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Office: Encina Hall C100
Mail Code: 94305-6055
Phone: (650) 725-9075
Email: internationalpolicy@stanford.edu
Web Site: https://fsi.stanford.edu/masters-degree

Courses offered by the Ford Dorsey Master's in International Policy are listed under the subject code INTLPOL on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

Mission

The Ford Dorsey Master's in International Policy (MIP), is an interdisciplinary program devoted to rigorous analysis of international policy issues in diplomacy, governance, cyber and international security, global health, and environmental policy. The program is designed to integrate perspectives from political science, law, economics, history, and other disciplines, while also incorporating research opportunities and a focus on implementation and administration of solutions addressing global problems. The MIP program combines a scholarly focus with practical training designed to prepare students for careers in public service and other settings where they can have an impact on international issues.

The program allows students to specialize in cyber policy and security; energy, natural resources, and the environment; global health; governance and development; or international security. Established in 1982, and subsequently renamed as the Ford Dorsey Program in International Policy Studies (IPS) in 2007, the program was redesigned for 2018-19. 

University requirements for the M.A. degree are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The purpose of the master's program is to help students develop knowledge and skills in preparation for professional careers in international policy and related fields. This is achieved through completion of required courses in the core curriculum and area of specialization, elective courses in primary and related areas, and the capstone policy studio course. Students are also encouraged to gain experience through a summer internship and research skills through assistantships with Stanford faculty. Graduates from the Master of Arts in International Policy will demonstrate an advanced understanding of international issues pertaining to governance, security, diplomacy, and other related areas, and will have a depth of knowledge in interpreting and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data.

Admission

To apply, or for information on graduate admission, see the Office of Graduate Admissions website. Applications for admission in Autumn Quarter must be filed with supporting credentials by 11:59 pm on Tuesday, January 7, 2020. 

Prerequisite Course Work

The MIP program has a quantitatively rigorous core curriculum and requires University-level courses in microeconomics and macroeconomics taken either as part of a student's undergraduate education, at another accredited educational institution, or through an approved online course. In addition, while not required, the program strongly encourages applicants to complete an introductory course in statistics. An understanding of calculus may also be useful in preparation for the Research Methods course sequence. For details on the content each prerequisite course should cover, see the MIP Frequently Asked Questions website. All prerequisite courses must be completed prior to the start of classes in late September; however, they do not need to be completed at the time of application.

Application Materials

In addition to the web-based application, applicants must submit the following materials:

  • Statement of purpose on relevant personal, academic, and career plans and goals
  • Official transcripts (two original sets, which are mailed to the MIP program office, and one scanned copy electronically uploaded to the online application)
    • Stanford students, and alumni with an active SUNetID and password, may request an official eTranscript to be sent from Stanford University and automatically deposited into the application; in this case, hard copies are not required.
  • Three letters of recommendation
  • Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores
    • Stanford University code for ETS is 4704.
  • Academic writing sample (written in English, 7-15 pages in length, and double-spaced)
  • Resume or curriculum vitae
  • TOEFL scores (only required of applicants who are non-native English speakers and who did not attend undergraduate institutions where English is the language of instruction; please see Graduate Admissions for additional information)

Applicants are expected to have a B.A. or B.S. degree from an accredited school.

Applicants should plan to review the Admissions section of the MIP website as well as the Frequently Asked Questions.

Master of Arts in International Policy

University requirements for the master's degree are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

(The Master of Arts in International Policy program is referred to below as "MIP.")

Degree Requirements

To earn the M.A. in International Policy, students matriculating in Autumn Quarter 2019 must complete the courses listed in the curriculum below. These requirements include:

  • Core — 31 units
    • All courses should be completed during the first year
  • Area of Specialization — 20 units; including:
    • Two required courses
    • Three or more additional courses (see the "Specialization Courses" tab on this page for approved options)
  • Customized Electives — 20 units​
    • Elective courses selected by the student to augment the course of study
  • Capstone — 9 units
    • Students must enroll in the policy studio course for winter and spring in their second year

The minimum number of units required to graduate is 80.  

See "MIP Academic Policies" below for details on the degree requirements

Students who matriculated prior to Autumn Quarter 2019-20 should review their degree requirements by visiting the University's Archived Bulletins

Curriculum

Units
Core Courses31
INTLPOL 300AInternational Policy Speaker Series1
INTLPOL 300SLeading Effective Teams2
INTLPOL 301AResearch Methods and Policy Applications I5
INTLPOL 301BResearch Methods and Policy Applications II5
INTLPOL 302The Global Economy5
INTLPOL 306Decision Making in U.S. Foreign Policy5
INTLPOL 307Policy Problem-Solving in the Real World4
INTLPOL 308Comparative Public Policy4
Area of Specialization20
Two required courses
Three or more additional courses from an approved list
Customized Electives20
International Policy related courses, mostly taken in year 2
Practicum9
INTLPOL 310Policy Change Studio (x2)4
INTLPOL 310ACapstone Field Research1
Total Units80

Area of Specialization Curriculum

Students are required to choose one area of specialization from the list below and complete at least five courses within the specialization for a minimum of 20 total units. Each area of specialization has two required courses, which must be taken during the first year and prior to enrolling in subsequent courses, except when unfeasible due to core course scheduling conflicts. Additionally, each area of specialization has a list of approved courses, which can be found under the "Specialization Courses" tab of this page. At least three additional courses must be taken from this list.

Area of Specialization Requirements:
  1. Students must select an area of specialization during Autumn Quarter of their first year of the program. The area of specialization, or subplan per University terminology, must be entered by the student in Axess.
    1. Changes to a student's area of specialization may be allowed, with permission from the academic services team, through the end of the first academic year.
  2. Students must complete the two required courses within the area of specialization, and at least three courses from a list of approved options for a minimum total of 20 units.  
  3. All course work must be taken for a letter grade.  
Area of Specialization Required Courses:
Units
Cyber Policy and Security
INTLPOL 256Technology and National Security: Past, Present, and Future3-4
INTLPOL 321Fundamentals of Cyber Policy and Security4-5
Energy, Natural Resources, and the Environment
EARTHSYS 212Human Society and Environmental Change4
GSBGEN 336Energy Markets and Policy3
Global Health
HUMBIO 129SGlobal Public Health3
ECON 126Economics of Health and Medical Care5
Governance and Development
INTLPOL 230Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law (GOVDEV students take this course for 3 units)3
ECON 118Development Economics5
International Security (required to complete 256 and either 240 or 241)
INTLPOL 256Technology and National Security: Past, Present, and Future3-4
INTLPOL 240Contemporary Issues in International Security4
INTLPOL 241International Security in a Changing World5

MIP Academic Policies

The University's general requirements, applicable to all graduate degrees at Stanford, are listed in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin. In addition, the MIP-specific degree requirement academic policies are listed below. 

Core Courses

All core courses must be completed during the first year of the program. The only exemption is for coterm, dual, or joint degree students who have conflicts with courses in their other degree program. In this instance, prior approval from MIP is required to move a core course to the second year. Note the additional guidance on first-year core courses:

Customized Electives

Students must submit an explanatory memo to the program's academic services office detailing their choice of courses for the 20 units of elective courses by the end of Winter Quarter in Year 2. These courses must be related to international policy, broadly understood. Students may choose to: take additional courses in their area of specialization; build their own sub-specialization (e.g., area studies, computational social science certificate); enroll in language courses; or, minor in another program specialization.

Capstone

Students enroll in INTLPOL 310 for both Winter Quarter and Spring Quarter of the second year of the program. Additionally, students enroll in INTLPOL 310A , which is the field research component, in Spring Quarter of the second year of the program.

Directed Readings

Students may arrange directed reading courses to be applied towards the Areas of Specialization or Customized Electives if the current course offerings do not meet particular research or study needs. Directed reading courses are independent study projects students may undertake with Stanford faculty members. Once the student has identified a faculty member to support his or her studies, the student must submit the directed reading proposal for review by the MIP academic services team. Directed reading proposals must be submitted no later than the end of the second week of the quarter. The academic services team reviews the directed reading proposal and renders a decision no later than two days prior to the Final Study List Deadline. If approved, the MIP academic affairs team will create a section number for the specific instructor so the student can enroll in the course. The course is listed as INTLPOL 299 and the section number corresponds to the instructor (e.g., INTLPOL 299 - 02 (Stoner, Kathryn). There are important restrictions for directed readings:

  1. Students can apply a maximum of five units of directed reading towards the Area of Specialization. 
  2. Students can apply a maximum of 10 units of directed reading towards the Customized Electives.
  3. Students may receive credit for a maximum of 5 units per directed reading course.
  4. Students must receive a letter grade for the directed reading course.

Degree Progress, Academic Standing, and Grade Requirements

MIP students must maintain a minimum 3.0 cumulative GPA to remain in good academic standing. Similarly, a minimum 3.0 cumulative GPA is required for conferral of the M.A. degree. Failure to remain in good academic standing due to not meeting the GPA requirement or making insufficient degree progress will result in being placed on academic probation (which could ultimately result in dismissal from the university).

All courses applied towards degree requirements for the M.A. in International Policy must be taken for a letter grade. The only exceptions are:

  • INTLPOL 300A (only offered as S/NC)
  • 1-2 unit courses that are only offered as S/NC (these can only be applied towards the Customized Electives)
  • Courses taken in the Law School, the School of Medicine, or the Graduate School of Business where a letter grade is not an available option

Pre-approval is required from the MIP student services team in order to apply a non-letter grade course in Law, Medicine, or the Graduate School of Business toward the MIP degree.

Additional Grade Requirements

Students who receive an incomplete grade (denoted as "I") are required to complete the course on a shorter timeline than University policy.  The following completion schedule applies:

  • Autumn and Winter Quarters: Incomplete grades must be completed no later than June 30 of the same academic year. 
  • Spring Quarter: Incomplete grades must be completed no later than August 30 of the same academic year.
  • Summer Quarter: Incomplete grades must be completed no later than December 30 of the same calendar year.

Students are also responsible for coordinating the completion of the course with the instructor(s) as well as keeping the Assistant Director for Academic and Student Affairs apprised of progress.

Students who have three or more incomplete grades (denoted as "I"), or who have incomplete grades in multiple quarters, will be placed on academic probation unless there is a rationale due to personal or health reasons that is accompanied by documentation from Counseling and Psychological Services, the Office of Accessible Education, or Vaden Health Center.  

Additional Academic Requirements

  1. All graduate degree candidates must submit a Master's Degree Program Proposal in Spring Quarter of the first year of study.  See "Graduate Advising" in this bulletin for additional information. Submission of the Program Proposal requires scheduling a 30-minute advising session with the MIP Academic Services Team to review degree progress and outline course work that needs to be completed in subsequent quarters in order to graduate. The University requires each student to have a program proposal on file with the academic program in order for the student to apply to graduate. Failure to complete this process will result in a hold being placed on the student’s account. 
  2. In order to graduate, students must apply for graduation in Axess. Additionally, a final, completed Program Proposal must be submitted during a student's final quarter of study no later than three weeks prior to the start of End-Quarter Examinations. 
  3. A maximum of 20 undergraduate units can be applied towards the MIP degree, i.e., courses numbered between 100-199.  The exceptions are History and Political Science, which list undergraduate courses at the 100 and 200-level. Per University policy, courses below 100 do not count towards graduate degrees.
  4. Units from language courses may only be applied towards the 16 units of Customized Electives. English proficiency courses for international students do not count towards the MIP degree requirements. 

Coterminal Master's Program

Undergraduates at Stanford may apply for admission to the coterminal master's program in International Policy when they have earned a minimum of 120 units toward graduation, including Advanced Placement and transfer credit, and no later than the quarter prior to the expected completion of their undergraduate degree. MIP has one application deadline per year in early January for matriculation in Autumn Quarter of the same calendar year.  

Students must submit the Coterminal Online Application. Applications must be filed together with supporting materials by 11:59 pm on Tuesday, January 7, 2020.

In addition to the web-based application, coterminal applicants must submit the following supporting materials:

  • Two letters of recommendation from University faculty
  • Academic writing sample of at least seven double-spaced pages (but no more than 15 pages)
  • Statement of purpose focusing on relevant personal, academic, and career plans and goals
  • Resume
  • Unofficial Stanford transcript

Note: The GRE exam is not required for coterminal applicants to the MIP program.

