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Courses offered by the Program in Human Biology are listed under the subject code HUMBIO on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

The program offers a Bachelor of Arts  and a Bachelor of Science in Human Biology, as well as a minor and an honors program.

Mission of the Undergraduate Program in Human Biology

The mission of the undergraduate program in Human Biology is to provide students with an interdisciplinary approach to understanding human beings from biological, behavioral, social, and cultural perspectives. Courses in the major allow students to see connections and parallels with other fields as they learn to formulate and evaluate health, environmental, and other public policy issues that influence human welfare. The program prepares majors to pursue advanced training in professional or graduate programs.

To achieve these goals, all students complete a 30-unit core sequence, normally in the sophomore year, which provides the foundation for the major. Also during the sophomore year, students consult with student advisers to choose a faculty adviser and complete the declaration process. Together they plan a road map of course work designed to help each student focus on an Area of Concentration within Human Biology. Early planning and subsequent refining of an individualized course of study, in consultation with student and faculty advisers, are strengths and requirements of the program. The curriculum draws on faculty from across the University. To complete a B.A. or B.S. in Human Biology, students must take courses from within the program and from other University departments. Many Human Biology majors go on to advanced training in professional schools or graduate programs in the behavioral, natural, and social sciences, including coterminal master's degree programs in other University departments. Additional information about the major may be obtained from the program's offices or at the Program in Human Biology web site.

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduate)

The program expects its undergraduate majors to  be able to demonstrate the following learning outcomes.


Because Human Biology is an interdisciplinary program with an emphasis on both empirical inquiry and applied knowledge, excellent communication skills are critical to majors. Successful students must be able to engage with literature and audiences not only from multiple disciplines but also with varying levels of subject expertise and to communicate information and ideas clearly, precisely, concisely, and purposefully in any setting. Toward this end, a graduate of Human Biology is expected to be able to:

  1. adopt an appropriate style for written communication in the biological and social sciences 
  2. accurately summarize a scientific article 
  3. synthesize and criticize multiple sources of scientific literature 
  4. revise effectively in response to feedback 
  5. write collaboratively 
  6. present information visually in a variety of forms (charts, graphs, figures, and posters) for different audiences, purposes, and occasions 
  7. communicate in a variety of major scientific genres (such as  abstracts, literature reviews, posters, research proposals, research presentations, and policy proposals) and popular genres (such as op-eds, PSA, podcasts,  and science blogs) 
  8. use citations to provide context and to credit others for their intellectual contributions 
  9. communicate scientific knowledge to both specialist and non-specialist audiences 
  10. construct a well-supported, logical argument based on relevant evidence and established conceptual frameworks 
  11. frame a research question in relation to the current state of knowledge in a field 
  12. articulate a well-reasoned hypothesis 
  13. listen to any speaker and pose questions 
  14. deliver an oral presentation and respond to audience questions 

Data Analysis

Data is used in the social and biological sciences to make observations and judgments regarding patterns of human behavior and function. These data are sometimes imperfect or incomplete, but they are used nevertheless to make decisions and policies regarding humans individually and in groups within the worlds they inhabit. Thus, students should cultivate a capacity within the Human Biology major to examine and analyze data. A graduate of Human Biology is expected to be able to:

  1. recognize that different scientific disciplines draw on various sources and types of evidence 
  2. translate a research topic into a hypothesis or focused question that can be tested using quantitative or qualitative data 
  3. identify variables that are relevant to a study and describe their nature (e.g., categorical, continuous) and interrelationships (independent, dependent, covariates) 
  4. use statistical software to summarize and describe data of various types 
  5. choose an appropriate analytical framework or statistical model for testing a given hypothesis, considering the structure of the data (e.g., sample size, distribution, qualitative or quantitative nature)
  6. employ quantitative or qualitative data to support a conclusion 
  7. understand and interpret the results of hypothesis tests 
  8. detect mistakes commonly made in empirical reasoning and data analysis 
  9. assess the limits of available data and identify potential sources of uncertainty 
  10. present data accurately, clearly, and effectively in the forms of tables, graphs, and figures
  11. explore specialized modes of data analysis such as meta-analysis, bioinformatics, modeling, and epidemiological approaches 

Scientific Literacy

The Program in Human Biology prepares students to join a broad scientific community with a culture of building and sharing knowledge. A goal of the major is to cultivate judicious consumers of research in the natural and social sciences, irrespective of their individual career paths. A graduate of Human Biology is expected to be able to:

  1. appreciate the distinct roles of common genres of scientific writing, including peer-reviewed research papers, review articles, commentaries, and popular science writing 
  2. acknowledge and apply the normative and ethical standards of conducting and publishing research, including accuracy, transparency, and responsibility to colleagues and subjects 
  3. consider the credibility and importance of a published article and its relevance within a field 
  4. engage with peer-reviewed scientific literature actively and critically 
  5. identify research questions and understand their theoretical or practical importance 
  6. assess research methodologies including experimental or other study design 
  7. evaluate evidence and statistical analyses presented in support of claims 
  8. interpret data presented in a table, graph, or figure 
  9. use a hypothesis or conceptual framework to make predictions or pose questions about a novel setting 

Student Advisers

Human Biology has an advising program comprising faculty and student advisers. Before declaring Human Biology as the undergraduate major, each student must meet with student advisers who assist in developing a coherent study plan based on an individualized Area of Concentration, and the selection of breadth, depth, and upper-division courses. The student advisers also assist students in selecting an appropriate faculty adviser and a suitable capstone experience for their Area of Concentration and career goals. Student advisers offer drop-in services during scheduled office hours every weekday. 

Storey House

Storey House, 544 Lasuen Mall, is an undergraduate resident theme house for Human Biology, devoted to developing an intellectual community among Human Biology majors at Stanford and allowing faculty and students to become acquainted and to share their Human Biology interests and research. Its goals are to foster intellectual discussion in the residential lives of the students living in Storey House, mentoring relationships between upperclassmen and core students in the house, and stimulating events for all Human Biology majors facilitated by academic theme associates. Assignment is made through pre-assignment and the regular undergraduate housing draw.

COVID-19-Related Degree Requirement Changes

For information on how Human Biology degree requirements have been affected by the pandemic, see the "COVID-19 Policies tab" in this section of this bulletin. For University-wide policy changes related to the pandemic, see the "COVID-19 and Academic Continuity" section of this bulletin.

Declaring the Major 

The program offers a Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science in Human Biology. A prospective major must consult with the student and faculty advisers to obtain detailed information about the program and guidance in the development of an individual course of study.

At the time the major is declared, the student must submit a written statement (3-5 pages) of academic and long-term goals and the proposed list of courses satisfying the requirements for the major. The proposal is then reviewed by the student advisers who help identify an appropriate faculty adviser.

It is important to declare in the sophomore year, and planning may begin once a student in good academic standing has passed two of six courses in the core. The University requires students to declare a major by the end of Spring Quarter of the sophomore year. 

Students who plan to pursue graduate work should be aware of the admission requirements of the schools to which they intend to apply. Early planning is advisable to guarantee completion of major and graduate school requirements.

Fundamental Program Requirements (34+ units)

Both degree programs, B.A. and B.S., require that the student complete all three of the Human Biology Fundamental Program requirements which include the Human Biology core, statistics course and capstone experience. 

Human Biology Core (30 units)

The required core sequence introduces the biological and social sciences and, most importantly, relationships between the two. Classes meet throughout the academic year. The A and B series are designed to be taken concurrently. Students should initiate the core in Autumn Quarter of the sophomore year. Freshmen are not permitted to enroll. Majors must earn a minimum letter grade of 'C-' in every core course. The Human Biology core consists of the following courses:

HUMBIO 2AGenetics, Evolution, and Ecology5
HUMBIO 2BCulture, Evolution, and Society5
HUMBIO 3ACell and Developmental Biology5
HUMBIO 3BEnvironmental and Health Policy Analysis5
HUMBIO 4AThe Human Organism5
HUMBIO 4BBehavior, Health, and Development5
Total Units30

Statistics (3-5 units)

The statistics course must be taken for a letter grade by majors. The minimum grade requirement is 'C-'. Statistics may be chosen from courses such as:

BIO 141Biostatistics5
CME 106Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers4
CS 109Introduction to Probability for Computer Scientists3-5
ECON 102AIntroduction to Statistical Methods (Postcalculus) for Social Scientists5
EDUC 400AIntroduction to Statistical Methods in Education3-4
HRP 259Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Epidemiology3
HRP 262Intermediate Biostatistics: Regression, Prediction, Survival Analysis3
HUMBIO 88Introduction to Statistics for the Health Sciences4
HUMBIO 89Introduction to Health Sciences Statistics3
SOC 180BIntroduction to Data Analysis4
SOC 181BSociological Methods: Statistics5
STATS 116Theory of Probability4

Students who have previously taken HUMBIO 85 Essential Statistics for Human Biology, may use it to fulfill the statistics requirement. In certain circumstances, students completing an additional major or minor in another department may submit a petition to waive the units requirement for Statistics; contact Human Biology student services for more information. Students who did not declare before September 21, 2015, may not use STATS 60 to fulfill the statistics requirement.

Capstone (1-7 units)

The following options fulfill the Capstone requirement:

  1. Human Biology Practicum: HUMBIO 191 Human Biology Practicum (1 unit total, letter grade). Allows students to integrate their academics with their community-engaged learning, research or pre-professional experiences through reflective written work and presentation. Students can take workshops over several quarters, and enroll in one unit of 191 for the quarter they plan to complete the practicum.  Required for students who wish to enroll in the Human Biology Synthesis (HUMBIO 192). 
  2. Human Biology Synthesis (by application): This sequence should be taken for 2-3 units in Autumn (HUMBIO 192A Human Biology Synthesis), Winter (HUMBIO 192W Human Biology Synthesis) and/or Spring (HUMBIO 192S Human Biology Synthesis) for 6 units total, letter grade (corequisite HUMBIO 191 Human Biology Practicum). The sequence expands upon the work of the Human Biology Practicum, although the student may also focus on a different aspect of the area of concentration topic. It allows students the opportunity to craft a culminating, creative work of scholarship based on a synthesis of personal and academic interests, including service projects. The work must be exhibited during senior year.
  3. Honors in Human Biology (by application): HUMBIO 194 Honors also satisfies the Capstone requirement.
  4. Non-Human Biology activities that fulfill the Capstone requirement:
    1. Biology Senior Reflection
    2. Notation in Science Communication
    3. Interdisciplinary Honors

Bachelor of Arts in Human Biology

The B.A. in Human Biology (HUMBIO) requires 81+ units in the major divided among four levels of courses: fundamental program requirements, breadth requirement, depth requirement and upper-division.

The B.A. degree is designed for students who prefer a traditional liberal arts degree with a curriculum based across the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. The degree is suitable regardless of whether a student plans to attend graduate or professional school. The B.A. degree gives students a solid foundation in biology, while allowing students more flexibility and breadth in the social sciences and humanities. 

For the B.A. degree, majors  take 10 or more units of breadth courses and 5 or more classes in the upper-division and depth courses from a set of pre-approved Social Sciences and Humanities courses. For the 5 or more B.A. eligible courses in your Depth and Upper Division, 3 of those courses must be in the Depth section. Many pre-approved courses satisfy University Ways of Thinking and Doing requirements, specifically Aesthetic and Interpretive Inquiry, Creative Expression, Engaging Diversity, Ethical Reasoning, and Social Inquiry. Students still also take courses in the natural sciences, although fewer than for the B.S. degree. 

Bachelor of Science in Human Biology 

The B.S. in Human Biology (HUMBIO) requires 81+ units in the major divided among four levels of courses: fundamental program requirements, breadth requirement, depth requirement and upper-division.

