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Office: Building 200, Room 113
Mail Code: 94305-2024
Phone: (650) 723-2651
Web Site: http://history.stanford.edu

Courses offered by the Department of History are listed under the subject code History on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

Mission of the Department of History

History courses teach the analytical, interpretive, and writing knowledge and skills necessary for understanding the connections between past and present. History is a pragmatic discipline in which the analysis of change over time involves sifting the influences and perspectives that affect the course of events, and evaluating the different forms of evidence historians exploit to make sense of them. Teaching students how to weigh these sources and convert the findings into persuasive analysis lies at the heart of the department's teaching. Graduates with a History major pursue careers and graduate study in law, public service, business, writing, education, and journalism.

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduate)

The department expects undergraduate majors in the program to be able to demonstrate the following learning outcomes. These learning outcomes are used in evaluating students and the department's undergraduate program. Students are expected to demonstrate:

  1. an understanding of what it means to think historically: locating subjects in time and place and being sensitive to the contingencies of context and to change over time.
  2. critical and interpretive thinking skills using course's primary source materials.
  3. the ability to identify different types of sources of historical knowledge.
  4. analytical writing skills and close reading skills.
  5. effective oral communication skills.

Degrees Offered

The Department of History offers the following degree programs: Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Arts and Sciences, Master of Arts, and Doctor of Philosophy.

Graduate Programs in History

The primary goal of the Stanford Department of History's graduate program is the training of scholars. Most students who receive doctorates in the program go on to teach at colleges or universities. Other students have obtained positions in university administration and research.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The purpose of the master's program is to further develop knowledge and skills in History and to prepare students for a professional career or doctoral studies. This is achieved through completion of courses, in the primary field as well as related areas, and experience with independent work and specialization.

The Ph.D. is conferred upon candidates who have demonstrated substantial scholarship and the ability to conduct independent research and analysis in History. Through completion of advanced course work and rigorous skills training, the doctoral program prepares students to make original contributions to the knowledge of History and to interpret and present the results of such research.

History Course Catalog Numbering System

Location Introductory Seminars:Freshman/Sophomores Sources and Methods Seminars Lectures Colloquia Research Seminars and Workshops
International, Global, Thematic 4N, 44Q, 95N 3S 1B, 64, 102, 103D,F, 105C, 106A,B, 107 201A, 202A,B,G, 203,B,C, 204,C,E,G, 206,206A, 207C, 208C, 243G, 301A, 302A,B,G, 303,303B,C,F, 304,C,G, 305, 306A, D, 307C,E, 308C, 343G, 399A 306K, 401A
Ancient and Medieval Europe 11N 101 207F, 215K, 307F
Early Modern and Modern Europe 33S, 38S 110B, C, 131A, 133A, 134A 230C, 231G, 232A, 233, 331G, 332A, 333 326A, 430, 433A, B, 438
Eastern Europe, Russia, Eurasia 20N 20S 125 221B, 224A, 228, 321A, 328 424A, B
History of Science 41Q, 44Q 42S 130A, 140, 144 208A, 232F, 308A, 332F
Africa 48N, 48Q 145B, 147 445A, B
United States 36N, 41Q, 50K, 60N 71S, 74S, 76S 64, 130A, 150A, B, C, 151, 158C,159, 161, 166, B, 167A 201, 203C, 251G, 252B, 253D, 256, G, 257C, 258, E, 260, 261G, 262A, E, 269, 301, 303C, 351B, C, E, 356, 358, 369 460
Latin America 78N 174 277D 471A, B
Middle East 181B, 182C, 187 281B, 284, F, 288, 381, B, 384, F 481
Jewish History 185B 486A
Asia 98N 191B, 192, 195, C, 196, 198 290E, 292, D, 297, 390E, 391B, 392, D, 396D, 397 491A, B, 494C

Bachelor of Arts in History

The Department of History offers a Bachelor of Arts in History. Eligible students may also pursue a Bachelor of Arts with Honors. The department also offers a minor in History.

Suggested Preparation for the Major 

Before declaring the History major, students must take one lecture course. They must take a second lecture course within one year of declaring. Fulfilling this requirement are courses numbered HISTORY 1-199 (with the exception of Frosh (xxN) and Sophomore (xxQ) Introductory Seminars).

Lecture Courses

Units
The choices for 2020-21 are:
HISTORY 1AGlobal History: The Ancient World3-5
HISTORY 1BGlobal History: The Early Modern World, 1300 to 18003-5
HISTORY 1CGlobal History: Modern Times3-5
HISTORY 102History of the International System since 19145
HISTORY 103DHuman Society and Environmental Change4
HISTORY 103FThe Changing Face of War: Introduction to Military History5
HISTORY 105CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives5
HISTORY 106AGlobal Human Geography: Asia and Africa5
HISTORY 106BGlobal Human Geography: Europe and Americas5
HISTORY 110CThe Problem of Modern Europe5
HISTORY 115DEurope in the Middle Ages, 300-15003-5
HISTORY 116Traders and Crusaders in the Medieval Mediterranean3-5
HISTORY 133BRevolutionary England: The Stuart Age5
HISTORY 134AThe European Witch Hunts5
HISTORY 139Modern Britain and the British Empire5
HISTORY 140World History of Science5
HISTORY 140AThe Scientific Revolution5
HISTORY 144Sex, Gender, and Intersectional Analysis in Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Environment5
HISTORY 145BAfrica in the 20th Century5
HISTORY 150AColonial and Revolutionary America5
HISTORY 150BNineteenth Century America5
HISTORY 150CThe United States in the Twentieth Century5
HISTORY 155FThe Civil War and Reconstruction Era, 1830 to 18773-5
HISTORY 173Mexican Migration to the United States3-5
HISTORY 174Mexico Since 1876: The Road to Ayotzinapa5
HISTORY 179CThe Ethical Challenges of the Climate Catastrophe3-5
HISTORY 181BFormation of the Contemporary Middle East5
HISTORY 185BJews in the Contemporary World4-5
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 195Modern Korean History5
HISTORY 195CModern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon5
HISTORY 198The History of Modern China5

Degree Requirements

Completion of the major requires planning. History majors should plan to meet with their faculty advisors twice yearly, once in the Autumn and once in the Winter or Spring quarters. These meetings should take place within the first three weeks of the quarter, before the final study list deadline.

  1. Courses comprising the 63 units must be taken for a letter grade, and the student must maintain a grade point average (GPA) in History courses of 2.0 or higher.

  2. At least nine courses must be taken from within the Stanford Department of History. Transfer students and those who study abroad may be granted exemptions from this requirement at the discretion of the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

  3. At least six quarters of enrollment in the major. Each candidate for the B.A. in History should declare the major by the Autumn Quarter of the third year of study or earlier, if possible.

  4. One HISTORY 299S Undergraduate Directed Research and Writing taken for 3-5 units and for a letter grade may be applied toward the thirteen courses required for the B.A. in History.

  5. Capstone: The History department organizes a series of luncheon workshops quarterly, at which students present their research essays and honors theses.

  6. The department encourages students to acquire proficiency in foreign languages and study at one of Stanford's overseas programs. Such studies are not only valuable in themselves; they can provide an opportunity for independent research and a foundation for honors essays and graduate study.

  7. Advanced Placement credits do not fulfill any major requirements.

For further information on History courses' satisfaction of major requirements, see the Department of History web site.

Writing in the Major (WIM): 

History's Writing in the Major requirement is satisfied by completing HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors.

This course may be taken in either the junior or senior year, but not before completing the sources and methods seminar requirement. Students write a 20-25 page research essay. Original research and revision are important parts of the research essay. Students must conduct substantial research in the libraries and must submit at least two drafts (a rough draft and a final draft) of the essay. Students who wish to write an honors thesis should take HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors in the junior year.  Where appropriate, a student can use the research seminar to begin working on the honors thesis. 

HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills the WIM requirement only. It does not fulfill geographical requirements or small group course requirements.

Students select their research topics based on the general topics of each quarter's offerings.

  • HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors
    • Autumn: Honors; Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe and America
    • Winter:  Race, Gender, Sexuality in the U.S.
    • Spring: Europe Before 1500; Early Empires; Open Topic
    • Summer: Arms-Makers in History; Early Modern Travel Accounts

Course Requirements

History majors are required to complete a minimum of 63 units (i.e., a minimum of 13 courses) to include:

Units
1. One Sources and Methods Seminar (HISTORY 1S-99S) 15
Sources and Methods courses offered this year are:
HISTORY 13SMisfits of the Middle Ages: Persecution and Tolerance in Medieval Europe5
HISTORY 18SPirates, Captives, and Renegades: Encounters in the Early Modern Mediterranean World5
HISTORY 23SSex and Socialism5
HISTORY 32SUtopian Dreams, Dystopian Nightmares: Visions of the Ideal Society in Early Modern Britain5
HISTORY 47SBlack Earth Rising: Law and Society in Postcolonial Africa5
HISTORY 64SThe Religious Right and Its Critics in America from 1920 to Today5
HISTORY 82SEnemies Within: Hostile Minorities in Israel and Iraq in the 20th Century5
HISTORY 89SChinese Diaspora and the Making of the Pacific World, 1750-19115
HISTORY 98SCrime and Punishment in Late Imperial China: Law, State Formation, and Society5
2. Two 200-level undergraduate colloquia (HISTORY 200-298) 210
3. One Doing History colloquium (HISTORY 200x) 35
HISTORY 200ADoing Legal History5
HISTORY 200BDoing Environmental History: Climate Change... the podcast5
HISTORY 200CDoing the History of Race and Ethnicity5
HISTORY 200JDoing Oral History5
HISTORY 200MDoing Digital History5
HISTORY 200RDoing Community History: Asian Americans and the Pandemic5
HISTORY 200YDoing Colonial History5
4. Two lecture courses 410
One of which must be either
A Europe survey course such as:
The Problem of Modern Europe
Or, a United States survey course such as:
Colonial and Revolutionary America
Nineteenth Century America
The United States in the Twentieth Century
The second must be a lecture course in African, Asian, Middle East, or Latin American History, such as:
Africa in the 20th Century
Mexico Since 1876: The Road to Ayotzinapa
Formation of the Contemporary Middle East
Modern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon
5. Completion of the Writing in the Major (WIM) requirement 5
HISTORY 209SResearch Seminar for Majors5
6. At least 6 additional courses to total a minimum of 63 units.28
Total Units143

History Fields of Study or Degree Options

The Department of History offers six tracks to the B.A. in History. These tracks are not declared in Axess and are not printed on the transcript or diploma. 

The General History track emphasizes breadth of study among historical areas and periods as well as concentration in one selected field. The Global Affairs and World History track emphasizes an understanding of today's world through a historical examination of its evolution, from the early modern to the contemporary era.  The four tracks with interdisciplinary emphasis (History, Philosophy, and the Arts; History of Science and Medicine; History and Law; and Public History/Public Service) combine the study of history with the methods and approaches of other disciplines, and involve substantial course work outside of History.

General History Track

In addition to completing the requirements for all History majors, the student in the General History track is required to satisfy breadth and concentration requirements.

  1. Breadth Requirements: to ensure chronological and geographical breadth, at least two courses must be completed in a pre-modern chronological period and in each of three geographical fields:

    1. Field I (Africa, Asia, and Middle East)

    2. Field II (the Americas)

    3. Field III (Europe, including Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and Russia).

    4. Courses fulfilling the pre-modern chronological period (Field IV) may also count for Fields I-III.

  2. Courses for 2020-21 follow below.

  3. Concentration: to develop some measure of expertise, students must complete four courses in a single area (including one undergraduate colloquium or research seminar). The proposed concentration must be approved by the major advisor; a proposal for a thematic concentration must be approved by both the advisor and the department's director of undergraduate studies. Areas of concentration are:

    • Africa

    • Asia

    • Eastern Europe and Russia

    • Europe before 1700

    • Europe since 1700

    • Jewish History

    • Latin America

    • Science and Medicine

    • The United States

    • The Middle East

    • International History

    • Comparative Empires and Cultures

    • or a thematic subject treated comparatively, such as war and revolution, work, gender, family history, popular culture, or high culture.

  4. Required course: HISTORY 102 History of the International System since 1914 is a required course for students who select the International History concentration. This course is offered in Autumn Quarter.

Units
Field I: Africa/Asia/Middle East
HISTORY 41NVisible Bodies: Black Female Authors and the Politics of Publishing in Africa4
HISTORY 82SEnemies Within: Hostile Minorities in Israel and Iraq in the 20th Century5
HISTORY 98SCrime and Punishment in Late Imperial China: Law, State Formation, and Society5
HISTORY 106AGlobal Human Geography: Asia and Africa5
HISTORY 145BAfrica in the 20th Century5
HISTORY 185BJews in the Contemporary World4-5
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 195Modern Korean History5
HISTORY 195CModern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon5
HISTORY 197Southeast Asia: From Antiquity to the Modern Era3-5
HISTORY 198The History of Modern China5
HISTORY 200YDoing Colonial History5
HISTORY 202FSurveillance States and Societies4-5
HISTORY 204GWar and Society4-5
HISTORY 248Religion, Radicalization and Media in Africa since 19454-5
HISTORY 281KDepartures: Late Ottoman Displacements of Muslims, Christians, and Jews, 1853-19235
HISTORY 282JDisasters in Middle Eastern History5
HISTORY 283FCapital and Crisis in the Middle East and the World5
HISTORY 284FEmpires, Markets and Networks: Early Modern Islamic World Between Europe and China, 1400-19004-5
HISTORY 288CJews of the Modern Middle East and North Africa5
HISTORY 290North Korea in Historical Perspective4-5
HISTORY 292DJapan in Asia, Asia in Japan4-5
Field II: The Americas
HISTORY 64SThe Religious Right and Its Critics in America from 1920 to Today5
HISTORY 106BGlobal Human Geography: Europe and Americas5
HISTORY 150AColonial and Revolutionary America5
HISTORY 150BNineteenth Century America5
HISTORY 150CThe United States in the Twentieth Century5
HISTORY 155FThe Civil War and Reconstruction Era, 1830 to 18773-5
HISTORY 173Mexican Migration to the United States3-5
HISTORY 174Mexico Since 1876: The Road to Ayotzinapa5
HISTORY 179CThe Ethical Challenges of the Climate Catastrophe3-5
HISTORY 200JDoing Oral History5
HISTORY 200RDoing Community History: Asian Americans and the Pandemic5
HISTORY 203FRacial Justice in the Nuclear Age5
HISTORY 251CThe American Enlightenment5
HISTORY 251JThe End of American Slavery, 1776-18654-5
HISTORY 253FThinking the American Revolution4-5
HISTORY 256EThe American Civil War: The Lived Experience5
HISTORY 257EHistory of Conservatism4-5
HISTORY 260PAmerican Protest Movements, Past and Present5
HISTORY 261EIntroduction to Asian American History5
Field III: Europe, Eastern Europe, and Russia
HISTORY 10CThe Problem of Modern Europe3
HISTORY 13SMisfits of the Middle Ages: Persecution and Tolerance in Medieval Europe5
HISTORY 15DEurope in the Middle Ages, 300-15003-5
HISTORY 16Traders and Crusaders in the Medieval Mediterranean3-5
HISTORY 32SUtopian Dreams, Dystopian Nightmares: Visions of the Ideal Society in Early Modern Britain5
HISTORY 33BRevolutionary England: The Stuart Age3
HISTORY 39Modern Britain and the British Empire3
HISTORY 39QWere They Really "Hard Times"? Mid-Victorian Social Movements and Charles Dickens3
HISTORY 40AThe Scientific Revolution3
HISTORY 42NThe Missing Link4
HISTORY 85BJews in the Contemporary World: The Jewish Present and Past in Film, Television and Popular Culture3
HISTORY 106BGlobal Human Geography: Europe and Americas5
HISTORY 110CThe Problem of Modern Europe5
HISTORY 115DEurope in the Middle Ages, 300-15003-5
HISTORY 116Traders and Crusaders in the Medieval Mediterranean3-5
HISTORY 133BRevolutionary England: The Stuart Age5
HISTORY 134AThe European Witch Hunts5
HISTORY 139Modern Britain and the British Empire5
HISTORY 140AThe Scientific Revolution5
HISTORY 185BJews in the Contemporary World4-5
HISTORY 202GPeoples, Armies and Governments of the Second World War4-5
HISTORY 203Premodern Economic Cultures4-5
HISTORY 204GWar and Society4-5
HISTORY 210DNeighbors: Intimate Relationships and Everyday Life in Hitler's Europe5
HISTORY 210JFascism and Authoritarianism5
HISTORY 211Out of Eden: Deportation, Exile, and Expulsion from Antiquity to the Renaissance4-5
HISTORY 213FMedieval Germany, 900-12501-5
HISTORY 215BRace and Ethnicity in Premodern Europe3-5
HISTORY 216DNationalism, Colonialism, and the Lord of the Rings: The Middle Ages in the Modern World5
HISTORY 222Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe and Russia4-5
HISTORY 224AThe Soviet Civilization4-5
HISTORY 224DThe Soviet Civilization, Part 24-5
HISTORY 227BThe Business of Socialism: Economic Life in Cold War Eastern Europe5
HISTORY 228Circles of Hell: Poland in World War II5
HISTORY 230CParis: Capital of the Modern World4-5
HISTORY 232GEarly Modern Cities4-5
HISTORY 233Reformation to Civil War: England under the Tudors and Stuarts4-5
HISTORY 233FPolitical Thought in Early Modern Britain4-5
HISTORY 234PThe Age of Plague: Medicine and Society, 1300-17505
HISTORY 235JThe Meaning of Life: Modern European Encounters with Consequential Questions5
HISTORY 235LAlien Imaginations: Extraterrestrial Speculations in Modern European History5
HISTORY 240The History of Evolution4-5
Field IV: Pre-1700
HISTORY 1AGlobal History: The Ancient World3-5
HISTORY 1BGlobal History: The Early Modern World, 1300 to 18003-5
HISTORY 10NThinking About War3
HISTORY 12NIncome and wealth inequality from the Stone Age to the present4
HISTORY 13SMisfits of the Middle Ages: Persecution and Tolerance in Medieval Europe5
HISTORY 15DEurope in the Middle Ages, 300-15003-5
HISTORY 16Traders and Crusaders in the Medieval Mediterranean3-5
HISTORY 33BRevolutionary England: The Stuart Age3
HISTORY 40World History of Science3
HISTORY 40AThe Scientific Revolution3
HISTORY 50AColonial and Revolutionary America3
HISTORY 90Early Chinese Thought3-5
HISTORY 91BThe City in Imperial China3
HISTORY 94BJapan in the Age of the Samurai3
HISTORY 97Southeast Asia: From Antiquity to the Modern Era3-5
HISTORY 102AThe Romans3-5
HISTORY 114Origins of History in Greece and Rome4-5
HISTORY 115DEurope in the Middle Ages, 300-15003-5
HISTORY 116Traders and Crusaders in the Medieval Mediterranean3-5
HISTORY 133BRevolutionary England: The Stuart Age5
HISTORY 134AThe European Witch Hunts5
HISTORY 140World History of Science5
HISTORY 140AThe Scientific Revolution5
HISTORY 150AColonial and Revolutionary America5
HISTORY 190Early Chinese Thought3-5
HISTORY 191BThe City in Imperial China5
HISTORY 197Southeast Asia: From Antiquity to the Modern Era3-5
HISTORY 203Premodern Economic Cultures4-5
HISTORY 208DPre-Modern Warfare4-5
HISTORY 211Out of Eden: Deportation, Exile, and Expulsion from Antiquity to the Renaissance4-5
HISTORY 213FMedieval Germany, 900-12501-5
HISTORY 215BRace and Ethnicity in Premodern Europe3-5
HISTORY 216DNationalism, Colonialism, and the Lord of the Rings: The Middle Ages in the Modern World5
HISTORY 232GEarly Modern Cities4-5
HISTORY 233Reformation to Civil War: England under the Tudors and Stuarts4-5
HISTORY 233FPolitical Thought in Early Modern Britain4-5
HISTORY 249The Mamluks: Slave-Soldiers and Sultans of Medieval Egypt3-5
HISTORY 284FEmpires, Markets and Networks: Early Modern Islamic World Between Europe and China, 1400-19004-5
HISTORY 291GPre-Modern Chinese Warfare4-5

Global Affairs and World History Track

The Global Affairs and World History track is designed to offer an empirically rich curriculum for Stanford students interested in international affairs. The goal is to impart an understanding of today's world through a historical examination of its evolution, from the early modern to the contemporary era. This track appeals to students who are aiming for a career in the international arena, and who seek to inform themselves about the complexities of cultural diversity and spatial differentiation on the ground. Deploying both connective and comparative modes of analysis, majors who choose this track will acquire a robust understanding of the relevance of the past to current events.

The Global Affairs and World History track features gateway courses in Global Human Geography, a recommended skills component, a geographical concentration, and a core cluster of global and comparative offerings. Students choosing this track also develop proficiency in a foreign language at the second-year level or above. Incorporating primary sources in a language other than English into the capstone seminar or honors thesis is encouraged.

Units
Gateway Courses
Students must complete two of the following courses:
Global History: The Ancient World
Global History: The Early Modern World, 1300 to 1800
Global History: Modern Times
Global Human Geography: Asia and Africa
Global Human Geography: Europe and Americas
Note: If a student wishes to do more than two of these courses, the course is applied to the methodological cluster.
Geographical Cluster
Students select four History courses in one geographic area, such as Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East, or Africa. The faculty coordinator must pre-approve all courses in this cluster.
Global and Comparative Courses (Methodological Cluster)
Majors selecting this track take at least 6 thematic history courses of global scope.
Courses offered in 2020-21 are:
HISTORY 10NThinking About War3
HISTORY 44QGendered Innovations in Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Environment4-5
HISTORY 63NThe Feminist Critique: The History and Politics of Gender Equality3-4
HISTORY 102History of the International System since 19145
HISTORY 103DHuman Society and Environmental Change4
HISTORY 103FThe Changing Face of War: Introduction to Military History3-5
HISTORY 105CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives5
HISTORY 110CThe Problem of Modern Europe5
HISTORY 139Modern Britain and the British Empire5
HISTORY 140World History of Science5
HISTORY 140AThe Scientific Revolution5
HISTORY 144Sex, Gender, and Intersectional Analysis in Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Environment5
HISTORY 145BAfrica in the 20th Century5
HISTORY 173Mexican Migration to the United States3-5
HISTORY 179CThe Ethical Challenges of the Climate Catastrophe3-5
HISTORY 181BFormation of the Contemporary Middle East5
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 190Early Chinese Thought3-5
HISTORY 195Modern Korean History4-5
HISTORY 195CModern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon5
HISTORY 198The History of Modern China5
HISTORY 201AThe Global Drug Wars4-5
HISTORY 202FSurveillance States and Societies4-5
HISTORY 202GPeoples, Armies and Governments of the Second World War4-5
HISTORY 203CHistory of Ignorance5
HISTORY 204DAdvanced Topics in Agnotology4-5
HISTORY 204GWar and Society4-5
HISTORY 216DNationalism, Colonialism, and the Lord of the Rings: The Middle Ages in the Modern World5
HISTORY 224AThe Soviet Civilization4-5
HISTORY 224CGenocide and Humanitarian Intervention3
HISTORY 243CPeople, Plants, and Medicine: Colonial Science and Medicine4-5
HISTORY 243GTobacco and Health in World History4-5
HISTORY 283FCapital and Crisis in the Middle East and the World5
HISTORY 284FEmpires, Markets and Networks: Early Modern Islamic World Between Europe and China, 1400-19004-5
HISTORY 290North Korea in Historical Perspective4-5
HISTORY 291GPre-Modern Chinese Warfare4-5
HISTORY 292DJapan in Asia, Asia in Japan4-5

Proficiency in a foreign language: Students electing the Global Affairs and World History track must acquire proficiency in a foreign language through two years of college-level course work (second-year, third-quarter) or by passing a proficiency exam. Language courses do not count toward the 13 required courses in the major; students may, however, be interested in pairing this track in the History major with a foreign language minor.

Skills Training: Students in the Global Affairs and World History track are encouraged to acquire technical proficiencies relevant for geo-historical analysis and fieldwork abroad. Please see the Undergraduate Student Services Coordinator for further information on these courses.