MIP Coterm Degree Requirements

To earn the M.A. in International Policy, coterm students matriculating in Autumn Quarter 2019 must complete the courses listed in the curriculum below. These requirements include:

  • Core courses — 31 units
  • Area of specialization — 14 units; including:
  • Capstone courses — 9 units

The minimum number of units required for a coterm in MIP to graduate is 54.

University Coterminal Requirements

Coterminal master’s degree candidates are expected to complete all master’s degree requirements as described in this bulletin. University requirements for the coterminal master’s degree are described in the “Coterminal Master’s Program” section. University requirements for the master’s degree are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

After accepting admission to this coterminal master’s degree program, students may request transfer of courses from the undergraduate to the graduate career to satisfy requirements for the master’s degree. Transfer of courses to the graduate career requires review and approval of both the undergraduate and graduate programs on a case by case basis.

In this master’s program, courses taken three quarters prior to the first graduate quarter, or later, are eligible for consideration for transfer to the graduate career. No courses taken prior to the first quarter of the sophomore year may be used to meet master’s degree requirements.

Course transfers are not possible after the bachelor’s degree has been conferred.

The University requires that the graduate adviser be assigned in the student’s first graduate quarter even though the undergraduate career may still be open. The University also requires that the Master’s Degree Program Proposal be completed by the student and approved by the department by the end of the student’s first graduate quarter.

Exchange Program

Stanford MIP-Vienna School of International Studies Academic Exchange

The Stanford MIP-Vienna School of International Studies Academic Exchange is an Autumn Quarter exchange program between the Ford Dorsey Master's in International Policy and the Diplomatische Akademie Wien – Vienna School of International Studies (DA). Two second-year students from each institution are selected by application to receive fellowships to spend Autumn Quarter in an academic exchange at the other institution where they take courses as full-time students, pursue extracurricular activities, and participate in the academic life of the host institution.

MIP students participating in the exchange program must complete all requirements listed in the M.A. curriculum. However, the minimum number of Stanford units required to graduate will be 65. In addition to the minimum requirement of 65 units, students must complete, at minimum, the equivalent of 15 units (3-4 full-time courses) at the DA. MIP students selected for the exchange must submit their list of chosen DA courses to the MIP academic services team for approval, no later than the end of the first week of classes. Students who are considering applying to the academic exchange program should assess how the courses taken at the DA will fit in their degree requirements.

While on exchange at the DA, MIP students' status will be listed as active but they are not considered enrolled at Stanford. In addition, MIP students receive an academic transcript from the DA for Autumn Quarter. Hence, there is no reference to the exchange on a MIP student's Stanford transcript.

For further information, please see the Stanford-Vienna Academic Exchange section of the MIP website.

Joint Degree Programs

Up to a maximum of 45 units, or one year, of the University residency requirement can be credited toward both graduate degree programs (i.e., the joint degree may require up to 45 fewer units than the sum of the individual degree unit requirements). For example, an M.A./M.P.P. has a three-year residency requirement, one year less than what is required for the separate degrees. The reduced requirement recognizes the subject matter overlap between the fields comprising the joint degree.

Juris Doctor and Master of Arts in International Policy (J.D./M.A.)

Students may choose to pursue a joint J.D./M.A. in International Policy degree. The joint degree program combines the strengths of the Law School and MIP. Prospective students interested in this joint degree program may apply concurrently to both the Stanford Law School (SLS) and the MIP program. Two separate application forms are required and applicants must submit LSAT scores to the Law School and GRE scores to MIP.

Students already enrolled at SLS may apply to the joint J.D./M.A. in International Policy program no later than the end of the second year of Law School. Applications are due no later than Tuesday, January 7, 2020 by 11:59 pm PST. The MIP program makes admissions decisions based on the student's original application materials, which the student must have sent from the School of Law to MIP.

Submission of the following is required for consideration:

  • Joint Degree Application Form (available from the MIP website)
  • Law School Joint Degree Petition (details available on the SLS Joint Degree Application Process webpage)
  • Graduate Program Authorization Petition (submitted via Axess)
  • Enrollment Agreement for Students with Multiple Programs (available for download on the University Registrar's forms page)
  • Current resume or curriculum vitae
  • LSAT scores are sufficient (GRE scores are not required)

For further information, see the "Joint Degree Programs" section of this bulletin, the University Registrar's site, and the SLS' Joint and Cooperative Degree Programs website.

Academic Policies for Joint J.D. students

Joint students must complete the core curriculum, area of specialization (14 units), and capstone. The customized electives are not required for joint J.D. students. Students who originate their studies in the Stanford Law School may complete the required statistics sequence in Law instead of completing the INTLPOL sequence. Note that there is generally one statistical course in Law instead of the two-course sequence in INTLPOL, and it does not cover R, so students who proceed with this option may be at a disadvantage in the capstone course. Approval from MIP is required to pursue this sequence. Any additional units that students need to complete would fall into the area of specialization.

Master of Arts in International Policy and Master of Public Policy (M.A./M.P.P.) 

Admission to the joint degree program requires admission to and matriculation in Stanford’s Ford Dorsey Master's in International Policy and consent of that program.

Applications for graduate study in Public Policy are only accepted from:

  1. students currently enrolled in any Stanford graduate or undergraduate degree program
  2. from external applicants seeking a joint degree, or
  3. from Stanford alumni who have graduated within the past five years.

To be considered for matriculation beginning in Autumn Quarter 2020-21, all application materials must be submitted no later than April 7, 2020. The early deadline for applications is Tuesday, January 21, 2020, with a final deadline on Tuesday, April 7, 2020. Early submission of M.P.P. applications is encouraged. Admission notifications are sent on a rolling basis no later than May 1, 2020. Admitted students are encouraged to respond to offers of admission by April 15, 2020 and are required to respond to offers of admission by May 15, 2020 at the latest.

External applicants for joint degrees must apply to the department or school offering the other graduate degree (i.e., PhD, MD, MA, MS, MBA, or JD), indicating an interest in the joint degree program; applicants admitted to the other degree program are then evaluated for admission to the M.P.P. or M.A. program.  Applicants who are admitted to MIP may apply once they have received admission to the program but prior to matriculation in autumn quarter. They may also apply during the first or second year of the MIP program.

Details on the joint degree curriculum can be found on the Public Policy website.

For further information, see the "Joint Degree Programs" section of this bulletin and the University Registrar's site.

Academic Policies for Joint M.P.P. students

Students should complete INTLPOL 301A  but then can select between INTLPOL 301B and PUBLPOL 303D Applied Econometrics for Public Policy for the second course in the sequence. Approval from MIP and Public Policy is required to pursue this sequence. 

Dual Degree Programs

Students who have attended Stanford for at least one term and who are currently enrolled may apply to add a second degree program.  The first step in the process is to consult with the primary degree program as well as the degree program to which the student is considering applying to add. Application requirements vary by graduate program. If a secondary degree program admits a student then she/he/they must submit a Graduate Program Authorization Petition to add the new degree program that will be pursued concurrently with the existing program.

It is important that the attempt to add degree programs be made while the student is enrolled. Otherwise, a new Application for Graduate Admission must be submitted and an application fee paid. Similarly, enrollment must be continuous if a new degree program is added after completion of an existing program. Summer quarter enrollment is optional for students who intend to begin a new degree program in the Autumn quarter, provided that they have been enrolled the prior Spring quarter.

Graduate Program Authorization Petitions are filed electronically in Axess and approved by the current and the new department. In addition, petitions from international students are routed to the Bechtel International Center for review. Upon all approvals, the student's record automatically updates with the requested changes.

Master of Business Administration and Master of Arts in International Policy (M.B.A./M.A.)

The dual degree is designed for students who want to work at the intersection of business and the state both in the U.S. and abroad. Prospective students interested in this dual degree program may apply concurrently to both the Stanford Graduate School of Business and the MIP program. Two separate applications are required and applicants must submit GRE scores with each application.

Students already enrolled at the Stanford Graduate School of Business may apply to the M.B.A./M.A. in International Policy dual degree program no later than the end of the first year. The MIP program has one annual application deadline by which applications are due no later than 11:59 pm PST on Tuesday, January 7, 2020. Applicants from the Graduate School of Business must request to have their original application sent to MIP for review. Additionally, submission of the following is required for consideration:

  • Dual Degree Application Form (available from the MIP website)
  • Stanford Official Transcript
  • Graduate Program Authorization Petition (submitted via Axess)
  • Enrollment Agreement for Students with Multiple Programs (available for download on the University Registrar's forms page)

Completing this combined course of study requires approximately three academic years, depending on the student's background and quantitative preparation. Admissions processes for both programs are completely independent of each other and units from courses can only be applied to one degree or the other, not both.

Area of Specialization Curriculum

The Ford Dorsey Master's in International Policy (MIP) offers five areas of specialization:

  • Cyber Policy and Security (CYBER)
  • Energy, Natural Resources, and the Environment (ENRE)
  • Global Health (GH)
  • Governance and Development (GOVDEV)
  • International Security (ISEC)

Each specialization is guided by one -or more- major research centers at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford. This collaboration provides MIP students with exposure to cutting-edge research on global policy issues. Students are required to choose one area of specialization and complete at least five courses within the specialization for a minimum of 20 total units. Each area of specialization requires the completion of two required courses (indicated on the Master's tab), and at least three elective courses from an approved list, as shown below. Due to the recent changes in the MIP program curriculum, the following specialization elective course lists may be updated over the course of the academic year.

Cyber Policy and Security

Units
COMM 257Information Control in Authoritarian Regimes4-5
CS 106AProgramming Methodology3-5
CS 181Computers, Ethics, and Public Policy4
CS 182Ethics, Public Policy, and Technological Change5
CS 251Cryptocurrencies and blockchain technologies3
EARTHSYS 262Data for Sustainable Development3-5
INTLPOL 200The Social & Economic Impact of Artificial Intelligence1
INTLPOL 221Politics of Data: Algorithmic Culture, Big Data, and Information Waste3-4
INTLPOL 251Cybersecurity: A Legal and Technical Perspective2
INTLPOL 252Cyber Risk: A Multidisciplinary Approach2-3
INTLPOL 253CCyber Conflict3-4
INTLPOL 254Diplomacy, Conflict, Deterrence and International Security in Cyberspace3
INTLPOL 257Technology & Public Purpose: Practical Solutions for Innovation's Public Dilemmas4-5
INTLPOL 258Psychology, Influence, and Propaganda4
INTLPOL 259Research Topics in Cyber Conflict and Information Warfare1-3
INTLPOL 268Hack Lab3
INTLPOL 268DOnline Open Source Investigation3-4
INTLPOL 269Cyber Law: International and Domestic Legal Frameworks for Cyber Policy2
INTLPOL 320Comparative Technology Security Policy1-2
INTLPOL 323Free Speech, Democracy and the Internet2-3
LAW 4048Regulating Internet Speech Platforms2-3
MS&E 297"Hacking for Defense": Solving National Security issues with the Lean Launchpad3-4


Energy, Natural Resources, and the Environment

Units
CEE 207AUnderstanding Energy3-5
CEE 207SUnderstanding Energy - Essentials3-4
CEE 265DWater and Sanitation in Developing Countries1-3
CS 325BData for Sustainable Development3-5
EARTHSYS 159Economic, Legal, and Political Analysis of Climate-Change Policy5
EARTHSYS 185Feeding Nine Billion4-5
EARTHSYS 206World Food Economy5
EARTHSYS 243Environmental Advocacy and Policy Communication3
EARTHSYS 288Social and Environmental Tradeoffs in Climate Decision-Making1-2
ECON 155Environmental Economics and Policy5
ECON 251Natural Resource and Energy Economics2-5
ENVRES 222Climate Law and Policy3
ENVRES 240Environmental Decision-Making and Risk Perception1-3
ENVRES 380Innovating Large Scale Sustainable Transformations/Collaborating for the Future3-4
HISTORY 303EInfrastructure & Power in the Global South4-5
INTLPOL 266Managing Nuclear Waste: Technical, Political and Organizational Challenges3
INTLPOL 271Climate Politics: Science and Global Governance3-4
INTLPOL 272Empirical Methods in Sustainable Development3-5
INTLPOL 358Business, Social Responsibility, and Human Rights3
LAW 2503Energy Law3
LAW 2504Environmental Law and Policy3
LAW 2508The Business of Water2
LAW 7823International Negotiation: Solving Intractable Conflict3
MS&E 243Energy and Environmental Policy Analysis3
PUBLPOL 265FEnvironmental Governance and Climate Resilience3