The B.S. degree allows students a more scientific and technical focus for their studies, and requires completion of course work and specialization in the biological sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, and/or computer science and engineering.  

For the B.S. degree, majors take 10 or more units of breadth courses and 5 or more classes in the upper-division and depth courses from a set of pre-approved life and natural sciences courses. For the five or more B.S. eligible courses in the depth and upper division, three of those courses must be in the depth section. Many pre-approved courses satisfy University Ways requirements, specifically applied quantitative reasoning, formal reasoning, and scientific methods and analysis courses. Students still also take courses in the social sciences or humanities, although fewer than for the B.A. degree.

Breadth and Depth Requirement 

These courses inform the student’s chosen area of concentration topic. The student selects courses for these two requirement categories in consultation with the advising staff, who approve the final course selections. A Human Biology area of concentration topic generally falls within one (or a combination of 2) of the following areas of emphasis:

  • Environment and Environmental Policy 
  • Health and Health Policy
  • Human Performance
  • Human Development
  • Biomedical Science and Biocomputation
  • Brain and Behavior
  • Ethics and Medical Humanities
  • Evolution

Breadth Requirement (20+ units) 

20-unit minimum, consistent with the student’s chosen area of concentration topic. This requirement allows the student to explore the topic with a broad focus. Courses may include introductory-level courses from across the University and lab courses, and may be taken for credit or letter grade. The minimum grade requirement is 'C-.'

Depth Requirement (20+ units) 

A minimum of five courses totaling at least 20 units consistent with the student’s chosen area of concentration topic. This requirement allows the student to gain expertise on on their chosen area. Courses are non-introductory and are usually numbered over 100. Three or more departments must be represented in the depth requirement. Each course must be taken for a letter grade and at least three units. The minimum grade requirement is 'C-'. Three or more courses in the Depth must be in your chosen degree option of B.S. or B.A..

Upper-Division Requirement (9+ units)

Students must take three Human Biology upper-division courses numbered 100 to 189. These courses should be used to explore subjects outside the depth requirement. One upper-division course may be taken satisfactory/no credit. Each course must be taken for a minimum of 3 units. Minimum grade requirement for upper-division courses is 'C-'. All non-laboratory advanced HUMBIO courses (those numbered 100 to 189) fulfill the Human Biology upper-division requirement. A list of Overseas Studies courses that satisfy upper-division requirements can be found on the Overseas tab of this section of this bulletin.

Honors Program

The honors program in Human Biology provides qualified majors the opportunity to work closely with faculty on an individual research project, culminating in an honors thesis. Students may begin honors research from a number of starting points including topics introduced in the core or upper-division courses; independent interests stemming from an internship experience; or collaborating with faculty from the natural, social, or behavioral sciences.

Students may apply to the honors program if they have completed the Human Biology core with a minimum GPA of 3.0, have an overall Stanford GPA of 3.2, and meet other requirements detailed in the honors handbook. Interested students should consult the Human Biology Honors web site and meet with the Human Biology Associate Director or student services officer.

Most honors projects involve a total of 10-15 units of course work in HUMBIO 193 and 194:

HUMBIO 193Research in Human Biology1-5
HUMBIO 194Honors1-10

Admission to the honors program is by preliminary application in early February, followed by the full application in early March of the junior year. Students planning to undertake honors begin research or preparation as early as completion of the sophomore year.

The honors thesis is normally completed by the middle of Spring Quarter of the senior year. Honors students present summaries of their research at the Human Biology Senior Symposium in May.

Human Biology also holds a Summer Honors College just prior to Autumn Quarter each year for students who have applied to the honors program. Students apply to Summer Honors College in April of the junior year. 

COVID-19-Related Degree Requirement Changes

For information on how Human Biology degree requirements have been affected by the pandemic, see the "COVID-19 Policies tab" in this section of this bulletin. For University-wide policy changes related to the pandemic, see the "COVID-19 and Academic Continuity" section of this bulletin.

Minor in Human Biology

A minor in Human Biology provides an introduction to the relationship between the biological and social aspects of humanity's origin, development, and future. Many of the serious problems facing humans today involve both biological and social aspects. Scientific approaches to these problems are essential, but they must be broadly conceived and placed within their proper social and cultural setting. Students with a minor in Human Biology are expected to develop a strong content background and the skills to integrate the biological and social aspects of human beings.

The Human Biology minor requires three core courses to ensure coverage of the field disciplines, while offering flexibility for students pursuing specific subplans in the fields of Global Health, Epidemiology, or Health Policy.

  • The Global Health subplan introduce students to critical social perspectives, policy, and applications in global health.
  • The Epidemiology subplan introduces students to epidemiological constructs and applies these methods to the study of real world public health challenges.
  • The Health Policy subplan introduces students to population-level problems, interventions, and policy in public health.

Students declaring a minor in Human Biology must do so no later than two quarters prior to their intended quarter of degree conferral (for example, a student must declare a minor before the end of Autumn Quarter to graduate the following Spring Quarter). Students who declared a minor prior to September 2018 should refer to previous guidelines and requirements for the minor and if interested in a subplan should contact Lia Cacciari ( to determine eligibility. Undergraduate fields of study (subplans) are declared on Axess; these subplans appear on the transcript but not on the diploma. Students may submit a petition to declare the HumBio minor without a subplan; contact Human Biology Student Services for more information.

In order to graduate with a minor in Human Biology, undergraduates must complete the minor program of study as described here, for a total of at least 25 units, with a minimum of six courses.

1. Three of the following HumBio Core courses (at least one A-side and at least one B-side class) for a total of at least 15 units. 

HUMBIO 2AGenetics, Evolution, and Ecology5
HUMBIO 2BCulture, Evolution, and Society5
HUMBIO 3ACell and Developmental Biology5
HUMBIO 3BEnvironmental and Health Policy Analysis *required for the Health Policy subplan5
HUMBIO 4AThe Human Organism5
HUMBIO 4BBehavior, Health, and Development5

Students completing a major that requires some of the HumBio Core or equivalent may submit a petition to substitute the Core requirement; contact Human Biology Student Services for more information.
2. Three (3) elective courses, each 3 or more units, totaling 10 or more units, within the chosen subplan. A comprehensive list of suitable elective courses is provided below.

Global Health Subplan Electives
HUMBIO 114Global Change and Emerging Infectious Disease4-5
HUMBIO 122MChallenges of Human Migration: Health and Health Care of Migrants and Autochthonous Populations3
HUMBIO 124CGlobal Child Health3
HUMBIO 129SGlobal Public Health3
HUMBIO 129WHealth Care Systems Around the World4
HUMBIO 153Parasites and Pestilence: Infectious Public Health Challenges4
HUMBIO 154DModels for Understanding and Controlling Global Infectious Diseases3
HUMBIO 165Frontiers in Global Mental Health3
HUMBIO 179BMusic and Healing3
HUMBIO 26Designing Research-Based Interventions to Solve Global Health Problems3-4
AFRICAAM 41Genes and Identity4
ANTHRO 182NSmoke and Mirrors in Global Health3
COMPMED 84QGlobally Emerging Zoonotic Diseases3
EARTHSYS 162Data for Sustainable Development3-5
EASTASN 117Health and Healthcare Systems in East Asia3-5
HISTORY 243GTobacco and Health in World History4-5
HRP 231Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases3
HRP 237Practical Approaches to Global Health Research3
HUMRTS 110Global Women's Issues in Human Rights and Health4
MED 232Global Health: Scaling Health Technology Innovations in Low Resource Settings3
PEDS 223Human Rights and Global Health3
SOMGEN 207Theories of Change in Global Health3-4
Epidemiology Subplan Electives
HUMBIO 57Epidemic Intelligence: How to Identify, Investigate and Interrupt Outbreaks of Disease4
HUMBIO 114Global Change and Emerging Infectious Disease4-5
HUMBIO 126Promoting Health Over the Life Course: the Science of Healthy Living3
HUMBIO 153Parasites and Pestilence: Infectious Public Health Challenges4
HUMBIO 154BPrinciples of Epidemiology3
HUMBIO 154CCancer Epidemiology4
HUMBIO 154DModels for Understanding and Controlling Global Infectious Diseases3
HUMBIO 155HHumans and Viruses I6
HUMBIO 159Genes and Environment in Disease Causation: Implications for Medicine and Public Health3
COMPMED 84QGlobally Emerging Zoonotic Diseases3
HRP 206Meta-research: Appraising Research Findings, Bias, and Meta-analysis3
HRP 219Evaluating Technologies for Diagnosis, Prediction and Screening3
HRP 225Introduction to Epidemiologic and Clinical Research Methods3
HRP 231Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases3
HRP 259Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Epidemiology3
HRP 261Intermediate Biostatistics: Analysis of Discrete Data3
Health Policy Subplan Electives
HUMBIO 120Health Care in America: An Introduction to U.S. Health Policy4
HUMBIO 120AAmerican Health Policy3
HUMBIO 122AHealth Care Policy and Reform5
HUMBIO 123EHealth Economics & Policy: exploring health disparities, child health & health care spending4
HUMBIO 129WHealth Care Systems Around the World4
HUMBIO 153Parasites and Pestilence: Infectious Public Health Challenges4
EASTASN 117Health and Healthcare Systems in East Asia3-5
HRP 211Law and Biosciences: Neuroscience3
HRP 221Law and the Biosciences: Genetics3
HRP 249Topics in Health Economics I3-5
HRP 256Economics of Health and Medical Care5
HRP 252Outcomes Analysis4
MS&E 292Health Policy Modeling3
PUBLPOL 156Health Care Policy and Reform5
PUBLPOL 231Health Law: Finance and Insurance3
SOC 152The Social Determinants of Health4

Previously offered courses that were minor eligible include:

HUMBIO 123 (Health Policy Subplan)
HUMBIO 126A (Global Health Subplan )
HUMBIO 154A (Epidemiology, Global Health Subplans)
HUMBIO 175L (Global Health Subplan )

3. Course work completed for the Human Biology Minor must meet the following criteria:

  • All courses must be taken for a letter grade.
  • All courses must be completed with a minimum 'C-' grade.
  • Courses used to fulfill the minor may not be used to fulfill any other department degree requirements (major or minor).
  • All courses must be taken at Stanford University.

COVID-19 Policy Changes to Degree Requirements

On this page: Winter QuarterSpring QuarterDoctoral Programs (if applicable)

For a complete overview of academic policy changes related to the COVID-19 pandemic, see the "COVID-19 and Academic Continuity" section of this bulletin.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, Stanford University made a number of emergency changes to policies and procedures that impacted Winter and Spring quarters 2019-20. Those changes, as they relate to degree programs, are compiled on this page. These changes reflect the disruption that students and instructors experienced when the University transitioned to online learning on March 9, 2020, in addition to the disruption to the Stanford community caused by the pandemic itself.

Winter Quarter 2019-20

The Committee on Undergraduate Standards and Policy (C-USP) and the Committee on Graduate Studies (C-GS) approved an exception for Winter Quarter 2019-20 to permit students to request late class withdrawals and/or changes to class grading basis to CR/NC (for those classes that had CR/NC as an option).

Undergraduate Degree Requirements

Grading Requirements

Human Biology counts any Winter Quarter 2019-20 class in which the student received a final grade of 'CR' towards undergraduate degree requirements that otherwise require a letter grade.

Other Requirements

If a student has difficulty completing an undergraduate degree requirement due to the COVID-19 pandemic, (e.g., a study abroad requirement, a laboratory research requirement), the student should consult with the Student Services Officer to identify academic options to fulfill degree requirements.

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Spring Quarter 2019-20

The Faculty Senate approved a policy requiring that all undergraduate and graduate classes in Spring Quarter 2019-20 be offered only on the 'S/NC' (Satisfactory/No Credit) grading basis.