Overseas Study Experience: Students electing this track are encouraged to study abroad, with a Stanford BOSP program or another program approved by the directors of the track. Course work taken overseas may be accepted for credit in the track on a case by case basis, in consultation with a faculty coordinator.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills Writing in the Major requirement. 

General Requirements:

As for all History majors, students in this track must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or U.S., and one Africa, Asia, Middle East, or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors.

History Tracks with Interdisciplinary Emphasis (HMIE)

These tracks (History, Philosophy, and the Arts; History of Science and Medicine; History and Law; and Public History/Public Service) with Interdisciplinary Emphasis are designed for students who are interested in other disciplines who want to focus on the historical aspects of the subject matter covered by that discipline, who want to understand how interdisciplinary approaches can deepen their understanding of history, or who are primarily interested in developing interdisciplinary approaches to historical scholarship by combining the careful attention to evidence and context that motivates historical research with the analytic and methodological tools of science and the humanities.

In pursuing the designated requirements for all History majors, students in HMIE are required to complete their thirteen courses for the major as follows:

Gateway Course: Students are required to take the appropriate gateway course for their interdisciplinary track. This course introduces students to the application of particular interdisciplinary methods to the study of history. See the section on each HMIE for the gateway course appropriate to that major track. Note: The History and the Law track has no gateway course requirement.

Methodological Cluster: This cluster is designed to acquaint students with the ways in which interdisciplinary methods are employed in historical scholarship, by practicing historians and scholars in other disciplines whose work is historical. This program of study must provide methodological coherence and must be approved in advanced by the student's advisor. See the section on each HMIE for the appropriate historical methods courses.

Geographic Cluster: History is embedded in time and place. This cluster is designed to emphasize that the purpose of studying methodology is to more fully understand the history of a particular region of the world. Students select a particular geographic region, as specified in the History major, and complete four courses in that area.

Interdisciplinary Cluster: These courses, taken outside the Department of History, acquaint students with the methods and approaches of another discipline appropriate for the interdisciplinary study of history. This program of study must provide methodological coherence and must be approved in advance by the student's advisor. See the section on each HMIE for appropriate interdisciplinary courses.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills Writing in the Major Requirement.

HMIE tracks do not mandate the breadth or concentration requirements of the General History track.

History, Philosophy, and the Arts Track

The History, Philosophy, and the Arts (HPA) track is designed for the student who wishes to complement his or her work in History with study in literature and philosophy, particularly in a foreign language. For the purposes of this track, Arts are defined broadly, including fine art and art history, drama, films, memoirs and autobiography, poetry and novels, as well as canonical works in philosophy, political science, and history of political thought. It appeals to students who are interested in studying the humanities and its conceptual and linguistic worlds in their historical context, or who want to focus on both the literature and history of a specific geographical area while also learning the language of that area.

Units
Gateway Courses
Students must take two of the following courses:
Global History: Modern Times
Europe in the Middle Ages, 300-1500
Traders and Crusaders in the Medieval Mediterranean
The Scientific Revolution
The American Enlightenment
Note: If a student wishes to do more than two of these courses, the course is applied to the methodological cluster.
Methodological Cluster
This two-course cluster teaches students how historians, in particular, analyze literary texts and philosophical works as documentary sources for writing cultural and intellectual history. Students choose two courses from among the pre-approved HPA methodology curriculum. These courses need not be in the student's geographic concentration.
For 2020-21, these courses are:
HISTORY 32SUtopian Dreams, Dystopian Nightmares: Visions of the Ideal Society in Early Modern Britain5
HISTORY 41NVisible Bodies: Black Female Authors and the Politics of Publishing in Africa4
HISTORY 63NThe Feminist Critique: The History and Politics of Gender Equality3-4
HISTORY 139Modern Britain and the British Empire5
HISTORY 150AColonial and Revolutionary America5
HISTORY 150CThe United States in the Twentieth Century5
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 198The History of Modern China5
HISTORY 203CHistory of Ignorance5
HISTORY 204GWar and Society4-5
HISTORY 211Out of Eden: Deportation, Exile, and Expulsion from Antiquity to the Renaissance4-5
HISTORY 213FMedieval Germany, 900-12501-5
HISTORY 215BRace and Ethnicity in Premodern Europe3-5
HISTORY 216DNationalism, Colonialism, and the Lord of the Rings: The Middle Ages in the Modern World5
HISTORY 224AThe Soviet Civilization4-5
HISTORY 233FPolitical Thought in Early Modern Britain4-5
HISTORY 242JLondon Low Life in the Nineteenth Century5
HISTORY 248Religion, Radicalization and Media in Africa since 19454-5
HISTORY 257EHistory of Conservatism4-5
HISTORY 282JDisasters in Middle Eastern History5

Geographical Cluster (four courses): Students select four History courses in one geographic area. These are: Europe, Britain and the countries of the former British Empire, Asia, North America, Latin America, the Middle East, or Africa. These four courses must be taken in addition to the two methodological courses required above.

Interdisciplinary Cluster (four courses): Four courses, taken outside the Department of History, must address the literature and arts, broadly defined, of the area chosen for the geographic concentration. The student's advisor must pre-approve all courses in this cluster; these courses may not be double-counted towards a minor or major other than History.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills Writing in the Major requirement.

General Requirements: Like all History majors, students in History Interdisciplinary Programs must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or U.S, one Africa, Asia, Middle East or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and a Research Seminar for Majors.

History of Science and Medicine Track

The History of Science and Medicine (HS&M) track is a collaborative program of the Department of History and the Program in the History and Philosophy of Science. The major is designed for students interested in both sciences and humanities, and in the interactions between the two. It is also especially useful for students contemplating medical school, since it allows them to study the history of medicine, biology, and allied sciences in conjunction with fulfilling the premed science requirements. 

Units
Gateway Course
Students must complete the following:
HISTORY 140AThe Scientific Revolution5
Methodological Cluster
These History courses focus on the history of science and medicine. Students must take three courses.
For 2020-21, these courses are:
HISTORY 42NThe Missing Link4
HISTORY 140World History of Science5
HISTORY 144Sex, Gender, and Intersectional Analysis in Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Environment5
HISTORY 179CThe Ethical Challenges of the Climate Catastrophe3-5
HISTORY 203CHistory of Ignorance5
HISTORY 203FRacial Justice in the Nuclear Age5
HISTORY 204DAdvanced Topics in Agnotology4-5
HISTORY 204GWar and Society4-5
HISTORY 234PThe Age of Plague: Medicine and Society, 1300-17505
HISTORY 235LAlien Imaginations: Extraterrestrial Speculations in Modern European History5
HISTORY 240The History of Evolution4-5
HISTORY 243CPeople, Plants, and Medicine: Colonial Science and Medicine4-5
HISTORY 243GTobacco and Health in World History4-5

Geographical Cluster (four courses): Students select four History courses in one geographic area. Examples include: Europe, Britain and the countries of the former British Empire, Asia, North America, Latin America, the Middle East, or Africa. These four courses must be taken in addition to the three methodological cluster courses. Courses in the history of science, technology, and medicine that have a geographic focus may be used to fulfill this requirement, but cannot be double-counted in the methodological cluster.

Interdisciplinary Cluster (four courses): Students select four courses in scientific disciplines and/or in philosophy of science, anthropology of science, or sociology of science. These courses require faculty advisor pre-approval.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills the Writing in the Major requirement.

General Requirements: As with all History majors, students in History Interdisciplinary Programs must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or U.S., one Africa, Asia, Middle East or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and a Research Seminar for Majors.

History and Law Track

The History and Law (HL) interdisciplinary track is for students who want to explore the intersections between historical and legal studies. The HL curriculum focuses on the role of legal institutions, policies, and structures in various societies. HL track majors enroll in at least four History department courses that focus on issues of law in civil societies and four courses that provide a geographic concentration. In addition, students enroll in four courses outside History that provide disciplinary or interdisciplinary perspectives on the role of law in shaping societies and a Research Seminar for Majors.

Gateway Course: There is no gateway course for this track. Instead, students take an extra course in the Methodological cluster.

Units
Methodological Cluster
Students enroll in at least four History department courses, including courses outside History taught by faculty affiliated with the department, that focus on how law, policies, constitutions, and legal structures affect the development of various societies. Note: The Methodological Cluster for this HIP contains one extra course since there is no Gateway course.
For 2020-21, these courses are:
HISTORY 63NThe Feminist Critique: The History and Politics of Gender Equality3-4
HISTORY 102AThe Romans3-5
HISTORY 105CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives5
HISTORY 133BRevolutionary England: The Stuart Age5
HISTORY 134AThe European Witch Hunts5
HISTORY 150AColonial and Revolutionary America5
HISTORY 150BNineteenth Century America5
HISTORY 150CThe United States in the Twentieth Century5
HISTORY 179CThe Ethical Challenges of the Climate Catastrophe3-5
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 200ADoing Legal History5
HISTORY 201AThe Global Drug Wars4-5
HISTORY 202FSurveillance States and Societies4-5
HISTORY 203CHistory of Ignorance5
HISTORY 204DAdvanced Topics in Agnotology4-5
HISTORY 204GWar and Society4-5
HISTORY 211Out of Eden: Deportation, Exile, and Expulsion from Antiquity to the Renaissance4-5
HISTORY 222Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe and Russia4-5
HISTORY 224AThe Soviet Civilization4-5
HISTORY 233FPolitical Thought in Early Modern Britain4-5
HISTORY 243CPeople, Plants, and Medicine: Colonial Science and Medicine4-5
HISTORY 243GTobacco and Health in World History4-5
HISTORY 251JThe End of American Slavery, 1776-18654-5
HISTORY 253FThinking the American Revolution4-5
HISTORY 257EHistory of Conservatism4-5
HISTORY 281KDepartures: Late Ottoman Displacements of Muslims, Christians, and Jews, 1853-19235
HISTORY 283FCapital and Crisis in the Middle East and the World5
HISTORY 284FEmpires, Markets and Networks: Early Modern Islamic World Between Europe and China, 1400-19004-5

Geographical Cluster (four courses): Students select four History courses in one geographic area. These are: Europe, Britain and the countries of the former British Empire, Asia, North America, Latin America, the Middle East, or Africa. These four courses must be taken in addition to the three methodological courses required above.

Interdisciplinary Cluster (four courses): Students may select from courses offered in the School of Law, School of Education, and others as appropriate. Note: Courses in the School of Law and School of Education require the permission of the instructor before undergraduate students can enroll, since these are graduate-level courses.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills the Writing in the Major requirement.

General Requirements: Like all history majors, students in History Interdisciplinary Programs must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or U.S., one Africa, Asia, Middle East or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and a Research Seminar for Majors.

Public History/Public Service Track

The Public History/Public Service (PH/PS) interdisciplinary history track is designed for students who wish to include in their course of studies the application of historical study in (1) public settings such as museums and heritage sites, national and state parks, public agencies, and private foundations, and (2) public service settings in non-profit organizations, public agencies, and educational institutions.

PH/PS majors enroll in a gateway course on public history and public service and in four History department courses that provide a geographic concentration as well as completing a two-course methodological requirement. PH/PS majors must also complete an internship through a regularly offered community engaged learning course or through a summer internship or fellowship.  In addition, students, in consultation with the PH/PS faculty coordinator,must complete four courses from outside the History department (see the annual listing of community engaged learning courses [Cardinal Courses] provided by the Haas Center for Public Service). 

Gateway Course (one course): HISTORY 200R Doing Community History: Asian Americans and the Pandemic

Geographical Cluster (four courses): Students select four History courses in one geographic area, such as the United States, Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East, or Africa.

Interdisciplinary Cluster (four courses): Students select four courses from outside the History department that addresses a theme or topic of interest. The faculty coordinator must pre-approve all courses in this cluster.

Methodological Cluster (two courses): Students must enroll in one Sources and Methods seminar course and one additional 200-level History course. The Writing in the Major (WIM) requirement must be completed in a Research Seminar for Majors.

Public Service/Service Learning Internship (one course): Students must engage in at least a one quarter internship through a community engaged learning course or through a full-time public service or public history summer internship or fellowship. This internship must be pre-approved by the faculty coordinator.

Students who complete a paid summer internship in lieu of one for academic credit must enroll in 3 units of HISTORY 299S Undergraduate Directed Research and Writing with the faculty coordinator of the PH/PS track and write a 20-page research paper related to their internship work. This research paper is in addition to that required for the Research Seminar for Majors.

The following History community engaged learning courses are offered in 2020-21:

Units
HISTORY 6WCommunity-Engaged Learning Workshop on Human Trafficking - Part I3
HISTORY 7WCommunity-Engaged Learning Workshop on Human Trafficking - Part II3
HISTORY 200JDoing Oral History5
HISTORY 200MDoing Digital History5
HISTORY 200RDoing Community History: Asian Americans and the Pandemic5
HISTORY 201AThe Global Drug Wars4-5

If students elect to fulfill the internship requirement through a History Department service-learning course, they must enroll in an additional course in either the geographical cluster or the Interdisciplinary cluster in order to complete the 13 courses required for the major.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills Writing in the Major requirement.

General Requirements: As with all history majors, students in History Interdisciplinary Programs must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or US, one Africa, Asia, Middle East or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and a Research Seminar for Majors.

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Additional Information

Overseas Studies or Study Abroad

Courses offered by Stanford's Bing Overseas Studies Program and appearing on the History department's cognate course list automatically receive credit towards the major or minor in History. Course work completed in non-Stanford Study Abroad programs is evaluated for major/minor credit by designated History department faculty on a case-by-case basis. Students in non-Stanford Study Abroad programs are advised to take classes with reading and writing components comparable to History department course loads.

History Secondary Teacher's Credential

Applicants for the Single Subject Teaching Credential (Secondary) in the social studies may obtain information regarding this program from the Credential Administrator, School of Education.

Honors Program

For a limited number of majors, the department offers a special program leading to Departmental Honors in History. Students accepted for this program, in additional to fulfilling the general requirements stated above, begin work as early as Spring Quarter of the junior year and complete the essay by mid-May of the senior year. In addition to HISTORY 299H Junior Honors Colloquium, students must enroll in 11-15 units of Senior Research in the senior year, to be distributed as best fits their specific project. For students in the Honors program, Senior Research units (HISTORY 299A Senior Research IHISTORY 299B Senior Research IIHISTORY 299C Senior Research III) are taken in addition to the thirteen required courses in History.

To enter this program, the student must be accepted by a member of the department who agrees to advise the research and writing of the essay, and must complete the Junior Honors Colloquium (299H) offered in Winter Quarter. An exception to the latter requirement may be made for those studying overseas Winter Quarter of the junior year, but such students should consult with the director of the honors program, if possible, prior to going overseas. Students who study abroad for the entire junior year and want to write an honors thesis should plan to take the Research Seminar for Majors in the first quarter following completion of the study abroad program. Under exceptional circumstances, students are admitted to the program in Autumn Quarter of the senior year. Such students must not enroll in any HISTORY 299A Senior Research IHISTORY 299B Senior Research IIHISTORY 299C Senior Research III, units until HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors, has been completed.

In considering an applicant for such a project, the advisor and director of the honors program take into account general preparation in the field of the project and expect a GPA of at least 3.5 in the student's previous work in History and a 3.3 in overall University work. Students completing the thesis with a grade of 'B+' or higher are eligible for Departmental Honors in History. To enter the Honors program, apply at the Department of History office.

Outstanding honors essays may be considered for the University's Robert M. Golden Medal, as well as for departmental James Birdsall Weter prize.

Honors Program Requirements

To graduate with departmental honors in History, students must:

  1. complete HISTORY 299H Junior Honors Colloquium in the junior year.

  2. maintain a GPA of at least 3.3 in overall University work and a 3.5 in the History major during the final 5 quarters of enrollment/thesis preparation, or obtain the consent of the Director of the Honors Program.

  3. select both a primary thesis advisor (who is a member of the Stanford History faculty) and a secondary advisor (who is a Stanford University faculty member with an active teaching appointment for the duration of academic year 2020-21) no later than Autumn Quarter of the senior year.

  4. submit a completed honors thesis on May 4, 2020 by noon that meets submission requirements and receives a grade of 'B+' or better.

  5. enroll in the 11-15 units of Senior Research as specified below.

  6. participate in mandatory Honors Program activities throughout senior year (including, but not limited to, writing workshops and the annual Honors Presentation Luncheon) as specified in the Honors Program Handbook.

HISTORY 299A Senior Research IHISTORY 299B Senior Research IIHISTORY 299C Senior Research III do not fulfill any history major requirements other than honors, but the units do count towards the 180 required for B.A. degree conferral.

Units
Required Course—To be taken in the junior year:
HISTORY 299HJunior Honors Colloquium1
Required Course—Recommended to be taken in junior year:
HISTORY 209SResearch Seminar for Majors5
To be taken in the senior year:
HISTORY 299ASenior Research I1-5
HISTORY 299BSenior Research II1-5
HISTORY 299CSenior Research III1-5

An exception (for HISTORY 299H Junior Honors Colloquium) may be made for those studying overseas Winter Quarter of the junior year, but such students should consult with the Director of the Honors Program prior to going overseas.

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Joint Major Program in History and Computer Science

The joint major program (JMP) was discontinued at the end of the academic year 2018-19. Students may no longer declare this program. All students with declared joint majors are permitted to complete their degree; faculty and departments are committed to providing the necessary advising support.

See the "Joint Major Program" section of this bulletin for a description of University requirements for the JMP. See also the Undergraduate Advising and Research JMP web site and its associated FAQs.

Students completing the JMP receive a B.A.S. (Bachelor of Arts and Science).

History Major Requirements in the Joint Major Program

See the "Computer Science Joint Major Program" section of this bulletin for details on Computer Science requirements.

Students majoring in the History and Computer Science joint major program fulfill all of the breadth, focus, and WIM requirements of the standard History major. Students in the JMP are excused from completing one elective course, reducing the required unit count of the History major from 63 to 59 units (i.e., from a minimum of 13 courses to 12 courses). All courses comprising the major must be taken for a letter grade. 

For details on the requirements of the History major, see the Bachelor's tab of this section of this bulletin. 

Integrative Capstone Experience

One of the highlights of the JMP is an integrative capstone experience, which enables students to work with faculty mentors in the two departments to devise and complete original projects that bring together the different fields. Some students may choose to complete capstone projects under the auspices of HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors which is the required Writing in the Major requirement for all History majors including those in the JMP. Others may choose to complete their capstones under the auspices of other courses in Computer Science or History, or in the context of senior honors projects in one or the other or both departments. In keeping with University policy, units obtained from a capstone course taken within a particular department can be applied to only that department’s requirements.

Dropping a Joint Major Program

To drop the joint major, students must submit the Declaration or Change of Undergraduate Major, Minor, Honors, or Degree Program. Students may also consult the Student Services Center with questions concerning dropping the joint major.

Transcript and Diploma

Students completing a joint major graduate with a B.A.S. degree. The two majors are identified on one diploma separated by a hyphen. There will be a notation indicating that the student has completed a "Joint Major."  The two majors are identified on the transcript with a notation indicating that the student has completed a "Joint Major."

Minor in History

Students must declare the minor in History no later than Autumn Quarter of the senior year via Axess. Minor declarations are approved by the Department of History and confirmation is sent via email to the student.

Degree Requirements

Candidates for the minor in History must complete six courses, at least three of which must have a field or thematic focus. Students completing the minor may choose to concentrate in such fields as African, American, Asian, British, European (medieval, early modern, or modern), Russian and East European history, comparative empires and cultures, or such thematic topics as the history of gender, the family, religion, technology, or revolution. Students may also petition to have a concentration of their own design count toward the minor.

  • All six courses must be of at least 3 units each and must be taken for a letter grade.
  • The student must maintain a grade point average (GPA) in History courses of 2.0 (C) or higher.
  • Two of the six courses must be small-group in format (Stanford Introductory Seminars, Sources and Methods Seminars, departmental colloquia, and research seminars).
  • History courses taken at Stanford overseas campuses may count toward the minor, but at least three of the six courses must be taken from Stanford History faculty.
  • Advanced Placement credits do not fulfill any minor requirements.

Optional Courses for the Minor

History courses taken at non-Stanford Study Abroad programs may count toward the minor (provided the History Department approves them), but at least three of the six courses must be taken from Stanford History faculty. One course from certain Introduction to the Humanities courses and Thinking Matters courses (those taught by History faculty) may count toward the six-course requirement, but not for the three-course field of concentration. One Undergraduate Directed Research and Writing HISTORY 299S) course may count toward the minor, if taken for 3-5 units and for a letter grade. A maximum of three transfer courses may be used toward the minor.

Coterminal Master's Program in History

The department each year admits a limited number of undergraduates for coterminal M.A. degree in History. Coterminal applications are accepted during Autumn Quarter for admission in Spring Quarter. Applicants are responsible for checking their compliance with University coterminal requirements listed in the "Coterminal Bachelor's and Master's Degrees" section of this bulletin.

Admission

Applicants must meet the same general standards as those seeking admission to the M.A. program. Students must submit the Coterminal Online Application, including a written statement of purpose, a transcript, GRE test scores, and three letters of recommendation, at least two of which should be from members of the Department of History faculty. To be competitive, coterminal applicants should have a 3.75 GPA in their undergraduate history major (or equivalent if they are entering without a History major.) The decision on admission rests with the department faculty upon recommendation by the graduate admissions committee.

Students must meet all requirements for both degrees. They must complete 15 full-time quarters (or the equivalent), or three full-time quarters after completing 180 units, for a total of 225 units. During the senior year they may, with the consent of the instructors, register for as many as two graduate courses. In the final year of study, they must complete at least three courses that fall within a single Ph.D. field.

The application filing deadline is December 1, 2020.

The coterminal M.A. program is not declarable on Axess.

University Coterminal Requirements

Coterminal master’s degree candidates are expected to complete all master’s degree requirements as described in this bulletin. University requirements for the coterminal master’s degree are described in the “Coterminal Master’s Program” section. University requirements for the master’s degree are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

After accepting admission to this coterminal master’s degree program, students may request transfer of courses from the undergraduate to the graduate career to satisfy requirements for the master’s degree. Transfer of courses to the graduate career requires review and approval of both the undergraduate and graduate programs on a case by case basis.

In this master’s program, courses taken during or after the first quarter of the sophomore year are eligible for consideration for transfer to the graduate career; the timing of the first graduate quarter is not a factor. No courses taken prior to the first quarter of the sophomore year may be used to meet master’s degree requirements.

Course transfers are not possible after the bachelor’s degree has been conferred.

The University requires that the graduate advisor be assigned in the student’s first graduate quarter even though the undergraduate career may still be open. The University also requires that the Master’s Degree Program Proposal be completed by the student and approved by the department by the end of the student’s first graduate quarter.

Master of Arts in History

University requirements for the M.A. are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

The department requires the completion of nine courses (totaling not less than 45 units) of graduate work; seven courses of this work must be Department of History courses. Of the seven, one must be a seminar and four must be either graduate colloquia or graduate seminars. Directed reading may be counted for a maximum of 10 units. A candidate whose undergraduate training in history is deemed inadequate must complete nine courses of graduate work in the department. The department does not recognize for credit toward the M.A. degree any work that has not received the grade of 'A' or 'B.'

Terminal M.A. Program

Applicants who do not wish to continue beyond the M.A. degree are admitted to this program at the discretion of the faculty in individual fields (U.S., modern Europe, and so on). Students admitted may not apply to enter the Ph.D. program in History during the course of work for the M.A. degree.

M.A. in Teaching (History)

The department cooperates with the School of Education in offering the Master of Arts in Teaching degree. For the general requirements, see the "Graduate School of Education" section of this bulletin. For certain additional requirements made by the Department of History, contact the department office. Candidates must possess a teaching credential or relevant teaching experience.

Admission

Applicants for admission to graduate work must take the General Test of the Graduate Record Examination. It may be taken at most American colleges and in nearly all foreign countries. For details, see the Graduate Admissions web site.

Students admitted to graduate standing do not automatically become candidates for a graduate degree. With the exception of students in the terminal M.A. program, they are admitted with the expectation that they will be working toward the Ph.D. degree and may become candidates to receive the M.A. degree after completing three quarters of work.

The application filing deadline is December 1, 2020.