Global Health

Units
AFRICAST 235Designing Research-Based Interventions to Solve Global Health Problems3-4
BIOE 371Global Biodesign: Medical Technology in an International Context1
BIOMEDIN 251Outcomes Analysis4
BIOMEDIN 256Economics of Health and Medical Care5
BIOMEDIN 432Analysis of Costs, Risks, and Benefits of Health Care4
CEE 265DWater and Sanitation in Developing Countries1-3
CS 325BData for Sustainable Development3-5
EARTHSYS 262Data for Sustainable Development3-5
EASTASN 217Health and Healthcare Systems in East Asia3-5
ECON 127Economics of Health Improvement in Developing Countries5
ECON 249Topics in Health Economics I2-5
HRP 207Introduction to Concepts and Methods in Health Services and Policy Research I2
HRP 208Introduction to Concepts and Methods in Health Services and Policy Research II2
HRP 252Outcomes Analysis4
HUMBIO 124CGlobal Child Health3-5
HUMBIO 129WHealth Care Systems Around the World4
HUMBIO 153Parasites and Pestilence: Infectious Public Health Challenges4
INTLPOL 290Practical Approaches to Global Health Research1-3
INTLPOL 291Theories of Change in Global Health3-4
LAW 3009Health Law: Improving Public Health3
MED 232Global Health: Scaling Health Technology Innovations in Low Resource Settings2-3
MS&E 292Health Policy Modeling3
PEDS 222Beyond Health Care: the effects of social policies on health3
PUBLPOL 231Health Law: Finance and Insurance3


Governance and Development

Units
CS 325BData for Sustainable Development3-5
EARTHSYS 262Data for Sustainable Development3-5
EASTASN 289KKorea and the World3
HISTORY 303EInfrastructure & Power in the Global South4-5
INTLPOL 203Trade and Development3-5
INTLPOL 207Economics of Corruption3-5
INTLPOL 210The Politics of International Humanitarian Action3-5
INTLPOL 212The Challenges of Humanitarian Response During Conflict3
INTLPOL 213International Mediation and Civil Wars3-5
INTLPOL 214Refugees in the Twenty-first Century3-5
INTLPOL 215Special Topics: State-Society Relations in the Contemporary Arab World-Key Concepts and Debates5
INTLPOL 217The Future of Global Cooperation3-4
INTLPOL 224Economic Development and Challenges of East Asia3-5
INTLPOL 231ARussia and the West5
INTLPOL 231BUnderstanding Russia: Its Power and Purpose in a New Global Order5
INTLPOL 232Foreign Policy Decision Making in Comparative Perspective3
INTLPOL 233Presidential Decision Making in Wartime3
INTLPOL 234DIs There a Future for the "West" After Trump?5
INTLPOL 234GThe Comparative Policy Process5
INTLPOL 236American Grand Strategy3
INTLPOL 238Social Movements in the Post Spring Arab World4
INTLPOL 242American Foreign Policy: Interests, Values, and Process5
INTLPOL 244U.S. Policy toward Northeast Asia4
INTLPOL 257Technology & Public Purpose: Practical Solutions for Innovation's Public Dilemmas4-5
INTLPOL 280Transitional Justice, Human Rights, and International Criminal Tribunals3-5
INTLPOL 281Global Poverty and the Law3
INTLPOL 323Free Speech, Democracy and the Internet2-3
INTLPOL 350International Law4
INTLPOL 351Law of Democracy3
INTLPOL 352State Building and the Rule of Law Seminar3
INTLPOL 355International Human rights3
INTLPOL 357Transitional Justice3
INTLPOL 358Business, Social Responsibility, and Human Rights3
INTNLREL 123The Future of the European Union: Challenges and Opportunities5
LAW 5036Law and Ethics of War2
LAW 7823International Negotiation: Solving Intractable Conflict3
POLECON 683Political Development Economics3
POLISCI 110GGoverning the Global Economy5
POLISCI 147Comparative Democratic Development5
POLISCI 147PThe Politics of Inequality5
POLISCI 325LLaw and the New Political Economy3-5
POLISCI 347GGovernance and Poverty3-5
POLISCI 348SLatin American Politics3-5
POLISCI 441LGrad Seminar on Middle Eastern Politics3-5
SOC 217BChinese Politics and Society3-5


International Security

Units
EASTASN 243Taiwan's Democratic Evolution3-5
EASTASN 289KKorea and the World3
HISTORY 303EInfrastructure & Power in the Global South4-5
HISTORY 349Bodies, Technologies, and Natures in Africa4-5
INTLPOL 210The Politics of International Humanitarian Action3-5
INTLPOL 212The Challenges of Humanitarian Response During Conflict3
INTLPOL 213International Mediation and Civil Wars3-5
INTLPOL 214Refugees in the Twenty-first Century3-5
INTLPOL 217The Future of Global Cooperation3-4
INTLPOL 221Politics of Data: Algorithmic Culture, Big Data, and Information Waste3-4
INTLPOL 231ARussia and the West5
INTLPOL 232Foreign Policy Decision Making in Comparative Perspective3
INTLPOL 233Presidential Decision Making in Wartime3
INTLPOL 234DIs There a Future for the "West" After Trump?5
INTLPOL 236American Grand Strategy3
INTLPOL 240Contemporary Issues in International Security4
INTLPOL 244U.S. Policy toward Northeast Asia4
INTLPOL 246China's Foreign Policies: Objectives, Instruments, and Impacts4
INTLPOL 250International Conflict Resolution2
INTLPOL 254Diplomacy, Conflict, Deterrence and International Security in Cyberspace3
INTLPOL 257Technology & Public Purpose: Practical Solutions for Innovation's Public Dilemmas4-5
INTLPOL 266Managing Nuclear Waste: Technical, Political and Organizational Challenges3
INTLPOL 280Transitional Justice, Human Rights, and International Criminal Tribunals3-5
INTLPOL 285The United States, China, & Global Security2
INTLPOL 350International Law4
INTLPOL 355International Human rights3
INTLPOL 356Human trafficking: Law and Policy3
INTLPOL 357Transitional Justice3
INTLPOL 358Business, Social Responsibility, and Human Rights3
LAW 5036Law and Ethics of War2
LAW 7823International Negotiation: Solving Intractable Conflict3
POLISCI 314RChallenges and Dilemmas in American Foreign Policy5
POLISCI 348Chinese Politics3-5
POLISCI 443SPolitical Economy of Reform in China3-5
SOC 217BChinese Politics and Society3-5
SOC 309Nations and Nationalism4-5

Graduate Advising Expectations

International Policy (MIP) is committed to providing academic advising in support of graduate student scholarly and professional development. When most effective, this advising relationship entails collaborative and sustained engagement by both the adviser and the advisee. As a best practice, advising expectations should be periodically discussed and reviewed to ensure mutual understanding. Both the adviser and the advisee are expected to maintain professionalism and integrity.  Graduate students are active contributors to the advising relationship, proactively seeking academic and professional guidance and taking responsibility for informing themselves of policies and degree requirements for their graduate program.

Each student in the MIP program is assigned a faculty adviser as well as a program adviser and a career adviser. The faculty adviser, who is assigned in September of the student's first quarter of matriculation, is identified based on a student's interests and area of specialization. The expectation is that students meet with their faculty advisers on a quarterly basis, at minimum. In addition to the faculty adviser, the program adviser (i.e., Assistant Director for Academic and Student Services, International Policy) advises all students in the program by providing guidance and support on degree requirements and progress, academic policy interpretation and enforcement, degree program support, personal support, and other matters as needed. The career adviser (i.e., Recruitment, Career Services, and Alumni Affairs Manager, International Policy) provides support on internships, careers, and professional development.

To expand, faculty advisers guide students in key areas such as selecting courses, exploring academic opportunities and professional pathways, and possibly designing and conducting research. MIP students should view the faculty adviser as an entry point to their interests, and they are actively encouraged to meet broadly with other faculty as well. 

Academic progress and student completion of program requirements and milestones are monitored by the program directors and staff.  MIP students (including coterminal, dual, and joint degree students) are required to submit a program proposal to the department during spring quarter of their first year of enrollment in the program. This time frame is different from general University policy. The program proposal, which is a formal milestone, establishes a student's individual program of study to meet University and department degree requirements. Students must amend the proposal formally if their plans for meeting degree requirements change. The form is available on the MIP website. Additional information on the Master’s Program Proposal is available in the “Graduate Degrees” section of this bulletin.

Additionally, the program adheres to the advising guidelines and responsibilities listed by the Office of the Vice Provost for Graduate Education (VPGE) and in the Graduate Academic Policies (GAP).

Director:

Francis Fukuyama (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)

Director of Graduate Studies:

Francis Fukuyama (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)

Associate Director:

Chonira Aturupane (International Policy)

Executive Committee:

Marshall Burke (Earth System Science)
Karen Eggleston (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Colin Kahl (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Stephen Krasner (Political Science)
Steve Luby (Medicine)
Michael McFaul (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies; Political Science)
Doug Owens (Medicine)
Kathryn Stoner (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Mark Thurber (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Jeremy Weinstein (Political Science)
Frank Wolak (Economics)
Amy Zegart (Hoover Institution)

Affiliated Faculty:

Marcella Alsan (Medicine)
Michele Barry (Medicine)
Jayanta Battacharya (Medicine)
Coit D. Blacker (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Lisa Blaydes (Political Science)
Dan Boneh (Computer Science; Electrical Engineering)
Kate Bundorf (Health Research and Policy)
Paul Brest (Law)
David Cohen (Handa Center for Human Rights and International Justice)
Martha Crenshaw (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Larry Diamond (Hoover Institution)
Alberto Díaz-Cayeros (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Pascaline Dupas (Economics)
Donald Emmerson (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Stefano Ermon (Computer Science)
Rodney Ewing (Geological and Environmental Sciences)
Marcel Fafchamps (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
James Fearon (Political Science)
Jeremy Goldhaber-Fiebert (Medicine)
Lawrence Goulder (Economics)
Anna Grzymala-Busse (Political Science)
Garbielle Hecht (History)
Siegfried Hecker (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
David Holloway (History)
Takeo Hoshi (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Erik Jensen (Law)
Saumitra Jha (Graduate School of Business)
Yong Suk Lee (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
David Lobell (Earth System Science)
Robert MacCoun (Law)
Beatriz Magaloni (Political Science)
Jenny Martinez (Law)
Abbas Milani (Iranian Studies)
Grant Miller (School of Medicine)
Norman Naimark (History)
Rosamond Naylor (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Jean Oi (Political Science)
Doug Owens (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Jennifer Pan (Communications)
William J. Perry (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Nathaniel Persily (Law)
Steven Press (History)
Condoleezza Rice (Graduate School of Business)
Scott Rozelle (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Scott Sagan (Political Science)
Kenneth Scheve (Political Science)
Gi-Wook Shin (Sociology)
Stephen J. Stedman (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Andrew Walder (Sociology)
Allen Weiner (Law)
Keith Winstein (Computer Science)
Paul Wise (Pediatrics)

Adjunct Professors:

Michael Armacost (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Thomas Fingar (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Andrew Grotto (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Steve Pifer (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)

Consulting Professors:

Philip Taubman (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)

Lecturers, Academic Staff, Scholars, and Fellows:

Daniel Barreto (Management Science & Engineering)
Allison Berke (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Dikla Carmel-Hurwitz (Graduate School of Business)
Leslie Chin (Graduate School of Business)
Ertharin Cousin (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Christophe Crombez (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Eileen Donahoe (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Paul Edwards (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Toomas Ilves (Hoover Institution)
Medi-Jalalddin Hakimi (Law)
Amr Hamzawy (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Todd Hinnen (Law)
Jerry Kaplan (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Charles Kolstad (Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research)
Herb Lin (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Brett McGurk (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Anja Manuel (International Policy)
Dinsha Mistree (Law)
Eric Morris (International Policy)
Megan Palmer (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Daniel Sneider (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Alex Stamos (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Ognen Stojanovski (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Harold Trinkunas (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies)
Steve Weinstein (Management Science & Engineering)

Visiting Lecturers:

Theresa Bridgeman
Gregory Falco

Courses

INTLPOL 200. The Social & Economic Impact of Artificial Intelligence. 1 Unit.