Undergraduate Degree Requirements

Grading Requirements

Human Biology counts any Spring Quarter 2019-20 class in which the student received a final grade of ‘S’ towards undergraduate degree requirements that otherwise require a letter grade. 

Other Requirements

If a student has difficulty completing an undergraduate degree requirement due to the COVID-19 pandemic, (e.g., a study abroad requirement, a laboratory research requirement), the student should consult with the Student Services Officer to identify academic options to fulfill degree requirements.

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Director: Lianne Kurina 

Associate Director: Katherine Preston

Director of Undergraduate Studies: Lianne Kurina

Honors Chair: Katherine Preston

Emeriti: (Professors) Carol Boggs (Biology), Donna Bouley (Comparative Medicine), Doug Brutlag (Biochemistry), William H. Durham (Anthropology), Russell D. Fernald (Biology), A. Dale Kaiser (Biochemistry), Herant Katchadourian (Human Biology), Donald Kennedy (Biology), Michael Marmor (Ophthalmology), Gordon Matheson (Orthopaedic Surgery), Ellen FitzSimmons Porzig (Developmental Biology), Carol Winograd (Medicine)

Professors: Julie C. Baker (Genetics), Laurence Baker (Health Research and Policy), Laura Carstensen (Psychology), Rodolfo Dirzo (Biology), Heidi Feldman (Pediatrics: Neonatology), Paul Fisher (Neurology), Michael C. Frank (Psychology), Margaret Fuller (Developmental Biology), Garry Gold (Rad/Musculoskeletal Imaging), Lawrence H. Goulder (Economics), James J. Gross (Psychology), H. Craig Heller (Biology), Jill Helms (Surgery: Plastics), Richard Klein (Anthropology and Biology), Tanya Luhrmann (Anthropology),  Yvonne Maldonado (Pediatrics: Infectious Diseases),  Roeland Nusse (Developmental Biology), Michael Ostacher (Psychiatry and Behavioral Science), Amado Padilla (Education), Julie Parsonnet (Infectious Diseases), Rob Reich (Political Science), Allan Reiss (Interdisciplinary Brain Science Research), Thomas Robinson (Pediatrics), Robert Sapolsky (Biology), Walter Scheidel (Classics and History), Randall Stafford (Stanford Prevention Research Center), William Talbot (Developmental Biology), Shripad Tuljapurkar (Biology), Jeffrey Wine (Psychology), Paul Wise (Pediatrics: Neonatology)

Associate Professors: Eran Bendavid (Primary Care and Population Health), M. Kate Bundorf (Health Reserach and Policy),  Anne Fernald (Psychology), Duana Fullwiley (Anthropology), Angela Garcia (Anthropology), Jeremy Goldhaber-Fiebert (Primary Care and Outcomes Research), Brenda Golianu (Anesthesia), Joachim Hallmayer (Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences - Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Child Development),  Peter Kao (Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine), Ruth O'Hara (Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences), N. Grant Miller (Primary Care and Outcomes Research) - on leave, Jelena Obradovic (Education), Jonathan Pritchard (Biology and Genetics), Lee Sanders (Pediatric), Aliya Saperstein (Sociology), Gavin Sherlock (Genetics)

Assistant Professors: Geoffrey Abrams (Orthopaedic Surgery), Jorah Dannenberg (Philosophy), Roanne Kantor (English), Anshul Kundaje (Genetics and Computer Science), Michelle Monje-Deisseroth (Neurology), Maya Rossin-Slater (Helath Research and Policy), Jamie Zeitzer (Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences)

Professors (Research): Christopher Gardner (Stanford Prevention Research Center), David Lyons (Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences), Marcia Stefanick (Stanford Prevention Research Center)

Associate Professors (Research): Karen Parker (Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences), Lisa Goldman Rosas (Stanford Prevention Research Center)

Professors (Teaching): Donald Barr (Pediatrics) - on leave, Gary Darmstadt (Pediatrics - Neonatology), David Magnus (Pediatrics/SCBE), Robert Siegel (Microbiology and Immunology)

Associate Professors (Teaching): Catherine Heaney (Psychology), Eunice Rodriguez (Pediatrics), Lianne Kurina (General Internal Medicine), Kristin Sainani (Health Research and Policy – Epidemiology)

Clinical Professors: Daryn Reicherter (Psych/Public Mental Health & Population Sciences)

Clinical Assistant Professors: Andrea Kussman (Orthopaedic Surgery), Maragret Windy McNerney (VA Palo Alto Health Care Services), Cynthia Nguyen (Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences), Rita Popat (Health Research and Policy, Epidemiology)

Senior Research Scholars: Wesley F. Alles (Med/HIP/BeWell), Clea Sarnquist (Pediatics - Infectious Diseases)

Other Teaching Faculty and Staff: William Abrams, Judy Chu, Sophia Colamarino (Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences), Anne Friedlander, Ronald Garcia (Center for Excellence), Renu Heller (Biology), Catherine Ley (Infectious Diseases), Mark Mabry, Lisa Medoff, Joe Nation (Public Policy), Katherine Preston, Annette Salmeen, Patricia Seawell (Biology), Darvin Scott Smith, Jennifer Wolf (Education)

Course Associates: Michelle Brouckman, Andrew Bueno, Molly Fogarty, Jacob (Cole) Holderman, Hee Joo Ko, Vicky Le, Ariana Tapia, Callie VanWinkle

Overseas Studies Courses in Human Biology

The Bing Overseas Studies Program manages Stanford study abroad programs for Stanford undergraduates. Students should consult their department or program's student services office for applicability of Overseas Studies courses to a major or minor program.

The Bing Overseas Studies course search site displays courses, locations, and quarters relevant to specific majors.

For course descriptions and additional offerings, see the listings in the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses or Bing Overseas Studies.

OSPAUSTL 10Coral Reef Ecosystems3
OSPAUSTL 28Terrestrial Ecology and Conservation3
OSPAUSTL 32Coastal Ecosystems3
OSPCPTWN 43Public and Community Health in Sub-Saharan Africa4
OSPCPTWN 67ICT4D: An Introduction to the Use of ICTs for Development3
OSPHONGK 44Medical Sociology4
OSPMADRD 57Health Care: A Contrastive Analysis between Spain and the U.S.4
OSPMADRD 72Issues in Bioethics Across Cultures4
OSPPARIS 76From Art to Medicine: The Human Body and Tissue Regeneration3


HUMBIO 2A. Genetics, Evolution, and Ecology. 5 Units.

Introduction to the principles of classical and modern genetics, evolutionary theory, and ecology. Topics: micro- and macro-evolution, population and molecular genetics including personal genomics and CRISPR, biodiversity and ecology, emphasizing the genetics and ecology of the evolutionary process and applications to human populations. HUMBIO 2A and HUMBIO 2B are designed to be taken concurrently and exams for both sides may include material from joint module lectures. Concurrent enrollment is strongly encouraged and is necessary for majors in order to meet declaration deadlines. Please note Human Biology majors are required to take the Human Biology Core Courses for a letter grade.

HUMBIO 2B. Culture, Evolution, and Society. 5 Units.

Introduction to the evolutionary study of human diversity. Hominid evolution, the origins of social complexity, social theory, population dynamics, the impact of disease on societies and the emergence of the modern world system, emphasizing the concept of culture and its influence on human differences. HUMBIO 2B, with HUMBIO 3B and HUMBIO 4B, satisfies the Writing in the Major (WIM) requirement for students in Human Biology. HUMBIO 2A and HUMBIO 2B are designed to be taken concurrently and exams for both sides may include material from joint module lectures. Concurrent enrollment is strongly encouraged and is necessary for majors in order to meet declaration deadlines. Please note Human Biology majors are required to take the Human Biology Core Courses for a letter grade.

HUMBIO 3A. Cell and Developmental Biology. 5 Units.

Principles of the biology of cells, embryonic development and pattern formation, biochemistry of energetics and metabolism, the nature of membranes and organelles, hormone action and signal transduction in normal and diseased states (diabetes, cancer, autoimmune diseases), stem cells and immunology. HUMBIO 3A and HUMBIO 3B are designed to be taken concurrently and exams for both sides may include material from joint module lectures. Concurrent enrollment is strongly encouraged and is necessary for majors in order to meet declaration deadlines. Please note Human Biology majors are required to take the Human Biology Core Courses for a letter grade. Prerequisite: college chemistry or completion of the HumBio Core on-line chemistry lecture series during the fall quarter.

HUMBIO 3B. Environmental and Health Policy Analysis. 5 Units.

Connections among the life sciences, social sciences, public health, and public policy. The economic, social, and institutional factors that underlie environmental degradation, the incidence of disease, and challenges facing the health care system including high spending and inequalities in access to health care. Public policies to address these problems. Topics include pollution regulation, climate change policy, biodiversity protection, health insurance, health care regulation, health disparities, and health care reform. HUMBIO 3B, with HUMBIO 2B and HUMBIO 4B, satisfies the Writing in the Major (WIM) requirement for students in Human Biology. HUMBIO 3A and HUMBIO 3B are designed to be taken concurrently and exams for both sides may include material from joint module lectures. Concurrent enrollment is strongly encouraged and is necessary for majors in order to meet declaration deadlines. Please note Human Biology majors are required to take the Human Biology Core Courses for a letter grade.

HUMBIO 4A. The Human Organism. 5 Units.

Integrative Physiology: Neurobiology, endocrinology, and organ system function, control, and regulation. HUMBIO 4A and HUMBIO 4B are designed to be taken concurrently and exams for both sides may include material from joint module lectures. Concurrent enrollment is strongly encouraged and is necessary for majors in order to meet declaration deadlines. Please note Human Biology majors are required to take the Human Biology Core Courses for a letter grade.

HUMBIO 4B. Behavior, Health, and Development. 5 Units.

Research and theory on human behavior, health, and life span development. How biological factors and cultural practices influence cognition, emotion, motivation, personality, and health in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. HUMBIO 4B, with HUMBIO2B and HUMBIO 3B, satisfies the Writing in the Major (WIM) requirement for students in Human Biology. HUMBIO 4A and HUMBIO 4B are designed to be taken concurrently and exams for both sides may include material from joint module lectures. Concurrent enrollment is strongly encouraged and is necessary for majors in order to meet declaration deadlines. Please note Human Biology majors are required to take the Human Biology Core Courses for a letter grade.

HUMBIO 4Y. Practicum in Child Development. 1 Unit.

Practicum experience at Bing Nursery School for 1-1/4 hours of observation per week, class meeting every other week for 1 hour for a total of 5 meetings. Pre- or corequisite: HUMBIO 4B (formerly 3B): Behavior, Health, and Development .

HUMBIO 5E. Science Education in Human Biology. 1 Unit.

In this seminar, students will become familiar with research on science education. They will use this knowledge to create and analyze teaching material such as section plans, exams, and problem sets. Material produced in this course will be related to the topics covered in the core course of the Program in Human Biology. Students will experience and practice various teaching styles. Prerequisite: Human Biology Core or equivalent or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 6. Human Origins. 5 Units.

The human fossil record from the first non-human primates in the late Cretaceous or early Paleocene, 80-65 million years ago, to the anatomically modern people in the late Pleistocene, between 100,000 to 50,000 B.C.E. Emphasis is on broad evolutionary trends and the natural selective forces behind them.
Same as: ANTHRO 6, ANTHRO 206

HUMBIO 9. Public Service Internship Preparation. 1 Unit.

Are you prepared for your internship this summer? This workshop series will help you make the most of your internship experience by setting learning goals in advance; negotiating and communicating clear roles and expectations; preparing for a professional role in a non-profit, government, or community setting; and reflecting with successful interns and community partners on how to prepare sufficiently ahead of time. You will read, discuss, and hear from guest speakers, as well as develop a learning plan specific to your summer or academic year internship placement. This course is primarily designed for students who have already identified an internship for summer or a later quarter. You are welcome to attend any and all workshops, but must attend the entire series and do the assignments for 1 unit of credit.