Doctor of Philosophy in History

University requirements for the Ph.D. are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

Students planning to work for the doctorate in history should be familiar with the general degree requirements of the University outlined in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin. Those interested in applying for admission to the M.A. and Ph.D. programs should contact the graduate program coordinator in the History department. Online applications are available in September of the year prior to intended enrollment. The application filing deadline is December 1, 2020. Applicants must file a report of their general scores on the Graduate Record Examination and submit a writing sample of 10-25 pages on a historical topic. Successful applicants for the M.A. and Ph.D. programs may enter only in Autumn Quarter.

Upon enrollment in the graduate program in History, the student has a member of the department designated as an adviser with whom to plan the Ph.D. program. Much of the first two years of graduate study is spent taking courses, and, from the outset, the student should be aware that the ultimate objective is not merely the completion of courses but preparation for general examinations and for writing a dissertation.

Admission to the Department of History in the graduate division does not establish any rights respecting candidacy for an advanced degree. At the end of the first year of graduate study, students are evaluated by the faculty and given a progress report. A decision as to whether the student is admitted to candidacy for the Ph.D. is normally made by the start of the student's third year.

After the completion of certain further requirements, students must apply for acceptance for candidacy for the doctorate in the graduate division of the University.

Admission

Applicants for admission to graduate work must take the General Test of the Graduate Record Examination. It may be taken at most American colleges and in nearly all foreign countries. For details, see the Office of Graduate Admissions web site.

Students admitted to graduate standing do not automatically become candidates for a graduate degree. With the exception of students in the terminal M.A. program, they are admitted with the expectation that they will be working toward the Ph.D. degree and may become candidates to receive the M.A. degree after completing three quarters of work.

The application filing deadline is December 1, 2020.

Degree Requirements

Required Courses

Units
For all first-year Ph.D. students
HISTORY 304Approaches to History4-5
HISTORY 305Graduate Pedagogy Workshop1
For first-year and second-year Ph.D students in American History
HISTORY 351ACore in American History, Part I4-5
HISTORY 351BCore in American History, Part II4-5
HISTORY 351CCore in American History, Part III4-5
HISTORY 351DCore in American History, Part IV4-5
HISTORY 351ECore in American History, Part V4-5
HISTORY 351FCore in American History, Part VI4-5

Other Graduate Core Colloquia required for Ph.D. students studying in fields other than the above are listed in the Department of History's Graduate Handbook.

University Oral Examinations

The student is expected to take the University oral examination in the major concentration in the third graduate year.

Dissertation

The student must complete and submit a dissertation which is the result of independent work and is a contribution to knowledge. It should evidence the command of approved techniques of research, ability to organize findings, and competence in expression. For details and procedural information, inquire in the department.

Dissertation Committee

The reading committee consists of the principal dissertation adviser (first reader), and two additional members of the Department (second and third readers) agreed upon by the adviser and the student.

Financial Support

Students who are admitted with financial support are provided multiple years of support through fellowships, teaching and research assistantships, and tuition grants. Applicants should indicate on the admissions application whether they wish to be considered for such support. No separate application for financial aid is required.

U.S. citizens and permanent resident aliens who are interested in area language studies in East Asia, Africa, and the republics of the former Soviet Union may request a Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) fellowship application from the FLAS coordinator of the respective programs offering the FLAS (CEAS, CAS, CREEES). The FLAS application deadlines are in January and February (CAS).

Resources

The degree requirements section relates to formal requirements, but the success of a student's graduate program depends in large part on the quality of the guidance received from faculty and on the library resources available. Prospective graduate applicants are advised to study the list of History faculty and the courses this faculty offers. As to library resources, no detailed statement is possible in this bulletin, but areas in which library resources are unusually strong are described following.

The University Library maintains strong general collections in almost all fields of history. It has a very large microtext collection, including, for instance, all items listed in Charles Evans' American Bibliography, and in the Short-Title Catalogues of English publications, 1474-1700, and virtually complete microfilmed documents of the Department of State to 1906. It also has a number of valuable special collections including the Borel Collection on the History of California; many rare items on early American and early modern European history; the Brasch Collection on Sir Isaac Newton and scientific thought during his time; the Gimon Collection on French political economy, and other such materials.

The rich collection of the Hoover Institution on the causes, conduct, and results of WW I and WW II are being augmented for the post-1945 period. The materials include government documents, newspaper and serial files, and organization and party publications (especially the British and German Socialist parties). There are also important manuscript collections, including unpublished records of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and the Herbert Hoover archives, which contain the records of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, the American Relief Administration, the various technical commissions established at the close of WW I for reconstruction in Central and Eastern Europe, the personal papers of Herbert Hoover as United States Food Administrator, and other important personal papers. Other materials for the period since 1914 relate to revolutions and political ideologies of international importance; colonial and minority problems; propaganda and public opinion; military occupation; peace plans and movements; international relations; international organizations and administration including the publications of the United Nations, as well as principal international conferences. The Hoover Institution also possesses some of the richest collections available anywhere on the British labor movement; Eastern Europe, including the Soviet Union; East Asia (runs of important newspapers and serials and extensive documentary collections, especially for the period of WW II); and Africa since 1860, especially French-speaking Africa, the former British colonies, and South Africa.

Requirements

  1. In consultation with the adviser, students select an area of study from the list below in which to concentrate their study and later take the University oral examination. The major concentrations are:
    • Europe, 300-1500
    • Europe, 1400-1800
    • Europe since 1700
    • Jewish History
    • Russia
    • Eastern Europe
    • Middle East and Central Asia
    • South Asia
    • East Asia before 1600
    • China since 1600
    • Japan since 1600
    • Korea since 1800
    • Africa
    • Britain and the British Empire since 1460
    • Latin America
    • The United States (including colonial America)
    • The History of Science and Medicine
    • Transnational, International, and Global
  2. The department seeks to provide a core colloquium in every major concentration. Students normally enroll in this colloquium during the first year of graduate study.
  3. Students are required to take two research seminars, at least one in the major concentration. Normally, research seminars are taken in the first and second years.
  4. Each student, in consultation with the adviser, defines a secondary concentration. This concentration should represent a total of four graduate courses or their equivalents, and it may be fulfilled by working in a historical concentration or an interdisciplinary concentration. The historical concentrations include:
    1. One of the concentrations listed above (other than the student's major concentration).
    2. One of the concentrations listed below, which falls largely outside the student's major concentration:
      • The Ancient Greek World
      • The Roman World
      • Europe, 300-1000
      • Europe, 1000-1400
      • Europe, 1400-1600
      • Europe, 1600-1789
      • Europe, 1700-1871
      • Europe since 1848
      • England, 450-1460
      • Britain and the British Empire, 1460-1714
      • Britain and the British Empire since 1714
      • Russia to 1800
      • Russia since 1800
      • Eastern Europe to 1800
      • Eastern Europe since 1800
      • Jewish History
      • Middle East and Central Asia to 1800
      • Middle East and Central Asia since 1800
      • Africa
      • South Asia
      • China before 1600
      • China since 1600
      • Japan before 1600
      • Japan since 1600
      • Latin America to 1825
      • Latin America since 1810
      • The United States (including Colonial America) to 1865
      • The United States since 1850
      • The History of Science and Medicine
      • Transnational, International, and Global
    3. Work in a national history of sufficiently long time to span chronologically two or more major concentrations. For example, a student with Europe since 1700 as a major concentration may take France from 1000 to the present as a secondary concentration.
    4. A comparative study of a substantial subject across countries or periods. The secondary concentration requirement may also be satisfied in an interdisciplinary concentration. Students plan these concentrations in consultation with their advisers. Interconcentrations require course work outside the Department of History which is related to the student's training as a historian. Interdisciplinary course work can either add to a student's technical competence or broaden his or her approach to the problems of the research concentration.
  5. Each student, before conferral of the Ph.D., is required to satisfy the department's teaching requirement.
  6. There is no University or department foreign language requirement for the Ph.D. degree. A reading knowledge of one or more foreign languages is required in concentrations where appropriate. The faculty in the major concentration prescribes the necessary languages. In no concentration is a student required to take examinations in more than two foreign languages. Certification of competence in commonly taught languages (that is, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish) for candidates seeking to fulfill the language requirement in this fashion is done by the appropriate language department of the University. Certification of competence in other languages is determined in a manner decided on by faculty in the major concentration. In either case, certification of language competence must be accomplished before a student takes the University oral examination.
  7. The student is expected to take the University oral examination in the major concentration in the third graduate year.
  8. The student must complete and submit a dissertation which is the result of independent work and is a contribution to knowledge. It should evidence the command of approved techniques of research, ability to organize findings, and competence in expression. For details and procedural information, inquire in the department.

Ph.D. Minor in History

Students pursuing a Ph.D. other than in History may apply for the Ph.D. Minor in History. Ph.D. students cannot pursue a minor in their own program. The minimum University requirement for a Ph.D. minor is 20 units of History course work at the graduate level (courses numbered 300 and above) at Stanford. All units should be in a single field. Units taken for the minor can be counted as part of the overall requirement for the Ph.D. of 135 units taken at Stanford. Courses used for a minor may not be used to meet the requirements for a master's degree.

Degree Requirements

20 units of History course work at the graduate level (HISTORY 300-399W and 400-499X) at Stanford. All units should be in a single field.

Optional Courses for the Minor

A Ph.D. minor form outlining the program of study must be approved by the major and minor departments.

COVID-19 Policies

On July 30, the Academic Senate adopted grading policies effective for all undergraduate and graduate programs, excepting the professional Graduate School of Business, School of Law, and the School of Medicine M.D. Program. For a complete list of those and other academic policies relating to the pandemic, see the "COVID-19 and Academic Continuity" section of this bulletin.

The Senate decided that all undergraduate and graduate courses offered for a letter grade must also offer students the option of taking the course for a “credit” or “no credit” grade and recommended that deans, departments, and programs consider adopting local policies to count courses taken for a “credit” or “satisfactory” grade toward the fulfillment of degree-program requirements and/or alter program requirements as appropriate.


Undergraduate Degree Requirements

Grading

The Department of History will accept courses taken with a CR/NC or S/NC grading basis toward the major for the entire period of remote learning in AY 2020-21, with the exception of the honors thesis which must be taken for a letter grade.

Graduate Degree Requirements

Grading

The Department of History expects graduate students to take classes for a letter grade and they should enroll for the letter grade option when available in Axess. If a problem arises over the course of the quarter, the student may request an extension or withdraw from the course (in accordance with University rules). The department will work with students to help in any way it can.    

Graduate Advising Expectations

The Department of History is committed to providing academic advising in support of graduate student scholarly and professional development. When most effective, this advising relationship entails collaborative and sustained engagement by both the adviser and the advisee. As a best practice, advising expectations should be periodically discussed and reviewed to ensure mutual understanding. Both the adviser and the advisee are expected to maintain professionalism and integrity.

Faculty advisers guide students in key areas such as selecting courses, designing and conducting research, developing of teaching pedagogy, navigating policies and degree requirements, and exploring academic opportunities and professional pathways.

Graduate students are active contributors to the advising relationship, proactively seeking academic and professional guidance and taking responsibility for informing themselves of policies and degree requirements for their graduate program.

Upon enrolling, all students plan their work under the direction of a faculty member designated by the Department as their adviser. Entering students should meet with their adviser to discuss the selection of courses, choice of major and secondary fields, and the overall plan of their graduate programs. Faculty advisers and graduate student advisees meet at least once a quarter to assess the advisee’s course of study, performance over the past quarter, and plans for the next quarter’s program of study. Students should consult with their advisers on all academic matters. Faculty should help their advisees plan for orals, research grant applications, research projects, and the dissertation. Until a student is advanced to candidacy, the Director of Graduate Studies reviews the student's quarterly transcript and the adviser's evaluation. 

Normally the original adviser remains in this capacity during a student’s period of graduate study. However, in the event that a student wishes to change the admitting adviser, they may do so after consultation with and approval of the two faculty members involved. The necessary forms are available from the Graduate Program Coordinator.

The Director of Graduate Studies supervises the Graduate Program in the Department. The Director’s duties include approving the committees for the University oral examination, dissertation prospectus, and dissertation, certifying graduate students’ progress to degree and completion of University and Departmental requirements, and chairing the Department’s Committee on Graduate Studies.

For a statement of University policy on graduate advising, see the "Graduate Advising" section of this bulletin.

Emeriti: (Professors) Barton J. Bernstein, Joel Beinin, Albert Camarillo, Clayborne Carson, Peter Duus, Terence Emmons, David M. Kennedy, David Holloway, Carolyn Lougee Chappell, Mark Mancall, Peter Paret, Jack N. Rakove, Paul A. Robinson, James J. Sheehan, Peter Stansky, Lyman P. Van Slyke, Richard White; (Senior Lecturer) Joseph J. Corn

Chair: Caroline Winterer

Vice Chair: Jessica Riskin

Director of Graduate Studies: Londa Schiebinger

Director of Graduate Teaching: David R. Como

Director of Undergraduate Studies: Fiona Griffiths

Honors Director: James P. Daughton

Professors: Keith M. Baker, James T. Campbell, Gordon Chang, Robert Crews, David R. Como, Paula Findlen, Zephyr Frank, Estelle Freedman, Fiona Griffiths, Stephen Haber, Gabrielle Hecht, Nancy S. Kollmann, Mark E. Lewis, Thomas S. Mullaney, Norman M. Naimark, Robert Proctor, Jessica Riskin, Richard L. Roberts, Aron Rodrigue, Priya Satia, Walter Scheidel, Londa Schiebinger, Matthew H. Sommer, Kären E. Wigen, Caroline Winterer, Steven J. Zipperstein

Associate Professors: Jennifer Burns, James P. Daughton, Allyson V. Hobbs, Ana Raquel Minian, Yumi Moon, Laura Stokes, Jun Uchida, Amir Weiner, Ali Yaycioglu

Assistant Professors: Nora E. Barakat, Joel Cabrita, Rowan Dorin, Jonathan Gienapp, Kathryn Olivarius, Steven M. Press, Mikael D. Wolfe

Courtesy Professors: Gregory Ablavsky, Rabia Belt, Giovanna Ceserani, Daniel Edelstein, Lawrence Friedman, Avner Greif, Amalia Kessler, David F. Labaree, Kathryn Gin Lum, Reviel Netz, Richard P. Saller, Fred Turner, Sam Wineburg

Senior Lecturers: Katherine Jolluck, Martin W. Lewis

Lecturer: Gil-li Vardi, J'Nese Williams, Adrien Zakar

Overseas Studies Courses in History

The Bing Overseas Studies Program (BOSP) manages Stanford international and domestic study away programs for Stanford undergraduates. Students should consult their department or program's student services office for applicability of Overseas Studies courses to a major or minor program.

The BOSP course search site displays courses, locations, and quarters relevant to specific majors.

For course descriptions and additional offerings, see the listings in the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses or Bing Overseas Studies.

Due to COVID-19, all BOSP programs have been suspended for Autumn Quarter 2020-21. All courses and quarters of operation are subject to change.


Units
OSPAUSTL 40Australian Studies: History, Society and Culture Down Under3
OSPBER 70The Long Way to the West: German History from the 18th Century to the Present4-5
OSPBER 79Political Economy of Germany in Europe: an Historical-Comparative Perspective4-5
OSPBER 83Refugees and Germany3-4
OSPCPTWN 38Genocide: African Experiences in Comparative Perspective3-5
OSPFLOR 47Faith, Science, and the Classical Tradition in Renaissance Florence4
OSPFLOR 49On-Screen Battles: Filmic Portrayals of Fascism and World War II5
OSPFLOR 58Space as History: Social Vision and Urban Change4
OSPFLOR 115YBuilding the Cathedral and the Town Hall: Constructing and Deconstructing Symbols of a Civilization4
OSPHONGK 23China Under Mao4
OSPMADRD 47Cultural Relations between Spain and the United States:Historical Perceptions and Influences, 1776-24
OSPOXFRD 41Western Thought: Origins of Twentieth Century Semiotics4-5
OSPOXFRD 81Displacement and Identity in 20th Century Europe4-5
OSPSANTG 20Comparative Law & Society: Conflicts in the Structuring of Democratic Polities across Latin America4-5
OSPSANTG 62Topics in Chilean History4-5
OSPSANTG 68The Emergence of Nations in Latin America4-5

Courses

HISTORY 1A. Global History: The Ancient World. 3-5 Units.

World history from the origins of humanity to the Black Death. Focuses on the evolution of complex societies, wealth, violence, hierarchy, and large-scale belief systems.
Same as: CLASSICS 76

HISTORY 1B. Global History: The Early Modern World, 1300 to 1800. 3-5 Units.

(Course is offered for 3 OR 5 units.) Topics include early globalization and cross-cultural exchanges; varying and diverse cultural formations in different parts of the world; the growth and interaction of empires and states; the rise of capitalism and the economic divergence of "the west"; changes in the nature of technology, including military and information technologies; migration of ideas and people (including the slave-trade); disease, climate, and environmental change over time. Designed to accommodate beginning students, non-majors, and more advanced history students.

HISTORY 1C. Global History: Modern Times. 3-5 Units.

HISTORY 1C explores the making of our modern world. It investigates the interconnectednhistories of revolution, war, imperialism, migration, race, slavery, democracy, rebellion, nnationalism, feminism, socialism, fascism, genocide, anti-colonialism, neoliberalism, and npopulist authoritarianism. Analyzing memoirs, novels, films, and other sources, we will ninvestigate how key political ideas have transformed societies, cultures, and economies nacross the globe from the late eighteenth century through to the present.

HISTORY 3D. Dangerous Ideas. 1 Unit.

Ideas matter. Concepts such as revolution, tradition, and hell have inspired social movements, shaped political systems, and dramatically influenced the lives of individuals. Others, like immigration, universal basic income, and youth play an important role in contemporary debates in the United States. All of these ideas are contested, and they have a real power to change lives, for better and for worse. In this one-unit class we will examine these "dangerous" ideas. Each week, a faculty member from a different department in the humanities and arts will explore a concept that has shaped human experience across time and space. Some weeks will have short reading assignments, but you are not required to purchase any materials.
Same as: ARTHIST 36, COMPLIT 36A, EALC 36, ENGLISH 71, ETHICSOC 36X, FRENCH 36, MUSIC 36H, PHIL 36, POLISCI 70, RELIGST 36X, SLAVIC 36

HISTORY 3E. Michelle Obama in American Culture. 1 Unit.

Never before has the United States had a First Lady like Michelle Obama. During her eight years in the White House, Michelle Obama transformed traditional meanings of womanhood, marriage, motherhood, and style and created new possibilities for what it means to be strong and what it means to be beautiful. No First Lady has ever been so scrutinized but also so beloved: from her J. Crew dresses to her Let's Move campaign, from her vegetable gardens to her chiseled arms, and from her powerful speeches to her casual and always authentic personality. This class examines the impact on American culture of the most popular First Lady in American history.
Same as: AFRICAAM 3E, AMSTUD 3E, CSRE 3E, FEMGEN 3E

HISTORY 3F. The Changing Face of War: Introduction to Military History. 3-5 Units.

Introduces students to the rich history of military affairs and, at the same time, examines the ways in which we think of change and continuity in military history. How did war evolve from ancient times, both in styles of warfare and perceptions of war? What is the nature of the relationship between war and society? Is there such a thing as a Western way of war? What role does technology play in transforming military affairs? What is a military revolution and can it be manufactured or induced? Chronologically following the evolution of warfare from Ancient Greece to present day so-called new wars, we will continuously investigate how the interdependencies between technological advances, social change, philosophical debates and economic pressures both shaped and were influenced by war. Students satisfying the WiM requirement for the major in International Relations, must enroll in INTNLREL 103F course listing.
Same as: HISTORY 103F, INTNLREL 103F

HISTORY 3G. Hamilton: An American Musical. 1 Unit.

"Hamilton" is one the most popular and most celebrated musicals in American history. It has received 11 Tony Awards, including best musical, and 16 Tony nominations, the most nominations in Broadway history. It won the Pulitzer Prize and a Grammy Award. The musical draws on the language and rhythms of hip-hop and R & B, genres that are underrepresented in the musical theater tradition. "Hamilton" has redefined the American musical, particularly in terms of sound, casting, and storytelling. What explains the deep cultural impact and acclaim for this play?n nThis interdisciplinary course examines Alexander Hamilton and his world as well as Hamilton: An American Musical through a series of lectures from faculty in History, Theater and Performance Studies, English, Music, and Writing and Rhetoric.
Same as: AFRICAAM 5I, AMSTUD 5I, CSRE 5I

HISTORY 3J. Human Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives. 1 Unit.

Interdisciplinary approach to understanding the extent and complexity of the global phenomenon of human trafficking, especially for forced prostitution, labor exploitation, and organ trade, focusing on human rights violations and remedies. Provides a historical context for the development and spread of human trafficking. Analyzes the current international and domestic legal and policy frameworks to combat trafficking and evaluates their practical implementation.

HISTORY 3N. Terrorism. 4 Units.

Why do we categorize some acts of violence as terrorism? How do the practitioners of such violence legitimize their actions? What are the effects of terror on culture, society, and politics? This course explores these questions around the globe from the nineteenth century to the present. Topics include the Russian populists, Ku Klux Klan, IRA, al Qaida, state terror, and the representation of terrorism in law, journalism, literature, film, and TV.

HISTORY 3S. A Global History of the Apocalypse: Millenarian Movements in the Modern World. 5 Units.

This course will examine the rise, fall, and legacy of modern millenarian movements-- movements that claim that our corrupt world is about to be swept away, to be replaced with a particular version of paradise-- in a global perspective. Drawing on an array of sources ranging from proclamations, diaries, criminal confessions, newspaper accounts, cartoons, songs, photographs, and films, we will explore what, if anything, these movements had in common, and their connections to and influences on one another.

HISTORY 4N. A World History of Genocide. 3-5 Units.

Reviews the history of genocide from ancient times until the present. Defines genocide, both in legal and historical terms, and investigates its causes, consequences, and global dimensions. Issues of prevention, punishment, and interdiction. Main periods of concern are the ancient world, Spanish colonial conquest; early modern Asia; settler genocides in America, Australia, and Africa; the Armenian genocide and the Holocaust; genocide in communist societies; and late 20th century genocide.
Same as: JEWISHST 4N

HISTORY 5C. Human Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 105C. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 105C.) Interdisciplinary approach to understanding the extent and complexity of the global phenomenon of human trafficking, especially for forced prostitution, labor exploitation, and organ trade, focusing on human rights violations and remedies. Provides a historical context for the development and spread of human trafficking. Analyzes the current international and domestic legal and policy frameworks to combat trafficking and evaluates their practical implementation. Examines the medical, psychological, and public health issues involved. Uses problem-based learning. Students interested in service learning should consult with the instructor and will enroll in an additional course.
Same as: CSRE 5C, FEMGEN 5C, INTNLREL 5C

HISTORY 5Q. The History of Information: From Movable Type to Machine Learning. 4 Units.

Information has a history-- and it's not the one you've been told by Silicon Valley. In a series of propulsive, empirically rich, and provocative lectures and discussions, this course deep-dives into the history of information and IT, including moveable type, telegraphy, typewriting, personal computing, gaming, social media, algorithms, machine learning, Digital Humanities, and more. You will leave the course with entirely new perspectives on information, including how IT shapes-- and is shaped by-- culture, nationality, gender, ethnicity, economy, and environment.

HISTORY 5S. Comparative Partitions: Religion, Identity, and the Nation-State. 5 Units.

This course looks at demands for representation made by religious minority communities, specifically by Indian Muslim and European Jewish intellectuals, in the twentieth century. We will explore what national belonging means from the perspective of minorities against the backdrop of global discussions of anticolonialism, national self determination, and equal representation. Through primary sources, namely political tracts and speeches, oral histories, literary sources, and historical maps, we question how authors from different backgrounds constructed religious communities as nations in need of states.
Same as: FEMGEN 5S

HISTORY 6W. Community-Engaged Learning Workshop on Human Trafficking - Part I. 3 Units.