Recent advances in computing may place us at the threshold of a unique turning point in human history. Soon we are likely to entrust management of our environment, economy, security, infrastructure, food production, healthcare, and to a large degree even our personal activities, to artificially intelligent computer systems. The prospect of "turning over the keys" to increasingly autonomous systems raises many complex and troubling questions. How will society respond as versatile robots and machine-learning systems displace an ever-expanding spectrum of blue- and white-collar workers? Will the benefits of this technological revolution be broadly distributed or accrue to a lucky few? How can we ensure that these systems are free of algorithmic bias and respect human ethical principles? What role will they play in our system of justice and the practice of law? How will they be used or abused in democratic societies and autocratic regimes? Will they alter the geopolitical balance of power, and change the nature of warfare? The goal of CS22a is to equip students with the intellectual tools, ethical foundation, and psychological framework to successfully navigate the coming age of intelligent machines.
Same as: CS 22A

INTLPOL 203. Trade and Development. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 203) This course analyzes the role of international trade in the development experience of countries. Amongst the topics covered are the instruments of trade policy, the developmental impact of trade liberalization/protectionism, and trade policy formulation, with particular attention to the political economy of trade policy. Given the current international trade environment, students will also debate the rise of trade protectionism, as well as discuss policies to enhance the benefits (winners) and address the costs (losers) of trade liberalization. The purpose of the course is to equip students with the tools to analyze international trade issues, propose policies, and assess the feasibility of policy implementation, particularly in the context of trade as a development strategy. Students will also dissect several common myths about international trade, such as the recent populist message that "trade deficits are bad." In addition, the "In the News" segment in class will discuss and analyze current events in areas relevant to the course. Prerequisites: ECON 1.

INTLPOL 204A. Microeconomics for Policy. 4-5 Units.

Microeconomic concepts relevant to decision making. Topics include: competitive market clearing, price discrimination; general equilibrium; risk aversion and sharing, capital market theory, Nash equilibrium; welfare analysis; public choice; externalities and public goods; hidden information and market signaling; moral hazard and incentives; auction theory; game theory; oligopoly; reputation and credibility. Undergraduate Public Policy students may take PUBLPOL 51 as a substitute for the ECON 51 major requirement. Economics majors still need to take ECON 51. Prerequisites: ECON 50 and MATH 51 or equiv.
Same as: PUBLPOL 51, PUBLPOL 301A

INTLPOL 204B. Economic Policy Analysis for Policymakers. 4-5 Units.

This class provides economic and institutional background necessary to conduct policy analysis. We will examine the economic justification for government intervention and illustrate these concepts with applications drawn from different policy contexts. The goal of the course is to provide you with the conceptual foundations and the practical skills and experience you will need to be thoughtful consumers or producers of policy analysis. Prerequisites: ECON 102B or PUBLPOL 303D.
Same as: PUBLPOL 301B

INTLPOL 207. Economics of Corruption. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 207) This course applies economic tools to understanding and analyzing the developmental impact and determinants of corruption, as well as policy initiatives to address corruption. In addition to theories of corruption, students evaluate several case studies, randomized experiments, and empirical evidence, including from Argentina, Botswana, Brazil, China, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Uganda, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The "Corruption in the News" section supplements the class material.

INTLPOL 207B. Public Policy and Social Psychology: Implications and Applications. 4 Units.

Theories, insights, and concerns of social psychology relevant to how people perceive issues, events, and each other, and links between beliefs and individual and collective behavior will be discussed with reference to a range of public policy issues including education, public health, income and wealth inequalities, and climate change, Specific topics include: situationist and subjectivist traditions of applied and theoretical social psychology; social comparison, dissonance, and attribution theories; stereotyping and stereotype threat, and sources of intergroup conflict and misunderstanding; challenges to universality assumptions regarding human motivation, emotion, and perception of self and others; also the general problem of producing individual and collective changes in norms and behavior.
Same as: PSYCH 216, PUBLPOL 305B

INTLPOL 208A. International Justice. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 208A) This course will examine the arc of an atrocity. It begins with an introduction to the interdisciplinary scholarship on the causes and enablers of mass violence genocide, war crimes, terrorism, and state repression. It then considers political and legal responses ranging from humanitarian intervention (within and without the Responsibility to Protect framework), sanctions, commissions of inquiry, and accountability mechanisms, including criminal trials before international and domestic tribunals. The course will also explore the range of transitional justice mechanisms available to policymakers as societies emerge from periods of violence and repression, including truth commissions, illustrations, and amnesties. Coming full circle, the course will evaluate current efforts aimed at atrocity prevention, rather than response, including President Obama¿s atrocities prevention initiative. Readings address the philosophical underpinnings of justice, questions of institutional design, and the way in which different societies have balanced competing policy imperatives. Cross-listed with LAW 5033.
Same as: HUMRTS 102

INTLPOL 210. The Politics of International Humanitarian Action. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 210) The relationship between humanitarianism and politics in international responses to civil conflicts and forced displacement. Focus is on policy dilemmas and choices, and the consequences of action or inaction. Case studies include northern Iraq (Kurdistan), Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo, and Darfur. In addition to class attendance, each student will meet with the instructor for multiple one-on-one sessions during the quarter.

INTLPOL 212. The Challenges of Humanitarian Response During Conflict. 3 Units.

Last year, humanitarians avoided famine in four conflict-affected countries, fed 80 million people, provided clean water to 49 million people, and offered medical assistance to millions. Yet the humanitarian response context has changed in recent years, with 70-80% of budgets now devoted to conflict-related emergencies. This has triggered a series of debates about how humanitarian response is implemented. This course will review challenges posed by the present state of humanitarian response during conflict. Topics will include (i) the origins of humanitarian response, law, and principles, (ii) the role of counter-terrorism activities (iii), the engagement of local and community organizations, (iv) the relationship between military and humanitarian actors; (v) the role of new data technologies and questions regarding data ownership and privacy and systems integration; and (v) the humanitarian funding system. To apply for the course, please submit a short (one paragraph) statement of interest to Nikki Brand, nbrand@stanford.edu by Monday, November 19th. Please include your program, year, and a short paragraph describing your relevant experience and interest in the course. Decisions will be made by Monday, December 3rd.

INTLPOL 213. International Mediation and Civil Wars. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 213) This graduate seminar will examine international mediation efforts to achieve negotiated settlements for civil wars over the last two decades. Contending approaches to explain the success or failure of international mediation efforts will be examined in a number of cases from Africa (Sudan, Sierra Leone, Burundi), the Balkans (Bosnia, Macedonia), and Asia (Cambodia, Indonesia/Aceh). In addition to class attendance, each student will meet with the instructor for multiple one-on-one sessions during the quarter. Satisfies the IPS Policy Writing Requirement.

INTLPOL 214. Refugees in the Twenty-first Century. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 214) The focus of this graduate seminar is policy dilemmas in international responses to massive population movements. In 2015 and 2016 hundreds of thousands of persons from the Middle East (particularly Syria) and Africa fled their home countries and attempted to cross into Europe by sea. In September 2016, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted the "New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants". This political declaration aims to improve the international response to large movements of refugees and migrants, including protracted refugee situations. One of the many challenges confronting this multilateral diplomatic undertaking is that the definition of the word "refugee" is contested, as is the process to determine who is a refugee. This course will provide an immersive examination of the causes and consequences of refugee movements. This course is a seminar that requires full student attendance and participation. A focus of the course is to develop the skills of students in writing policy memos. Students will meet with the instructor for multiple one-on-one sessions on their policy memos.

INTLPOL 215. Special Topics: State-Society Relations in the Contemporary Arab World-Key Concepts and Debates. 5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 215) This course looks at key concepts pertaining to state-society relations in the Arab world as they have evolved in regional intellectual and political debates since the 1990s. Citizenship, minority rights, freedom of expression, freedom of association, the rule of law, government accountability, independence of the judiciary, civil-military relations, and democratic transition will be among the concepts discussed.
Same as: POLISCI 215A

INTLPOL 217. The Future of Global Cooperation. 3-4 Units.

As threats to peace and security emerge, should nation states go it alone or work through global bodies? What are the benefits and risks of global cooperation? This course will examine the role that international organizations play in responding to global threats in the modern era. The first section of the course will focus on the advent of the modern global institutional architecture, the sources of its legitimacy and power (or lack thereof), and the role of regional, subnational, and nongovernmental actors in engaging with global bodies. The second section of the course will consider the efficacy of international institutional responses to global threats through recent case studies, such as the Syrian civil war, the Paris Climate Accord, and 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The course will conclude with students making policy presentations advocating for which, if any, global institutional levers should be deployed to respond to emerging or ongoing threats. The course's main goal is a practical one: for students to grapple with the powers and limits of existing global institutions when considering and advocating for effective responses to peace and security threats.

INTLPOL 219. Intelligence and National Security. 3 Units.

(Formerly IPS 219) How intelligence supports U.S. national security and foreign policies. How it has been used by U.S. presidents to become what it is today; organizational strengths and weaknesses; how it is monitored and held accountable to the goals of a democratic society; and successes and failures. Current intelligence analyses and national intelligence estimates are produced in support of simulated policy deliberations.

INTLPOL 221. Politics of Data: Algorithmic Culture, Big Data, and Information Waste. 3-4 Units.

(Formerly IPS 221) This course examines the role of data and algorithms in politically significant phenomena such as fake news,Twitter bots, prediction markets, racial profiling, autonomous robotic weapons, cryptocurrencies, and hacked elections. Readings are drawn from science & technology studies, information science, anthropology, communication, media studies, legal theory, sociology, and computer science, with additional contributions from psychology and philosophy. Non-technical, but minimal familiarity with computers and data analysis is assumed. Assignments include reading logs, a midterm exam, and a term paper. NOTE: Undergraduate enrollment is limited to seniors.

INTLPOL 224. Economic Development and Challenges of East Asia. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 224) This course explores East Asia's rapid economic development and the current economic challenges. For the purpose of this course, we will focus on China, Japan, and Korea. The first part of the course examines economic growth in East Asia and the main mechanisms. In this context, we will examine government and industrial policy, international trade, firms and business groups, and human capital. We will discuss the validity of an East Asian model for economic growth. The second part of the course focuses on the current economic challenges confronting these countries, such as, political economy, human capital, inequality, and entrepreneurship and innovation. Readings will come from books, journal articles, reports, news articles, and case studies. Many of the readings will have an empirical component and students will be able to develop their understanding of how empirical evidence is presented in articles. Prerequisites: INTPOL 301B, Polisci150A(355A), ECON 102B or equivalent courses that cover regression analysis.
Same as: ECON 124

INTLPOL 227. Finance and Society for non-MBAs. 4 Units.

This interdisciplinary course explores the economic, political, and cultural forces that shape the financial system and, through this system, have major effects on the economy and on society. You will gain an understanding of how the interactions between individuals, corporations, governments, and the media can help the financial system and the economy work better or in turn allow those with better information and control to harm others unnecessarily. Topics include the basic principles of investment and funding, corporations and their governance, financial markets and institutions, and political and ethical issues. We will discuss recent and ongoing news events and analyses immediately relevant to the material. The approach will be rigorous and analytical but not overly mathematical. A few visitors will further enrich the discussion. Prerequisite: ECON 1 or equivalent.
Same as: ECON 143, POLISCI 127A, PUBLPOL 143

INTLPOL 230. Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law. 3-5 Units.