HUMBIO 11. Meet HumBio: a lecture series introducing HumBio themes. 1 Unit.

A lecture and discussion series designed for freshmen who want to learn more about Human Biology - either the major itself or the topics within its realm - by hearing from some of HumBio's most engaging faculty. Most weeks the class will feature a faculty member addressing three central questions: What do I do? Why is it important? and What professional opportunities are possible for a person concentrating in my field? Some sessions will focus on navigating research and educational opportunities at Stanford. The course is not meant to cover a specific body of content, therefore the assignments for the class aim to build fundamental skills: taking useful notes, articulating questions or ideas prompted by presentations, visiting office hours, connecting lecture topics with current events or journal articles, paying full courteous attention to speakers and peers, reflecting on potential majors, and creating a study guide. There will be no required readings or exams.

HUMBIO 11SI. Wellness Kit for Stanford and Beyond. 1 Unit.

Many students are familiar with the idea of ¿Duck Syndrome¿ at Stanford and that many students experience stress on a daily basis. This class develops an understanding of what stress is, its impact on our health, how it manifests in our lives, and how to address it while cultivating holistic wellness. In order to regulate the impacts of stress and promote overall wellness, this class integrates a well-rounded approach to developing a ¿wellness kit¿ that includes various forms of meditation, mindful eating, understanding nutrition, and understanding exercise. In addition, the class offers students the opportunity to practice discussing health topics in the media and biases in health-related articles. Finally, this class seeks to support students in imagining how to integrate this ¿wellness kit¿ into their lives beyond Stanford and bring wellness along with them.

HUMBIO 14. Understanding Connections between Food and the Environment. 1 Unit.

Globally, food systems, what we eat, where and how we grow it, play a major role in determining our impact on the environment. By considering our food choices, we can find "low hanging vegetables" for reducing our "foodprint". In this course, we will begin to explore the complex connections between food and the environment. We will begin with a discussion of "Planetary Boundaries" as a guide for understanding the limits for human alterations of the biosphere, beyond which abrupt changes could occur. We will then introduce nine topics which will be discussed in the nine weeks to follow, and how they relate to food.

HUMBIO 19SC. Parks and Peoples: Dilemmas of Protected Area Conservation in East Africa. 2 Units.

The world-famous landscapes of East Africa, including Serengeti National Park, Ngorongoro Conservation Area, and the Rift Valley lakes of Tanzania form the backdrop for this special course on protected area conservation and its impacts on local people. The course is designed to explore the pros and cons of parks and protected areas as they affect flora, fauna, and human inhabitants, and to address the dilemma of how to achieve conservation in a manner that creates local community benefits and promotes social justice. We will use a case study approach to ask: (1) What approach to protected area (PA) conservation has been taken in each case? Who are the key proponents and what are their main social and ecological objectives? (2) How successful has the protected area been at achieving its conservation goals? (3) What are the benefits of the PA to people and who receives them? (4) What are the costs of the PA to people and who pays them? (5) Where benefits are not commensurate to costs, what, if anything, is being done to address the imbalance? How well is it working? (6) Are there alternative conservation models that would make the interests of parks and people more compatible, and reduce the tradeoffs between them? What is needed to operationalize these alternative models, and how do they incentivize conservation behavior among local residents?nThis course includes an intensive 12-day expedition to Tanzania to observe firsthand the dilemmas of parks and peoples we have discussed in class. We are scheduled to visit Tarangire, Lake Manyara, Mt. Meru, and Serengeti National Parks, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, and nearby Maasai villages. Both on campus and in Tanzania, the course emphasizes student contributions and presentations. Students are required to read one or two books a month over the summer, and to come to campus in the fall well-prepared to discuss each one, including co-leading the discussion of one of the readings. Students are also expected to carry out literature research on a particular conservation dilemma in East Africa that is of interest to them for the final assignment of the seminar, a 6- to 8-page paper, and to present the main findings of that paper during an evening seminar as we travel in East Africa.
Same as: ANTHRO 12SC

HUMBIO 26. Designing Research-Based Interventions to Solve Global Health Problems. 3-4 Units.

The excitement around social innovation and entrepreneurship has spawned numerous startups focused on tackling world problems, particularly in the fields of education and health. The best social ventures are launched with careful consideration paid to research, design, and efficacy. This course offers students insights into understanding how to effectively develop, evaluate, and scale social ventures. Using TeachAids (an award-winning nonprofit educational technology social venture used in 82 countries) as a primary case study, students will be given an in-depth look into how the entity was founded and scaled globally. Guest speakers will include world-class experts and entrepreneurs in Philanthropy, Medicine, Communications, Education, and Technology. Open to both undergraduate and graduate students.
Same as: AFRICAST 135, AFRICAST 235, EDUC 135, EDUC 335, HRP 235, MED 235

HUMBIO 27. Traditional Chinese Medicine. 1 Unit.

The philosophy and history behind traditional Chinese medicine. Concepts such as Qi, Yin/Yang, meridians, Chinese organs, and the 5 elements. How these concepts are applied through techniques such as acupuncture, herbal medicine, Qi gong, and massage. How traditional Chinese medicine is understood from a scientific standpoint. Political and socioeconomic implications. Observation of an acupuncturist. Readings on the integration of Eastern and Western medicine and on traditional Chinese medicine.

HUMBIO 28. Health Impact of Sexual Assault and Relationship Abuse across the Lifecourse. 1-3 Unit.

Cross-listed with SOMGEN 237 and FEMGEN 237. HumBio students must enroll in HUMBIO 28 or AFRICAAM 28. An overview of the acute and chronic physical and psychological health impact of sexual abuse through the perspective of survivors of childhood, adolescent, young and middle adult, and elder abuse, including special populations such as pregnant women, military and veterans, prison inmates, individuals with mental or physical impairments. Also addresses: race/ethnicity, gender identity, sexual orientation, and other demographic and societal factors, including issues specific to college culture. Professionals with expertise in sexual assault present behavioral and prevention efforts such as bystander intervention training, medical screening, counseling and other interventions to manage the emotional trauma of abuse. Undergraduates must enroll for 3 units. Medical and graduate students should enroll in SOMGEN 237 for 1-3 units. To receive a letter grade in any listing, students must enroll for 3 units. This course must be taken for a letter grade and a minimum of 3 units to be eligible for Ways credit.
Same as: AFRICAAM 28, FEMGEN 237, SOMGEN 237

HUMBIO 29A. Well-Being in Immigrant Children & Youth: A Service Learning Course. 4 Units.

This is an interdisciplinary course that will examine the dramatic demographic changes in American society that are challenging the institutions of our country, from health care and education to business and politics. This demographic transformation is occurring first in children and youth, and understanding how social institutions are responding to the needs of immigrant children and youth to support their well-being is the goal of this course.
Same as: CHILATST 177A, CSRE 177E, EDUC 177A

HUMBIO 29G. Gender and Intersectionality in Global Health. 3 Units.

Intersectional thinking is increasingly being applied to global health and other academic disciplines as a framework for understanding complex, and often seemingly intractable, challenges to health and well-being. This course explores how gender (e.g. male, female, trans*, non-binary, etc) identity and relationships intersect with other social categorizations, including age and reproductive status (particularly for women), race/ethnicity, socioeconomic class, immigration status, educational attainment, to create systemic advantages or disadvantages that may explain and/or could address poor health outcomes within and across global communities. More specifically, we will focus on intersectional and biological frameworks in the context of cultural gender norms, to explore possible reasons for differences in incidence and prevalence of a wide range of health disparities worldwide. We will also use these frameworks to explore options for health improvement, in terms of both prevention and care/treatment.

HUMBIO 44. Diagnostic Odysseys In Medicine. 1 Unit.

Medicine is rapidly evolving, with increasing emphasis on genetic testing, immunophenotyping and integration of technology to guide diagnosis. In this course, experts from Stanford and Silicon Valley will highlight exciting developments. Topics include the latest developments in genetics and genomics (including genome testing in clinical practice, direct to consumer testing, and frontiers in neurogenetics), immunophenotyping, utilization of databases to research diseases and the emerging field of machine learning and clinical decision support in optimizing diagnostic strategies. Students who wish to engage in a mentored multi-disciplinary team-based research project related to advanced diagnostic techniques can additionally enroll in MED 239.
Same as: MED 244

HUMBIO 51. Big Data for Biologists - Decoding Genomic Function. 3 Units.

Biology and medicine are becoming increasingly data-intensive fields. This course is designed to introduce students interested in human biology and related fields to methods for working with large biological datasets. There will be in-class activities analyzing real data that have revealed insights about the role of the genome and epigenome in health and disease. For example, we will explore data from large-scale gene expression and chromatin state studies. The course will provide an introduction to the relevant topics in biology and to fundamental computational skills such as editing text files, formatting and storing data, visualizing data and writing data analysis scripts. Students will become familiar with both UNIX and Python. This course is designed at the introductory level. Previous university-level courses in biology and programming experience are not required.

HUMBIO 57. Epidemic Intelligence: How to Identify, Investigate and Interrupt Outbreaks of Disease. 4 Units.

We will cover: the components of public health systems in the US; principles of outbreak investigation and disease surveillance; different types of study design for field investigation; visualization and interpretation of public health data, including identification and prevention of biases; and implementation of disease control by public health authorities. Students will meet with leaders of health departments of the state and the county and will be responsible for devising, testing and evaluating a field questionnaire to better understand the complexities of field research. HUMBIO students must enroll in HUMBIO 57. HRP students must enroll in HRP 247.
Same as: HRP 247

HUMBIO 65. Biosocial Medicine: The Social, Psychological, and Biological Determinants of Behavior and Wellbeing. 3 Units.

Explores how social forces, psychological influences, and biological systems combine to affect human behavior in early childhood, in the educational experience, and throughout the life course. Examines how behaviors are linked to well-being. Uses a flipped classroom model, in which a series of lectures are available for students to view on-line before class. In-class time then focuses on case studies from published research. For Ways credit eligibility, students must enroll in HUMBIO 65 for a letter grade.
Same as: EDUC 205, SOMGEN 215

HUMBIO 79Q. Sexuality and Society. 3 Units.

This course will explore how sexual identity, attitudes, and behaviors are shaped by the messages sent by the various agents of society such as schools, family, peers, media, and religious, medical, and political institutions. The interaction of biology, psychology, and socio-cultural factors, such as gender roles and sexual/relationship scripts will be discussed, as will the intersection of sexuality and notions of love, romance, and commitment. Critical developmental periods, such as adolescence and emerging adulthood will be examined in depth. Students will explore their own values and feelings about sexuality and come to an understanding of how their beliefs were formed. We will discuss how information about sexuality is disseminated in our society and what we can do to help ensure that such information is used in a way that promotes healthy self-conceptions, behavior, and relationships.

HUMBIO 82A. Qualitative Research Methodology. 3 Units.

Goal is to develop knowledge and skills for designing and conducting qualitative research studies including purposes, conceptual contexts, research questions, methods, validity issues, and interactions among these facets. Each student designs a qualitative research study.

HUMBIO 82B. Advanced Data Analysis in Qualitative Research. 3 Units.

For students writing up their own qualitative research. Students prepare a complete draft presenting their own qualitative research study including results, with reports drafted section by section, week by week. Class provides feedback, guidance, support.

HUMBIO 84. Practical Analysis of Epidemiologic and Biological Data. 3 Units.