Considers purpose, practice, and ethics of service learning. Provides training for students' work in community. Examines current scope of human trafficking in Bay Area, pressing concerns, capacity and obstacles to effectively address them. Students work with community partners dedicated to confronting human trafficking and problems it entails on a daily basis. Must currently be enrolled in or have previously taken HISTORY 5C/105C (FEMGEN 5C/105C, HumBio 178H, IR 105C, CSRE 5C/105C). (Cardinal Course certified by the Haas Center).
Same as: FEMGEN 6W, HUMRTS 6W

HISTORY 7W. Community-Engaged Learning Workshop on Human Trafficking - Part II. 3 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY6W (FEMGEN 6W). Continuation of HISTORY 6W (FEMGEN 6W). Students will continue working on their projects with their community partners. Several class meetings and small group consultations throughout the quarter. (Cardinal Course certified by the Haas Center).
Same as: FEMGEN 7W, HUMRTS 7W

HISTORY 9N. How to Start Your Own Country: Sovereignty and State-Formation in Modern History. 3 Units.

What does it mean to start a country, or to acquire and possess sovereignty over a territory? This course will examine the historical evolution of fundamental concepts in our international system: state formation, statehood, and sovereignty. Each week will spotlight a case-study in which sovereignty and statehood have appeared greatly confused and hotly contested. These include: the UK-China lease for control of Hong Kong; the US Naval Station in Guantanamo Bay; the corporate state of the legendary British East India Company; and Disney World.

HISTORY 9R. Humanities Research Intensive. 2 Units.

Everyone knows that scientists do research, but how do you do research in the humanities? This five-day course, taught over spring break, will introduce you to the excitement of humanities research, while preparing you to develop an independent summer project or to work as a research assistant for a Stanford professor. Through hands-on experience with archival materials in Special Collections and the East Asia Library, you will learn how to formulate a solid research question; how to gather the evidence that will help you to answer that question; how to write up research results; how to critique the research of your fellow students; how to deliver your results in a public setting; and how to write an effective grant proposal. Students who complete this course become Humanities Research Intensive Fellows and receive post-program mentorship during spring quarter, ongoing opportunities to engage with faculty and advanced undergraduates, and eligibility to apply for additional funding to support follow-up research. Freshmen and sophomores only. All majors and undeclared students welcome. No prior research experience necessary. Enrollment limited: apply by 11/4/19 at hri-fellows.stanford.edu.
Same as: CLASSICS 9R, EALC 9R, ENGLISH 9R

HISTORY 10C. The Problem of Modern Europe. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 110C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 110C.) From the late 18th century to the present. How Europeans responded to rapid social changes caused by political upheaval, industrialization, and modernization. How the experience and legacy of imperialism and colonialism both influenced European society and put in motion a process of globalization that continues to shape international politics today.

HISTORY 10N. Thinking About War. 3 Units.

This course examines classic approaches to war as an intellectual problem, looking at how a matter of such great physical violence and passions can be subjected to understanding and used in philosophy, political theory, and art. Questions to be examined include the definition of war, its causes, its moral value, the nature of its participants, its use in the self-definition of individuals and societies, its relation to political authority, warfare and gender, and the problem of civil war.

HISTORY 10SC. Biography in History, Fiction, and Elsewhere. 2 Units.

How biographers, novelists, critics and others have written about the rhythms of life the lives of the famous as well as the obscure - will be explored in this course. Biographical writing can be frivolous, but at its best it has the capacity to undercover so much of life's richness, complexity, and confusions. We'll study biography with the use of some of the most resonant, compelling examples of the genre. Together we'll read books about poets Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes, Henry James Aspern Papers, the brilliant novel on biographical writing, A. S. Byatt's Possession, and Norman Mailer on Marilyn Monroe. How one chooses one topic over another; the differences and similarities between the representation of lives in fiction and biography; the benefits and pitfalls of an intense identification with one's own subjects these and other matters will be examined. We'll meet in San Francisco with local writers wrestling with issues of this sort, and students will be encouraged to try their hands at writing about lives based on research, personal observation, or both.

HISTORY 11N. The Roman Empire: Its Grandeur and Fall. 4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Explore themes on the Roman Empire and its decline from the 1st through the 5th centuries C.E.. What was the political and military glue that held this diverse, multi-ethnic empire together? What were the bases of wealth and how was it distributed? What were the possibilities and limits of economic growth? How integrated was it in culture and religion? What were the causes and consequences of the conversion to Christianity? Why did the Empire fall in the West? How suitable is the analogy of the U.S. in the 21st century?.
Same as: CLASSICS 26N

HISTORY 11SC. How Is a Buddhist. 2 Units.

Buddhism as a system of thought, a culture, a way of life, a definition of reality, a method for investigating it, and a mental, physical, and social practice. Buddhism as a total phenomenon. Readings, films, music, and art. How Buddhist practices constitue the world of the Buddhist.

HISTORY 11W. Service-Learning Workshop on Issues of Education Equity. 1 Unit.

Introduces students to a variety of issues at stake in the public education of at-risk high school youth in California. Participants will hear from some of the leading faculty in the School of Education as well as the Departments of Psychology, Sociology, and others, who will share perspectives on the problems and challenges of educating a diverse student body in the state's public school system. The service-learning component of the workshop is a mentoring project (Stanford Students for Educational Equity) with junior class history students from East Palo Alto Academy High School, a Stanford charter school.
Same as: CSRE 11W

HISTORY 12. Medicine and Disease in the Ancient World. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 112. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 112.) This course explores medicine and disease through case studies from civilizations of the ancient world such as Egypt, Greece, and Peru. We will discuss how these cultures conceptualized disease, and in turn, how they contended with illnesses. Lectures will address different forms of illness through medical texts, art, and human remains. Weekly discussion will incorporate evidence from these sources to explore both their potential and their limitations.

HISTORY 12N. Income and wealth inequality from the Stone Age to the present. 4 Units.

Rising inequality is a defining feature of our time. How long has economic inequality existed, and when, how and why has the gap between haves and have-nots widened or narrowed over the course of history? This seminar takes a very long-term view of these questions. It is designed to help you appreciate dynamics and complexities that are often obscured by partisan controversies and short-term perspectives, and to provide solid historical background for a better understanding of a growing societal concern.
Same as: CLASSICS 12N

HISTORY 13S. Misfits of the Middle Ages: Persecution and Tolerance in Medieval Europe. 5 Units.

Medieval Europe is infamous for its persecutions. In the popular imagination, the Middle Ages were a uniquely unhappy time for Jews, heretics, lepers, witches, and countless other outsiders. But what is the truth about Europe¿s ¿Dark Ages?¿ What was it actually like to be a Jew in medieval Italy, a leper in England, a heretic in France? Who carried out the persecutions, what motivated them to violence, and did they actually succeed? How do the experiences of medieval Europe¿s outsiders still inform our own notions of tolerance, human rights, and inclusion today?.

HISTORY 15D. Europe in the Middle Ages, 300-1500. 3-5 Units.

This course provides an introduction to Medieval Europe from the fall of Rome to the Renaissance. While the framework of the course is chronological, we'll concentrate particularly on the structure of medieval society. Rural and urban life, kingship and papal government, wars and plagues provide the context for our examination of the lives of medieval people, what they believed, and how they interacted with other, both within Christendom and beyond it. This course may count as DLCL 123, a course requirement for the Medieval Studies Minor.
Same as: HISTORY 115D, RELIGST 115X

HISTORY 15N. Inequality: the Last 100,000 Years. 3 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 13N.) This seminar traces the evolution of resource inequality from the Stone Age to the present. Only this long-term perspective reveals the forces that drive inequality and allows us to address two key questions: what causes inequality, and what factors have been capable of reducing it, at least for a while? We are going to confront challenging arguments: that inequality has been closely tied up with overall economic and human development, and that over the long course of history, war, revolution and pestilence were the most effective equalizers of income and wealth. This class will help you appreciate contexts and complexities that are usually obscured by partisan polemics and short-term thinking. Seminar participants will be directly involved in the instructor's current research project on the history of inequality.
Same as: CLASSICS 28N

HISTORY 16. Traders and Crusaders in the Medieval Mediterranean. 3-5 Units.

Trade and crusade were inextricably interconnected in the high Middle Ages. As merchant ships ferried knights and pilgrims across the Mediterranean, rulers borrowed heavily to finance their expeditions, while military expansion opened new economic opportunities. Course themes include the origins of the Crusading movement; the rise of Venice and other maritime powers; the pivotal roles of the Byzantine and Mongol Empires; relations between Christians, Muslims, and Jews; new military, maritime, and commercial technologies; and the modern legacy of the Crusades.
Same as: HISTORY 116

HISTORY 18S. Pirates, Captives, and Renegades: Encounters in the Early Modern Mediterranean World. 5 Units.

In this course, we will study how mobile subjects, such as (barbary) pirates, slaves, captives, renegades, merchants, and dragomans shaped the history of the early modern Mediterranean. By studying a range of primary sources, including official documents, chronicles, travel accounts, autobiographical texts, objects, and visual materials, we will analyze how people living on the Mediterranean's European, Asian, and African littorals experienced and influenced interactions between regional powers, such as the Italian city states, Spain, Portugal, France, Morocco, and the Ottoman Empire. In order to analyze these accounts, we will employ various historical methods and evaluate what is at stake in understanding cross-cultural/religious encounters and exchanges in the Mediterranean world during the early modern period.

HISTORY 23N. The Soviet Union and the World: View from the Hoover Archives. 3 Units.

This course seeks to explore the Soviet Union's influence on the world from 1917 to its end in 1991 from a variety of perspectives. Hoover Institution archival holdings will be the basic sources for the course.

HISTORY 23S. Sex and Socialism. 5 Units.

Among the major promises made by socialism and communism was the liberation of women from an imperialist, capitalist, and patriarchal world. How did these promises hold up in the face of the realities of revolution and state formation? This course explores the relationship between gender, sex, and sexuality within the state socialist polities of the 20th century. Topics include diversity in barricades and workplaces, motherhood and reproductive rights, medicine and sexology, incarceration and state violence, and homosexuality and gender non-conformity.

HISTORY 25. St. Petersburg: A Cultural Biography. 1 Unit.

This course explores the rich cultural heritage of St. Petersburg: art, architecture, urban planning, literature, dance, music, theater. Lectures will be extensively slide-illustrated, particularly on architecture and art. The course will meet Thursday evenings 7:00-9:00 pm as part of the Continuing Studies Program (CSP) for adult students; undergraduate students are welcome to participate by enrolling in this 1-unit History course. Readings will be posted in Coursework for CSP participants and will be available but optional for undergraduate students. Satisfactory credit for undergraduates will be earned by attending 80% of the lectures and by submitting a 5-page paper on a topic of the student's choice utilizing the CSP assigned readings and sources suggested by the instructor.

HISTORY 25N. Stalin's Europe, 1944-1948. 3 Units.

This freshman seminar explores the history of wartime and postwar Europe through the lenses of the communist parties of Europe, the anti-Soviet forces on the continent, the devastation of the civilian population, and the intentions and actions of the Soviet Union on the one hand, and the United States on the other. We will analyze issues of resistance and collaboration under the Nazis, Allied occupation, and the division of Europe. We will also consider the forcible displacement of peoples and the fate of Jewish survivors. The idea is to understand the harsh and complex realities of European life and politics in this crucial time frame spanning war and peace. One can discover the beginnings of the Cold War in this period, the first signs of the "Iron Curtain," and the origins of the European Union. Our sources for the reconstruction of European life at this crucial time include documents, memoirs, literature, film, and various collections at the Hoover Archives. In addition to analyzing written and visual materials in discussion, presentations, and short essays, you will engage in a quarter long project on one thematic or country study during this period.

HISTORY 28S. Napoleon. 5 Units.

This course examines the life and times of Napoleon Bonaparte. For twenty years, Napoleon commanded and captivated Europe, evoking fascination and fear in equal measure and profoundly shaping the course of the modern world. In this course we follow the arc of his career, from revolutionary to emperor to exile, with each week devoted to a different theme of his life and the age in which he lived. Topics include politics, warfare, revolution, colonialism, gender, popular culture, and the arts. The course has no prerequisites and all readings are in English.

HISTORY 30C. Culture and Society in Reformation England. 3 Units.

(Same as History 130C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 130C.) Focuses on the appeal of both Reformed and Catholic ideas in the political and cultural contexts of early modern Europe. Topics include: the Lutheran revolt; the spread of Protestant ideas; Calvin's Geneva; the English Reformation; Tridentine reform and the Jesuits; toleration and the underground churches; wars and religious violence; and the making of European confessional identities. Sources include sermons, religious polemic, autobiographies, graphic prints, poetry, and music.

HISTORY 32S. Utopian Dreams, Dystopian Nightmares: Visions of the Ideal Society in Early Modern Britain. 5 Units.

Visions of the ideal society are a mainstay in the European imagination, from Plato¿s Republic to Charles Fourier¿s phalanstère. Yet utopianism has always been maligned as idealistic, impracticable, or naïve, while its proponents accused variously of hypocrisy, totalitarianism, and abject failure. Nowhere more so has the utopian impulse been felt than in early modern Britain during the age of imperial, scientific, and industrial revolution. This course asks how British writers imagined better futures, starting with Thomas More¿s genre-defining Utopia and ending with the utopian socialists and communitarian experiments of the early nineteenth century. We will ask what utopias can tell us about the societies which imagined them, and appraise their lasting legacies in political thought, social science, and critical theory. Covering themes such as empire, capitalism, gender, enlightenment, and socialism, we will engage with a range of primary sources, including literary texts, cartographic images, political and scientific tracts, and letters, aided by secondary literature from the history of political thought, literary history, the history of science, and theory.

HISTORY 33A. Blood and Roses: The Age of the Tudors. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 133A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 133A.) English society and state from the Wars of the Roses to the death of Elizabeth. Political, social, and cultural upheavals of the Tudor period and the changes wrought by the Reformation. The establishment of the Tudor monarchy; destruction of the Catholic church; rise of Puritanism; and 16th-century social and economic changes.

HISTORY 33B. Revolutionary England: The Stuart Age. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 133B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 133B.) From the accession of King James I in 1603 to the death of Queen Anne in 1714: a brutal civil war, the execution of one anointed king, and the deposition of another. Topics include the causes and consequences of the English Revolution, the origins of Anglo-American democratic thought, the rise and decline of Puritanism, and the emergence of England as an economic and colonial power. (Como).

HISTORY 36N. Gay Autobiography. 4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Gender, identity, and solidarity as represented in nine autobiographies: Isherwood, Ackerley, Duberman, Monette, Louganis, Barbin, Cammermeyer, Gingrich, and Lorde. To what degree do these writers view sexual orientation as a defining feature of their selves? Is there a difference between the way men and women view identity? What politics follow from these writers' experiences?.
Same as: FEMGEN 36N

HISTORY 37D. Germany's Wars and the World, 1848-2010. 3-5 Units.

(HISTORY 37D is 3 units; HISTORY 137D is 5 units.)This course examines a series of explosive encounters between Germans, Europe, and the world. Starting with the overlooked revolutions of 1848 and ending with the reunification of West Germany and East Germany after the Cold War, the course will explore a range of topics: capitalism, communism, imperialism, nationalism, diplomacy, antisemitism, gender, race, and the Holocaust, among others. We will also consider competing visions of Germany its borders, its members, its enemies.
Same as: HISTORY 137D

HISTORY 39. Modern Britain and the British Empire. 3 Units.

(HISTORY 39 is offered for 3 units; HISTORY 139 is offered for 5 units.) From American Independence to the latest war in Iraq. Topics include: the rise of the modern British state and economy; imperial expansion and contraction; the formation of class, gender, and national identities; mass culture and politics; the world wars; and contemporary racial politics. Focus is on questions of decline, the fortunes and contradictions of British liberalism in an era of imperialism, and the weight of the past in contemporary Britain.

HISTORY 39Q. Were They Really "Hard Times"? Mid-Victorian Social Movements and Charles Dickens. 3 Units.

"It was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and ashes had allowed it." So begins Charles Dickens description of Coketown in Hard Times. And it only seems to get more grim from there. But the world that Dickens sought to portray in the novel was a hopeful one, too. And that tension is our starting point. The intent of this class is to more closely examine mid-Victorian Britain in light of Dickens' novel, with particular focus on the rise of some of our modern social movements in the 19th century. While things like the labor movement, abolitionism, feminism, and environmentalism, are not the same now as they were then, this class will explore the argument that the 21st century is still, in some ways, working out 19th century problems and questions. At the same time, this is also a course that seeks to expand the kinds of sources we traditionally use as historians. Thus, while recognizing that literary sources are particularly complex, we will use Hard Times as a guide to our exploration to this fascinating era. We will seek both to better understand this complex, transitional time and to assess the accuracy of Dickens' depictions of socio-political life.nnThrough a combination of short response papers, creative Victorian projects (such as sending a hand-written letter to a classmate), and a final paper/project, this course will give you the opportunity to learn more about the 19th century and the value of being historically minded.nnAs a seminar based course, discussion amongst members of the class is vital. The class will be delivered online using a combination of both synchronous and asynchronous modes. All students are welcome.

HISTORY 40. World History of Science. 3 Units.

(HISTORY 40 is 3 units; HISTORY 140 is 5 units.) The earliest developments in science, the prehistoric roots of technology, the scientific revolution, and global voyaging. Theories of human origins and the oldest known tools and symbols. Achievements of the Mayans, Aztecs, and native N. Americans. Science and medicine in ancient Greece, Egypt, China, Africa, and India. Science in medieval and Renaissance Europe and the Islamic world including changing cosmologies and natural histories. Theories of scientific growth and decay; how science engages other factors such as material culture and religions.

HISTORY 40A. The Scientific Revolution. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 140A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for HISTORY 140A.) What do people know and how do they know it? What counts as scientific knowledge? In the 16th and 17th centuries, understanding the nature of knowledge engaged the attention of individuals and institutions including Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Newton, the early Royal Society, and less well-known contemporaries. New meanings of observing, collecting, experimenting, and philosophizing, and political, religious, and cultural ramifications in early modern Europe.

HISTORY 41N. Visible Bodies: Black Female Authors and the Politics of Publishing in Africa. 4 Units.

Where are the African female writers of the twentieth century and the present day? This Introductory Seminar addresses the critical problem of the marginalization of black female authors within established canons of modern African literature. We will explore, analyse and interrogate the reasons why, and the ways in which, women-authored bodies of work from this period continue to be lost, misplaced, forgotten, and ignored by a male-dominated and largely European/white publishing industry in the context of colonialism, apartheid and globalization. nnYou will be introduced to key twentieth-century and more contemporary female authors from Africa, some of them published but many more unpublished or out-of-print. The class will look at the challenges these female authors faced in publishing, including how they navigated a hostile publishing industry and a lack of funding and intellectual support for black writers, especially female writers. nnWe will also examine the strategies these writers used to mitigate their apparent marginality, including looking at how women self-published, how they used newspapers as publication venues, how they have increasingly turned to digital platforms, and how many sought international publishing networks outside of the African continent. As one of the primary assessments for the seminar, you will be asked to conceptualize and design an in-depth and imaginative pitch for a new publishing platform that specializes in African female authors. nnYou will also have the opportunity for in-depth engagement (both in class and in one-on-one mentor sessions) with a range of leading pioneers in the field of publishing and literature in Africa. Figures like Ainehi Edoro (founder of Brittle Paper) and Zukiswa Wanner (prize-winning author of The Madams and Men of the South), amongst others, will be guests to our Zoom classroom. One of our industry specialists will meet with you to offer detailed feedback on your proposal for your imagined publishing platform. nnYou can expect a roughly 50/50 division between synchronous and asynchronous learning, as well as plenty of opportunity to collaborate with peers in smaller settings.
Same as: AFRICAAM 140N, AFRICAST 51N, ENGLISH 54N

HISTORY 42N. The Missing Link. 4 Units.

This course explores the history of evolutionary science, focusing upon debates surrounding the evolutionary place of human beings in the natural world, by examining the history of the idea of a "missing link," an intermediate form between humans and apes. We will consider famous hoaxes such as the Piltdown Man, and films and stories such as King Kong and Planet of the Apes, as well as serious scientific work such as that of Eugène Dubois, the paleoanthropologist and geologist who discovered Homo erectus (first called Java Man and then Pithecanthropus erectus) and first developed the notion of a missing link. We will take an interest not only in scientific aspects of missing-link theories but in their accompanying political, social and cultural implications. And we'll watch some classic monster films.

HISTORY 42S. The Circle of Life: Visions of Nature in Modern Science, Religion, Politics and Culture. 5 Units.

A new understanding of nature emerged in the 1700s that fundamentally altered our perception of the living world and humanity's relationship with it. By tracing the evolution of this understanding forward, we gain insight into the interactions among science, religion, politics and culture. Topics include: nature in Romantic science, poetry and art; Darwin's theory of evolution and its afterlife in science, literature and popular culture; the science and politics of the 20th-century environmental movement; and the philosophical presuppositions underlying modern debates about biodiversity. In addition to close readings of canonical texts and contemporary commentaries, students will be introduced to digital history methods. Students will design their own final projects in consultation with the instructor.

HISTORY 44. Sex, Gender, and Intersectional Analysis in Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Environment. 3 Units.

(HISTORY 44 is offered for 3 units; HISTORY 144 is offered for 5 units.) Explores ¿Gendered Innovations¿ or how sex, gender, and intersectional analysis in research sparks discovery and innovation. Section 1 focuses on the history of women in science. Section 2 looks at transforming research institutions. Section 3 explores Gendered Innovations. Topics include historical background, basic concepts, social robots, sustainability, medicine & public health, facial recognition, inclusive crash test dummies, and more. Stanford University is engaged in a multi-year collaboration with the European Commission and the U.S. National Science Foundation project on Gendered Innovations in Science, Health & Medicine, Engineering, and Environment, and this class will contribute that project. The operative questions is: how can sex, gender, and intersectional analysis lead to discovery and enhance social equalities?.

HISTORY 44Q. Gendered Innovations in Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Environment. 4-5 Units.

Explores ¿Gendered Innovations¿ or how sex, gender, and intersectional analysis in research sparks discovery and innovation. Section 1 focuses on the history of women in science. Section 2 looks at transforming research institutions. Section 3 explores ¿Gendered Innovations.¿ Topics include historical background, basic concepts, social robots, sustainability, medicine & public health, facial recognition, inclusive crash test dummies, and more. Stanford University is engaged in a multi-year collaboration with the European Commission and the U.S. National Science Foundation project on Gendered Innovations in Science, Health & Medicine, Engineering, and Environment, and this class will contribute that project. This course fulfills the second level Writing and Rhetoric Requirement (WRITE 2) and emphasizes oral, multimedia presentation, and writing skills. Each student will develop a case study illustrating how sex, gender, and intersectional analysis can lead to innovation and enhance social equalities.
Same as: FEMGEN 44Q

HISTORY 45B. Africa in the 20th Century. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 145B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 145B.) The challenges facing Africans from when the continent fell under colonial rule until independence. Case studies of colonialism and its impact on African men and women drawn from West, Central, and Southern Africa. Novels, plays, polemics, and autobiographies written by Africans.

HISTORY 45N. Power, Prestige and Politics in African Societies. 4 Units.

This seminar infuses a human dimension into the study of politics in Africa. Considering the 1800s to the present day, the seminar prompts students to creatively connect the political with the personal. We will examine how gender, intimate and romantic relationships, arguments between parents and children, attempts to access and harness the power of the sacred, and fights for status and authority of all kinds, were pivotal forces shaping the form that politics and political activism assumed on the continent.

HISTORY 47. History of South Africa. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 147. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 147.) Introduction, focusing particularly on the modern era. Topics include: precolonial African societies; European colonization; the impact of the mineral revolution; the evolution of African and Afrikaner nationalism; the rise and fall of the apartheid state; the politics of post-apartheid transformation; and the AIDS crisis.
Same as: AFRICAAM 47, CSRE 74

HISTORY 47N. Global History of Death and Dying. 4 Units.

Does death have a history? Explores the changing realities of, attitudes towards and ways of coping with death. The role of death in shaping the modern world via the global slave trades, imperial conquests, pandemics, wars and genocides. Ways people have made sense of death in extraordinary circumstances and during calmer times. Continuities and transformations in death rituals, intellectual and philosophical debates about the personal and social meanings of death, and the consequences of ways and patterns of dying.

HISTORY 47S. Black Earth Rising: Law and Society in Postcolonial Africa. 5 Units.