This course explores the different dimensions of development - economic, social, and political - as well as the way that modern institutions (the state, market systems, the rule of law, and democratic accountability) developed and interacted with other factors across different societies around the world. The class will feature additional special guest lectures by Francis Fukuyama, Larry Diamond, Michael McFaul, Anna Grzymala-Busse, and other faculty and researchers affiliated with the Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law. Undergraduate students should enroll in this course for 5 units. Graduate students should enroll for 3.
Same as: INTNLREL 114D, POLISCI 114D, POLISCI 314D

INTLPOL 231A. Russia and the West. 5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 231A) Today, American-Russian relations, and Russia¿s relations with West more generally, are tense and confrontational. One has to look deep into the Cold War to find a similar era of confrontation and competition. Yet, relations between Russia and the West were not always this way. The end of the Cold War, for instance, ushered in a period of cooperation. Back then, many believed that Russia was going to develop democratic and market institutions and integrate into Western international institutions. This seminar will examine various explanations for these variations in Russia¿s relations with the West, starting in the 19th century, and briefly examining the Cold War period, but a real focus on the last thirty years. In evaluating competing explanations. the course will focus on balance of power theories, culture, historical legacies, institutional design, and individual actors in both the United States (and sometimes Europe) and Russia.nn** NOTE: The enrollment of the class is by application only. Please send a one page document to Anya Shkurko (ashkurko@stanford.edu) by March 23rd with the following information: full name, class year, major, contact email, which version of the course you want to enroll in (PoliSci/REES/IPS). In the document please also outline previous associated coursework and/or relevant experience and write why you want to enroll in the seminar. Application results will be announced on March 30th. Any questions related to this course can be directed to Anya Shkurko.
Same as: POLISCI 213A, REES 213A

INTLPOL 231B. Understanding Russia: Its Power and Purpose in a New Global Order. 5 Units.

Russia presents a puzzle for theories of socio-economic development and modernization and their relationship to state power in international politics. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 brought into being the new Russia (or Russian Federation) as its successor in international politics. Russia suffered one of the worst recessions and experienced 25 years of halting reform. Despite these issues, Russia is again a central player in international affairs. Course analyzes motivations behind contemporary Russian foreign policy by reviewing its domestic and economic underpinnings. Examination of concept of state power in international politics to assess Russia's capabilities to influence other states' policies, and under what conditions its leaders use these resources. Is contemporary Russia strong or weak? What are the resources and constraints its projection of power beyond its borders? What are the determinants of state power in international politics in the twenty-first century? Includes lectures, readings, class discussions, films and documentaries.
Same as: POLISCI 213C, REES 231B

INTLPOL 232. Foreign Policy Decision Making in Comparative Perspective. 3 Units.

This seminar will examine how countries and multilateral organizations make decisions about foreign and international policy. The hypothesis to be explored in the course is that individuals, bureaucracies, and interest groups shape foreign policy decisions. That hypothesis will be tested against other more structural explanations of how countries behave in the international system. After a brief review of the academic literature in the first part of the course, the seminar will focus on several cases studies of foreign policy decision-making by the United States, China, Russia, Iran, and North Korea, as well as the United Nations and NATO. This seminar is intended for masters students and fourth-year undergraduates. NOTE: The enrollment of the class is by application only. Please send a one page document to Mahlorei Bruce Apalis, mahlorei@stanford.edu by March 10th with the following information: full name, class year, major, contact email, which version of the course you want to enroll in (e.g., POLISCI or INTLPOL). In the document please also outline previous associated coursework and/or relevant experience and write why you want to enroll in the seminar. Application results will be announced on March 22nd. Any questions related to this course can be directed to Mahlorei Bruce Apalis.
Same as: POLISCI 242, POLISCI 342

INTLPOL 233. Presidential Decision Making in Wartime. 3 Units.

This course will analyze how presidents approach the most consequential matters of war and peace. It will discuss how presidents oversee military operations once initiated. It will consider how presidents can avoid embarking on objectives that are unlikely to succeed at reasonable cost.
Same as: A Practitioner's Handbook

INTLPOL 234D. Is There a Future for the "West" After Trump?. 5 Units.

Since 1945, a strong transatlantic relationship has been the linchpin of US foreign policy and the bedrock of the international order. By considering NATO "obsolete", advocating Brexit and the dismantling of the EU, and embracing an "America First" vision, Trump has ushered in a new, more confrontational era in US relations with Europe, as illustrated by fundamental disagreements on climate change, trade and Iran. Meanwhile, the spread of populism on both sides of the Atlantic only fosters more nationalism, isolationism and protectionism. What would a Transatlantic divorce entail for the US and Europe, in the context of a rising China, a resurgent Russia, and an unstable and terrorist-ridden Middle-East? Can the US lead without allies? Can Europe become a world power with its own defense and strategic culture? Or will it succumb to its deep divisions on security, trade, the Euro, immigration and democratic values? Is Trump just an anomaly that can give way to the restoration of a strong Transatlantic relationship, albeit on new foundations? Or is he the mere symptom of a relationship bound to deteriorate?.

INTLPOL 234G. The Comparative Policy Process. 5 Units.

This course attempts to build students¿ skills in analyzing policymaking from two distinctive perspectives. The Structural Perspective focuses on broad causes of and constraints on policymaking. The first section of the course examines a series of potential "macro-societal" influences, including economic development, political culture and ideas, patterns of interest group regulation and interaction with government, feedback effects from past policy choices, and globalization. The central section of the course focuses on political institutions as venues for policymaking. The final section of the course looks at different types of policy sectors. A second ¿Agency Perspective¿ focuses on the strategic choices that political and societal actors make in trying to achieve their political and policy objectives. We also try to develop the skills required for success at those tasks through memo-writing and group simulations. The course gives particular attention to comparing policymaking processes and outcomes in five countries (the United States, China, Brazil, Germany, and India), plus the European Union.

INTLPOL 236. American Grand Strategy. 3 Units.

This course examines the origin and practice of American grand strategy in foreign affairs. The course will cover the making of American grand strategy and focus on applying these models to evaluate trends in American foreign policy after World War II. The course will also explore alternative approaches to grand strategy from the perspective of China and Russia, ¿great power competitors¿ that the Trump administration has sought to define as a focal point for U.S. foreign policy. Throughout the quarter, we will consider the merits and risks of a ¿grand strategy¿ approach to the world after the end of the Cold War, and whether it is realistic in a hyper-partisan era to agree on bipartisan principles for America¿s proper role in the world. We will aim to develop such a set of principles. Enrollment priority will be given to graduate students.

INTLPOL 238. Social Movements in the Post Spring Arab World. 4 Units.

This course analyzes the role of social movements such as labor movements, student unions, women¿s movements, and human rights groups in shaping political realities in the Arab world after the brief period of democratic uprisings 2011-2013. It develops an in depth understanding of the challenges facing social movements in a social environment shaped by patriarchal values and in a political landscape driven by autocratic governments.

INTLPOL 240. Contemporary Issues in International Security. 4 Units.

This seminar examines a range of the most pressing international security challenges facing states today and explores theoretically informed and pragmatic policies for better addressing these challenges. Topics include but are not limited to nuclear proliferation, terrorism, insurgency, great power competition, and climate change. Students are expected to engage actively in class discussions, present on select course topics and critique class presentations. Enrollment priority will be given to students in the Master's in International Policy.

INTLPOL 241. International Security in a Changing World. 5 Units.

This class examines the most pressing international security problems facing the world today: nuclear crises, non-proliferation, insurgencies and civil wars, terrorism, and climate change. Alternative perspectives - from political science, history, and STS (Science, Technology, and Society) studies - are used to analyze these problems. The class includes an award-winning two-day international negotiation simulation. All undergraduates should enroll in the POLISCI 114S listing of this course. The INTLPOL 241 listing is open to students enrolled via the Stanford Center for Professional Development only. All other Stanford graduate students should enroll in the separate course, INTLPOL240, instead.
Same as: POLISCI 114S

INTLPOL 241S. International Security in a Changing World. 3 Units.

This class examines the most pressing international security problems facing the world today: nuclear crises, non-proliferation, insurgencies and civil wars, terrorism, and climate change. Alternative perspectives - from political science, history, and STS (Science, Technology, and Society) studies - are used to analyze these problems.nn nnThe IPS241S listing is open to students enrolled via the Stanford Center for Professional Development only. It has been adapted to be available to online students. This class does NOT include the two-day international negotiation simulation.

INTLPOL 242. American Foreign Policy: Interests, Values, and Process. 5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 242) This seminar will examine the tension in American foreign policy between pursuing U.S. security and economic interests and promoting American values abroad. The course will retrace the theoretical and ideological debates about values versus interests, with a particular focus on realism versus liberalism. The course will examine the evolution of these debates over time, starting with the French revolution, but with special attention given to the Cold War, American foreign policy after September 11th, and the Obama administration. The course also will examine how these contending theories and ideologies are mediated through the U.S. bureaucracy that shapes the making of foreign policy. ** NOTE: The enrollment of the class is by application only. Please provide a one page double-spaced document outlining previous associated coursework and why you want to enroll in the seminar to Anna Coll (acoll@stanford.edu) by February 22nd. Any questions related to this course can be directed to Anna Coll.
Same as: GLOBAL 220, POLISCI 217A

INTLPOL 243. U.S. Policy Options in North Korea. 3-4 Units.

(Formerly IPS 243) Seventy years after its founding in 1948, North Korea, or more officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), insists on being accepted as a nuclear weapons state, and continues to defy U.S. and international sanctions and pressure. Why the priority to nuclear and missile capabilities by this small, isolated state, and what kind of and how much of a threat is it? Taught by a former American diplomat with forty years of Korea-related experience, including as U.S. Ambassador to South Korea, this seminar course will review the history of U.S.-North Korea relations, examining diplomatic, economic, military, and other policy tools. The aim is to develop a broader context for understanding the North Korean challenge, identify lessons to be learned, and develop approaches going forward.

INTLPOL 244. U.S. Policy toward Northeast Asia. 4 Units.

(Formerly IPS 244) This course offers a case-study approach to an examination of contemporary U.S. policy towards Japan, Korea, and China. It will look at the historical evolution of U.S. foreign policy and the dynamics and drivers of US policy in Northeast Asia. It will examine selected dimensions of US-China relations, US-Japan relations, and relations and policy toward South and North Korea. It will also discuss US relations with Russia and Taiwan. The class will focus on the cases of US security policy in the region, economic and trade policy, and human rights and democracy policy. Each week the class will combine lectures with student presentations in a seminar-style setting. Grades will be based on oral presentations, and on midterm and final take-home exams.

INTLPOL 244D. Asia-Pacific Transformation. 4 Units.

Post-WW II transformation in the Asia-Pacific region, with focus on the ascent of Japan, the development of newly industrialized capitalist countries (S. Korea and Taiwan), the emergence of socialist states (China and N. Korea), and the changing relationship between the U.S. and these countries.
Same as: SOC 167A, SOC 267A

INTLPOL 246. China's Foreign Policies: Objectives, Instruments, and Impacts. 4 Units.

(Formerly IPS 246) China is a global actor and its foreign policies are designed to protect and advance increasingly diverse interests in every country and region. Some interests and policies are common to all regions and have remained relatively stable over time; others are tailored to meet specific objectives and respond to the perceptions, objectives, and demands of particular countries. This course will help you to understand the domestic and international drivers and shapers of China¿s foreign policies and actions and how they have changed as China has become more developed, more prosperous, and more deeply integrated into the international system.

INTLPOL 246C. China and the Global Order. 4 Units.

(Course is available only to students participating in Stanford's SCPKU study abroad program in Beijing, which is operated by the Stanford Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies (FSI).) China's reemergence as a global player is transforming both China and the international system. Other nations view China's rise with a mixture of admiration, anxiety, and opportunism. Some welcome China's rise as a potential counterweight to US preeminence; others fear the potential consequences of Sino-American rivalry and erosion of the US-led international system that has fostered unprecedented peace and prosperity. There is a natural temptation to "hedge" but doing so entails significant risks. This course provides an overview of China's engagement with countries in all regions and on a wide range of issues since it launched the policy of reform and opening in 1978. The goal is to provide a broad overview and systematic comparisons across regions and issues, and to examine how China's global engagement has changed over time.

INTLPOL 247C. Chinese Society in the Reform Era. 3-5 Units.