This course will teach students how to think about and analyze quantitative data. Students will learn to apply univariate and multivariable methods (using Stata software) to either their own data or data from publicly available sources. A central part of the course will consist of the joint planning and execution of an epidemiologic analysis of real-world data and the production of a manuscript for submission to a scientific journal. This course focuses on health-related data, although these methods can be applied much more broadly.

HUMBIO 88. Introduction to Statistics for the Health Sciences. 4 Units.

Students will learn the statistical tools used to describe and analyze data in the fields of medicine and epidemiology. This very applied course will rely on current research questions and publicly available data. Students will gain proficiency with Stata to do basic analyses of health-related data, including linear and logistic regression, and will become sophisticated consumers of health-related statistical results.

HUMBIO 89. Introduction to Health Sciences Statistics. 3 Units.

This course aims to provide a firm grounding in the foundations of probability and statistics, with a focus on analyzing data from the health sciences. Students will learn how to read, interpret, and critically evaluate the statistics in medical and biological studies. The course also prepares students to be able to analyze their own data, guiding them on how to choose the correct statistical test, avoid common statistical pitfalls, and perform basic functions in R deducer. Cardinal Course certified by the Haas Center.

HUMBIO 89X. Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Epidemiology. 3 Units.

Topics: random variables, expectation, variance, probability distributions, the central limit theorem, sampling theory, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals. Correlation, regression, analysis of variance, and nonparametric tests. Introduction to least squares and maximum likelihood estimation. Emphasis is on medical applications.
Same as: HRP 259

HUMBIO 91Q. Neuroethology: The Neural Control of Behavior. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Animal behavior offers insights about evolutionary adaptations and this seminar will discuss the origins of the study of animal behavior and its development to the present. How does the nervous system control behavior and how is it changed by behavior? We will analyze and discuss original research papers about the neural basis of behavior. The use and misuse of parallels between animal and human behavior. Possible field trip to observe animals in their natural habitat.
Same as: BIO 32Q

HUMBIO 96Q. Injustice, Advocacy and Courage: The Path of Everyday Heroes. 3 Units.

This course will study the paradigms of people of courage, action and energy who have fought against injustice by advocating for causes against great odds and at personal risk. The focus will be on everyday people who have taken action, often at great personal risk, not for ambition, but because of their convictions and steadfast commitment to their beliefs.

HUMBIO 96SI. Big problems, big solutions? tackling difficult issues in today's healthcare system.. 1-2 Unit.

It is impossible to innovate in healthcare without first understanding the context in which these innovations take place. The course aims to allow students an intimate setting to debate issues that plague healthcare today, and work with guest speakers (from Stanford Medicine, Stanford Biodesign, RockHealth to Apple Health and more!) to gain insight into what's actually being done about it. Some controversial topics highlighted include: Healthcare Legislation (especially in the context of the last tow administrations), Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare, Gene Therapy, and in-depth analysis of Failed Medical Devices and Innovations.

HUMBIO 112. Conservation Biology: A Latin American Perspective. 3 Units.

BIO 144: Conservation Biology: A Latin American Perspective (BIO 234, HUMBIO 112)nPrinciples and application of the science of preserving biological diversity. Conceptually, this course is designed to explore the major components relevant to the conservation of biodiversity, as exemplified by the Latin American region. The conceptual frameworks and principles, however, should be generally applicable, and provide insights for all regions of the world. Satisfies Central Menu Area 4 for Biology majors. Prerequisite: BIO 101 or BIO 43 or HUMBIO 2A or BIO 81 and 84 or consent of instructor. All students will be expected to conduct a literature research exercise leading to a written report, addressing a topic of their choosing, derived from any of the themes discussed in class.
Same as: BIO 144, BIO 234

HUMBIO 113. The Human-Plant Connection. 3 Units.

The intertwined biologies of humans and plants, particularly the ways in which people and plants have imposed selection pressures and ecological change on one another. Topics include evolution and basic plant structure; plant domestication; effects of agriculture on human health and physiology; plants in traditional and contemporary diets; and human influences on plant biology through genetic manipulation and environmental change. Class meetings center on journal articles. Final project includes written and multimedia presentations. Prerequisites: HUMBIO 2A or BIO 81 and BIO 82 or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 113S. Healthy/Sustainable Food Systems: Maximum Sustainability across Health, Economics, and Environment. 4 Units.

Focus on problems with and systems-based solutions to food system issues. Four particular settings are addressed: University, worksite, hospital, and school food. Traditional vs. disruptive food system models compared and contrasted. The goal is to determine how best to maximize sustainability across several dimensions, including health, economics, and the environment. Underlying class themes include social justice and the potential for changing social norms around food production and consumption. Discussion-based seminar. Prerequisite: Human Biology Core or Biology Foundations or consent of instructor.
Same as: CHPR 113

HUMBIO 114. Global Change and Emerging Infectious Disease. 4-5 Units.

The changing epidemiological environment. How human-induced environmental changes, such as global warming, deforestation and land-use conversion, urbanization, international commerce, and human migration, are altering the ecology of infectious disease transmission, and promoting their re-emergence as a global public health threat. Case studies of malaria, cholera, hantavirus, plague, and HIV.
Same as: EARTHSYS 114, EARTHSYS 214, ESS 213

HUMBIO 116. Climate Perspectives: Climate Science, Impacts, Policy, Negotiations, and Advocacy. 3 Units.

The course contains four main parts:Climate Science, Climate Impacts, Climate Policy, Climate Advocacy. Part I begins with a detailed introduction to climate science, including an assessment of arguments by climate science skeptics, and an examination of climate change models. Part II describes the impacts of climate change on the planet, human health, species and biodiversity, and it adds an economic perspective on the costs and benefits of responding now¿or later¿to climate change. Part II also include a discussion on climate change ethics, i.e., fairness and responsibility among individuals, nations, and generations. Part III focuses on climate policy, from the Kyoto Protocol to the Paris Accord. Part III also includes an introduction to how the public and officials have viewed climate change over time, and it explores factors that make widespread formal agreement difficult. Part IV looks forward to climate advocacy and what to expect from future of climate negotiations. Prerequisite: Human Biology Core or Biology Foundations or consent of instructor (i.e. background in earth systems, economics, policy).
Same as: PUBLPOL 116

HUMBIO 118. Theory of Ecological and Environmental Anthropology. 5 Units.

Dynamics of culturally inherited human behavior and its relationship to social and physical environments. Topics include a history of ecological approaches in anthropology, subsistence ecology, sharing, risk management, territoriality, warfare, and resource conservation and management. Case studies from Australia, Melanesia, Africa, and S. America.
Same as: ANTHRO 90C

HUMBIO 120. Health Care in America: An Introduction to U.S. Health Policy. 4 Units.

Health policy and health care delivery from a historical and a current policy perspective. Introduces cost, quality, and access as measures of health system performance. Considers institutional aspects of health care reform. Upper division course with preference given to upperclassmen.

HUMBIO 120A. American Health Policy. 3 Units.

Issues in health care reform and the policy making process, the evolution of current systems, and theories underlying efforts for change. The national search for solutions to the problems of the uninsured, and the feasibility, options, and ramifications of alternative proposals for health care reform. Student presentations. Prerequisite: Human Biology 4B or equivalent, Human Biology 120, or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 120B. The American Health Care System and Health Policy. 3 Units.

In this course you will learn about the structure and functioning of the U.S. health care system. The health care system in the U.S. has been challenged by high and rising costs, a failure to ensure universal access to care, and a need to ensure the quality of care provided to patients. We will explore how our health care system works, how its structure and function contributes to the challenges we are confronting, and explore changes to the healthcare system that could help address them. The course has two main parts, the first focused on health insurance and health care financing, and the second focused on health care providers like doctors and hospitals. In addition, we bring other important topics like the Affordable Care Act and health reforms. Throughout the course, we mix lectures and discussions (and even some debates) about the basic structure of the system as well as emerging issues.

HUMBIO 121E. Ethnicity and Medicine. 1-3 Unit.

Weekly lecture series. Examines the linguistic, social class, and cultural factors that impact patient care. Presentations promote culturally sensitive health care services and review contemporary research issues involving minority and underserved populations. Topics include health care inequities and medical practices of African Americans, Asians, Latinos, Native Americans, immigrants, and refugees in both urban and rural settings. 1 unit requires weekly lecture attendance, completion of required readings, completion of response questions; 2 units requires weekly lecture attendance and discussion session, completion of required readings and weekly response questions; additional requirement for 3 units (HUMBIO only) is completion of a significant term paper Only students taking the course for 3 units may request a letter grade. Enrollment limited to students with sophomore academic standing or above.This course must be taken for a minimum of 3 units to be eligible for Ways credit.
Same as: EMED 121E

HUMBIO 122. Beyond Health Care: the effects of social policies on health. 3 Units.

Available evidence at the national and cross-country level linking social welfare interventions and health outcomes. If and how non-health programs and policies could have an impact on positive health outcomes. Evaluation of social programs and policies that buffer the negative health impact of economic instability and unemployment among adult workers and their children. Examination of safety nets, including public health insurance, income maintenance programs, and disability insurance. Prerequisites: HUMBIO 4B or equivalent, and some background in research methods and statistics, or Instructor permission.
Same as: PEDS 222

HUMBIO 122A. Health Care Policy and Reform. 5 Units.

Focuses on healthcare policy at the national, state, and local levels. Includes sessions on international models, health insurance, the evolution of healthcare policy in the U.S., key U.S. healthcare topics (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Medicare, Medicaid, public employee retiree health care), the role of technology, reform proposals (single payer, national health care, consumer-based systems, regulated markets, state and local reform efforts), efficiency/cost drivers and prospects for future policy. The course includes sessions on effective memo writing and presentation of policy proposals.
Same as: PUBLPOL 156

HUMBIO 122E. Reducing Health Disparities and Closing the Achievement Gap through Health Integration in Schools. 3 Units.

Health and education are inextricably linked. If kids aren't healthy, they won't realize their full potential in school. This is especially true for children living in poverty. This course proposes to: 1) examine the important relationship between children's health and their ability to learn in school as a way to reduce heath disparities; 2) discuss pioneering efforts to identify and address manageable health barriers to learning by integrating health and education in school environments.
Same as: EDUC 429, PEDS 229

HUMBIO 122M. Challenges of Human Migration: Health and Health Care of Migrants and Autochthonous Populations. 3 Units.

(Undergraduate students must enroll in HUMBIO 122M. MD and Graduate students enroll in PEDS 212) An emerging area of inquiry. Topics include: global migration trends, health Issues/aspects of migration, healthcare and the needs of immigrants in the US, and migrants as healthcare providers: a new area of inquiry in the US. Class is structured to include: lectures lead by the instructor and possible guest speakers; seminar, discussion and case study sessions led by students. Upper division course with preference given to upperclassmen.
Same as: PEDS 212

HUMBIO 122S. Social Class, Race, Ethnicity, and Health. 4 Units.

Examines health disparities in the U.S., looking at the patterns of those disparities and their root causes. Explores the intersection of lower social class and ethnic minority status in affecting health status and access to health care. Compares social and biological conceptualizations of race and ethnicity. Upper division course with preference given to upperclassmen.
Same as: AFRICAAM 132, CSRE 122S

HUMBIO 123E. Health Economics & Policy: exploring health disparities, child health & health care spending. 4 Units.

This course addresses issues related to population health, health care, and health policy using tools from empirical and theoretical economics. We will study topics such as the demand for health care, socioeconomic disparities in population health outcomes, health insurance design, the role of competition in health care markets, determinants of health care spending, technological change in the health care sector, and pharmaceuticals and the opioid crisis. Throughout the course, we will learn about research methodology that will help us to distinguish correlation from causation, and think critically about the role of the government and public policy. Prerequisites: HumBio core (or equivalent) and statistics requirements. The course will feature concepts from microeconomic theory, statistics, and econometrics.