Is the International Criminal Court a neocolonial institution? Should African art in Western museums be returned? Why have anti-homosexuality laws emerged in many African countries? This course engages these questions, and more, to explore how Africans have grappled with the legacies of colonialism through law since independence. Reading court documents, listening to witness testimonies, analyzing legal codes, and watching cultural commentaries¿including hit TV series Black Earth Rising¿students will examine the histories of legal conflict in Africa and their implications for the present and future of African societies. This course fulfills the Social Inquiry and Engaging Diversity Ways requirements.

HISTORY 48. The Egyptians. 3-5 Units.

This course traces the emergence and development of the distinctive cultural world of the ancient Egyptians over nearly 4,000 years. Through archaeological and textual evidence, we will investigate the social structures, religious beliefs, and expressive traditions that framed life and death in this extraordinary region. Students with or without prior background are equally encouraged.
Same as: AFRICAAM 30, CLASSICS 82, HISTORY 148

HISTORY 48Q. South Africa: Contested Transitions. 4 Units.

Preference to sophomores. The inauguration of Nelson Mandela as president in May 1994 marked the end of an era and a way of life for South Africa. The changes have been dramatic, yet the legacies of racism and inequality persist. Focus: overlapping and sharply contested transitions. Who advocates and opposes change? Why? What are their historical and social roots and strategies? How do people reconstruct their society? Historical and current sources, including films, novels, and the Internet.
Same as: AFRICAAM 48Q

HISTORY 49S. African Futures: Nationalism, Pan-Africanism, and Beyond. 5 Units.

This course examines decolonization and its aftermath in sub-Saharan Africa. With a "wind of change" sweeping the continent, how did Africans imagine their futures together? From W.E.B. Du Bois to Black Panther, this course will engage in historical readings of political essays, speeches, film, and literature to consider how Africans envisioned their communities beyond empire. Topics will include a variety of projects for African unity, from experiments with Pan-Africanism, to religious revivalism, to Afrofuturist art and aesthetics.
Same as: AFRICAAM 49S

HISTORY 50A. Colonial and Revolutionary America. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 150A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150A.) Survey of the origins of American society and polity in the 17th and 18th centuries. Topics: the migration of Europeans and Africans and the impact on native populations; the emergence of racial slavery and of regional, provincial, Protestant cultures; and the political origins and constitutional consequences of the American Revolution.

HISTORY 50B. Nineteenth Century America. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 150B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register in 150B.) Territorial expansion, social change, and economic transformation. The causes and consequences of the Civil War. Topics include: urbanization and the market revolution; slavery and the Old South; sectional conflict; successes and failures of Reconstruction; and late 19th-century society and culture.
Same as: AFRICAAM 50B, CSRE 50S

HISTORY 50C. The United States in the Twentieth Century. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 150C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150C.) 100 years ago, women and most African-Americans couldn't vote; automobiles were rare and computers didn't exist; and the U.S. was a minor power in a world dominated by European empires. This course surveys politics, culture, and social movements to answer the question: How did we get from there to here? Two historical research "labs" or archival sessions focus on the Great Depression in the 1930s and radical and conservative students movements of the 1960s. Suitable for non-majors and majors alike.
Same as: AFRICAAM 50C

HISTORY 50K. John F. Kennedy: Fifty Years Later. 1 Unit.

November 22, 2013 marks the 50th anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's assassination. Half a century on, our visually saturated culture remains besotted with images of the youthful president and his strikingly photogenic family. But the passage of time has also yielded new perspectives on Kennedy's presidency and on his era. November 22, 1963 may well come to be remembered not only as the day when the life of a promising young leader was violently cut short, but also as the pivot between two distinct eras in American history. Ironically, though Kennedy was the first World War II veteran to reach the White House, his death heralded the end of the long postwar season of national pride, optimism, confidence, and widely shared prosperity¿and may have opened the road to the great catastrophe that was the Vietnam War. His passing also helped to pry open the portals to historic changes in the lives of millions of African Americans, as witnessed by Lyndon Johnson's artful invocation of the fallen president to bring about passage of the epic civil rights legislation of the late 1960s. nnThis course will examine the postwar domestic and international settings in which Kennedy rose to and exercised power. It will probe our continuing fascination with his character and with his family; his role as a Cold Warrior, especially in the tense confrontation known as the Cuban Missile Crisis; and his relation to the African American struggle to bury Jim Crow. We will conclude with an assessment of the longer-term historical consequence of his brief moment in the arenas of celebrity and power. Guest speakers will include noted Kennedy biographer Robert Dallek; Johnson biographer Bruce Schulman; Taylor Branch, acclaimed biographer of Martin Luther King, Jr.; and Stanford's own Jennifer Burns, historian of modern America.

HISTORY 51B. The End of American Slavery, 1776-1865. 3-5 Units.

How did the institution of American slavery come to an end? The story is more complex than most people know. This course examines the rival forces that fostered slavery's simultaneous contraction in the North and expansion in the South between 1776 and 1861. It also illuminates, in detail, the final tortuous path to abolition during the Civil War. Throughout, the course introduces a diverse collection of historical figures, including seemingly paradoxical ones, such as slaveholding southerners who professed opposition to slavery and non-slaveholding northerners who acted in ways that preserved it. Historical attitudes toward race are a central integrative theme.
Same as: HISTORY 151B

HISTORY 51Q. American Greed: From Gold Rush to Silicon Valley. 3 Units.

For centuries greed reigned as one of the seven deadly sins, but in the nineteenth century, it went through a major transformation. This course will attempt to solve to puzzle of how greed became an acceptable and desirable component of the American Dream by the end of the Gilded Age. While studies on greed have tended to look to human evolutionary biology or the writings of political economists for answers, this course will turn to specific historical events and trends in the American context in order to trace how ordinary Americans have understood the place and meaning of greed in their lives over the past two centuries. Starting with the Gold Rush, an event that revealed a darker side to the values and ideals of a young nation, we will explore how dreams of El Dorado began a process that saw Americans questioning how the acquisition of wealth fit into their beliefs about what it meant to be an American. We will follow this question as it moved through debates over slavery, the conquest of Native lands, the women's movement, the labor movement, liberalism, monopoly, and the rise of corporations.nnIn the final part of the course, we will jump ahead to the present to look at modern parallels to the Gilded Age. Many of today's conditions, from high income inequality and political disunity to new technologies, appear strikingly similar. Furthermore, the landmark decision in Citizens United and the 2008 bank bailout seem to indicate a nation and culture fully in the grasp of greed, not unlike the earlier period in which the sin first became a virtue. At the same time, however, we see challenges and alternatives presented that call back to earlier ideals. You will work throughout the quarter on a research-based project on a topic of interest to you that connects the present to the past.

HISTORY 52Q. Democracy in Crisis: Learning from the Past. 3 Units.

This Sophomore Seminar will focus on U.S. democracy and will use a series of case studies of major events in our national history to explore what happened and why to American democracy at key pressure points. This historical exploration should shed light on how the current challenges facing American democracy might best be handled. (Cardinal Course certified by the Haas Center).
Same as: EDUC 122Q, POLISCI 20Q

HISTORY 54Q. African American Women's Lives. 3-4 Units.

Preference to sophomores. African American women have been placed on the periphery of many historical documents. This course will encourage students to think critically about historical sources and to use creative and rigorous historical methods to recover African American women¿s experiences. Drawing largely on primary sources such as letters, personal journals, literature and film, this course explores the everyday lives of African American women in 19th- and 20th-century America. We will begin in our present moment with a discussion of Michelle Obama and then we will look back on the lives and times of a wide range of African American women including: Charlotte Forten Grimké, a 19th-century reformer and teacher; Nella Larsen, a Harlem Renaissance novelist; Josephine Baker, the expatriate entertainer and singer; and Ida B. Wells and Ella Baker, two luminaries of civil rights activism. We will examine the struggles of African American women to define their own lives and improve the social, economic, political and cultural conditions of black communities. Topics will include women¿s enslavement and freedom, kinship and family relations, institution and community building, violence, labor and leisure, changing gender roles, consumer and beauty culture, social activism, and the politics of sexuality.
Same as: AFRICAAM 54Q, AMSTUD 54Q, FEMGEN 54Q

HISTORY 54S. The American Civil War. 5 Units.

Few events in American history match the significance of the Civil War, a conflict that freed 4 million people held in bondage and left 750,000 men dead. This course will explore the war from a range of perspectives, including those of Union and Confederate soldiers, African Americans, women, and Native Americans. Based on the documents these different groups left behind, as well as the histories they inspired, we will seek to understand how the Civil War was experienced and commemorated. Priority given to history majors and minors.

HISTORY 55F. The Civil War and Reconstruction Era, 1830 to 1877. 3-5 Units.

(HISTORY 55F is 3 units; HISTORY 155F is 5 units.)This course explores the causes, course, and consequences of the American Civil War. The Civil War profoundly impacted American life at national, sectional, and constitutional levels, and radically challenged categories of race and citizenship. Topics covered include: the crisis of union and disunion in an expanding republic; slavery, race, and emancipation as national problems and personal experiences; the horrors of total war for individuals and society; and the challenges--social and political--of Reconstruction.
Same as: AFRICAAM 55F, AMSTUD 55F, AMSTUD 155F, HISTORY 155F

HISTORY 57E. State of the Union 2014. 1 Unit.

This course will examine major themes that contribute to the health, or disease, of the US body politic. Challenges and opportunities abound: we live in an age of rising inequality, dazzling technological innovation, economic volatility, geopolitical uncertainty, and the accumulating impact of climate change. These conditions confront our political leaders and us as citizens of a democracy plagued by dysfunction. What are the implications for the body politic? Led by Rob Reich (Political Science, Stanford), David Kennedy (History, Stanford), and James Steyer (CEO, Common Sense Media), the course will bring together distinguished analysts of American politics. Together, we will examine the following topics: inequality; energy and the environment; media and technology; the economy; and the 2014 midterm elections. The course is designed for the entire Stanford community: jointly offered for undergraduate and graduate students at Stanford (through listings in Political Science and History) and for community members through the Continuing Studies Program. For students, the course is available for 1 credit. This course may not be taken for a Letter Grade.
Same as: POLISCI 57E

HISTORY 58Q. American Landscapes of Segregation. 3-4 Units.

This course examines various landscapes of segregation in U.S. history from 19th century reconstruction and settler expansion through the contemporary U.S. security state. Each week we consider different histories of segregation including native reservation and boarding school stories, Jim Crow and post-World War II urban/suburban segregation, school integration and bussing, and the rise of the carceral state. We will ask: How have Americans moved through space with different degrees of freedom and constraint over time, and how has that shaped what it has meant to be an American in different ways for different groups? How has access to land, property, consumer, recreational and educational spaces and resources been regulated by categories of race, gender, sexuality, colonial subjectivity, immigrant status and class? To gain a better sense of our local history, we will also consider how structures of segregation have historically mapped the Bay Area. Sources include primary and secondary historic texts, feature and documentary films, photography, and poetry.
Same as: AFRICAAM 58Q, AMSTUD 58Q

HISTORY 60N. Revolutionaries and Founders. 3 Units.

Americans remain fascinated by the revolutionary generation which secured independence and established a national constitutional republic. Books about the founders come steadily from the presses, some describing the lives of individual revolutionaries, others trying to analyze and explain what made these events possible. This seminar will approach the Revolution through both a biographical and analytical framework, relying both on scholarly writings and the massive array of primary sources that are readily available through letterpress editions and on-line. The course will rely on the instructor's own recent book, Revolutionaries: A New History of the Invention of America, which carries the story from the crisis around the Boston Tea Party of 1773 through the end of President Washington's first administration. The course will be divided evenly between modern scholarship and the careful reading of original materials, and students will write short essays that will involve the analysis of explanatory problems, the close interpretation of documents, and the crafting of historical narratives. Topics to be discussed will include the outbreak of the revolution, constitution-making at both the state and national levels of government, the conduct of the war, and the legacies that Americans particularly associate with Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton.

HISTORY 61. The Politics of Sex: Work, Family, and Citizenship in Modern American Women's History. 3-5 Units.

This course explores the transition from Victorian to modern American womanhood by asking how Native, European, African, Mexican, and Asian American women navigated the changing sexual, economic, and political landscapes of the twentieth century. Through secondary readings, primary sources, films, music, and literature we explore the opportunities and boundaries on groups of women in the context of historical events that included immigration, urbanization, wartime, depression, the Cold War, as well as recurrent feminist and conservative political movements.
Same as: AMSTUD 161, CSRE 162, FEMGEN 161, HISTORY 161

HISTORY 62S. From Runaway Wives to Dancing Girls: Urban Women in the Long Nineteenth Century. 5 Units.

This course explores the ways in which women - white and black, immigrant and native born, free and enslaved - lived and labored in American cities during the long nineteenth century. Together we will examine a variety of primary sources including diaries, municipal and institutional records, newspapers, memoirs, oral histories, and visual culture. We will also consider whose stories are told and explore how historians make sense of times very different from our own. Priority given to History majors and minors.
Same as: FEMGEN 62S

HISTORY 63N. The Feminist Critique: The History and Politics of Gender Equality. 3-4 Units.

This course explores the long history of ideas about gender and equality. Each week we read, dissect, compare, and critique a set of primary historical documents (political and literary) from around the world, moving from the 15th century to the present. We tease out changing arguments about education, the body, sexuality, violence, labor, politics, and the very meaning of gender, and we place feminist critics within national and global political contexts.
Same as: AMSTUD 63N, CSRE 63N, FEMGEN 63N

HISTORY 64S. The Religious Right and Its Critics in America from 1920 to Today. 5 Units.

In 2016, Donald Trump won 81% of white evangelical voters. Evangelical and conservative Catholic voters, members of the so-called Religious Right, have formed an essential pillar of the Republican Party for the entire lifetime of most Stanford undergraduates. But this was not always the case. In this course, we will discover leaders who shaped the Religious Right through coalition building, ideological line-drawing, and sermonizing as well as those who offered political alternatives of the Irreligious Right and ever-elusive Religious Left.

HISTORY 67S. The Vietnam War/The American War. 5 Units.

This course explores the conflict called "the Vietnam War" in the United States and "the American War" in Vietnam - one of the longest and most violent wars of the twentieth century - from the perspectives of those who experienced it. Engaging diverse primary sources from Vietnam, the U.S., and beyond, the course traces the conflict's global roots and consequences as well as challenges of interpreting war generally. Students have the option of a final paper or an oral history.

HISTORY 68D. American Prophet: The Inner Life and Global Vision of Martin Luther King, Jr.. 3-5 Units.

Martin Luther King, Jr., was the 20th-century's best-known African-American leader, but the religious roots of his charismatic leadership are far less widely known. The documents assembled and published by Stanford's King Research and Education Institute provide the source materials for this exploration of King's swift rise to international prominence as an articulate advocate of global peace and justice.
Same as: AFRICAAM 68D, AMSTUD 168D, CSRE 68, HISTORY 168D

HISTORY 69Q. American Road Trips. 4 Units.

"Nothing behind me, everything ahead of me, as is ever so on the road." --Jack Kerouac, On the Road, 1957. From Jack Kerouac's On the Road to Cheryl Strayed's Wild, this course explores epic road trips of the twentieth century. Travel is a fundamental social and cultural practice through which Americans have constructed ideas about the self, the nation, the past, and the future. The open road, as it is often called, offered excitement, great adventure, and the space for family bonding and memory making. But the footloose and fancy-free nature of travel that Jack Kerouac celebrated was available to some travelers but not to all. Engaging historical and literary texts, film, autobiography, memoir, photography, and music, we will consider the ways that travel and road trips have been represented in American culture. This course examines the following questions: How did men and women experience travel differently? How did the motivations for travel change over time? What role did race, ethnicity, class, relationships, and sexuality play in these trips? Students will work together to plan a road trip of their own which the class will take during the quarter.
Same as: AMSTUD 109Q

HISTORY 70S. The Mexican-American War. 5 Units.

Frequently overshadowed by the Louisiana Purchase and the Civil War, the Mexican-American War was central to antebellum conflicts over territorial expansion, the expansion of slavery, and debates about race, ethnicity, and citizenship. This course examines the long and deep history of the war by situating it within its colonial, national, and borderlands contexts. The course will draw on methods from a range of historical subfields including, diplomatic, political, social, cultural, and spatial history. Priority given to History majors and minors.

HISTORY 71S. American Political Thought from the Civil War to the Cold War. 5 Units.

This course explores America's most important political tradition: liberalism. What does liberalism mean? Does it mean something different today than it did in the past? Using multiple textual and visual sources, students will grapple with how Americans remade liberalism in the 19th and 20th centuries and how political thinkers have understood its meaning over time. We will see how American liberalism was shaped by factors of race, gender, and class and by competing ideologies like conservatism and socialism.

HISTORY 73. Mexican Migration to the United States. 3-5 Units.

(HISTORY 73 is 3 units; HISTORY 173 is 5 units.) This course is an introduction to the history of Mexican migration to the United States. Barraged with anti-immigrant rhetoric and calls for bigger walls and more restrictive laws, few people in the United States truly understand the historical trends that shape migratory processes, or the multifaceted role played by both US officials and employers in encouraging Mexicans to migrate north. Moreover, few have actually heard the voices and perspectives of migrants themselves. This course seeks to provide students with the opportunity to place migrants' experiences in dialogue with migratory laws as well as the knowledge to embed current understandings of Latin American migration in their meaningful historical context.
Same as: AMSTUD 73, CHILATST 173, HISTORY 173

HISTORY 73S. History of the Police in the United States: Slave Patrols to Ferguson. 5 Units.

How did police come to have the power to use violence? Themes: growth of professional policing, creation of private police forces and vigilantism, and public portrayals of police--by Hollywood and the press. The historical relationship between race and the administration of policing is a central question. Students will hone the methodology necessary to examine primary sources such as police memoirs, court records, police files, detective novels, music videos and photographs. The course fulfills the departmental Sources and Methods requirement. Priority given to history majors and minors.

HISTORY 74. Mexico Since 1876: The Road to Ayotzinapa. 3 Units.

(HISTORY 74 is for 3 units; HISTORY 174 is for 5 units.) In September of 2014, 43 students from a Mexican teacher's college in Ayotzinapa, Guerrero were abducted and disappeared via the actions of police and organized crime. This shocking human rights violation, as well as the violence and impunity it represented, were symbolic of the decline of the rule of law embodied by Mexico's drug war. How did the nation arrive at this crossroads? This course is an introduction to the history of Mexico from 1876 to the present. Through lectures, discussions, primary and secondary sources, film and documentaries, and written assignments, students will critically explore the events and people that shaped Mexico for over a century. From the Porfirian dictatorship, to the Revolution, to the PRI's "perfect dictatorship," this course analyzes socioeconomic and racial inequality, foreign intervention, urbanization and industrialization, technological innovation and environmental degradation, education and ideology, modernity and migration, culture and media, and the drug trade.

HISTORY 74S. Sounds of the Century: Popular Music and the United States in the 20th Century. 5 Units.

What can popular music teach us about the pst? What can we learn about music if we study it historically? This course grapples with these two questions by examining various examples of American music in the 20th century, as well as more conventional historical sources, scholarly books, and essays. Will pay special attention to how issues of race, gender, sexuality, class, and nation were reflected in and produced by people's interactions with music, inside and outside American borders.

HISTORY 78. Film and History of Latin American Revolutions and Counterrevolutions. 3-5 Units.

Note: Students who have completed HISTORY 78N or 78Q should not enroll in this course. In this course we will watch and critique films made about Latin America's 20th century revolutions focusing on the Cuban, Chilean and Mexican revolutions. We will analyze the films as both social and political commentaries and as aesthetic and cultural works, alongside archivally-based histories of these revolutions.
Same as: FILMSTUD 178, HISTORY 178, ILAC 178

HISTORY 78Q. Film and History of Latin American Revolutions and Counterrevolutions. 3 Units.

In this course we will watch and critique films made about Latin America's 20th century revolutions focusing on the Mexican, Cuban, Chilean and Nicaraguan revolutions. We will analyze the films as both social and political commentaries and as aesthetic and cultural works, alongside archivally-based histories of these revolutions.

HISTORY 79C. The Ethical Challenges of the Climate Catastrophe. 3-5 Units.

(HISTORY 79C is 3 units; HISTORY 179C is 5 units.) This course explores the ethical challenges of the climate catastrophe from historical, social, economic, political, cultural and scientific perspectives. These include the discovery of global warming over two centuries, the rise of secular and religious denialism and skepticism toward the scientific consensus on it, the dispute between developed and developing countries over how to forge a binding global agreement to mitigate it, and the "role morality" of various actors (scientists, politicians, fossil fuel companies, the media and ordinary individuals) in the US in assessing ethical responsibility for the catastrophe and how to mitigate, adapt, or even geoengineer, it.
Same as: HISTORY 179C

HISTORY 81B. Formation of the Contemporary Middle East. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 181B. 81B is 3 units; 181B is 5 units) This course introduces major themes in the modern history of the region linking the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean worlds. We will begin with the Eurasian context that produced the Safavid and Ottoman dynastic empires and quickly move to the economic and political transformations of the nineteenth century and the imperial dissolution of the early twentieth. Twentieth-century themes will include mass migrations and colonial occupation; nationalism, mass politics and revolution; socialist and Islamist movements; and the growing role of American policy in the region. The course will conclude with a close examination of the profound transformations of the past decade, from the multiform revolutions of the ¿Arab Spring¿ to the equally multiform attempts to repress them.

HISTORY 82G. Making Palestine Visible. 3-5 Units.

Israel-Palestine is one of the most difficult subjects to talk about, in large part because we in the United States do not have much exposure to Palestinian history, culture, and politics in their own terms. This course aims to humanize Palestinians and asks why Palestinian claims to rights are illegible for much of the American public. We begin to answer this question by examining a broad sampling of history, structures of power and law, culture, and contemporary political issues.
Same as: CSRE 82G, HISTORY 182G

HISTORY 82S. Enemies Within: Hostile Minorities in Israel and Iraq in the 20th Century. 5 Units.

This course explores the nation state in the Middle East through the perspectives of minority groups in Israel and Iraq. The class examines the origins of these two states since WWI, and considers the integral role that minority groups have played in their formation. Using an array of primary sources and methods of analysis, we will examine significant political, economic, social, and discursive trends in these states, while keeping in mind the broader regional and global contexts.

HISTORY 83S. Refugees of Palestine and Syria: History, Identity, and Politics of Exile in the Middle East. 5 Units.

Mass displacements of Palestinians (1948, 1967) and Syrians (2011-) remain crucial to our understanding of history and politics of the modern Middle East. The course topics include the media's role in alleviating or worsening refugee crises, the Palestinian "right of return," and the place of religion in the Syrian civil war. By looking at autobiographies, graffiti, revolutionary posters, and music, we will study the construction of refugee identities, through the prism of race, ethnicity, statelessness, gender, and sexual orientation. Priority given to history majors and minors.

HISTORY 85B. Jews in the Contemporary World: The Jewish Present and Past in Film, Television and Popular Culture. 3 Units.

(HISTORY 85B is 3 units; HISTORY 185B is 5 units.) Who are American Jews as depicted in popular media-- film, television, etc.-- since the Second World War? How are their religion, politics, mores, and practices represented and what ways, if at all, do such portraits reflect historical trends among Jews and society in general? What can be learned from film or tv about Jewish identity, notions of Jewish power and powerlessness, communal cohesiveness and assimilation, sexuality and the wages of intermarriage or race?.
Same as: CSRE 85B, JEWISHST 85B, REES 85B

HISTORY 86Q. Blood and Money: The Origins of Antisemitism. 4-5 Units.

For over two millennia, Jews and Judaism have been the object of sustained anxieties, fears, and fantasies, which have in turn underpinned repeated outbreaks of violence and persecution. This course will explore the development and impact of antisemitism from Late Antiquity to the Enlightenment, including the emergence of the Blood libel, the association between Jews and moneylending, and the place of Judaism in Christian and Islamic theology. No prior background in history or Jewish studies is necessary. Prerequisite: PWR 1.
Same as: JEWISHST 86Q

HISTORY 87. The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 187. History majors and other taking 5 units, register for 187.) Explores the contested politics of these societies in modern times. Topics include controversies surrounding the meaning of revolution, state building, war, geopolitics, Islamic law, clerical authority, gender, an Islamic economy, culture, and ethnic, national and religious identities from the 1940s to the present. Assignments will focus on primary sources (especially legal documents, poetry, novels, and memoirs) and films.