(Course is available only to students participating in Stanford's SCPKU study abroad program in Beijing, which is operated by the Stanford Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies (FSI).) This course is a broad survey of the transformations that have reshaped China since the end of the 1970s, and the prospects for China¿s continued prosperity. The course places China¿s trajectory in comparative perspective¿especially with the other socialist planned economies and East Asian ¿miracle¿ economies. We will examine the political institutions and fiscal and financial systems that have powered a four decade economic drive, and a series of related topics: urbanization, housing privatization, migratory labor, rising inequality, and the emergence of a large urban ¿middle class¿. We will then consider current and prospective challenges to China¿s continued economic rise: an aging population, shrinking labor force, China¿s response to the world financial crisis of 2008 and its lingering consequences. We will end the course by evaluating a range of different views about the challenges facing China¿s continued rise.
Same as: SOC 247C

INTLPOL 248C. Key Issues in Chinese Politics. 4-5 Units.

(Course is available only to students participating in Stanford's SCPKU study abroad program in Beijing, which is operated by the Stanford Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies (FSI).) A broad overview of China's politics and the role of the state in the economy. It will cover party and government organization, including central-local relations, and the challenges of governance that have emerged as China has moved from a central-planned Leninist system to a market economy. What institutions have allowed China to thrive while other communist states in the world have disappeared? How has the Chinese Communist Party managed to develop markets and yet keep itself in power? What avenues are there for political participation? What is the role of the internet? What are the prospects for political change? How resilient is the party in the face of technological and economic change?.

INTLPOL 249C. The Economic Development of Greater China: Past, Present, and Future.. 4-5 Units.

(Course is available only to students participating in Stanford's SCPKU study abroad program in Beijing, which is operated by the Stanford Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies (FSI).) A survey of economic development in China with emphasis on understanding the process of economic reform, transition and development during the past 20 years. One goal is to help students develop an informed perspective on the different historical stages, economic and political rationale, and effectiveness of the economic policies and institutional changes that have shaped China's economic emergence. A second and more important goal is to study the Chinese development experience in order to think critically about the process of economic and social change. China's experiment with socialism and its efforts to reform into a more market-oriented system make it a particularly compelling case study for understanding how institutions and institutional change affect economic and social development.

INTLPOL 250. International Conflict Resolution. 2 Units.

(Formerly IPS 250) (Same as LAW 5009; formerly Law 656) This seminar examines the challenges of managing and resolving intractable political and violent intergroup and international conflicts. Employing an interdisciplinary approach drawing on social psychology, political science, game theory, and international law, the course identifies various tactical, psychological, and structural barriers that can impede the achievement of efficient solutions to conflicts. We will explore a conceptual framework for conflict management and resolution that draws not only on theoretical insights, but also builds on historical examples and practical experience in the realm of conflict resolution. This approach examines the need for the parties to conflicts to address the following questions in order to have prospects of creating peaceful relationships: (1) how can the parties to conflict develop a vision of a mutually bearable shared future; (2) how can parties develop trust in the enemy; (3) how can each side be persuaded, as part of a negotiated settlement, to accept losses that it will find very painful; and (4) how do we overcome the perceptions of injustice that each side are likely to have towards any compromise solution? We will consider both particular conflicts, such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the South African transition to majority rule, as well as cross-cutting issues, such as the role international legal rules play in facilitating or impeding conflict resolution, the ways intragroup dynamics affect intergroup conflict resolution efforts, and the role of criminal accountability for atrocities following civil wars. Special Instructions: Section 01: Grades will be based on class participation, written assignments, and a final exam. Section 02: Up to five students, with consent of the instructor, will have the option to write an independent research paper for Research (R) credit in lieu of the written assignments and final exam for Section 01. After the term begins, students (max 5) accepted into the course can transfer from section (01) into section (02), which meets the R requirement, with consent of the instructor.
Same as: PSYCH 383

INTLPOL 251. Cybersecurity: A Legal and Technical Perspective. 2 Units.

(Formerly IPS 251) This class will use the case method to teach basic computer, network, and information security from technology, law, policy, and business perspectives. Using real world topics, we will study the technical, legal, policy, and business aspects of an incident or issue and its potential solutions. The case studies will be organized around the following topics: vulnerability disclosure, state sponsored sabotage, corporate and government espionage, credit card theft, theft of embarrassing personal data, phishing and social engineering attacks, denial of service attacks, attacks on weak session management and URLs, security risks and benefits of cloud data storage, wiretapping on the Internet, and digital forensics. Students taking the class will learn about the techniques attackers use, applicable legal prohibitions, rights, and remedies, the policy context, and strategies in law, policy and business for managing risk. Grades will be based on class participation, two reflection papers, and a final exam. Special Instructions: This class is limited to 65 students, with an effort made to have students from Stanford Law School (30 students will be selected by lottery) and students from Computer Science (30 students) and International Policy Studies (5 students). Elements used in grading: Class Participation (20%), Written Assignments (40%), Final Exam (40%). Cross-listed with the Law School (Law 4004) and International Policy Studies (IPS course number TBD).
Same as: CS 203

INTLPOL 252. Cyber Risk: A Multidisciplinary Approach. 2-3 Units.

Our businesses, critical infrastructure and governments are under attack. Cyberattacks can be extremely complex or equally simple and reckless. Because of the unique attributes of cyberattacks, new risk management approaches are required to properly manage the cyber threat. Organizations must incorporate cyber risk management into business continuity planning. Technical security tools are useful, but not enough to protect organizations from cyber threats. Non-technical tools such as cyber insurance and the emerging field of defensive social engineering can complement technical solutions. Cyber metrics are essential to measuring and managing an organization¿s risk exposure and cyber defense budget. Policy and law is still emerging and extremely important for managing cyber risk. We will explore all these topics through this highly interactive course.

INTLPOL 253C. Cyber Conflict. 3-4 Units.

Cyber conflict, as a topic of study, is both young and old. The core technologies used in offensive cyber operations were subject to debate and experimental implementation in the `60s while the policy debates over ransomware and leaks of government authored espionage malware are only a few years old. Drawing from a variety of academic and government sources, this course serves as an introduction to the contemporary policy debates and challenges of cyber conflict. Major issues this class surveys include state-and-non state cyber activity, US Cyber Strategy, the role of the private sector, cyber proliferation, and alliance behavior.

INTLPOL 254. Diplomacy, Conflict, Deterrence and International Security in Cyberspace. 3 Units.

As both technical and policy threats in cyberspace continue to grow exponentially, the need for international engagement and collective action has never been stronger. This seminar explores the emerging field of cyber diplomacy and international efforts to deal with pressing security issues in cyberspace including malicious nation state cyber activity. Among other things, the seminar will examine efforts to create a stability framework for cyberspace (including through application of international law and advancing norms of behavior), options for strengthening deterrence and imposing costs on adversaries, the pros and cons of various tools of national power, building alliances, using diplomatic tools to respond to shared threats, and current developments in international negotiations and US strategy. The students will be asked to consider and help develop potential policy options. The issues considered will be illustrated by examples taken from the instructor¿s experiences at the Department of Justice, the National Security Council and as the top cyber diplomat at the State Department.

INTLPOL 256. Technology and National Security: Past, Present, and Future. 3-4 Units.

Explores the relation between technology, war, and national security policy from early history to modern day, focusing on current U.S. national security challenges and the role that technology plays in shaping our understanding and response to these challenges. Topics include the interplay between technology and modes of warfare; dominant and emerging technologies such as nuclear weapons, cyber, sensors, stealth, and biological; security challenges to the U.S.; and the U.S. response and adaptation to new technologies of military significance.
Same as: MS&E 193, MS&E 293

INTLPOL 257. Technology & Public Purpose: Practical Solutions for Innovation's Public Dilemmas. 4-5 Units.

The arc of innovative progress has reached an inflection point. Technological innovation has brought immeasurable benefits to billions through improved health, productivity, and convenience. Yet as recent events have shown, unless we actively manage their risks to society, ranging from privacy concerns, to rogue AI and gene editing, to massive potential job losses, to keeping up with China and others -- new technologies may also bring unforeseen destructive consequences. We will begin with a brief history of successful and unsuccessful governance of far reaching technological changes in the past. We then turn to key technologies and the dilemmas each create, in particular: digital/social media (privacy, truth, and election interference); AI/big data (algorithmic bias, etc); the coming biotech revolution (gene editing, bio weapons); driverless cars and car-less drivers: the future of work; and the role of China and other competitors. This class is designed for advanced students in international and public policy, or any technical discipline. The goal is to have a thoughtful exchange of ideas and you do not need prior expertise in any of these topics. We will have some fantastic guest speakers, and each class will be divided into understanding the problem, and thinking about some solutions. Enrollment will be limited to 20. You will learn to think and write like a policymaker tackling these novel concerns.

INTLPOL 258. Psychology, Influence, and Propaganda. 4 Units.

Propaganda has been a tool of statecraft since humans first organized themselves into societies. How do tools such as these convince people to change their attitudes, beliefs or behavior? What factors affect the psychological process related to social influence and persuasion? And how does the increasing importance of digital media as an information source affect these processes? This course will address these issues by focusing on the ways in which misleading and/or patently false information spread in today's information ecosystem, often as a result of foreign adversaries' efforts to shape public perception through the use of propaganda as well as coordinated bot networks and Internet trolls.

INTLPOL 259. Research Topics in Cyber Conflict and Information Warfare. 1-3 Unit.

Research seminar on cyber conflict and information warfare. Student and faculty member will agree on one or more topics for research, and student will prepare a topic-relevant paper of approximately 4000 words per unit. A longer paper on one topic or two or three shorter papers on different topics are acceptable. One in-class oral presentation on paper topic is required. May be repeated for credit.

INTLPOL 266. Managing Nuclear Waste: Technical, Political and Organizational Challenges. 3 Units.

(Formerly IPS 266) The essential technical and scientific elements of the nuclear fuel cycle, focusing on the sources, types, and characteristics of the nuclear waste generated, as well as various strategies for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel - including reprocessing, transmutation, and direct geologic disposal. Policy and organizational issues, such as: options for the characteristics and structure of a new federal nuclear waste management organization, options for a consent-based process for locating nuclear facilities, and the regulatory framework for a geologic repository. A technical background in the nuclear fuel cycle, while desirable, is not required.
Same as: GEOLSCI 266

INTLPOL 268. Hack Lab. 3 Units.

(Formerly IPS 268) This course aims to give students a solid understanding of the most common types of attacks used in cybercrime and cyberwarfare. Taught by a long-time cybersecurity practitioner, a recovering cyberlaw litigator, and a group of hearty, motivated TAs, each session will begin with a lecture covering the basics of an area of technology and how that technology has been misused in the past. Students will then complete a lab section, with the guidance of the instructor and assistants, where they attack a known insecure system using techniques and tools seen in the field. Each week, there will be a second lecture on the legal and policy impacts of the technologies and techniques we cover. By the end of the course, students are expected to have a basic understanding of some of the most common offensive techniques in use today as well as a comprehensive overview of the most important aspects of cyberpolicy and law. No computer science background is required. All students must have access to a Windows, Mac OS X or Linux laptop. Students must enroll in the lecture as well as one computer lab via Axess.

INTLPOL 268D. Online Open Source Investigation. 3-4 Units.

This course is a practical introduction to online open source investigation -- internet research using free and publicly available information. The course will cover domain investigations, social media research, strategies for geolocation and chronolocation (placing videos or images at a point in time), image verification, and research on individuals. We will discuss the discovery process, i.e. identifying potentially inauthentic information in the first place. Students will learn best practices related to archiving and note taking. The goal of the course is to prepare students for online open source research in jobs in the public sector, with technology companies, human rights organizations, and other research and advocacy groups.

INTLPOL 269. Cyber Law: International and Domestic Legal Frameworks for Cyber Policy. 2 Units.

(Formerly IPS 269) Was Russia's interference in the 2016 U.S. elections an act of war? When do cyber attacks constitute a use of force? Is sovereignty in cyberspace different than in other domains, and can states meaningfully defend their sovereignty in cyberspace? Is hacking back against cyber thieves the legal equivalent of defending one's own property? How should states respond to cyber espionage and information operations, and what legal options are available? This course explores the domestic and international law of cyberspace and its application to significant practical challenges. It also addresses broader legal policy questions, including the extent to which law acts as a constraint on state and non-state actors in cyberspace, whether the application of existing law to cyber activities is sufficient or new laws and norms are needed, and how they could be developed. Policy and law students are welcome; no previous legal knowledge is required. Please note that the course will run 10 minutes longer per class session than listed due to American Bar Association requirements for the Stanford Law School. (Cross-listed with LAW 4035.).

