutions serve. Students learn proven innovation processes from experienced GSB, d. school, and SoM faculty, interface with students from across the university, and have the opportunity to see their ideas translated into improvements in the quality and efficiency of healthcare in the real world. Prerequisite: admission to the course is by application only. Applications available at http://DesignForService.stanford.edu. Applications must be submitted by November 16, 2011.
Same as: BIOE 372, HRP 274

MED 275B. Biodesign Fundamentals. 4 Units.

MED 275B is an introduction to the Biodesign process for health technology innovation. This team-based course emphasizes interdisciplinary collaboration and hands-on learning at the intersection of medicine and technology. Students will work on projects in the space of medical devices, digital health, and healthcare technologies with the assistance of clinical and industry mentors. Applicants from all majors and stages in their education welcome. n nStudents will work in teams to develop solutions to current unmet medical needs, starting with a deep dive into understanding and characterizing important unmet medical needs through disease research, competitive analysis, market research, and stakeholder analysis. In the latter part of the course, students will go through the design cycle and build prototypes to their needs. The course will conclude with a pitch day where students will present and demonstrate their solution to a panel of judges, including prominent academics, industry professionals, and investors. Other topics that will be discussed include FDA regulation of medical technology, intellectual property, value proposition, and business model development. There will be guest speakers from Google X, IDEO, and more.

MED 277. AI-Assisted Care. 1-4 Unit.

AI has been advancing quickly, with its impact everywhere. In healthcare, innovation in AI could help transforming of our healthcare system. This course offers a diverse set of research projects focusing on cutting edge computer vision and machine learning technologies to solve some of healthcare's most important problems. The teaching team and teaching assistants will work closely with students on research projects in this area. Research projects include Care for Senior at Senior Home, Surgical Quality Analysis, AI Assisted Parenting, Burn Analysis & Assessment and more. AI areas include Video Understanding, Image Classification, Objected Detection, Segmentation, Action Recognition, Deep Learning, Reinforcement Learning, HCI, and more. The course is open to students in both school of medicine and school of engineering.
Same as: CS 337

MED 278. Stanford Health Consulting Group- Leadership. 1-3 Unit.

This course is application-based and will be composed of students who have taken ¿Stanford Health Consulting Group - Core¿ and who wish to take on leadership roles in organizing and managing the high-impact health care projects for the class, which address major strategic and operational challenges in health care delivery and innovation. Participants will select projects, define objectives and deliverables, manage teams of 4-8 students from the core class, and ultimately serve as a bridge between students, faculty sponsors, and other health care stakeholders. Enrollment requires permission from the Instructor.

MED 279. Stanford Heath Consulting Group - Core. 1-3 Unit.

This course provides the opportunity to analyze and solve major strategic and operational challenges in health care delivery and innovation through interdisciplinary team projects. Teams will receive direct mentorship from Stanford Medicine faculty, health care leaders, and experienced student leads, with projects carefully defined to optimize high-impact experiential learning and leadership development. Projects will culminate with student-led presentations to faculty sponsors and other health care stakeholders, as well as opportunities for further dissemination of solutions.

MED 282. Early Clinical Experience at the Cardinal Free Clinics. 1-2 Unit.

The Cardinal Free Clinics, consisting of Arbor and Pacific Free Clinic, provide culturally appropriate, high quality transitional medical care for undeserved patient populations in the Bay Area. Students volunteer in various clinic roles to offer services including health education, interpretation, referrals, and labs. In clinic students are guided in the practice of medical interviews, history-taking and physical examinations as appropriate, and work with attending physicians to arrive at a diagnosis and management plan. Visit http://cfc.stanford.edu for more information.
Same as: MED 182

MED 284. Team Leadership in the Cardinal Free Clinics I. 1 Unit.

Introduction to skills for effective leadership, including topics such as conflict resolution, team dynamic. Applied learning through shifts at the Cardinal Free Clinics and related project work. Enrollment limited to Cardinal Free Clinic Managers.
Same as: MED 184

MED 285. Global Leaders and Innovators in Human and Planetary Health. 1 Unit.

Are you interested in innovative ideas and strategies for addressing urgent challenges in human and planetary health? This invited lecture series, co-convened by faculty, fellows and students collaborating across several Stanford centers, invites the discussion of global problems, perspectives, and solutions in this fast-changing, vital domain. Guest faculty are leaders, innovators, and experts selected from organizations in diverse sectors such as: healthcare/medical innovation, foundations/venture capital, biotechnology/pharmaceuticals, social innovation/entrepreneurship health, tech/media and artificial intelligence (AI), human rights, global poverty/development, sustainable agriculture/hunger/nutrition. Registration open to all Stanford students and fellows. May be repeated for credit.

MED 289. Introduction to Bioengineering Research. 1-2 Unit.

Preference to medical and bioengineering graduate students with first preference given to Bioengineering Scholarly Concentration medical students. Bioengineering is an interdisciplinary field that leverages the disciplines of biology, medicine, and engineering to understand living systems, and engineer biological systems and improve engineering designs and human and environmental health. Students and faculty make presentations during the course. Students expected to make presentations, complete a short paper, read selected articles, and take quizzes on the material.
Same as: BIOE 390

MED 290. Independent Study with Presence and the Program in Bedside Medicine. 1-5 Unit.

Students work with their faculty mentor on projects and studies that are broadly centered around the vision and mission of Presence: The Art and Science of Human Connection and the Program in Bedside Medicine. Please see our websites for updated projects and initiatives - Presence + Program in Bedside Medicine. Currently, we focus on: How do we teach and emphasize to students, residents, physicians (and beyond) in the medical field the need to master bedside skills? How does bedside medicine affect patient care? How has patient care changed with the omnipresence of technology in our lives? How is bedside medicine going to change in the next few decades, centuries? In investigating these questions, students utilize scientific articles and data, engage patients, and collaborate with our faculty and staff. Independent study projects culminate in a presentation to our team, with the potential for posters or manuscripts. Students paired with faculty based on their area of interest and faculty/project needs.We emphasize the human connection with patients, and students are encouraged to engage patients within our program for teaching sessions, research studies, among other projects. Enrollment varies with and is limited to faculty need. Repeatable for credit; more than one-quarter of commitment expected.