HISTORY 89S. Chinese Diaspora and the Making of the Pacific World, 1750-1911. 5 Units.

What do the city of Singapore, ICE, the abolition of the slave trade, and the latex condom have in common? All are entangled with the merchant princes, people-smugglers, indentured laborers, and rubber planters that made up the Chinese diaspora in the ¿long¿ 19th century. This course will introduce the primary sources and interpretive techniques that historians use to understand the Chinese diasporic past by focusing on four main themes: autonomy and assimilation, indenture and forced labor, race and immigration, and intellectual and material exchanges.

HISTORY 90. Early Chinese Thought. 3-5 Units.

This lecture course examines the emergence of critical thought in early China. After a brief study of the social and political changes that made this emergence possible, it looks at the nature and roles of the thinkers, and finally their ideas about the social order, the state, war and the army, the family, the cosmos, and the self (both physical and mental). Some brief comparisons with early Greek thought.
Same as: HISTORY 190

HISTORY 91B. The City in Imperial China. 3 Units.

The evolution of cities in the early imperial, medieval, and early modern periods. Topics include physical structure, social order, cultural forms, economic roles, relations to rural hinterlands, and the contrast between imperial capitals and other cities. Comparative cases from European history. Readings include primary and secondary sources, and visual materials.

HISTORY 91D. China: The Northern and Southern Dynasties. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 191D. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 191D.) Examines one of the most dynamic periods of Chinese history with the emergence of the institutional religions (Buddhism and Daoism), the development of the garden as an art form, the rise of landscape as a theme of verse and art, the invention of lyric poetry, and the real beginnings of the southward spread of Chinese civilization.

HISTORY 91S. Before Footbinding: Women, Gender, and Sexuality in Early and Medieval China. 5 Units.

This course discusses women, gender, and sexuality from ancient China to the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD). During this period, gender norms and practices changed with the political system, state ideology, and family structure, as well as religions and literary genres. Using diverse approaches and sources, we will explore topics including family and marriage, women and political power, gender and law, gender and medical care, gender and arts, the construction of femininity and masculinity, and same-sex relations.

HISTORY 92A. The Historical Roots of Modern East Asia. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on China and Japan before and during their transition to modernity. The populous, urbanized, economically advanced, and culturally sophisticated Ming empire and Muromachi shogunate in the 16th century when Europeans first arrived. How the status quo had turned on its head by the early 20th century when European and American steamships dominated the Pacific, China was in social and political upheaval, and Japan had begun its march to empire.
Same as: HISTORY 392E

HISTORY 94B. Japan in the Age of the Samurai. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 194B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 194B.) From the Warring States Period to the Meiji Restoration. Topics include the three great unifiers, Tokugawa hegemony, the samurai class, Neoconfucian ideologies, suppression of Christianity, structures of social and economic control, frontiers, the other and otherness, castle-town culture, peasant rebellion, black marketing, print culture, the floating world, National Studies, food culture, samurai activism, black ships, unequal treaties, anti-foreign terrorism, restorationism, millenarianism, modernization as westernization, Japan as imagined community.

HISTORY 95. Modern Korean History. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 195. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195.) This lecture course provides a general introduction to the history of modern Korea. Themes include the characteristics of the Chosôn dynasty, reforms and rebellions in the nineteenth century, Korean nationalism; Japan's colonial rule and Korean identities; decolonization and the Korean War; and the different state-building processes in North and South, South Korea's democratization in 1980s, and the current North Korean crisis.

HISTORY 95N. Maps in the Modern World. 4-5 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Focus is on cutting-edge research. Topics: the challenge of grasping the globe as a whole; geography's roots in empire; maps as propaganda and as commodities; the cultural production of scale; and the cartography of imaginery worlds.Sources include resources in the Green Library Special Collections and in the Stanford Spatial History Lab.

HISTORY 96S. The World the Mongols Made: Nomads, Empire, Legacy. 5 Units.

The Mongols created global history. Their enterprise was the largest land-based empire in world history, and it lasted longer than most of the competition. This course will examine the world that the Mongols left behind, a world whose ways the Mongols affected and still continue to affect. In particular we will look first at the Mongol Empire in its entirety and its interactions with the Christian, Muslim, and the Chinese worlds. We will then examine the legacies left by the Mongols in the aftermath of its fracture and reorganization to form various successors.

HISTORY 97. Southeast Asia: From Antiquity to the Modern Era. 3-5 Units.

The history of S.E. Asia, comprising Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia, and Laos, from antiquity to the present. The spread of Indian cultural influences, the rise of indigenous states, and the emergence of globally linked trade networks. European colonization, economic transformation, the rise of nationalism, the development of the modern state, and the impact of globalization.
Same as: HISTORY 197

HISTORY 98. The History of Modern China. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 198. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 198.) This course charts major historical transformations in modern China, and will be of interest to those concerned with Chinese politics, culture, society, ethnicity, economy, gender, international relations, and the future of the world.

HISTORY 98N. Beijing, Shanghai, and the Structure of Modern China. 3 Units.

This course examines the transformation of China from the late empire to the present by studying the nature of its two greatest cities. Topics examined will include the evolving physical structure of the cities, their changing relations to the Chinese state and the outside world, shifting understandings of the urban population/crowd, the changing nature of time, new modes of self-definition through patterns of consumption, the cities as topics of literature and movies, and the nature of urban modernity.

HISTORY 98S. Crime and Punishment in Late Imperial China: Law, State Formation, and Society. 5 Units.

How did crime and punishment in late imperial China compare to other parts of the world? What place did the law have in the imperial Chinese state's strategies of governance and in resolving social grievances? How did certain groups and behaviors come to be criminalized, and how did this relate to broader contexts of pre-modern Chinese society? How was Chinese law perceived by foreign observers? Over the course of the quarter, we will utilize a wide range of both Qing legal documents and other types of primary sources to search for answers to these questions.

HISTORY 101. The Greeks. 4-5 Units.

250 years ago, for almost the first time in history, a few societies rejected kings who claimed to know what the gods wanted and began moving toward democracy. Only once before had this happened--in ancient Greece. This course asks how the Greeks did this, and what they can teach us today. It uses texts and archaeology to trace the material and military sides of the story as well as cultural developments, and looks at Greek slavery and misogyny as well as their achievements. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: CLASSICS 83

HISTORY 102. History of the International System since 1914. 5 Units.

After defining the characteristics of the international system at the beginning of the twentieth century, this course reviews the primary developments in its functioning in the century that followed. Topics include the major wars and peace settlements; the emergence of Nazism and Communism; the Cold War; decolonization; and globalization. The role of international institutions and international society will also be a focus as will the challenges of climate change, inequality, migration, and terrorism.
Same as: INTNLREL 102

HISTORY 102A. The Romans. 3-5 Units.

How did a tiny village create a huge empire and shape the world, and why did it fail? Roman history, imperialism, politics, social life, economic growth, and religious change. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required; enroll in sections on Coursework.
Same as: CLASSICS 84

HISTORY 103D. Human Society and Environmental Change. 4 Units.

Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding human-environment interactions with a focus on economics, policy, culture, history, and the role of the state. Prerequisite: ECON 1.
Same as: EARTHSYS 112, EARTHSYS 212, ESS 112

HISTORY 103F. The Changing Face of War: Introduction to Military History. 3-5 Units.

Introduces students to the rich history of military affairs and, at the same time, examines the ways in which we think of change and continuity in military history. How did war evolve from ancient times, both in styles of warfare and perceptions of war? What is the nature of the relationship between war and society? Is there such a thing as a Western way of war? What role does technology play in transforming military affairs? What is a military revolution and can it be manufactured or induced? Chronologically following the evolution of warfare from Ancient Greece to present day so-called new wars, we will continuously investigate how the interdependencies between technological advances, social change, philosophical debates and economic pressures both shaped and were influenced by war. Students satisfying the WiM requirement for the major in International Relations, must enroll in INTNLREL 103F course listing.
Same as: HISTORY 3F, INTNLREL 103F

HISTORY 105C. Human Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 5C. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 105C.) Interdisciplinary approach to understanding the extent and complexity of the global phenomenon of human trafficking, especially for forced prostitution, labor exploitation, and organ trade, focusing on human rights violations and remedies. Provides a historical context for the development and spread of human trafficking. Analyzes the current international and domestic legal and policy frameworks to combat trafficking and evaluates their practical implementation. Examines the medical, psychological, and public health issues involved. Uses problem-based learning. Students interested in service learning should consult with the instructor and will enroll in an additional course.
Same as: CSRE 105C, FEMGEN 105C, HUMRTS 112, INTNLREL 105C

HISTORY 106A. Global Human Geography: Asia and Africa. 5 Units.

Global patterns of demography, economic and social development, geopolitics, and cultural differentiation, covering E. Asia, S. Asia, S.E. Asia, Central Asia, N. Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. Use of maps to depict geographical patterns and processes.

HISTORY 106B. Global Human Geography: Europe and Americas. 5 Units.

Patterns of demography, economic and social development, geopolitics, and cultural differentiation. Use of maps to depict geographical patterns and processes.

HISTORY 107. Introduction to Urban Studies. 4 Units.

Today, for the first time in history, a majority of people live in cities. By 2050, cities will hold two-thirds of the world¿s population. This transformation touches everyone, and raises critical questions. What draws people to live in cities? How will urban growth affect the world¿s environment? Why are cities so divided by race and by class, and what can be done about it? How do cities change who we are, and how can we change cities? In this class, you will learn to see cities in new ways, from the smallest everyday interactions on a city sidewalk to the largest patterns of global migration and trade. We will use specific examples from cities around the world to illustrate the concepts that we learn in class. The course is intended primarily for freshmen and sophomores.
Same as: URBANST 110

HISTORY 110C. The Problem of Modern Europe. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 10C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 110C.) From the late 18th century to the present. How Europeans responded to rapid social changes caused by political upheaval, industrialization, and modernization. How the experience and legacy of imperialism and colonialism both influenced European society and put in motion a process of globalization that continues to shape international politics today.

HISTORY 112. Medicine and Disease in the Ancient World. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 12. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for HISTORY 112.) This course explores medicine and disease through case studies from civilizations of the ancient world such as Egypt, Greece, and Peru. We will discuss how these cultures conceptualized disease, and in turn, how they contended with illnesses. Lectures will address different forms of illness through medical texts, art, and human remains. Weekly discussion will incorporate evidence from these sources to explore both their potential and their limitations.

HISTORY 113. Before Globalization: Understanding Premodern World History. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 147.) This course covers the history of the world from 60,000 years ago until 1500 by asking big questions: Why did civilizations develop the way they did? What factors were responsible for similarities and differences between different parts of the world? What does this mean for our newly globalized world?.

HISTORY 114. Origins of History in Greece and Rome. 4-5 Units.

What¿s the history of `History¿? The first ancient historians wrote about commoners and kings, conquest and power¿those who had it, those who wanted it, those without it. Their powerful ways of recounting the past still resonate today and can be harnessed to tell new stories. We will look at how ancients like Herodotus, Thucydides, Tacitus, and Livy turned stories about the past into compelling narratives of loss, growth and decline¿inventing ¿History¿ as we know it. All readings in English.
Same as: CLASSICS 88

HISTORY 115D. Europe in the Middle Ages, 300-1500. 3-5 Units.

This course provides an introduction to Medieval Europe from the fall of Rome to the Renaissance. While the framework of the course is chronological, we'll concentrate particularly on the structure of medieval society. Rural and urban life, kingship and papal government, wars and plagues provide the context for our examination of the lives of medieval people, what they believed, and how they interacted with other, both within Christendom and beyond it. This course may count as DLCL 123, a course requirement for the Medieval Studies Minor.
Same as: HISTORY 15D, RELIGST 115X

HISTORY 116. Traders and Crusaders in the Medieval Mediterranean. 3-5 Units.

Trade and crusade were inextricably interconnected in the high Middle Ages. As merchant ships ferried knights and pilgrims across the Mediterranean, rulers borrowed heavily to finance their expeditions, while military expansion opened new economic opportunities. Course themes include the origins of the Crusading movement; the rise of Venice and other maritime powers; the pivotal roles of the Byzantine and Mongol Empires; relations between Christians, Muslims, and Jews; new military, maritime, and commercial technologies; and the modern legacy of the Crusades.
Same as: HISTORY 16

HISTORY 116M. "You Know Nothing, Jon Snow": Representations and Misrepresentations of the Middle Ages in Film. 5 Units.

Throughout the history of film, writers, directors and producers have made the Middle Ages one of the most popular settings featured in the medium. Some films attempt to faithfully represent this fascinating period in great historical detail. Other films use a deformed image of the Middle Ages as an inspiration for movies that propagate misleading depictions of this important time. Finally, most films could be placed somewhere on the spectrum between these two extremes. This class will examine eight films and one broad theme (e.g., violence, women, politics, etc.) featured in them. Through examination of primary and secondary sources, students will investigate these themes within the context of medieval history, critique their cinematic representation and discuss medievalism and its proponents.

HISTORY 116N. Howard Zinn and the Quest for Historical Truth. 3 Units.

With more than two million copies in print, Howard Zinn's A People's History is a cultural icon. We will use Zinn's book to probe how we determine what was true in the past. A People's History will be our point of departure, but our journey will visit a variety of historical trouble spots: debates about whether the US was founded as a Christian nation, Holocaust denial, and the "Birther" controversy of President Obama.
Same as: EDUC 116N

HISTORY 117. Ancient Empires: Near East. 4-5 Units.

Why do imperialists conquer people? Why do some people resist while others collaborate? This course tries to answer these questions by looking at some of the world's earliest empires. The main focus is on the expansion of the Assyrian and Persian Empires between 900 and 300 BC and the consequences for the ancient Jews, Egyptians, and Greeks. The main readings come from the Bible, Herodotus, and Assyrian and Persian royal inscriptions, and the course combines historical and archaeological data with social scientific approaches. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: CLASSICS 81

HISTORY 120B. The Russian Empire. 5 Units.

From Peter the Great to the Bolsheviks. Russia as an empire; its varied regions, including the Caucasus, Central Asia, Ukraine, Poland, and the Baltics. Focus is on the politics and cultures of empire. Sources include novels, political tracts, paintings, music, and other primary sources.

HISTORY 120C. 20th-Century Russian and Soviet History. 5 Units.

The Soviet polity from the 1917 Revolution to its collapse in 1991. Essentials of Marxist ideology; the Russian Empire in 1917. Causation in history; interpretations of the Revolution; state building in a socialist polity; social engineering through collectivization of agriculture, force-paced industrialization, and cultural revolution; terror as concept and practice; nationality policies in a multiethnic socialist empire; the routinization, decline, and collapse of the revolutionary ethos; and the legacy of the Soviet experiment in the new Russia.

HISTORY 126B. Protestant Reformation. 3-5 Units.

The emergence of Protestant Christianity in 16th-century Europe. Analysis of writings by evangelical reformers (Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, Sattler, Hubmeier, Müntzer) and study of reform movements (Lutheran, Reformed, Anabaptist, Spiritualist) in their medieval context and as expressions of new and influential visions of Christian belief, life, social order.
Same as: RELIGST 126

HISTORY 132. Ordinary Lives: A Social History of the Everyday in Early Modern Europe. 5 Units.

What war meant for foot soldiers and the peasants across whose fields they marched. Ordinary people's lives in the eras of Machiavelli, Shakespeare, the Reformation, and the scientific revolution. Topics include: birth, marriage, and death; city life and peasant culture; lay encounters with religious and intellectual ideas; war and crime; and gender and sexuality.

HISTORY 133A. Blood and Roses: The Age of the Tudors. 5 Units.

English society and state from the Wars of the Roses to the death of Elizabeth. Political, social, and cultural upheavals of the Tudor period and the changes wrought by the Reformation. The establishment of the Tudor monarchy; destruction of the Catholic church; rise of Puritanism; and 16th-century social and economic changes.

HISTORY 133B. Revolutionary England: The Stuart Age. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 33B. HISTORY 133B is 5 units; 33B is 3 units.) From the accession of King James I in 1603 to the death of Queen Anne in 1714: a brutal civil war, the execution of one anointed king, and the deposition of another. Topics include the causes and consequences of the English Revolution, the origins of Anglo-American democratic thought, the rise and decline of Puritanism, and the emergence of England as an economic and colonial power.

HISTORY 134A. The European Witch Hunts. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 34A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 134A.) After the Reformation, in the midst of state-building and scientific discovery, Europeans conducted a series of deadly witch hunts, violating their own laws and procedures in the process. What was it about early modernity that fueled witch hunting? Examines witch trials and early modern demonology as well as historians' interpretations of events to seek answers to this question.

HISTORY 137A. Europe, 1945-2002. 5 Units.

Europe's transformation from the end of WW II to an expanded EU. Political, cultural, economic, and social history. Topics: postwar reconstruction, Cold War, consumer versus socialist culture, collapse of Communism, postcommunist integration.

HISTORY 137D. Germany's Wars and the World, 1848-2010. 3-5 Units.

(HISTORY 37D is 3 units; HISTORY 137D is 5 units.)This course examines a series of explosive encounters between Germans, Europe, and the world. Starting with the overlooked revolutions of 1848 and ending with the reunification of West Germany and East Germany after the Cold War, the course will explore a range of topics: capitalism, communism, imperialism, nationalism, diplomacy, antisemitism, gender, race, and the Holocaust, among others. We will also consider competing visions of Germany its borders, its members, its enemies.
Same as: HISTORY 37D

HISTORY 139. Modern Britain and the British Empire. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 39. History majors and others taking 5 units, register in 139.) From American Independence to the latest war in Iraq. Topics include: the rise of the modern British state and economy; imperial expansion and contraction; the formation of class, gender, and national identities; mass culture and politics; the world wars; and contemporary racial politics. Focus is on questions of decline, the fortunes and contradictions of British liberalism in an era of imperialism, and the weight of the past in contemporary Britain.

HISTORY 140. World History of Science. 5 Units.

(HISTORY 40 is 3 units; HISTORY 140 is 5 units.) The earliest developments in science, the prehistoric roots of technology, the scientific revolution, and global voyaging. Theories of human origins and the oldest known tools and symbols. Achievements of the Mayans, Aztecs, and native N. Americans. Science and medicine in ancient Greece, Egypt, China, Africa, and India. Science in medieval and Renaissance Europe and the Islamic world including changing cosmologies and natural histories. Theories of scientific growth and decay; how science engages other factors such as material culture and religions.

HISTORY 140A. The Scientific Revolution. 5 Units.

What do people know and how do they know it? What counts as scientific knowledge? In the 16th and 17th centuries, understanding the nature of knowledge engaged the attention of individuals and institutions including Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Newton, the early Royal Society, and less well-known contemporaries. New meanings of observing, collecting, experimenting, and philosophizing, and political, religious, and cultural ramifications in early modern Europe.

HISTORY 144. Sex, Gender, and Intersectional Analysis in Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Environment. 5 Units.

(HISTORY 44 is offered for 3 units; HISTORY 144 is offered for 5 units.) Explores "Gendered Innovations" or how sex, gender, and intersectional analysis in research sparks discovery and innovation. Section 1 focuses on the history of women in science. Section 2 looks at transforming research institutions. Section 3 explores Gendered Innovations. Topics include historical background, basic concepts, social robots, sustainability, medicine & public health, facial recognition, inclusive crash test dummies, and more. Stanford University is engaged in a multi-year collaboration with the European Commission and the U.S. National Science Foundation project on Gendered Innovations in Science, Health & Medicine, Engineering, and Environment, and this class will contribute that project. The operative questions is: how can sex, gender, and intersectional analysis lead to discovery and enhance social equalities?.
Same as: FEMGEN 144

HISTORY 145A. Africa Until European Conquest. 5 Units.

Episodes in African history from the earliest records up until European partition of the continent, focusing on how knowledge about the natural, social, and spiritual worlds was linked to the exercise of power. The effects of technological innovations on states and other forms of social complexity; use of religious beliefs and practices to legitimate or critique authority. The effects of slave trades and imperial conquest on these forms of authority.

HISTORY 145B. Africa in the 20th Century. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 45B. Students taking 5 units, register for 145B.) The challenges facing Africans from when the continent fell under colonial rule until independence. Case studies of colonialism and its impact on African men and women drawn from West, Central, and Southern Africa. Novels, plays, polemics, and autobiographies written by Africans.
Same as: AFRICAAM 145B

HISTORY 146. History of Humanitarian Aid in sub-Saharan Africa. 4-5 Units.

Explores humanitarian endeavors through the era of the slave trade, colonialism, the Cold War and the present. Our focus is both local and global examining international humanitarian policy and the effects and perceptions of humanitarian aid within different African localities. Assignments use primary and secondary sources including organizational reports, ethnographies, memoirs and film. Topics: anti-slave trade and abolition movements, `civilizing¿ missions, development, refugees, peacekeeping, famine and women's rights.

HISTORY 147. History of South Africa. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 47. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 147.) Introduction, focusing particularly on the modern era. Topics include: precolonial African societies; European colonization; the impact of the mineral revolution; the evolution of African and Afrikaner nationalism; the rise and fall of the apartheid state; the politics of post-apartheid transformation; and the AIDS crisis.
Same as: AFRICAAM 147, CSRE 174

HISTORY 148. The Egyptians. 3-5 Units.

This course traces the emergence and development of the distinctive cultural world of the ancient Egyptians over nearly 4,000 years. Through archaeological and textual evidence, we will investigate the social structures, religious beliefs, and expressive traditions that framed life and death in this extraordinary region. Students with or without prior background are equally encouraged.
Same as: AFRICAAM 30, CLASSICS 82, HISTORY 48

HISTORY 149C. The Slave Trade. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 49C. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 149C.) Slave trades and forms of slavery in W. Africa from 1000 to 1885; impacts on lives, social organization, and political structures. Slavery in Islam, the slave market in the Mediterranean and Middle East, and the Saharan slave trade. Slavery within Africa, growth of the Atlantic trade, the Middle Passage, and war and trade that produced slaves. Impact of the Industrial Revolution and European abolition movements on the use of slaves and warfare in Africa. The relationship between slaving and the European conquest of Africa.

HISTORY 150A. Colonial and Revolutionary America. 5 Units.

(HISTORY 50A is 3 units. HISTORY 150A is 5 units) This course surveys early American history from the onset of English colonization of North America in the late sixteenth century through the American Revolution and the creation of the United States in the late eighteenth. It situates the origins and the development of colonial American society as its peoples themselves experienced it, within the wider histories of the North American continent and the Atlantic basin. It considers the diversity of peoples and empires that made up these worlds as well as the complex movement of goods, peoples, and ideas that defined them. The British North American colonies were just one interrelated part of this wider complex. Yet out of that interconnected Atlantic world, those particular colonies produced a revolution for national independence that had a far-reaching impact on the world. The course, accordingly, explores the origins of this revolutionary movement and the nation state that it wrought, one that would rapidly ascend to hemispheric and then global prominence.
Same as: AMSTUD 150A

HISTORY 150B. Nineteenth Century America. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 50B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150B.) Territorial expansion, social change, and economic transformation. The causes and consequences of the Civil War. Topics include: urbanization and the market revolution; slavery and the Old South; sectional conflict; successes and failures of Reconstruction; and late 19th-century society and culture.
Same as: AFRICAAM 150B, AMSTUD 150B, CSRE 150S

HISTORY 150C. The United States in the Twentieth Century. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 50C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150C.) 100 years ago, women and most African-Americans couldn't vote; automobiles were rare and computers didn't exist; and the U.S. was a minor power in a world dominated by European empires. This course surveys politics, culture, and social movements to answer the question: How did we get from there to here? Two historical research "labs" or archival sessions focus on the Great Depression in the 1930s and radical and conservative students movements of the 1960s. Suitable for non-majors and majors alike.
Same as: AFRICAAM 150C, AMSTUD 150C

HISTORY 151. The American West. 5 Units.

The American West is characterized by frontier mythology, vast distances, marked aridity, and unique political and economic characteristics. This course integrates several disciplinary perspectives into a comprehensive examination of Western North America: its history, physical geography, climate, literature, art, film, institutions, politics, demography, economy, and continuing policy challenges. Students examine themes fundamental to understanding the region: time, space, water, peoples, and boom and bust cycles.
Same as: AMSTUD 124A, ARTHIST 152, ENGLISH 124, POLISCI 124A

HISTORY 151B. The End of American Slavery, 1776-1865. 3-5 Units.