HUMBIO 124C. Global Child Health. 3-5 Units.

This course introduces students to key challenges to the health and well being of children worldwide. We explicitly focus on child and public health problems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to reflect the global burden of disease among children. We will review the scope and magnitude of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, as well as examine regional variations. We will then identify both medical and non-medical causes, effects of, as well as interventions to address, some of the biggest child health problems. The course will also prevent an overview of the role of culture, gender, and non-state actors (NGOs, foundations, etc.) on health and health policy. Upper division course with preference given to upperclassmen.
Same as: MED 124, PEDS 124

HUMBIO 125. Current Topics and Controversies in Women's Health. 2-3 Units.

Interdisciplinary. Focus is primarily on the U.S., with selected global women's health topics. Topics include: leading causes of morbidity and mortality across the life course; reproductive (e.g. gynecologic & obstetric) health issues; sexual function; importance of lifestyle (e.g. diet, exercise, weight control), including eating disorders; mental health; sexual and relationship abuse; issues for special populations. In-class Student Debates on key controversies in women's health. Guest lecturers. For Ways credit eligibility, students must enroll in HUMBIO 125 for a minimum of 3 units and a letter grade. PhD minor in FGSS, enroll in FEMGEN 256 for 2 - 3 units and for a letter grade. Med students enroll in OBGYN 256 for 2 units. Undergraduate prerequisite: Human Biology Core or Biology Foundations or equivalent or consent of instructor.
Same as: FEMGEN 256, OBGYN 256

HUMBIO 126. Promoting Health Over the Life Course: the Science of Healthy Living. 3 Units.

(HUMBIO students must enroll in HUMBIO 126. CHPR students must enroll in CHPR 226 for a letter grade.) Disease prevention and health promotion topics pertinent at different stages of the life span emphasizing healthy lifestyle and reducing risk factors in both individuals and communities. Focus is on the application of behavioral science to risk reduction strategies, and the importance of health promotion as a social and economic imperative. Public and community health are emphasized. Topics include: epidemiology of chronic diseases; social determinants of health, behavior change; physical activity, nutrition, obesity and stress reduction; children, young adult, mid-life and aging health issues; health care delivery and public health system; workplace wellness; and other additional issues. Undergraduate prerequisite: Human Biology Core or equivalent or consent of instructor. Students enrolled in CHPR 226 must complete additional assignments appropriate for its Masters level listing. Undergraduate prerequisite: Human Biology Core or equivalent or consent of instructor.
Same as: CHPR 226

HUMBIO 128. Community Health Psychology. 4 Units.

Social ecological perspective on health emphasizing how individual health behavior is shaped by social forces. Topics include: biobehavioral factors in health; health behavior change; community health promotion; and psychological aspects of illness, patient care, and chronic disease management. Prerequisites: HUMBIO 3B or PSYCH 1, or equivalent.
Same as: PSYCH 101

HUMBIO 129S. Global Public Health. 3 Units.

The class is an introduction to the fields of international public health and global medicine. It focuses on resource poor areas of the world and explores major global health problems and their relation to policy, economic development, culture and human rights. We discuss technical solutions as well as the importance of the social determinants of health, and emphasize multi-sectoral approaches to care. The course is intended to challenge all students to think globally, and is geared for students interested in exploring how their major interests cold be directed to solve global health issues. We provide opportunities for in-depth discussion and interaction with experts in the field. This course must be taken for a letter grade to be eligible for Ways credit.

HUMBIO 129W. Health Care Systems Around the World. 4 Units.

This course will explore the role of health care systems in societies around the world, identifying the common challenges facing health care systems and how different institutional structures in different countries perform in response to these challenges. We will structure the course around general conceptual frameworks related to key health system institutions (including financing, insurance, provider payment, patient cost-sharing, and the regulation of medical technology). From this foundation, we will draw on the experience of individual countries (high and low income, with heavy chronic disease and infectious disease burdens) to illustrate the function of these institutions under real-world circumstances observed around the globe. Prerequisite: Human Biology Core or Biology Foundations or equivalent or consent of instructor.
Same as: MED 129

HUMBIO 130. Human Nutrition. 4 Units.

The study of food, and the nutrients and substances therein. Their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease. Emphasis is on the biological, chemical, and physiological processes by which humans ingest, digest, absorb, transport, utilize, and excrete food. Dietary composition and individual choices are discussed in relationship to the food supply, and to population and cultural, race, ethnic, religious, and social economic diversity. The relationships between nutrition and disease; ethnic diets; vegetarianism; nutritional deficiencies; nutritional supplementation; phytochemicals. HUMBIO students must enroll in HUMBIO 130. CHPR master's students must enroll for a letter grade. Undergraduate prerequisite: Human Biology Core or Biology Foundations or consent of instructor.
Same as: CHPR 130

HUMBIO 131. Kinesiology. 4 Units.

This course covers the basic principles governing human movement with an emphasis on sports applications. The course spends roughly equal amounts of time on the applied anatomy and biology, meaning both the large and small-scale body structure and function. The applied anatomy portion includes body structure (the muscles and their connections) and mechanics (e.g. forces, torque, momentum and power), which together describe macroscopic movement. The applied biology portion includes the molecular and cellular basis of movement, mainly muscle contraction, nerve signaling, and the mechanisms of exercise damage, cramping, muscle memory, delayed-onset muscle soreness, and fatigue. Prerequisite: Human Biology Core or Biology Foundations or equivalent or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 133. Human Physiology. 4 Units.

Human physiology will be examined by organ systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine. Molecular and cell biology and signaling principles that underlie organ development, pathophysiology and opportunities for regenerative medicine are discussed, as well as integrative control mechanisms and fetal development. Prerequisite: Human Biology core or Biology Foundations or equivalent or consent of instructor.
Same as: BIO 112

HUMBIO 135. Exercise Physiology. 4 Units.

Explore the amazing capacity of your body to move and adapt within your everyday world. You will learn: how your body systems respond to the stress of acute exercise and adapt to chronic exercise training, how your cardiovascular system adapts to optimize oxygen delivery and utilization, how your muscles generate force and hypertrophy in response to training, and how your metabolic/biochemical pathways are regulated to support the increased energy demand of exercise. We will discuss theories on the causes of fatigue and muscle soreness, and on what limits human performance. Applied topics such as the effects of aging, gender, and environmental conditions (high altitude, heat, cold, microgravity) on your body will be emphasized in the second half of the course. Portions of the class will be taught through videos that use online lectures and engaging stories to illustrate physiology concepts. Prerequisite: Human Biology core or Biology Foundations or equivalent, or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 135S. Body Hacking: Applied Topics in Exercise Physiology. 3 Units.

Our increasing understanding of exercise physiology and biochemistry provide new insights into how we can "hack" the human body to increase the response to exercise training and improve human performance and health. In this discussion based course, we will explore research and training interventions that try to capitalize on this new knowledge. Science communication will also be emphasized in the class, so students will learn the fundamentals of science storytelling and mixed media presentation of ideas. Requirements of this class include participating in blogs & in-class discussions, evaluating physiology research, writing a research paper, and creating a science-based story by video or podcast to share with the class. If class is full, contact instructor for an application. Enrollment limited to 10. Prerequisites: B+ or higher in HUMBIO 135 and/or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 136. Human Physiology Laboratory. 4 Units.

This laboratory course is active and inquiry based. Aspects of exercise and temperature are explored; however, the specific questions the class tackles differ each quarter. Samples of past questions: Does lactic acid accumulation correlate with exercise fatigue at different exercise and body temperatures? Does palm cooling during exercise mitigate the effect of body temperature on fatigue with or without evaporative cooling? Students participate both as experimenters and as subjects of the experiments in two-person teams. Participants must be in good physical condition, though not necessarily athletes, and must be willing to participate in strenuous exercise routines under adverse environmental conditions. Varsity athletes concurrently participating in a spring sport must consult the instructor before applying. Discussion sessions include student presentations of journal articles, data analyses, and feedback on individual WIM research proposals. By application only, see for the application form. Prerequisite: BIO 84 or HUMBIO 4A. Satisfies WIM for Biology.
Same as: BIO 107

HUMBIO 139S. Sport and Exercise Medicine. 3 Units.

Formerly HUMBIO 139E. This is an upper division course with a common theme of injury as well as injury prevention in sport and physical activity. The topics include the treatment and evaluation of common sports injuries and illnesses for both musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal/medical conditions. Students will also develop critical reading and thinking skills. Classes will incorporate didactic lectures, critical analysis of sports medicine literature, as well as hand-on labs incorporating current sports medicine injury evaluation tools. Prerequisite: Human Biology Core or Biology Foundations or equivalent or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 140. Sex and Gender in Human Physiology and Disease. 2-3 Units.

(HumBio students must enroll in HUMBIO 140.) Chromosomal, hormonal and environmental influences that lead to male and female and intersex reproductive anatomy and physiology and neuroendocrine regulation. Masculinizing and feminizing effects of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones and sociocultural factors, in particular gender identity, (social) gender norms and relationships, on the musculoskeletal, neurological, cardiovascular, immunological and other systems and tissues, e.g. adipose, skin, etc. over the lifecourse, from conception to puberty, through reproductive phases (including changes during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy up to and beyond menopause in women, and with aging in both sexes). Transgender health issues. Guest lecturers. Prerequisite: Human Biology core or Biology Foundations or equivalent, or consent of instructor. HUMBIO students must enroll for 3 units.
Same as: FEMGEN 241, MED 240

HUMBIO 142. Adolescent Development. 4 Units.

Underlying changes and their consequences in everyday functioning. Physical, cognitive, social, and sexual development; how these changes influence the emerging sense of identity, autonomy, and intimacy. Contexts in which adolescents move such as family, friends and peers, school, and workplace. Focus is on normal development of boys and girls; attention to problem outcomes including eating disorders, depression, and teen pregnancy. Prerequisite: HUMBIO 3B or PSYCH 1, or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 142M. Special Topics in Adolescent Mental Health. 4 Units.

Includes the study of aspects of common disorders seen in adolescent populations, such as prevalence, developmental course, gender differences, theoretical explanations, and therapeutic interventions. Topics will include mood/anxiety disorders, eating disorders, learning disabilities and ADHD, sexual risk behaviors, developmental disorders, substance abuse, and self-harm. Goals of this course include getting students to think critically about the unique mental health needs of adolescents, collaborating on devising ways to improve the way our society meets those needs, and strengthening writing and communication skills applicable to this area of inquiry. Prerequisite: Human Biology Core or Biology Foundations or equivalent or consent of instructor.
Same as: PSYCH 142A

HUMBIO 143. Adolescent Sexuality. 4 Units.

Developmental perspective. Issues related to scientific, historical, and cultural perceptions; social influences on sexual development; sexual risk; and the limitations and future directions of research. Sexual identity and behavior, sexually transmitted diseases including HIV, pregnancy, abortion, gay and lesbian youth, sex education and condom availability in schools, mass media, exploitative sexual activity, and difficulties and limitations in studying adolescent sexuality. Legal and policy issues, gender differences, and international and historical trends. Prerequisite: Human Biology core or Biology Foundations or equivalent, or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 144. Boys' Psychosocial Development. 4 Units.

Focuses on early childhood through young adulthood. Examines boys' lives and experiences as embedded within interpersonal relationships as well as social and cultural contexts. Includes perspectives from psychology, sociology, gender studies, and education. Prerequisite: HumBio Core or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 145L. The Biology and Evolution of Language. 4-5 Units.