MED 295. Advanced Cardiac Life Support. 2 Units.

(For clinical MD students only) Prepares students to manage the victim of a cardiac arrest. Knowledge and skills necessary for resuscitation of critically ill patients. Clinical scenarios and small group discussions address cardiovascular pharmacology, arrhythmia recognition and therapy, acute coronary syndrome including myocardial infarction, ventricular dysrhythmias and defibrillation, and acute ischemic stroke. Students should get the approval of their Clerkship Coordinator before registering for the course. nRecommended prerequisites: Medicine 300A, Pediatrics 300A, or Surgery 300A. nPrerequisite: EMED 201A.

MED 299. Directed Reading in Medicine. 1-18 Unit.

Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

MED 300A. Internal Medicine Core Clerkship. 6 Units.

Teaches the natural history, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of medical illness. Emphasis is placed on acquiring the understanding, skills, and attitudes desirable in a scientific and compassionate physician. Students record histories, physical examinations, and laboratory data for patients for whom they are responsible and present their findings, together with their diagnoses and treatment plans, at rounds and conferences. Developing sound clinical reasoning skills is continuously emphasized. An essential aspect of the clerkship is the students¿ gradual assumption of direct responsibility for, and full-time involvement in, patient care with the house staff and faculty team. To take advantage of the differences in patient populations and teaching staffs of the four hospitals, students spend four weeks at either SUMC or PAVAMC, and four weeks at either SCVMC in San Jose or KPMC in Santa Clara. The resulting eight week experience is an integrated curriculum designed to cover the essentials of internal medicine. The Department of Medicine supervises a random draw-based assignment to two of the four locations shortly before the beginning of each odd-numbered clerkship period. A passing grade will require both a satisfactory performance at both clinical sites and passing the NBME Subject Exam at the end of 8 weeks. nnPrereq: MED 208 or INDE 206. nnPeriods Avail: 1-12, full-time for eight weeks. 18 students per period. nnReporting Instructions: Varies depending on site assignment. Students will be notified prior to the first day. nnUnits: 12 DropCode: Call Code: 4 nnDirector: John Kugler, M.D. (jkugler@stanford.edu). nnOther Faculty: Staff nnCoord: Nancy D¿Amico (650-721-1640), 1215 Welch Road, Mod B, Space #37, MC 5418. nnn* "S1"=Selective Clerkship Category I (Basics in Clinical Care)n"S2"=Selective Clerkship Category II (Subinternship).

MED 313A. Ambulatory Medicine Core Clerkship. 6 Units.

The combined ambulatory/emergency medicine core clerkship will comprise two weeks of ambulatory clinics and two weeks of emergency medicine shifts, for a total of four weeks. All students will attend Monday morning ambulatory didactics, and a simulation exercise run by the EM Simulation faculty on two Monday afternoons. The remaining two Monday afternoons will be set aside as flexible time for students to complete their Emergency Medicine asynchronous learning modules. Students will present interesting case presentations and take their final exam on the last Friday of the rotation. During the ambulatory block, students will attend general medicine and subspecialty clinics Tuesday-Friday, as well as participate in one Cardinal Free Clinic shift. Sites include SUMC, PAVA, SCVMC, Kaiser Santa Clara, Kaiser Fremont, and community clinics. During the emergency medicine block, students will work seven shifts, which will be a mixture of days, evenings, and overnights in the SUMC ED. Holidays in the EMed portion of this clerkship are treated as work days. Students in the EMed block can/will work on holidays. nnPrereq: None nnPeriods Avail: 1-12, full-time for 4 weeks only. 10 students per period for P1-P2. 12 students per period for P3-P12. nnReporting Instructions: Varies depending on site assignment. The students are notified prior to the first day of the clerkship. No student may miss more than two clerkship days. nnUnits: 6 DropCode: Call Code: 2 (No call, but one required weekend ambulatory clinic shift during the ambulatory block and a mixture of at least 2 overnights and/or weekend shifts during the EMED block) nnDirector: Jacqueline Tai-Edmonds, M.D. and Nounou Taleghani, M.D., Ph.D. nnOther Faculty: J. Tai-Edmonds, N. Taleghani, and others. nnCoord: Maria Alfonso (650-497-6702), malfonso@stanford.edu nnn* "S1"=Selective Clerkship Category I (Basics in Clinical Care)n"S2"=Selective Clerkship Category II (Subinternship).

MED 318A. Palliative Medicine. 6 Units.

The Palliative Care: In Context clerkship provides medical students in-depth exposure to palliative care across the continuum of care including several ambulatory clinics, an inpatient consult service, and home and inpatient hospice care. Students will learn core communications strategies in disclosing bad news, eliciting and clarifying goals of care, and aiding in transitions in care. They will also learn physiology and pharmacology relevant for symptom management (e.g. pain, nausea, depression), as well as interact with patients confronting their own morality. Students may complete 2 weeks (either inpatient or outpatient) for elective credit. Students who complete a 4 week rotation will receive Selective I credit.

MED 370. Medical Scholars Research. 4-18 Units.

Provides an opportunity for student and faculty interaction, as well as academic credit and financial support, to medical students who undertake original research. Enrollment is limited to students with approved projects.

MED 399. Graduate Research. 1-18 Unit.

Students undertake investigations sponsored by individual faculty members. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.