How did the institution of American slavery come to an end? The story is more complex than most people know. This course examines the rival forces that fostered slavery's simultaneous contraction in the North and expansion in the South between 1776 and 1861. It also illuminates, in detail, the final tortuous path to abolition during the Civil War. Throughout, the course introduces a diverse collection of historical figures, including seemingly paradoxical ones, such as slaveholding southerners who professed opposition to slavery and non-slaveholding northerners who acted in ways that preserved it. Historical attitudes toward race are a central integrative theme.
Same as: HISTORY 51B

HISTORY 152. History of American Law. 5 Units.

(Formerly Law 318. Now Law 3504.) This course examines the growth and development of American legal institutions with particular attention to crime and punishment, slavery and race relations, the role of law in developing the economy, and the place of lawyers in American society, from colonial times to the present. Special Instructions: Any student may write a paper in lieu of the final exam with consent of instructor. After the term begins, students accepted into the course can transfer from section (01) into section (02), which meets the R requirement, with consent of the instructor. Elements used in grading: Final exam or paper. Automatic grading penalty waived for writers. Cross-listed with History (HISTORY 152 Consent of instructor required) & (HISTORY 352B).
Same as: HISTORY 352B

HISTORY 152K. America as a World Power in the Modern Era. 5 Units.

This course will examine the modern history of American foreign relations, from the turn of the twentieth century to the present. Beginning with the fateful decision to go to war with Spain, it will examine the major crises and choices that have defined the "American Century." Our study of U.S. foreign relations will consider such key factors as geopolitics, domestic politics, bureaucracy, psychology, race, and culture. IR majors taking this course to fulfill the IR WIM requirement should enroll in INTNLREL168W.
Same as: INTNLREL 168, INTNLREL 168W

HISTORY 153. Creation of the Constitution. 5 Units.

The course begins with readings setting forth the intellectual and experiential background of the framing, including common law and natural rights theory, republicanism, economic & political scientific ideas, and colonial and post-Independence experience. We then study large parts of the debates at the Constitutional Convention, primarily using Madison's Notes. Major topics are the principle of representation, the extent and enumeration of national powers, the construction of the executive and judicial branches, and slavery. Next come the ratification debates, including readings from antifederalist writers, The Federalist, and speeches in ratification conventions. We conclude with the addition of the Bill of Rights. Classes consist of a combination of lecture and extensive participation by students. Elements used in grading: Class participation, In-class exam, supplemented by short take-home essay. Cross-listed with the Law School (LAW 7017).

HISTORY 154. American Intellectual and Cultural History to the Civil War. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 54. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 154.) How Americans considered problems such as slavery, imperialism, and sectionalism. Topics include: the political legacies of revolution; biological ideas of race; the Second Great Awakening; science before Darwin; reform movements and utopianism; the rise of abolitionism and proslavery thought; phrenology and theories of human sexuality; and varieties of feminism. Sources include texts and images.
Same as: AMSTUD 154

HISTORY 155. The White Supremacist Constitution: American Constitutional History. 5 Units.

This course addresses U.S. constitutional history from the post-Civil War Reconstruction period through the mid-20th century. Because of the breadth of the subject matter, the view will necessarily be partial. In particular we will take as our focus the way the Constitution has provided a point of political mobilization for social movements challenging economic and social inequality. Topics covered include: Civil War Reconstruction and restoration; the rise of corporate capitalism and efforts to constrain it; Progressive Era regulation; the New Deal challenge to federalism and the anti-New Deal backlash; government spending; WWII and the Japanese Internment; the Civil Rights Era, and the War on Poverty. Readings will include both legal and historical materials with a focus on the relationship between law and society. Elements used in grading: Class Participation, Attendance, Written Assignments, Final Paper. Paper extensions will be granted with instructor permission. No automatic grading penalty for late papers. Cross-listed with the Law School (LAW 7008),.
Same as: AMSTUD 155

HISTORY 155F. The Civil War and Reconstruction Era, 1830 to 1877. 3-5 Units.

(HISTORY 55F is 3 units; HISTORY 155F is 5 units.)This course explores the causes, course, and consequences of the American Civil War. The Civil War profoundly impacted American life at national, sectional, and constitutional levels, and radically challenged categories of race and citizenship. Topics covered include: the crisis of union and disunion in an expanding republic; slavery, race, and emancipation as national problems and personal experiences; the horrors of total war for individuals and society; and the challenges--social and political--of Reconstruction.
Same as: AFRICAAM 55F, AMSTUD 55F, AMSTUD 155F, HISTORY 55F

HISTORY 158C. History of Higher Education in the U.S.. 3-5 Units.

Major periods of evolution, particularly since the mid-19th century. Premise: insights into contemporary higher education can be obtained through its antecedents, particularly regarding issues of governance, mission, access, curriculum, and the changing organization of colleges and universities.
Same as: AMSTUD 165, EDUC 165, EDUC 265

HISTORY 161. The Politics of Sex: Work, Family, and Citizenship in Modern American Women's History. 3-5 Units.

This course explores the transition from Victorian to modern American womanhood by asking how Native, European, African, Mexican, and Asian American women navigated the changing sexual, economic, and political landscapes of the twentieth century. Through secondary readings, primary sources, films, music, and literature we explore the opportunities and boundaries on groups of women in the context of historical events that included immigration, urbanization, wartime, depression, the Cold War, as well as recurrent feminist and conservative political movements.
Same as: AMSTUD 161, CSRE 162, FEMGEN 161, HISTORY 61

HISTORY 163. A History of North American Wests. 5 Units.

The history, peoples, and natural systems of a region that has never been contained within a single empire or nation state, but has been united by the movement of peoples, species, and things. Topics include smallpox, horses, gold, salmon, rivers, coal, and oil.

HISTORY 164C. From Freedom to Freedom Now: African American History, 1865-1965. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 64C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 164C.) Explores the working lives, social worlds, political ideologies and cultural expressions of African Americans from emancipation to the early civil rights era. Topics include: the transition from slavery to freedom, family life, work, culture, leisure patterns, resistance, migration and social activism. Draws largely on primary sources including autobiographies, memoirs, letters, personal journals, newspaper articles, pamphlets, speeches, literature, film and music.
Same as: AMSTUD 164C

HISTORY 166B. Immigration Debates in America, Past and Present. 3-5 Units.

Examines the ways in which the immigration of people from around the world and migration within the United States shaped American nation-building and ideas about national identity in the twentieth century. Focuses on how conflicting ideas about race, gender, ethnicity, and citizenship with respect to particular groups led to policies both of exclusion and integration. Part One begins with the ways in which the American views of race and citizenship in the colonial period through the post-Reconstruction Era led to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 and subsequently to broader exclusions of immigrants from other parts of Asia, Southern and Eastern Europe, and Mexico. Explores how World War II and the Cold War challenged racial ideologies and led to policies of increasing liberalization culminating in the passage of the 1965 Immigration Act, which eliminated quotas based on national origins and opened the door for new waves of immigrants, especially from Asia and Latin America. Part Two considers new immigration patterns after 1965, including those of refugees, and investigates the contemporary debate over immigration and immigration policy in the post 9/11 era as well as inequalities within the system and the impact of foreign policy on exclusions and inclusions.
Same as: CSRE 166B, HISTORY 366B

HISTORY 166C. The Cold War: An International History. 5 Units.

Though it ended twenty years ago, we still live in a world shaped by the Cold War. Beginning with its origins in the mid-1940s, this course will trace the evolution of the global struggle, until its culmination at the end of the 1980s. Students will be asked to ponder the fundamental nature of the Cold War, what kept it alive for nearly fifty years, how it ended, and its long term legacy for the world. As distinguished from the lecture taught in previous quarters, this class will closely investigate ten major Cold War battlegrounds over the quarter. Selected case studies will include: the division of Germany, Iran in the 1950s, Cuba, Vietnam, the Six Day War, the Chilean coup, sub-Saharan Africa, Afghanistan, Central America, and the Eastern European revolutions of 1989. Students will be asked to consult a combination of original documents and recent histories.
Same as: INTNLREL 154

HISTORY 167A. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle. 3-5 Units.

Using the unique documentary resources and publications of Stanford's King Research and Education Institute, this course will be taught by Professor Carson and his colleagues at the Institute. It will provide a general introduction to the life and legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr., as well as devote attention to the movements he inspired. In addition to lectures, the course will include presentations of documentaries such as Eyes on the Prize. Students will be expected to read the required texts, participate in class discussions, and take a final exam or submit a research paper (or an audio-visual project developed in consultation with the professor).

HISTORY 168. American History in Film Since World War ll. 3-4 Units.

U.S. society, culture, and politics since WW II through feature films. Topics include: McCarthyism and the Cold War; ethnicity and racial identify; changing sex and gender relationships; the civil rights and anti-war movements; and mass media. Films include: The Best Years of Our Lives, Salt of the Earth, On the Waterfront, Raisin in the Sun, Kramer v Kramer, and Falling Down.

HISTORY 168D. American Prophet: The Inner Life and Global Vision of Martin Luther King, Jr.. 3-5 Units.

Martin Luther King, Jr., was the 20th-century's best-known African-American leader, but the religious roots of his charismatic leadership are far less widely known. The documents assembled and published by Stanford's King Research and Education Institute provide the source materials for this exploration of King's swift rise to international prominence as an articulate advocate of global peace and justice.
Same as: AFRICAAM 68D, AMSTUD 168D, CSRE 68, HISTORY 68D

HISTORY 172A. Mexico: From Colony to Nation, or the History of an impossible Republic?. 5 Units.

Was a republican form of government even possible in 19th-century Mexico after 300 years of colonial rule under the Spanish monarchy? Was the Spanish colonial heritage a positive or a negative legacy according to 19th-century Mexican politicians? How were they to forge a new national identity with so many ethnically and culturally diverse peoples throughout the territory? Just how ¿traditional¿ was, in fact, the colonial period? These are some of the questions we will explore in this course. Journeying from the late colonial period (c.1700) to the 35-year dictatorship known as El Porfiriato (1876-1911) we will examine how Mexico¿s diverse indigenous peoples adapted to both colonial and postcolonial rule, how they actively participated in politics and political discourse to preserve their cultures, customs and colonial privileges, and how after independence in 1821, a new republican political culture was forged. Mexico was not an impossible republic, but rather another kind of republic.

HISTORY 173. Mexican Migration to the United States. 3-5 Units.

(HISTORY 73 is 3 units; HISTORY 173 is 5 units.) This course is an introduction to the history of Mexican migration to the United States. Barraged with anti-immigrant rhetoric and calls for bigger walls and more restrictive laws, few people in the United States truly understand the historical trends that shape migratory processes, or the multifaceted role played by both US officials and employers in encouraging Mexicans to migrate north. Moreover, few have actually heard the voices and perspectives of migrants themselves. This course seeks to provide students with the opportunity to place migrants' experiences in dialogue with migratory laws as well as the knowledge to embed current understandings of Latin American migration in their meaningful historical context.
Same as: AMSTUD 73, CHILATST 173, HISTORY 73

HISTORY 174. Mexico Since 1876: The Road to Ayotzinapa. 5 Units.

(HISTORY 74 is for 3 units; HISTORY 174 is for 5 units.) In September of 2014, 43 students from a Mexican teacher's college in Ayotzinapa, Guerrero were abducted and disappeared via the actions of police and organized crime. This shocking human rights violation, as well as the violence and impunity it represented, were symbolic of the decline of the rule of law embodied by Mexico's drug war. How did the nation arrive at this crossroads? This course is an introduction to the history of Mexico from 1876 to the present. Through lectures, discussions, primary and secondary sources, film and documentaries, and written assignments, students will critically explore the events and people that shaped Mexico for over a century. From the Porfirian dictatorship, to the Revolution, to the PRI's "perfect dictatorship," this course analyzes socioeconomic and racial inequality, foreign intervention, urbanization and industrialization, technological innovation and environmental degradation, education and ideology, modernity and migration, culture and media, and the drug trade.

HISTORY 177D. U.S. Intervention and Regime Change in 20th Century Latin America. 5 Units.

Policy discussions of regime change by US politicians, journalists and pundits usually focus on Iraq, Iran, Syria and North Korea, often with little or no historical context or perspective. This course does the opposite and takes seriously the proverbial saying "if history is any guide..." by examining U.S. interventions in Latin America, a region where so-called preventive regime change (covert as well as overt) has been operative policy for well over a century. Investigates the rationales, motivations and strategies behind U.S.-backed or engineered regime changes in Mexico in the 1910s, Guatemala in the 1950s, Chile in the 1970s, and Nicaragua in the 1980s.

HISTORY 178. Film and History of Latin American Revolutions and Counterrevolutions. 3-5 Units.

Note: Students who have completed HISTORY 78N or 78Q should not enroll in this course. In this course we will watch and critique films made about Latin America's 20th century revolutions focusing on the Cuban, Chilean and Mexican revolutions. We will analyze the films as both social and political commentaries and as aesthetic and cultural works, alongside archivally-based histories of these revolutions.
Same as: FILMSTUD 178, HISTORY 78, ILAC 178

HISTORY 179C. The Ethical Challenges of the Climate Catastrophe. 3-5 Units.

(HISTORY 79C is 3 units; HISTORY 179C is 5 units.) This course explores the ethical challenges of the climate catastrophe from historical, social, economic, political, cultural and scientific perspectives. These include the discovery of global warming over two centuries, the rise of secular and religious denialism and skepticism toward the scientific consensus on it, the dispute between developed and developing countries over how to forge a binding global agreement to mitigate it, and the "role morality" of various actors (scientists, politicians, fossil fuel companies, the media and ordinary individuals) in the US in assessing ethical responsibility for the catastrophe and how to mitigate, adapt, or even geoengineer, it.
Same as: HISTORY 79C

HISTORY 181B. Formation of the Contemporary Middle East. 5 Units.

(Same as 81B. 181B is 5 units; 81B is 3 units) This course introduces major themes in the modern history of the region linking the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean worlds. We will begin with the Eurasian context that produced the Safavid and Ottoman dynastic empires and quickly move to the economic and political transformations of the nineteenth century and the imperial dissolution of the early twentieth. Twentieth-century themes will include mass migrations and colonial occupation; nationalism, mass politics and revolution; socialist and Islamist movements; and the growing role of American policy in the region. The course will conclude with a close examination of the profound transformations of the past decade, from the multiform revolutions of the ¿Arab Spring¿ to the equally multiform attempts to repress them.

HISTORY 182G. Making Palestine Visible. 3-5 Units.

Israel-Palestine is one of the most difficult subjects to talk about, in large part because we in the United States do not have much exposure to Palestinian history, culture, and politics in their own terms. This course aims to humanize Palestinians and asks why Palestinian claims to rights are illegible for much of the American public. We begin to answer this question by examining a broad sampling of history, structures of power and law, culture, and contemporary political issues.
Same as: CSRE 82G, HISTORY 82G

HISTORY 185B. Jews in the Contemporary World. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 185B is 5 units; HISTORY 85B IS 3 units.) Who are American Jews as depicted in popular media -- film, television, etc. -- since the Second World War? How are their religion, politics, mores, and practices represented and what ways, if at all, do such portraits reflect historical trends among Jews and society in general? What can be learned from film or tv about Jewish identity, notions of Jewish power and powerlessness, communal cohesiveness and assimilation, sexuality and the wages of intermarriage or race?.
Same as: CSRE 185B, HISTORY 385C, JEWISHST 185B, REES 185B, SLAVIC 183

HISTORY 187. The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 87. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 187.) Explores the contested politics of these societies in modern times. Topics include controversies surrounding the meaning of revolution, state building, war, geopolitics, Islamic law, clerical authority, gender, an Islamic economy, culture and ethnic, national and religious identities from the 1940s to the present. Assignments will focus on primary sources (especially legal documents, poetry, novels, and memoirs) and films.

HISTORY 187D. Zionism and Its Critics. 4-5 Units.

Zionism from its genesis in the 1880s up until the establishment of the state of Israel in May, 1948, exploring the historical, ideological and political dimensions of Zionism. Topics include: the emergence of Zionist ideology in connection to and as a response to challenges of modernity; emancipation; Haskalah (Jewish enlightenment); other national and ideological movements of the period; the ideological crystallization of the movement; and the immigration waves to Palestine.

HISTORY 190. Early Chinese Thought. 3-5 Units.

This lecture course examines the emergence of critical thought in early China. After a brief study of the social and political changes that made this emergence possible, it looks at the nature and roles of the thinkers, and finally their ideas about the social order, the state, war and the army, the family, the cosmos, and the self (both physical and mental). Some brief comparisons with early Greek thought.
Same as: HISTORY 90

HISTORY 191B. The City in Imperial China. 5 Units.

The evolution of cities in the early imperial, medieval, and early modern periods. Topics include physical structure, social order, cultural forms, economic roles, relations to rural hinterlands, and the contrast between imperial capitals and other cities. Comparative cases from European history. Readings include primary and secondary sources, and visual materials.

HISTORY 191D. China: The Northern and Southern Dynasties. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 91D. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 191D.) Examines one of the most dynamic periods of Chinese history with the emergence of the institutional religions (Buddhism and Daoism), the development of the garden as an art form, the rise of landscape as a theme of verse and art, the invention of lyric poetry, and the real beginnings of the southward spread of Chinese civilization.

HISTORY 194B. Japan in the Age of the Samurai. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 94B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 194B.) From the Warring States Period to the Meiji Restoration. Topics include the three great unifiers, Tokugawa hegemony, the samurai class, Neoconfucian ideologies, suppression of Christianity, structures of social and economic control, frontiers, the other and otherness, castle-town culture, peasant rebellion, black marketing, print culture, the floating world, National Studies, food culture, samurai activism, black ships, unequal treaties, anti-foreign terrorism, restorationism, millenarianism, modernization as westernization, Japan as imagined community.

HISTORY 194G. Humanities Core: Technology and Media in Modern Japan. 3-5 Units.

This course considers the political, economic, social, cultural, and artistic effects of the introduction of new technologies and media to modern China and Japan. The methodology will integrate techniques gleaned from the disciplines of history and literary studies. Our cross-discipline exploration will encompass printed books and images, language reform, communication technology, serialized fiction and commercial journalism, propaganda and censorship, cinema, comics, animation and television, gaming, and the internet. Through examination of these topics we will investigate a wide range of issues including nationality, ethnic identity, class, revolution, cultural identification, gender, sexuality, literacy, colonialism, imperialism, consumerism, materialism, and globalism, to name just a few. Throughout the course we will be attentive not only to the ways that new technology and media are represented in cultural materials but also how they are materialized in these products through the acts of adaptation, translation, transliteration, and remediation.nnStudents will survey, collect, and synthesize archival materials, engage in media analysis, and undertake close readings to illuminate narrative strategies and other signifying effects. This work will in part be facilitated by the Massive Multiplayer Humanities pedagogical model, which involves flipped classrooms, faculty curated online archives, and student initiated group work.

HISTORY 195. Modern Korean History. 4-5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 95. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195.) This lecture course provides a general introduction to the history of modern Korea. Themes include the characteristics of the Chosôn dynasty, reforms and rebellions in the nineteenth century, Korean nationalism; Japan's colonial rule and Korean identities; decolonization and the Korean War; and the different state-building processes in North and South, South Korea's democratization in 1980s, and the current North Korean crisis.

HISTORY 195C. Modern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 95C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195C.) Japan's modern transformation from the late 19th century to the present. Topics include: the Meiji revolution; industrialization and social dislocation; the rise of democracy and empire; total war and US occupation; economic miracle and malaise; Japan as soft power; and politics of memory. Readings and films focus on the lived experience of ordinary men and women across social classes and regions.

HISTORY 197. Southeast Asia: From Antiquity to the Modern Era. 3-5 Units.

The history of S.E. Asia, comprising Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia, and Laos, from antiquity to the present. The spread of Indian cultural influences, the rise of indigenous states, and the emergence of globally linked trade networks. European colonization, economic transformation, the rise of nationalism, the development of the modern state, and the impact of globalization.
Same as: HISTORY 97

HISTORY 198. The History of Modern China. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 98. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 198.) This course charts major historical transformations in modern China, and will be of interest to those concerned with Chinese politics, culture, society, ethnicity, economy, gender, international relations, and the future of the world.

HISTORY 198G. Beijing, Shanghai, and the Structure of China. 3-5 Units.

China's modern history through the rivalry of its two most important cities. The course begins in the nineteenth century, contrasting Beijing, the classic imperial capital and a foreign foundation paradoxically celebrated as the embodiment of "traditional" China, with Shanghai, a treaty port and demographic/economic center of China, but identified as a "foreign" city. After following the cities' history through the warlord period, the "Shanghai decade" of Nationalist rule, and the Japanese occupation, the course examines the two cities' developments under Mao and Deng. The course concludes with a look at their current relations and roles, and the transformed nature of China's cities.

HISTORY 200A. Doing Legal History. 5 Units.

What is law, and how do we write its history? Drawing on case studies from a broad range of periods and places, this course will explore how law is made, interpreted, enforced, experienced, and resisted. It will also explore how historians use both legal and non-legal sources to study the ways in which law and society have shaped each other. This course forms part of the "Doing History" series: rigorous undergraduate colloquia that introduce the practice of history within a particular field or thematic area.

HISTORY 200B. Doing Environmental History: Climate Change... the podcast. 5 Units.

This will be a hands-on course that will emphasize how to do environmental history. Students will reflect on what it means to think historically about a pressing contemporary problem--climate change. We will ask historical questions, produce historical knowledge, and as a critical part of the course, present that knowledge to a general audience in the form of a podcast. This course forms part of the "Doing History" series: rigorous undergraduate colloquia that introduce the practice of history within a particular field or thematic area.

HISTORY 200C. Doing the History of Race and Ethnicity. 5 Units.

How does ethnicity and race operate in different time periods, and across different historical, national, and cultural contexts? This course guides students through an historical and cross-cultural exploration of ethnoracial identity formation, racism, ethnopolitics, migration, belonging, and exclusion, using primary and secondary sources to examine how the lived experience of race and ethnicity shapes and is shaped by local, regional, and global dimensions. This course forms part of the "Doing History" series: rigorous undergraduate colloquia that introduce the practice of history within a particular field or thematic area.

HISTORY 200D. Doing the History of Science and Technology. 5 Units.

The history of science has often been at the crux of key debates in the larger field of history, including debates over objectivity and bias, relativism and the problem of "present-ism." This course explores key questions, methods and debates in the history of science and examines how historians of science have addressed these organizing problems of the historical discipline. This course forms part of the "Doing History" series: rigorous undergraduate colloquia that introduce the practice of history within a particular field or thematic area.

HISTORY 200E. Doing Economic History. 5 Units.

The courses examines how historians and economists, from different intellectual traditions and schools, grapple with major problems of economic history including pre-modern agrarian orders; demographic fluctuations; diverse property regimes; financial and commercial expansion; the emergence of fiscal-military state; the industrial revolution; growth and poverty; markets and networks; epidemics and their economic impacts; labor and capital; the rise of capitalism and imperialism; anti-capitalist and socialist movements; immigration; formal and informal economies; ; development and underdevelopment; globalization and environmental crisis; Special emphasis will be given to the theories of the Great Divergence, namely why the West became the dominant economic power over the rest of the world and how different economies responded to that.

HISTORY 200F. Doing Microhistory. 5 Units.

The genre of microhistory was expressly invented in the 1970s to recover the voices of people usually neglected in the past, often based on scanty sources. It's an exciting and risky endeavor, as the historian often has to fill in details lacking in the sources, a historical tightrope act. Class includes three sessions with authors of microhistory who share how they met these challenges:Profs. Zipperstein and Stokes (Stanford) and Getz (San Francisco State).

HISTORY 200J. Doing Oral History. 5 Units.

Students explore exemplary historical works based on oral histories and develop a range of practical skills while completing their own interviews. Topics include oral history and narrative theory, interview techniques, transcript preparation, and digital archiving. Students also learn how to analyze interviews using both qualitative and quantitative methods, practice writing history using oral evidence, and experiment with digital humanities approaches for disseminating oral history, including the Stanford Oral History Text Analysis Project. This course forms part of the "Doing History" series: rigorous undergraduate colloquia that introduce the practice of history within a particular field or thematic area.
Same as: AMSTUD 200J

HISTORY 200K. Doing Literary History: Orwell in the World. 5 Units.