Lecture course surveying the biology, linguistic functions, and evolution of the organs of speech and speech centers in the brain, language in animals and humans, the evolution of language itself, and the roles of innateness vs. culture in language. Suitable both for general education and as preparation for further studies in anthropology, biology, linguistics, medicine, psychology, and speech & language therapy. Anthropology concentration: CS, EE. No prerequisites.
Same as: ANTHRO 171, ANTHRO 271

HUMBIO 146. Culture and Madness: Anthropological and Psychiatric Approaches to Mental Illness. 3-5 Units.

Unusual mental phenomena have existed throughout history and across cultures. Taught by an anthropologist and psychiatrist, this course explores how different societies construct the notions of "madness": What are the boundaries between "normal" and "abnormal", reason and unreason, mind and body, diversity and disease? nnOptional: The course will be taught in conjunction with an optional two-unit discussion section or engaged learning component.
Same as: ANTHRO 186, ANTHRO 286, PSYC 286

HUMBIO 147. Biology, Culture and Family in Early Development. 3-4 Units.

Early childhood is a time of both enormous promise and vulnerability. Parents differ widely in their practices and beliefs about their role in enabling children to avoid risk and to achieve their potential for a healthy and productive life in the particular physical, social and cultural contexts of the communities and societies in which they live. In this seminar we will evaluate evidence from the biological and social sciences showing how experiences in infancy have profound and enduring effects on early brain architecture, with consequences for later language, cognitive, and socio- emotional development in childhood and adulthood. We will also consider the challenges of designing more effective social policies and programs to provide support for families in diverse socioeconomic and cultural contexts, who all want to help their children thrive. A community-service learning option, working with children as a reading tutor, is included for students taking this class for 4-units. Enrollment is limited and consent of instructor is required. Please send a brief statement of your interests, goals, and academic preparation relevant to the themes of this class to Prof. Fernald ( Pre-requisites: Psych 01 and PSYCH 60, or Human Biology 3B.
Same as: PSYCH 176

HUMBIO 149. Psychological and Educational Resilience Among Children and Youth. 4-5 Units.

Theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues pertaining to the psychological and educational resilience of children and adolescents. Overview of the resilience framework, including current terminology and conceptual and measurement issues. Adaptive systems that enable some children to achieve successful adaptation despite high levels of adversity exposure. How resilience can be studied across multiple levels of analysis, ranging from cell to society. Individual, family, school, and community risk and protective factors that influence children's development and adaptation. Intervention programs designed to foster resilient adaptation in disadvantaged children's populations.
Same as: EDUC 256

HUMBIO 149L. Longevity. 4 Units.

Interdisciplinary. Challenges to and solutions for the young from increased human life expectancy: health care, financial markets, families, work, and politics. Guest lectures from engineers, economists, geneticists, and physiologists.
Same as: NENS 202, PSYCH 102

HUMBIO 151R. Biology, Health and Big Data. 3 Units.

We are living in the midst of a revolution in the accessibility and availability of biological and medical data. How can all this data be used to improve human health? In this course, students will look at case studies from diabetes and cancer research to learn how to access publicly available data ranging from gene or protein level datasets to information about clinical trials. Students will apply what they learn from the case studies to develop a research proposal and presentation on a biology-related topic of their choice. The class will have a small group workshop-type format. Students will gain skills in research methods including accessing, analyzing and presenting data. There will be exercises using the R programming language. Prior programming experience is not required. Prerequisites: HUMBIO 2A and HUMBIO 3A or BIO 82 and BIO 83 or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 153. Parasites and Pestilence: Infectious Public Health Challenges. 4 Units.

We will learn about parasitic and other pestilence of public health importance and how they affect billions of people worldwide. We examine the pathogenesis, clinical syndromes, complex life cycles, and the interplay among environment, vectors, hosts, and reservoirs; we explore historical contexts as it informs current interventions and programming against disease. Public health policy initiatives aimed at halting disease transmission are viewed critically through the lens of researchers, public health level initiatives, popular media (TV and movies) and individual patients with these diseases. There will be guest visitors who have experienced these diseases and we will hear from several researchers and experts working on the challenges of controlling, eliminating or even eradicating these diseases. We will become familiar with the targeted diseases of the World Health Organization tropical disease research list, including river blindness, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, mycobacterial disease (tuberculosis and leprosy), malaria, toxoplasmosis, dracunculiasis, and intestinal helminthes. There will be a lab section for "hands on" learning and viewing of parasites. Interactive sessions will involve teaching each other about these biological forces of nature that invade humans. Prerequisite: Human Biology core or Biology Foundations or equivalent, or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 154B. Principles of Epidemiology. 3 Units.

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in human populations. In this course, students will learn about design, measures of disease occurrence and measures of association between exposures - be they environmental, behavioral or genetic - and health outcomes of interest. Students will also learn about how error, confounding and bias can impact epidemiological results. The course draws on both classic and contemporary research articles, which students will learn to critically appraise. Through lectures, problem sets, written responses to original articles and in-class discussions, students will gain a solid foundation in epidemiology. Upper division course with preference given to upperclassmen.

HUMBIO 154C. Cancer Epidemiology. 4 Units.

Clinical epidemiological methods relevant to human research in cancer will be the focus. The concepts of risk; case control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies; clinical trials; bias; confounding; interaction; screening; and causal inference will be introduced and applied. Social, political, economic, and ethical controversies surrounding cancer screening, prevention, and research will be considered. Human Biology 154 courses can be taken separately or as a series. Prerequisite: Human Biology core or Biology Foundations or equivalent, or instructor consent.

HUMBIO 154D. Models for Understanding and Controlling Global Infectious Diseases. 3 Units.

This course introduces students to the dynamics of infectious diseases of global health importance, focusing on the use of mathematical models to characterize their transmission in populations. Relevant case examples of pathogens with differing natural history and transmission routes include tuberculosis, HIV, malaria, typhoid, and cholera, as well emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola and the 2019 novel coronavirus. Lectures will emphasize the theoretical basis underlying infectious disease dynamics and link them to in-class workshops and problem sets that will emphasize public health applications and will provide students with hands-on experience in creating and coding models. Students will learn the mathematical underpinnings of key topics in infectious disease transmission including herd immunity, the basic reproductive number, vaccine effects, social contact structure, host heterogeneities, and pathogen fitness. The course will teach students how to approach new questions in infectious disease transmission, from model selection, tradeoffs in model complexity or parsimony, parameterization, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Students will practice building models, evaluating the influence of model parameters, making predictions about disease trajectories, and projecting the impact of public health interventions. Prerequisites: HUMBIO 88 or 89 or STATS 141.

HUMBIO 155H. Humans and Viruses I. 6 Units.

Introduction to human virology integrating epidemiology, molecular biology, clinical sciences, social sciences, history, and the arts. Emphasis is on host pathogen interactions and policy issues. Topics: polio and vaccination, smallpox and eradication, yellow fever and history, influenza and genomic diversity, rubella and childhood infections, adenovirus and viral morphology, ebola and emerging infection, lassa fever and immune response.
Same as: MI 155A

HUMBIO 157. The Biology of Stem Cells. 4 Units.

The role of stem cells in human development and potential for treating disease. Guest lectures by biologists, ethicists, and legal scholars. Prerequisites: Human Biology Core or Biology Foundations or equivalent or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 158. Building Blocks for Chronic Disease. 3 Units.

Researchers have come a long way in developing therapies for chronic disease but a gap remains between current solutions and the ability to address the disease in full. This course provides an overview to the underlying biology of many of these diseases and how they may connect to each other. A "think outside of the box" approach to drug discovery is needed to bridge such a gap in solutions, and this course teaches the building blocks for that approach. Could Legoland provide the answer? This is a guest lecture series with original contributions from prominent thought leaders in academia and industry. Interaction between students and guest lecturers is expected. Students with a major, minor or coterm in Biology: 109A/209A or 109B/209B may count toward degree program but not both.
Same as: BIO 109A, BIOC 109A, BIOC 209A

HUMBIO 158S. Genetics and Society. 3 Units.

This course will focus on social science engagement with developments in genetic research, focusing on two key issues. First, social scientists are trying to figure out how genetic data can be used to help them better understand phenomena they have been long endeavoring to understand. Second, social scientists try to improve understanding of how social environments moderate, amplify, or attenuate genetic influences on outcomes.
Same as: EDUC 373, SOC 232

HUMBIO 159. Genes and Environment in Disease Causation: Implications for Medicine and Public Health. 2-3 Units.

The historical, contemporary, and future research and practice among genetics, epidemiology, clinical medicine, and public health as a source of insight for medicine and public health. Genetic and environmental contributions to multifactorial diseases; multidisciplinary approach to enhancing detection and diagnosis. The impact of the Human Genome Project on analysis of cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and cancer. Ethical and social issues in the use of genetic information. Prerequisite:Human Biology core or BIO 82 or consent of instructor. This course must be taken for a minimum of 3 units and a letter grade to be eligible for Ways credit.
Same as: HRP 238

HUMBIO 160. Human Behavioral Biology. 5 Units.

Multidisciplinary. How to approach complex normal and abnormal behaviors through biology. How to integrate disciplines including sociobiology, ethology, neuroscience, and endocrinology to examine behaviors such as aggression, sexual behavior, language use, and mental illness.
Same as: BIO 150

HUMBIO 161. The Neurobiology of Sleep. 4 Units.

Preference to seniors and graduate students. The neurochemistry and neurophysiology of changes in brain activity and conscious awareness associated with changes in the sleep/wake state. Behavioral and neurobiological phenomena including sleep regulation, sleep homeostasis, circadian rhythms, sleep disorders, sleep function, and the molecular biology of sleep. Enrollment limited to 16.
Same as: BIO 149, BIO 249

HUMBIO 162L. The Literature of Psychosis. 3-5 Units.

One of the great gifts of literature is its ability to give us insight into the internal worlds of others. This is particularly true of that state clinicians call "psychosis." But psychosis is a complex concept. It can be terrifying and devastating for patients and families, and yet shares characteristics with other, less pathological states, such as mysticism and creativity. How then can we begin to make sense of it? In this course, we will examine the first-hand experience of psychosis. We will approach it from multiple perspectives, including clinical descriptions, works of art, and texts by writers ranging from Shakespeare, to the science fiction writer Philip K. Dick, to patients attempting to describe their experience. This class is not only for students thinking of careers in medicine, psychology or anthropology, but also readers and writers interested exploring extraordinary texts. There are no prerequisites necessary; all that is needed is a love of language and a curiosity about the secrets of other minds.
Same as: ANTHRO 82P, PSYC 82, PSYC 282

HUMBIO 163. The Opioid Epidemic: Using Neuroscience to Inform Policy and Law. 3 Units.

Enrollment by application only. The opioid epidemic has become a national problem, killing 115 people per day in the United States, and contributing to the first decrease in life expectancy in this country for decades.This is an upper division undergraduate class that aims to help students understand the science of opiates, how opioid prescribing and availability led us to be in this place, and how that information might be used to create effective policy to reverse it. Students will engage didactic work and interactive discussions to stimulate critical thinking at the interface between psychology, psychiatry, addiction medicine, neuroscience, communication, law, and society. They will develop the knowledge-base and framework to critically evaluate the science behind opioid addiction and how to apply this knowledge to address the addiction epidemic. This highly interactive seminar aims to engage the students in critical thinking didactics, activities and discussions that shape their understanding of the complexity inherent to the issues surrounding addiction and increase the student's ability to more critically assimilate and interrogate information. Prerequisites: HumBio Core or PSYC 83 or instructor consent. Applications due by 5:00pm on February 21st but will be considered in the order received. Preference will be given to upperclassmen, especially in the HumBio program. Enrollment limited to 20 by application only. Apply here:

HUMBIO 164. Autism Spectrum Disorder. 3 Units.