INTLPOL 271. Climate Politics: Science and Global Governance. 3-4 Units.

(Formerly IPS 271) Provides a unique perspective on contemporary debates about climate change through a study of their long history. After some background about climate science and a look at how people thought about climate in the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries, we explore the co-evolution of climate science and climate politics from World War II to the present. The approach is to examine a series of political issues and debates that established human effects on the global atmosphere as serious problems. We then focus on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the 2015 Paris Agreement, and the future of international climate policy. Assignments include in-class presentations and a policy brief.
Same as: HISTORY 202J

INTLPOL 272. Empirical Methods in Sustainable Development. 3-5 Units.

The determinants of human well-being over the short and long-run, including the role of environmental factors in shaping development outcomes. A focus on the empirical literature across both social and natural sciences, with discussion and assignments emphasizing empirical analysis of environment-development linkages, application of methods in causal inference, and data visualization.
Same as: ESS 268

INTLPOL 274. International Urbanization Seminar: Cross-Cultural Collaboration for Sustainable Urban Development. 4-5 Units.

(formerly IPS 274) Comparative approach to sustainable cities, with focus on international practices and applicability to China. Tradeoffs regarding land use, infrastructure, energy and water, and the need to balance economic vitality, environmental quality, cultural heritage, and social equity. Student teams collaborate with Chinese faculty and students partners to support urban sustainability projects. Limited enrollment via application; see internationalurbanization.org for details. Prerequisites: consent of the instructor(s).
Same as: CEE 126, EARTHSYS 138, URBANST 145

INTLPOL 280. Transitional Justice, Human Rights, and International Criminal Tribunals. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 280) Historical backdrop of the Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals. The creation and operation of the Yugoslav and Rwanda Tribunals (ICTY and ICTR). The development of hybrid tribunals in East Timor, Sierra Leone, and Cambodia, including evaluation of their success in addressing perceived shortcomings of the ICTY and ICTR. Examination of the role of the International Criminal Court and the extent to which it will succeed in supplanting all other ad hoc international justice mechanisms and fulfill its goals. Analysis focuses on the politics of creating such courts, their interaction with the states in which the conflicts took place, the process of establishing prosecutorial priorities, the body of law they have produced, and their effectiveness in addressing the needs of victims in post-conflict societies.
Same as: ETHICSOC 280, HUMRTS 103, INTNLREL 180A

INTLPOL 281. Global Poverty and the Law. 3 Units.

(Formerly IPS 281) With more than a billion people living on less than $2 a day, global poverty is one of the biggest challenges currently facing humanity. Even though those who suffer the most are located in the developing world, many of the policies, economic opportunities, and legal actions that offer the biggest potential for global poverty alleviation are made in the United States. This course will provide an introduction to the study of global poverty. What causes poverty? Why have some parts of the developing world done better at alleviating poverty than other parts? Can the world ever be free of poverty, as the World Bank's official motto suggests? And most importantly, what can aspiring lawyers do to improve the condition of the world's impoverished? These are some of the questions this course is designed to address. This course is designed especially for future lawyers and policymakers who seek a deeper understanding of the developing world. After a brief overview that will familiarize students with the major concepts and empirical debates in poverty and development studies, we will examine a variety of 'causes' of poverty, from poor governance to lack of economic opportunity to the role of society. Since this course is just as much about what can be done, we shall also consider applied approaches to poverty alleviation. These types of interventions include political/legal reforms such as anti-corruption initiatives, 'rule of law' interventions, right to information programs, privatization, and community-driven development models; economic solutions such as cash transfers and microfinance; and technological approaches such as new methods for measuring policy impact and the application of new technologies for state identification and distribution programs. In addition to more typical scholarly readings, students will review poverty alleviation policy proposals and contracts made by various stakeholders (academics, NGOs, states, international bodies, etc.). Grading is based on participation, a presentation of research or a proposal, and, in consultation with the professor, a research paper. The research paper may be a group project (Section 01) graded MP/R/F or an individual in-depth research proposal either of which could be the basis for future field research (Section 02) graded H/P/R/F. Students approved for Section 01 or Section 02 may receive R credit. After the term begins, students accepted into the course can transfer from Section 01 into Section 02 with consent of the instructor. Automatic grading penalty waived for research paper. This course is taught in conjunction with the India Field Study component ( Law 5026). Students may enroll for this course alone or for both this course and Law 5026 with consent of the instructor (12 students will come to India). See Law 5026 for application instructions. CONSENT APPLICATION: To apply for this course, students must complete and submit a Consent Application Form available on the SLS website (Click Courses at the bottom of the homepage and then click Consent of Instructor Forms). See Consent Application Form for instructions and submission deadline. Cross-listed with LAW 5025.

INTLPOL 285. The United States, China, & Global Security. 2 Units.

This graduate-level seminar will be taught simultaneously on the campuses of Stanford University and Peking University and will feature a lecture series in which prominent American and Chinese scholars provide presentations that focus on key global security issues. The course content will highlight topics relevant to current U.S.- China relations and their respective roles in Asian and global security. Proposed lecture topics include: an introduction to U.S.- China relations; finance, trade, and investment; cyber security; nonproliferation; maritime security; terrorism; and energy and the environment. Hosted jointly by Stanford University and Peking University, enrollment will be limited to 20 students at each campus and, at Stanford, will be restricted to graduate students and undergraduates with senior standing. Enrollment is competitive, so potential students must complete an application by March 12, 2018 at 5pm: https://web.stanford.edu/dept/CEAS/EASTASN285.fb.
Same as: EASTASN 285

INTLPOL 290. Practical Approaches to Global Health Research. 1-3 Unit.

(Formerly IPS 290) How do you come up with an idea for a useful research project in a low resource setting? How do you develop a research question, prepare a concept note, and get your project funded? How do you manage personnel in the field, complex cultural situations, and unexpected problems? How do you create a sampling strategy, select a study design, and ensure ethical conduct with human subjects? This course takes students through the process of health research in under-resourced countries from the development of the initial research question and literature review to securing support and detailed planning for field work. Students progressively develop and receive weekly feedback on a concept note to support a funding proposal addressing a research question of their choosing. Aimed at graduate students interested in global health research, though students of all disciplines interested in practical methods for research are welcome. Undergraduates who have completed 85 units or more may enroll with instructor consent. Sign up for 1 unit credit to audit class sessions or 3 units to both participate in classes and develop a concept note.".
Same as: HRP 237, MED 226

INTLPOL 291. Theories of Change in Global Health. 3-4 Units.

Open to graduate students studying in any discipline whose research work or interest engages global health. Upper-class undergraduates who have completed at least one of the prerequisite courses and who are willing to commit the preparatory time for a graduate level seminar class are welcome. The course undertakes a critical assessment of how different academic disciplines frame global health problems and recommend pathways toward improvements. Focuses on evaluating examples of both success and failure of different theories of change in specific global health implementations. Prerequisites: ECON 118, CEE 265D, HUMBIO 129S or HUMBIO 124C.
Same as: SOMGEN 207

INTLPOL 298. Practical Training. 1-3 Unit.

(Formerly IPS 298) Students obtain internship in a relevant research or industrial activity to enhance their professional experience consistent with their degree program and area of concentration. Prior to enrolling, students must get the internship approved by the Master's in International Policy careers and student services teams. At the end of the quarter, a three page final report must be supplied documenting work done and relevance to degree program. Meets the requirements for Curricular Practical Training for students on F-1 visas. Student is responsible for arranging own internship. Limited to International Policy (INTLPOL) students only. May be repeated for credit.

INTLPOL 299. Directed Reading. 1-5 Unit.

(Formerly IPS 299) Directed reading in International Policy. To be considered for enrollment, interested students must first submit the International Policy Directed Reading Proposal, which is available online (https://fsi.stanford.edu/masters-degree/student-resources) and due no later than the second Friday of the academic quarter in which they would like to enroll. Proposal requires signature of the advising instructor. If approved, a directed reading section will be created for the instructor (if s/he does not already have a section). May be repeated for credit.

INTLPOL 300. Policy Seminar for MIP. 1 Unit.

(Formerly IPS 300) Seminars and speaker series offered by programs and centers at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies. Quarterly, students must attend a minimum of eight sessions that are relevant to their area of specialization. Details on speaker series and colloquia available on course Canvas site. Required for, and limited to, second-year students in International Policy (i.e., Class of 2020). May be repeated for credit.

INTLPOL 300A. International Policy Speaker Series. 1 Unit.

Presentations on international policy topics by Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies faculty and guests. Includes discussion with students. Required for first-year M.A. students in International Policy. Optional for second-year M.A. students in International Policy (to be taken in place of INTLPOL 300). Enrollment is limited to MIP students.

INTLPOL 300S. Leading Effective Teams. 2 Units.

In this interactive course students will develop practical skills for leading effective teams, and will apply their learning in group projects (1st year) and in their capstone (2nd year). Topics include understanding of group development stages and different work styles, setting and tracking group norms, developing mutual accountability mechanisms to ensure productivity, creating efficient decision making processes, resolving conflict, and leveraging cultural diversity. Enrollment limited to first-year Master's in International Policy (MIP) students.

INTLPOL 301A. Research Methods and Policy Applications I. 5 Units.

The first quarter will cover the fundamentals of probability theory and statistics that students need in order to read, critically evaluate, and undertake policy-relevant quantitative research. Topics covered include random variables, probability distributions and their moments, inference, estimation, hypothesis testing, statistical power, and ordinary least squares regression. We will devote substantial time to "learning by doing" using statistics software. Students will use the R programming language to learn the basics of programming, generate data, manipulate real-world datasets, and demonstrate/visualize theoretical concepts in statistics and mathematics. We will present examples of real-world research and students will evaluate and demonstrate the extent to which it matches up with concepts covered in lecture.

INTLPOL 301B. Research Methods and Policy Applications II. 5 Units.

We will build on the basic knowledge of statistical methods from the previous quarter to further develop fundamentals for the design, implementation and interpretation of policy-relevant research. We will compare common observational and experimental research methodologies, with significant attention devoted to explaining the details of research design and associated assumptions. Topics include causal inference, the average treatment effect, sample size selection, partial compliance, selection bias and methods for accounting for it. Development of critical reading skills is emphasized through regular discussions of academic journal articles and popular media accounts of research. Practical aspects of undertaking research will also be covered, including efficient and cost-effective data collection, field team supervision, budget management, and ethical considerations. Once again, we will make extensive use of R software.

INTLPOL 302. The Global Economy. 5 Units.

This course examines the economic inter-connectedness of nations. Among the topics covered are the causes and consequences of current account imbalances, exchange rate determination, monetary unification, financial and currency crises, and contagion. In addition, the course includes an assessment of key global financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, and the global effort to reform the international financial architecture. The goal of the course is to equip students with the tools to analyze international macroeconomic issues, events, and policies. Students will analyze economic data of countries with a view to assessing the economic health and vulnerabilities of countries. They will propose policies to address the identified economic vulnerabilities, and will assess the feasibility of policy implementation. In addition, the "In the News" segment in class will discuss and analyze current events in areas relevant to the course. (This course was formerly IPS 202.) Enrollment limited to Master's in International Policy (MIP) students.

INTLPOL 305. International Relations Theory and Practice in the 21st Century. 5 Units.

A review of major theoretical approaches to international relations including realism, liberalism, constructivism, and domestic politics and an examination of major episodes including the first world war, second world war, Cold War, US and Soviet interventions, and terrorism.

INTLPOL 306. Decision Making in U.S. Foreign Policy. 5 Units.

This course provides students with a theoretical and practical overview of the key elements of U.S. foreign policy, with a particular focus on the challenges, dilemmas, and constraints faced by contemporary U.S. decision makers in the executive branch. It is divided into three sections. The first discusses U.S. strategy from the founding of the republic to the present day. The second describes the major elements of national power used to advance U.S. interests and objectives: force, economic instruments, intelligence, and diplomacy. The third focuses on the key processes and constraints affecting national security policy, including bureaucratic politics and the interagency process, civil-military relations, constraints imposed by the U.S. Congress, and the role of outside influences (public opinion, interest groups, think tanks, and the media). Enrollment is limited to students in International Policy (MIP).

INTLPOL 307. Policy Problem-Solving in the Real World. 4 Units.