Enrollment by application only. Deficits in social communication and interaction and repetitive behaviors are the core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects about 1% of all children and costs society an estimated $268B annually. This interactive seminar course will provide an overview of our understanding of ASD, from genetics through epidemiology, biology and treatment, and the many implications for society, including the principles and problems of diagnosis, its impact upon family and across the lifespan, and controversies regarding its etiology, perception and care. Course enrollment is limited to 18 students. Applications due by 5:00pm on August 15th but will be considered in the order received. Preference will be given to upperclassmen, especially in the HumBio program. Attendance at first class is mandatory. Prerequisite: Human Biology core or BIO 82 and BIO 84 or instructor consent. Application is now closed.

HUMBIO 165. Frontiers in Global Mental Health. 3 Units.

This class will increase awareness of global mental health issues and social disparities while developing tools to address associated challenges both at home and abroad. Special attention will be placed on human rights issues including access to mental health care and the mental health of survivors of human rights abuses. Prerequisite: Human Biology Core or equivalent or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 166. Food and Society: Exploring Eating Behaviors in Social, Environmental, and Policy Context. 4 Units.

The material in this course is an introduction to the field and the target audience is undergraduates. It may be of interest to graduate students unfamiliar with the field. The class examines the array of forces that affect the foods human beings eat, and when, where, and how we eat them, including human labor, agriculture, environmental sustainability, politics, animal rights/welfare, ethics, policy, culture, economics, business, law, trade, and ideology, and psychology. The class addresses the impact of current policies and actions that might be taken to improve human nutrition and health; macro-scale influences on food, nutrition, and eating behavior. . Undergraduate Prerequisite: Human Biology Core or Biology Foundations or consent of instructor.
Same as: CHPR 166

HUMBIO 167. The Art of Vision. 3 Units.

This course is about eyes and art. We explore how eyes are built, how they process visual information, and how they are affected by disease. And we explore how fine art and famous artists (from all eras, ancient to modern) have depended upon vision, both normal and abnormal. There are short diversions into animal eyes and the role of vision in music, literature, and sports. Prerequisite: HUMBIO 4A or BIO 84 or consent of instructor.

HUMBIO 168. Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Guilt. 3 Units.

The seminar encompasses the personal and cultural components of guilt from multidisciplinary perspectives. At the individual level, it explores behaviors that induce guilt; their relational aspects; genesis in evolutionary and developmental terms: and its normal and pathological manifestations. The cultural section includes cross-cultural perspectives on guilt and its conceptions in Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism; as well as in the philosophy of Aristotle, Kant, J. S Mill and Nietzsche, and culpability in the law. Derived from this material, the course will also focus on the nature of ethical reasoning and the ways we make ethical choices and judgments in our lives. Upper division course with preference given to upperclassmen.

HUMBIO 170. Facts, Science & Making Policy. 5 Units.

The World Is Flat, The Sun Revolves Around The Earth, and other Alternative Facts. The role of science in civil rights, justice, policy, criminal justice, evidence, education, and disabled rights. Prerequisite: Upper division course with preference given to upperclassmen.

HUMBIO 172B. Children, Youth, and the Law. 3 Units.

How the legal rights of children and adolescents in America are defined, protected, and enforced through the legal process within the context of their developmental needs and competing societal interests. Topics: origins and definitions of children's rights; adoption; custody; the juvenile justice system; education; freedom of speech; and sex. The class is interactive, using hypotheticals for discussion and analysis. A and B alternate; students may take one or both. Prerequisite: Upper division course with preference given to upperclassmen.
Same as: PUBLPOL 172

HUMBIO 173. Science, Innovation and the Law. 5 Units.

The interaction of science, business and law: how scientific ideas are protected by law; the rights of those who invent, develop, and finance scientific discovery; the kinds of protections that apply; and how ideas are commercialized and brought to market. Guest speakers will include investors, start-up founders, scientists and inventors, and other relevant experts from IT, medical, pharma and biological sectors. The history of Silicon Valley will be examined as a paradigm for innovation. Prerequisite: Upper division course with preference given to upperclassmen.
Same as: PUBLPOL 173

HUMBIO 174. Foundations of Bioethics. 3 Units.

Classic articles, legal cases, and foundational concepts. Theoretical approaches derived from philosophy. The ethics of medicine and research on human subjects, assisted reproductive technologies, genetics, cloning, and stem cell research. Ethical issues at the end of life. Upper division course with preference given to upper-classmen.

HUMBIO 174A. Ethics in a Human Life. 4 Units.

Ethical questions pervade a human life from before a person is conceived until after she dies, and at every point in between. This course raises a series of ethical questions, following along the path of a person's life - questions that arise before, during, and after she lives it. We will explore distinctive questions that a life presents at each of several familiar stages: prior to birth, childhood, adulthood, death, and even beyond. We will consider how some philosophers have tried to answer these questions, and we will think about how answering them might help us form a better understanding of the ethical shape of a human life as a whole.
Same as: ETHICSOC 174, PHIL 74A

HUMBIO 176A. Medical Anthropology. 5 Units.

Emphasis is on how health, illness, and healing are understood, experienced, and constructed in social, cultural, and historical contexts. Topics: biopower and body politics, gender and reproductive technologies, illness experiences, medical diversity and social suffering, and the interface between medicine and science.
Same as: ANTHRO 82, ANTHRO 282

HUMBIO 177. Disability Literature. 3-5 Units.

This course explores literary and filmic narratives about disability in the Global South. Authors including Edwidge Danticat, Bapsi Sidhwa, and Ricardo Padilla highlight the unique aesthetic potential of what Michael Davidson calls the defamiliar body and Ato Quayson describes as aesthetic nervousness. While engaging universal issues of disability stigma, they also emphasize the specific geopolitics of disability and how people in the Global South face greater rates of impairment based on unequal exposure to embodied risk. The course particularly welcomes students with interests in fields of medicine, policy, or public health.
Same as: ENGLISH 108

HUMBIO 178A. Intro to Disability Studies: Disability and Technology. 5 Units.

For a long time, disability studies has focused on the past, early representations of people with disabilities and histories of the movement for disability rights. This course turns toward the future, looking at activism and speculative fiction as critical vehicles for change. Drawing on fiction by Samuel Beckett, Muriel Rukeyser, and Octavia Butler, this course will address the question of the future through an interrogation of the relationship between disability and technology, including assistive technology, genetic testing, organ transplantation.
Same as: ENGLISH 108A

HUMBIO 179B. Music and Healing. 3 Units.

To what extent can sound or music heal? This interdisciplinary course asks questions about music and healing around the world, drawing on the fields of medical ethnomusicology, medical anthropology, sound studies, and music therapy. Our case studies will be multi-sited, as we interrogate sound-based healings and healing sounds from diverse cross-cultural, global, and historic perspectives. No musical background is needed to interrogate these issues. We begin with the knowledge that the social, cultural, and political contexts where definitions of music and healing are created inform sound and its various¿and often conflicting¿interpretations and meanings.
Same as: MUSIC 39B

HUMBIO 180. Human Skeletal Anatomy. 5 Units.

Study of the human skeleton (a. k. a. human osteology), as it bears on other disciplines, including medicine, forensics, archaeology, and paleoanthropology (human evolution). Basic bone biology, anatomy, and development, emphasizing hands-on examination and identification of human skeletal parts, their implications for determining an individual¿s age, sex, geographic origin, and health status, and for the evolutionary history of our species. Three hours of lecture and at least three hours of supervised and independent study in the lab each week.
Same as: ANTHRO 175, ANTHRO 275, BIO 174, BIO 274

HUMBIO 182. Peopling of the Globe: Changing Patterns of Land Use and Consumption Over the Last 50,000 Years. 3-5 Units.

Fossil, genetic and archaeological evidence suggest that modern humans began to disperse out of Africa about 50,000 years ago. Subsequently, humans have colonized every major landmass on earth. This class introduces students to the data and issues regarding human dispersal, migration and colonization of continents and islands around the world. We explore problems related to the timing and cause of colonizing events, and investigate questions about changing patterns of land use, demography and consumption. Students are introduced to critical relationships between prehistoric population changes and our contemporary environmental crisis.
Same as: ANTHRO 18, EARTHSYS 21

HUMBIO 191. Human Biology Practicum. 1 Unit.

Restricted to Human Biology majors. For students who have undertaken supervised community-engaged service, research (e.g. HB-REX, Bio-X) or pre-professional experiences related to their Area of Concentration topic. Includes a series of six required elements done throughout Junior and Senior year. Enroll for 1 unit during your final undergraduate quarter, typically Senior Spring; contact Capstone Coordinator for exceptions. Satisfies the Capstone Requirement of the major.

HUMBIO 192A. Human Biology Synthesis. 2-3 Units.

Co-Requisite HUMBIO 191. Restricted to Human Biology majors. Expands the work of the Human Biology Practicum; (can also focus on a different aspect of the Area of Concentration). Allows students the opportunity to craft a culminating, creative work of scholarship based on a synthesis of personal and academic interests, including service projects. Exhibited during senior year. Students should enroll in either 3 units for two quarters or 2 units for three quarters.

HUMBIO 192S. Human Biology Synthesis. 1-3 Unit.

Co-Requisite HUMBIO 191. Restricted to Human Biology majors. Expands the work of the Human Biology Practicum; (can also focus on a different aspect of the Area of Concentration). Allows students the opportunity to craft a culminating, creative work of scholarship based on a synthesis of personal and academic interests, including service projects. Exhibited during senior year. Students should enroll in either 3 units for two quarters or 2 units for three quarters.

HUMBIO 192W. Human Biology Synthesis. 2-3 Units.

Co-Requisite HUMBIO 191. Restricted to Human Biology majors. Expands the work of the Human Biology Practicum; (can also focus on a different aspect of the Area of Concentration). Allows students the opportunity to craft a culminating, creative work of scholarship based on a synthesis of personal and academic interests, including service projects. Exhibited during senior year. Students should enroll in either 3 units for two quarters or 2 units for three quarters.

HUMBIO 193. Research in Human Biology. 1-5 Unit.

Independent research conducted under faculty supervision, in junior or senior year, normally but not necessarily in pursuit of an honors project. May be taken for a maximum 3 quarters of credit. Prerequisite: Faculty approval; application available in student services office.

HUMBIO 194. Honors. 1-10 Unit.

Restricted to Human Biology majors. Completion of the honors project, normally taken in the student's final quarter. First component: the honors thesis, a final paper providing evidence of rigorous research, fully referenced, and written in an accepted scientific style. Second component: participation in the honors symposium, including a 10-minute oral presentation followed by a brief question and answer session. Prerequisites: 193 or 199, and acceptance into the honors program.

HUMBIO 197. Human Biology Internship. 1-4 Unit.

Limited to and required of Human Biology majors. A supervised field, community, or lab experience of student's choosing, pre-approved by Human Biology faculty and student advisers, and initiated at least three quarters prior to graduation. Participation in a poster session on the internship experience is required during the first quarter that the student is in residence at Stanford after completion of the internship. May be repeated for credit and a total of 4 units accumulatively. Prerequisite: Human Biology core.

HUMBIO 198. Senior Tutorial in Human Biology. 1-5 Unit.

Reading for Human Biology majors in exceptional circumstances and under sponsorship of Human Biology associated faculty. Students must apply through Human Biology student services before registering. Reading list, paper, and evaluation required. May be repeated for credit.

HUMBIO 199. Directed Reading/Special Projects. 1-4 Unit.

Human Biology majors must obtain a sponsor from the Human Biology associated faculty or the Academic Council. Non-majors and students who have not declared must obtain a sponsor only from the Human Biology associated faculty. Students must complete application in student services office.

HUMBIO 200. Teaching of Human Biology. 1-5 Unit.

For upper division undergraduates and graduate students. Practical experience in teaching Human Biology or serving as an assistant in a lecture course. May be repeated for credit.