(Formerly IPS 216) This course introduces students to the MIP Policy Problem-Solving Framework that will be used in their second-year capstone. It will present both conceptual frameworks and concrete cases that help students define public problems, analyze potential solutions, and design implementation strategies for bringing about change in real-world situations. Required MIP core curriculum; enrollment from non-MIP students will be extremely limited and require consent from the instructor.

INTLPOL 308. Comparative Public Policy. 4 Units.

This course provides analytic tools and case studies to understand the policy making process in developing countries. Public policies in realms such as the regulation of financial markets, infrastructure investment, poverty relief programs, and public health systems are analyzed through the lens of a comparative institutionalist perspective, grounded in case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Required MIP core curriculum. Enrollment is limited to Master's in International Policy (MIP) students.

INTLPOL 310. Policy Change Studio. 4 Units.

Collaboration with real-world partners to define solutions to pressing policy problems. Students work in teams and are guided by the teaching team, along with project-specific advice from a faculty mentor and an external advisor. Students may also travel in order to collect data and meet with stakeholders. The capstone course takes place winter and spring quarters of the second year and revolves around a cutting-edge policy-making framework. Drawing from methods learned in the core courses, each group will work through the framework in parallel, analyzing their problem, developing a solution, and navigating a successful implementation. (Enrollment limited to second-year International Policy students.).

INTLPOL 310A. Capstone Field Research. 1 Unit.

Students travel with their policy change studio teams to collaborate with partner organizations, gather data, perform assessments, and analyze in-country aspects of their capstone project. (Limited to International Policy students enrolled concurrently in INTLPOL 310: Policy Change Studio.).

INTLPOL 320. Comparative Technology Security Policy. 1-2 Unit.

Exploring the technological and policy similarities and differences among cybersecurity, biosecurity, nuclear security, and chemical security, this seminar will enable students to understand the history of security and preparedness measures for newly-developed technologies, and analyze how policy proposals conceptualize technologies either de novo by analogy with other security domains. As the focus of defense organizations shifts from nuclear security to cybersecurity and biosecurity, what lessons from other domains can be applied and in what ways must these new domains be governed differently from other types of dual-use technology? How do concepts of deterrence, surveillance, dual-use research and development, attribution, and proportional response differ among cyber, bio, nuclear, and chemical security domains? Are proposals for a ¿cyber FDA¿, ¿letters of marque in cyberspace¿, or ¿export controls on genomes¿ realistic or useful analogies? Policies and acts nstudied include CISA/CISPA, the DoD Cyber Strategy, the Biological Weapons Act, TSCA, the Nunn-Lugar Act, the Chemical Weapons Convention, Chemical Weapons Accord, Geneva Protocol, and the Atomic Energy Act. Students will write policy memos and produce a technical analysis of a current policy recommendation with reference to other comparative security domains.

INTLPOL 321. Fundamentals of Cyber Policy and Security. 4-5 Units.

This course will provide an introduction to fundamental issues in cyber policy and security. It will focus on the way that cyber issues impact people and organizations across sectors - from government and law to business, tech, and others - and how people and organizations can and should approach the myriad cyber challenges. This is not a technical or computer science course and no technical background nor prerequisites are necessary. In the first part of the course, we will introduce cyber policy and security fundamentals. The second part of the course will explore cyber policy and security aspects related to economics, psychology, law, warfare, international relations, critical infrastructure, privacy, and innovation. The third part of the course will be focused mostly on a number of case studies designed to simulate the challenges faced by policy-makers and executive-level decision makers. This course is heavily discussion-based and so attendance is required. Assignments will consist of three short papers and a take-home final exam. All graduate students are welcome to enroll, especially those in the international policy, law, and business programs. Undergraduate enrollment only by permission of instructor.

INTLPOL 323. Free Speech, Democracy and the Internet. 2-3 Units.

(LAW 7082) This course will cover contemporary challenges to democracy presented by the Internet. Topics will include disinformation, polarization, hate speech, media transformation, election integrity, and legal regulation of internet platforms in the U.S. and abroad. Guest speakers from academia and industry will present on these topics in each class session, followed by a discussion. Students will be responsible for one-page papers each week on the readings and a research paper to be turned in at the fall paper deadline. Students can take the seminar for either 2 or 3 units, depending on the research paper length. This class is limited to 30 students, with an effort made to have students from SLS (20 students will be selected by lottery) and 10 non-law students by consent of instructor. Elements used in grading: Attendance, Class Participation, Written Assignments, Final Paper. Cross-listed with COMM 153B/ 253B.

INTLPOL 350. International Law. 4 Units.

(LAW 5013) This course provides a general introduction to international law and its role in today's complex and interdependent world. We will begin by considering fundamental questions about the nature of international law, such as: the origins of international law in the sovereign equality of states; the sources of international law (including treaties and customary international law); the subjects of international law; principles of state responsibility; the bases upon which states may exercise jurisdiction; and the global governance challenges arising from the absence of assured mechanisms for the interpretation or enforcement of international law. We will then examine the operation of international law in the U.S. legal system. In the second half of the course, we will look at a series of contemporary international law topics and issues, including international human rights law, the law governing coercion and the use of armed force, the law of armed conflict, international environmental law, and international criminal law. Throughout, we will consider current issues and problems arising in the international arena and the extent to which international law affects the behavior of states. This course provides a general grounding in public international law and a foundation for more advanced or specialized international law courses. Elements used in grading: Class participation, optional paper, and final exam. (Formally Law 479).

INTLPOL 351. Law of Democracy. 3 Units.

(LAW 7036) This course is intended to give students a basic understanding of the themes in the legal regulation of elections and politics. We will cover all the major Supreme Court cases on topics of voting rights, reapportionment/redistricting, ballot access, regulation of political parties, campaign finance, and the 2000 presidential election controversy. The course pays particular attention to competing political philosophies and empirical assumptions that underlie the Court's reasoning while still focusing on the cases as litigation tools used to serve political ends. Elements used in grading: Class participation and final exam. Cross-listed with COMM 361 POLISCI 327C. (Formerly Law 577).

INTLPOL 352. State Building and the Rule of Law Seminar. 3 Units.

(LAW 5103) This Seminar is centrally concerned with bridging theory and practice. The seminar introduces the key theories relevant to state-building generally, and strengthening the rule of law in particular. This course explores the multidisciplinary nature of development --- through readings, lectures, guest lectures, case studies, and seminar discussions --- and asks how lawyers fit in and contribute to the process? The set of developing countries considered within the scope of this workshop is broad. It includes, among others, states engaged in post-conflict reconstruction, e.g., Cambodia, Timor Leste, Rwanda, Iraq, Sierra Leone; states still in conflict, e.g., Afghanistan, Somalia; the poorest states of the world that may not fall neatly into the categories of conflict or post-conflict, e.g., Nepal, Haiti; least developed states that are not marked by high levels of violent conflict at all, e.g., Bhutan; and more developed states at critical stages of transition, e.g., Tunisia, Georgia, Hungary. Grading is based on participation, a presentation of research or a proposal, and, in consultation with the professor, a research paper. The research paper may be a group project or an individual in-depth research proposal, either of which could be the basis for future field research. CONSENT APPLICATION: The seminar is open by consent to up to sixteen (16) JD, SPILS, and LLM students, and graduate students from other departments within Stanford University. This course is taught in conjunction with the India Field Study component (Law 5026). Students may enroll for this course alone or for both this course and Law 5026 with consent of the instructor (12 students will come to India). To apply for this course, students must complete and submit a Consent Application Form available on the SLS website (Click Courses at the bottom of the homepage and then click Consent of Instructor Forms). See Consent Application Form for instructions and submission deadline. (Formerly Law 259).

INTLPOL 355. International Human rights. 3 Units.

(LAW 5010) An introduction to the theory and practice of human rights. We will examine major sources of international human rights law---including treaties, customary international law, and national law---as well as the institutions in which human rights are contested, adjudicated, and enforced. Key sites of human rights activity include multilateral organizations, like the United Nations Security Council and Human Rights Council; international, regional, and national courts and tribunals; and quasi-judicial treaty bodies, like the U.N. Committee Against Torture. This degree of jurisdictional redundancy offers an opportunity to explore questions of institutional design and interaction as well as processes of normative diffusion. The course will also consider the role of non-state actors---including non-governmental organizations, corporations, terrorist organizations, and ordinary individuals---in promoting and violating human rights. In addition to this survey of the human rights ecosystem, the course will engage some of the fundamental theoretical debates underlying the international human rights project with a focus on perennial questions of legitimacy, justiciability, compliance, and efficacy. Finally, we will explore a range of threats and challenges to the promotion of human rights---both perennial and novel---including economic under-development, terrorism, national security over-reach, patriarchy, and racism. We will read case law originating from all over the world, including the United States. Special Instructions: Students have the option to write a long research paper in lieu of the final exam with consent of instructor. Elements used in grading: Class participation; exam or final long research paper. (Formerly Law 330).

INTLPOL 356. Human trafficking: Law and Policy. 3 Units.

(LAW 5034) Taking an historical and comparative perspective, this course will introduce students to the international, domestic, foreign, and sub-national law governing the many manifestations of human trafficking (including legal prohibitions on forced labor and modern forms of slavery, sexual exploitation, organ trafficking, and child soldiering). We will also explore the diplomatic and policy tools employed by state and local governments to tackle this phenomenon. Class sessions will be comprised of a combination of lectures, seminar discussions, and guest speakers. Students have the option of completing a research paper or a take-home final exam. The first eight weeks of the course will coincide with the first eight weeks of winter quarter and will be conducted at Stanford Law School. Enrollment in the Thailand field study option is limited to 12 students (See Law 5035 for application instructions and deadline). Elements used in grading: Attendance, Class Participation, Written Assignments; Final Exam, or Final Research Paper.

INTLPOL 357. Transitional Justice. 3 Units.

The political, social, and legal problems confronting societies after periods of mass human rights violations or war have attracted increasing attention from policymakers and scholars in the last three decades. This course will examine the legacies of atrocities and the institutions and processes that governments and citizens most often use to address them, comparing approaches from across the globe. South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission; the prosecution of Chile's former dictator, Augusto Pinochet; Argentina's reparations to victims of its military regime; and the International Criminal Court are among the best-known policy responses to those problems. In addition, non-legal interventions---such as the Berlin Holocaust Memorial and Nelson Mandela's many symbolic gestures toward reconciliation with white South Africans---may have important social and political effects. In addition to initiatives at the national and international levels, we will devote some attention to transitional justice at the local level. A recurring theme throughout the course will be the connections between atrocities and transitional justice measures intended to address them, on the one hand, and economic justice and development, on the other. Special Instructions: Students have the option to write a long research paper in lieu of the final exam with consent of instructor. Elements used in grading: Class Participation, Written Assignments; Final Exam or Final Paper.

INTLPOL 358. Business, Social Responsibility, and Human Rights. 3 Units.

Large corporations now routinely spend millions of dollars to protect human rights and the environment. Shell Nigeria builds hospitals and schools in the Niger Delta. Nike employs hundreds of inspectors to improve conditions for the factory workers who produce its shoes across Asia and Latin America. Technology companies such as Facebook have scrambled to fend off the threat of new regulation since the Cambridge Analytica revelations. Other examples abound, across industries and around the globe. "Don't be evil" (Google's former motto) may be one motivation for these companies, but something more mundane is also at work: many companies believe they will do well, financially, if they do good, ethically. This course examines questions that lawyers in large law firms, corporations, NGOs, and government agencies regularly confront: --What does it mean for a company to "do good"? Should it care? --When does it serve a company's interest to take costly action to address human rights, labor, and environmental concerns? --What tactics have activists used to shift public opinion, media frames, and the law, and thereby change companies' incentives? We will learn through seminar-style discussion, lectures, role play, and small group exercises. Several guest speakers with experience in business, advocacy, or in between will provide insights from their experiences on the ground. Special Instructions: Students have the option to write a long research paper in lieu of the final exam with consent of instructor. Elements used in grading: Class Participation, Written Assignments; Final Exam or Final Paper. Cross-listed with the Law School (LAW 1047).

INTLPOL 801. TGR Project. 0 Units.

(Formerly IPS 801).

INTLPOL 802. TGR Dissertation. 0 Units.

(Formerly IPS 802).