This course will bring together the disciplines of history and literary studies by looking closely at the work of one major twentieth-century author: the British writer and political polemicist George Orwell. In 1946, Orwell writes, "What I have most wanted to do throughout the past ten years is to make political writing into an art." In these years, Orwell writes about-- and often participates in or witnesses first-hand--a series of major events and crises. These include British imperialism in Burma, urban poverty in Europe, class inequality in England, the conflict between Socialism and Fascism in Spain, and the rise of totalitarianism in the Soviet Union. In engaging all of these events, Orwell experiments with different literary forms, moving between fiction and non-fiction, novel and autobiography, essay and memoir, manifesto and fable, literature and journalism. Few writers demand such sustained and equal attention to text and context: in this course we will move back-and-forth between Orwell's varied writing and the urgent social and political contexts it addresses.
Same as: ENGLISH 224

HISTORY 200L. Doing Public History. 5 Units.

Examines history outside the classroom; its role in political/cultural debates in U.S. and abroad. Considers functions, practices, and reception of history in public arena, including museums, memorials, naming of buildings, courtrooms, websites, op-eds. Analyzes controversies arising when historians' work outside the academy challenges the status quo; role funders, interest groups, and the public play in promoting, shaping, or suppressing historical interpretation. Who gets to tell a group's story? What changes can public history enable? Students will engage in public history projects.
Same as: CSRE 201L

HISTORY 200M. Doing Digital History. 5 Units.

This course is designed to introduce students to the theories and methods of digital history. In keeping with the digital humanities¿ commitment to experimentation, public discourse, and praxis, we will compile a web presence for our seminar that includes blog posts from students that engage with the discussions and readings. A series of tutorials will provide hands-on experience with a range of common digital history tools. The course will culminate in a final project in which students apply DH methodologies to their own research interests.

HISTORY 200R. Doing Community History: Asian Americans and the Pandemic. 5 Units.

Students utilize a community-engaged oral history methodology to produce short video documentaries focused on Asian Americans in the Covid-19 pandemic. In producing these collaborative digital history projects, students learn to evaluate the ways social power influences historical documentation at various levels including the making of sources, the construction of archives, and the telling of historical narratives. We ask: how have race and racism, ethnicity and community, gender and class, shaped the ways that the pandemic has influenced the lives of Asian Americans? To what extent have Asian American experiences with the pandemic been shaped by the recent global protests for racial justice and Black liberation? In studying the pandemic and its relationship to histories of race and racism, how should we understand the place of Asian Americans?.
Same as: AMSTUD 200R, ASNAMST 201

HISTORY 200U. Doing History: Beyond the Book. 5 Units.

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HISTORY 200Y. Doing Colonial History. 5 Units.

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HISTORY 201. From Confederate Monuments to Wikipedia: The Politics of Remembering the Past. 5 Units.

Gateway course for Public History/Public Service track. Examines various ways history is used outside of the classroom, and its role in political/cultural debates in the U.S. and abroad. Showcases issues and careers in public history with guest speakers.

HISTORY 201A. The Global Drug Wars. 4-5 Units.

Explores the global story of the struggle over drugs from the nineteenth century to the present. Topics include the history of the opium wars in China, controversies over wine and tobacco in Iran, narco-trafficking and civil war in Lebanon, the Afghan 'narco-state,' Andean cocaine as a global commodity, the politics of U.S.- Mexico drug trafficking, incarceration, drugs, and race in the U.S., and the globalization of the American 'war on drugs.'.
Same as: HISTORY 301A

HISTORY 201B. Spatial History: Concepts, Methods, Problems. 4-5 Units.

What can digital mapping and spatial analysis bring to history? How have historians written spatial history in the past? How do scholars in other disciplines deal with space and what can we learn from them? The course provides students with conceptual and technical skills in spatial history. As part of the exercise to think spatially about the past, students will receive training in Geographic Informational Science (GIS) and develop their own spatial history projects. No prior technical skills are needed for this course.
Same as: HISTORY 401A

HISTORY 201C. The U.S., U.N. Peacekeeping, and Humanitarian War. 4-5 Units.

The involvement of U.S. and the UN in major wars and international interventions since the 1991 Gulf War. The UN Charter's provisions on the use of force, the origins and evolution of peacekeeping, the reasons for the breakthrough to peacemaking and peace enforcement in the 90s, and the ongoing debates over the legality and wisdom of humanitarian intervention. Case studies include Croatia and Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda, Kosovo, East Timor, and Afghanistan. *International Relations majors taking this course to fulfill the WiM requirement should enroll in INTNLREL 140C for 5 units.
Same as: INTNLREL 140C, INTNLREL 140X

HISTORY 201D. History Goes Pop! Songwriting the Past. 3 Units.

Historical research doesn't always take the form of a thesis, an article, or a book. Sometimes, research leads to film, museum exhibits, works of art, or... music. In this class, students will collaborate to write, record, and produce original pop music (perhaps even an entire album) based on original research in Stanford's wealth of archives and Special Collections. Background in music is NOT required.
Same as: HISTORY 301D

HISTORY 201J. Objects of History: From "Material Culture" to "Making". 4-5 Units.

This class considers objects as historical sources. It surveys diverse approaches to the study and display of physical evidence, from "material culture" to "making." These explorations of object-oriented research will inform the course's hands-on components, working with objects and replicating historical experiences. With its focus on the question of what historical knowledge can be gained through interactivity, the course is suited to students whose interests include museums and public history, reenactment and performance, the maker movement, or interdisciplinary methodology.
Same as: HISTORY 301J

HISTORY 202B. Coffee, Sugar, and Chocolate: Commodities and Consumption in World History, 1200-1800. 4-5 Units.

Many of the basic commodities that we consider staples of everyday life became part of an increasingly interconnected world of trade, goods, and consumption between 1200 and 1800. This seminar offers an introduction to the material culture of the late medieval and early modern world, with an emphasis on the role of European trade and empires in these developments. We will examine recent work on the circulation, use, and consumption of things, starting with the age of the medieval merchant, and followed by the era of the Columbian exchange in the Americas that was also the world of the Renaissance collector, the Ottoman patron, and the Ming connoisseur. This seminar will explore the material horizons of an increasingly interconnected world, with the rise of the Dutch East India Company and other trading societies, and the emergence of the Atlantic economy. It concludes by exploring classic debates about the "birth" of consumer society in the eighteenth century. How did the meaning of things and people's relationships to them change over these centuries? What can we learn about the past by studying things?.
Same as: ARTHIST 302B, HISTORY 302B

HISTORY 202F. Surveillance States and Societies. 4-5 Units.

The course analyzes the evolution, functions, structures and consequences of surveillance in the modern era. Among issues discussed are the rise of the modern state and population politics, information gathering and its uses in domestic and national security arenas, institutions of surveillance in various regimes, the challenge of privacy and ethical dilemmas.
Same as: HISTORY 302F

HISTORY 202G. Peoples, Armies and Governments of the Second World War. 4-5 Units.

Clausewitz conceptualized war as always consisting of a trinity of passion, chance, and reason, mirrored, respectively, in the people, army and government. Following Clausewitz, this course examines the peoples, armies, and governments that shaped World War II. Analyzes the ideological, political, diplomatic and economic motivations and constraints of the belligerents and their resulting strategies, military planning and fighting. Explores the new realities of everyday life on the home fronts and the experiences of non-combatants during the war, the final destruction of National Socialist Germany and Imperial Japan, and the emerging conflict between the victors. How the peoples, armies and governments involved perceived their possibilities and choices as a means to understand the origins, events, dynamics and implications of the greatest war in history.
Same as: HISTORY 302G

HISTORY 202J. Climate Politics: Science and Global Governance. 3-4 Units.

(Formerly IPS 271) Provides a unique perspective on contemporary debates about climate change through a study of their long history. After some background about climate science and a look at how people thought about climate in the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries, we explore the co-evolution of climate science and climate politics from World War II to the present. The approach is to examine a series of political issues and debates that established human effects on the global atmosphere as serious problems. We then focus on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the 2015 Paris Agreement, and the future of international climate policy. Assignments include in-class presentations and a policy brief.
Same as: INTLPOL 271

HISTORY 202K. The Holocaust and Its Aftermath. 4-5 Units.

This seminar gives an overview over different aspects of the history of the Holocaust and its aftermath and will examine key issues in recent Holocaust historiography and questions of memory and representation. Special emphasis is put on the nature of the historian's task, as viewed through the lens of historians of the Holocaust, as well as to the significance of the Holocaust in history and how it has changed over time. The course will confront students with historiographical texts and historical documents, with photography and film, works of scholarship and art.
Same as: HISTORY 302K, JEWISHST 282K, JEWISHST 382K

HISTORY 203. Premodern Economic Cultures. 4-5 Units.

Modern economists have made a science of studying the aggregate effects of individual choices. This science is based on the realities of personal freedom and individual choice. Prior to the modern era, however, different realities comprised very different economic cultures: moral economies in which greed was evil and generosity benefitted the patron¿s soul; familial collectives operating within historical conditioned diasporas; economies of obligation that threatened to collapse under their own weight as economic structures shifted. In this course we will be reading cross-culturally to develop an understanding of the shared and distinct elements of premodern economic cultures.
Same as: HISTORY 303

HISTORY 203C. History of Ignorance. 5 Units.

Scholars pay a lot of attention to knowledge--how it arises and impacts society--but much less attention has been given to ignorance, even though its impacts are equally profound. Here we explore the political history of ignorance, through case studies including: corporate denials of harms from particular products (tobacco, asbestos), climate change denialism, and creationist rejections of Darwinian evolution. Students will be expected to produce a research paper tracing the origins and impact of a particular form of ignorance.

HISTORY 203F. Racial Justice in the Nuclear Age. 5 Units.

This upper-level course explores the history of radioactive contamination in the Bay Area and elsewhere. We'll examine the legacy of atomic bomb testing in our region and the current political implications of that legacy. We'll then explore the colonial and postcolonial dimensions of the nuclear age and the long-term contamination it has produced. Case studies vary yearly; they include uranium mining in Africa, nuclear testing in the Pacific, and accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima. At least one field trip!.
Same as: STS 200T

HISTORY 204A. Reimagining History: Or, Finding the "I" in History. 4-5 Units.

This class explores, through analysis and practice, the ways in which history can be told and experienced through means other than traditional scholarly narratives. Approaches include literary fiction and non-fiction, digital media, graphic arts, maps, exhibitions, and film. A final project will require students to produce their own innovative work of history.
Same as: HISTORY 304A

HISTORY 204D. Advanced Topics in Agnotology. 4-5 Units.

Advanced research into the history of ignorance. Our goal will be to explore how ignorance is created, maintained and destroyed, using case studies from topics such as tobacco denialism, global climate denialism, and other forms of resistance to knowledge making. Course culminates in a research paper on the theory and practice of agnotology, the science of ignorance.
Same as: HISTORY 304D

HISTORY 204E. Totalitarianism. 4-5 Units.

This course analyzes the evolution and nature of revolutionary and totalitarian polities through the reading of monographs on the Puritan Reformation, French Revolutionary, turn of the 20th Century, interwar, and Second World War eras. Among topics explored are the essence of modern ideology and politics, the concept of the body national and social, the modern state, state terror, charismatic leadership, private and public spheres, totalitarian economies, and identities and practices in totalitarian polities.
Same as: HISTORY 307E

HISTORY 204G. War and Society. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 204G is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 304G is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) How Western societies and cultures have responded to modern warfare. The relationship between its destructive capacity and effects on those who produce, are subject to, and must come to terms with its aftermath. Literary representations of WW I; destructive psychological effects of modern warfare including those who take pleasure in killing; changes in relations between the genders; consequences of genocidal ideology and racial prejudice; the theory of just war and its practical implementation; how wars end and commemorated.
Same as: HISTORY 304G, REES 304G

HISTORY 205D. Freedom in Chains: Black Slavery in the Atlantic, 1400s-1800s. 3-5 Units.

This course will focus on the history of slavery in the British, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch Atlantic world(s), from the late 1400s to the 1800s. Its main focus will be on the experiences of enslaved Africans and their descendants. Between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Europeans forcibly embarked over 10 million Africans to the Americas. Drawing on methodologies used by historians, archaeologists and anthropologists, the course will reconstruct the daily lives and the socio-economic, cultural and political histories of these captives. We will seek to hear their voices by investigating a variety of historical testimonies and recent scholarship. The course will examine slavery in the context of broader trends in Atlantic World studies, a field that has grown considerably in recent years, providing new ways of understanding historical developments across national boundaries. We will seek to identify commonalities and differences across time periods and regions and the reasons for those differences. Covered topics will include slave ship voyages, labor, agency, the creation of new identities (creolization), religion, race, gender, resistance, legacies, and memory.
Same as: AFRICAAM 113V, AFRICAST 113V, CSRE 113V

HISTORY 205K. The Age of Revolution: America, France, and Haiti. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 205K is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 305K is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) This course examines the "Age of Revolution," spanning the 18th and 19th centuries. Primarily, this course will focus on the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions (which overthrew both French and white planter rule). Taken together, these events reshaped definitions of citizenship, property, and government. But could republican principles-- color-blind in rhetoric-- be so in fact? Could nations be both republican and pro-slavery? Studying a wide range of primary materials, this course will explore the problem of revolution in an age of empires, globalization, and slavery.
Same as: AFRICAAM 205K, HISTORY 305K

HISTORY 205L. Prostitution & Sex Trafficking: Regulating Morality and the Status of Women. 5 Units.

Examines governmental policies toward prostitution from the late 19th century to the present. Focuses on the underlying attitudes, assumptions, strategies, and consequences of various historical and current legal frameworks regulating prostitution, including: prohibitionism, abolitionism, legalization, partial decriminalization, and full decriminalization. Special focus on these policies' effects on sex trafficking, sex worker rights, and the status of women. Emphasis on Europe and the U.S., with additional cases from across the globe.

HISTORY 206A. City, Society, Literature- 19th Century Histories. 4 Units.

This course examines the rise of modern cities through an analysis of urban society and the imaginative literature of the 1800s.
Same as: HISTORY 306A, URBANST 106

HISTORY 206C. The Modern Battle. 5 Units.

The purpose of this seminar is to examine the evolution of modern warfare by closely following four modern battles/campaigns. For this purpose the seminar offers four mock staff rides, facilitating highly engaged, well-researched experience for participants. In a mock staff ride, students are assigned roles; each student is playing a general or staff officer who was involved in the battle/campaign. Students will research their roles and, during the staff ride, will be required to explain "their" decisions and actions. Staff rides will not deviate from historical records, but closely examine how decisions were made, what pressures and forces were in action, battle outcomes, etc. This in-depth examination will allow students to gain a deeper understanding of how modern tactics, technology, means of communications, and the scale of warfare can decide, and indeed decided, campaigns. We will will spend two weeks preparing for and playing each staff ride. One meeting will be dedicated to discussing the forces shaping the chosen battle/campaign: the identity and goals ofnthe belligerents, the economic, technological, cultural and other factors involved, as well as the initial general plan. The second meeting will be dedicated to the battle itself. The four battles will illustrate major developments in modern warfare.
Same as: INTNLREL 183

HISTORY 206D. Global Humanities: The Grand Millennium, 800-1800. 3-4 Units.

How should we live? This course explores ethical pathways in European, Islamic, and East Asian traditions: mysticism and rationality, passion and duty, this and other worldly, ambition and peace of mind. They all seem to be pairs of opposites, but as we'll see, some important historical figures managed to follow two or more of them at once. We will read works by successful thinkers, travelers, poets, lovers, and bureaucrats written between 800 and 1900 C.E. We will ask ourselves whether we agree with their choices and judgments about what is a life well lived.
Same as: DLCL 52, HUMCORE 52, JAPAN 52

HISTORY 206E. CAPITALS: How Cities Shape Cultures, States, and People. 3-5 Units.

This course takes students on a trip to major capital cities, at different moments in time: Renaissance Florence, Golden Age Madrid, Colonial Mexico City, Enlightenment and Romantic Paris, Existential and Revolutionary St. Petersburg, Roaring Berlin, Modernist Vienna, and bustling Buenos Aires. While exploring each place in a particular historical moment, we will also consider the relations between culture, power, and social life. How does the cultural life of a country intersect with the political activity of a capital? How do large cities shape our everyday experience, our aesthetic preferences, and our sense of history? Why do some cities become cultural capitals? Primary materials for this course will consist of literary, visual, sociological, and historical documents (in translation); authors we will read include Boccaccio, Dante, Sor Juana, Montesquieu, Baudelaire, Gogol, Irmgard Keun, Freud, and Borges. Note: To be eligible for WAYS credit, you must take the course for a Letter Grade.
Same as: COMPLIT 100, DLCL 100, FRENCH 175, GERMAN 175, ILAC 175, ITALIAN 175, URBANST 153

HISTORY 207. Biography and History. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between biographical and historical writing, primarily in Europe and America. Problems of methodology, evidence, dispassion, and empathy. Texts: biographies, critical literature on biographical work, and novels (A. S. Byatt's Possession, Bernard Malamud's Dubin's Lives) that illuminate the intellectual underpinnings of biographical labor.
Same as: HISTORY 308

HISTORY 207B. Environment, Technology and Revolution in World History. 4-5 Units.

Exploration of historiographical and interdisciplinary methodologies and approaches to intersections among environmental, technological, and revolutionary social change in diverse geographical and temporal contexts. Readings include broad theoretical and synthetic works as well as case studies of American, French, Mexican, Russian, Chinese, and Hungarian revolutions.

HISTORY 207D. Transhistory Colloquium. 4-5 Units.

Colloquium on the history of transgender practices and identities. Readings will include scholarly texts from the emerging historical field of transhistory as well as adjacent fields within gender history. Colloquium will investigate avenues for deepening transhistory through further historical inquiry.
Same as: FEMGEN 207D, FEMGEN 307D, HISTORY 307D

HISTORY 208. Private Lives, Public Stories: Autobiography in Women's History. 5 Units.

Changing contexts of women's lives and how women's actions have shaped and responded to those contexts.

HISTORY 208D. Pre-Modern Warfare. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the evolving nature of warfare and its impact on society across the Eurasian continent up to the Gunpowder Revolution and rise of the nation-state. Beginning with an attempt to define war, it will trace the evolution of military technology from the Stone Age through the rise of the chariot, the sword, and the mounted rider, and examine how changing methods of conducting warfare were inextricably linked to changes in the social order and political structures.
Same as: HISTORY 308D

HISTORY 208S. Facing the Past: The Politics of Retrospective Justice. 5 Units.

Forms of injustice in history including slavery, genocide, ethnic cleansing, mass rape, forced religious conversion, and torture of prisoners. Mechanisms developed over the last century to define, deter, and alleviate the effects of such offenses, including war crimes tribunals, truth commissions, national apologies, and monetary reparations. Case studies chart the international field of retrospective justice, exploring the legal, political, and moral implications of confronting traumatic pasts.

HISTORY 209B. The Idea of Politics. 4-5 Units.

Can we live without politics? Is politics indispensable for humanity and vice-versa? The idea of politics is that it must transform, through human action, conditions of collective life. But the 20th century produced colliding beliefs about what that life might be and what the human being itself might look like. Explore whether, after the century, we might still think of politics as an ethical idea and the "human" as foundational political category. Keywords: Civility, Cruelty, Friendship, Empire, Democracy, Humanism, Animals.
Same as: HISTORY 309B

HISTORY 209D. Postcolonialism and Universalism. 4-5 Units.

Key texts and motifs from postcolonial theory: empire, class, exile, suffering, textuality, archive in juxtaposition to 20th-century philosophical questions about universal history and the relevance of humanist inquiry.
Same as: HISTORY 309A

HISTORY 209F. Maps in the Early Modern World. 4-5 Units.

The significance of cartographic enterprise across the early modern world. Political, economic, and epistemological imperatives that drove the proliferation of nautical charts, domain surveys, city plans, atlases, and globes; the types of work such artifacts performed for their patrons, viewers, and subjects. Contributions of indigenous knowledge to imperial maps; the career of the map in commerce, surveillance, diplomacy, conquest, and indoctrination. Sources include recent research from Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
Same as: HISTORY 309F

HISTORY 209S. Research Seminar for Majors. 5 Units.

Required of History majors. How to conduct original, historical research and analysis, including methods such as using the libraries and archives at Stanford and elsewhere, and working collaboratively to frame topics, identify sources, and develop analyses. nnAutumn quarter focuses on Honors topics and Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe and America; Winter quarter on Race, Gender, Sexuality in U.S History; Spring quarter on Europe Before 1500, Early Empires, and Open Topic; and Summer quarter on Early Modern Travel Accounts and Arms Makers in History.

HISTORY 210. The History of Occupation, 1914-2010. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 210 is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 310 is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) Examines the major cases of occupation in the twentieth century, from the first World War until the present, and issues of similarities, differences, and implications for contemporary policy making. Topics include European and Asian cases emerging from World War I and World War II, the Israeli occupation of the West Bank; the Soviet and American occupations of Afghanistan; and the American occupation of Iraq. Discussions will revolve around the problems, efficacy, and effects of occupation in historical perspective.
Same as: HISTORY 310

HISTORY 210D. Neighbors: Intimate Relationships and Everyday Life in Hitler's Europe. 5 Units.

This course explores how different groups of people experienced Nazi rule in Germany and German-occupied Europe. While we will cover the general history of Hitler's rise to power, the prewar years of his rule, and the Second World War, our focus will be on the effects of fascism on everyday life and relationships between neighbors, family members, partners, friends, and coworkers. How did class, race, gender, religion, and sexual orientation interact with Nazi rule and occupation? The course pays special attention to the fate of European Jews and the Holocaust. On a theoretical level, we will discuss the opportunities and challenges of "Alltagsgeschichte," or the history of everyday life, as an approach to studying Nazi rule. The course provides tools to manage efficiently a fairly high reading load, a skill that will greatly help students to succeed in future academic endeavors.

HISTORY 210J. Fascism and Authoritarianism. 5 Units.

This course introduces students to the history of fascist and authoritarian movements in modern Europe, from their origins through the post-WWII era. Germany and Italy will serve as central case studies, though the course will consider other examples as well. Through analytical consideration of secondary sources, primary texts, and art as political propaganda, we will interrogate the meanings and applications of these fraught and complex terms, the different forms taken by fascist and authoritarian movements, and their relationship to nationalism, race, religion, gender, and economic and political institutions. Why did millions of Europeans accept -- and even enthusiastically support -- fascist and authoritarian regimes? To what extent was a single, charismatic leader central to the success or failure of such governments? The course will conclude with an opportunity to reflect on the degree to which fascism and authoritarianism are concepts that remain relevant to political discourse in the twenty-first century.

HISTORY 211. Out of Eden: Deportation, Exile, and Expulsion from Antiquity to the Renaissance. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the long pedigree of modern deportations and mass expulsions, from the forced resettlements of the ancient world to the expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492, and from the outlawry of Saga-era Iceland to the culture of civic exile in Renaissance Italy. The course focuses on Europe and the Mediterranean from antiquity to the early modern period, but students are welcome to venture beyond these geographical and chronological boundaries for their final papers.
Same as: HISTORY 311

HISTORY 213F. Medieval Germany, 900-1250. 1-5 Unit.

(Undergraduates may sign up for GERMAN 213 or HISTORY 213F, graduate students should sign up for GERMAN 313 or HISTORY 313F. This course may be taken for variable units. Check the individual course numbers for unit spreads.) This course will provide a survey of the most important political, historical, and cultural events and trends that took place in the German-speaking lands between 900 and 1250. Important themes include the evolution of imperial ideology and relations with Rome, expansion along the eastern frontier, the crusades, the investiture controversy, the rise of powerful cities and civic identities, monastic reform and intellectual renewal, and the flowering of vernacular literature.nnTo satisfy a Ways requirement, this course must be taken for at least 3 units. In AY 2020-21, a letter grade or "CR" grade satisfies the Ways requirement.
Same as: GERMAN 213, GERMAN 313, HISTORY 313F

HISTORY 214C. Renaissances: Living, Learning, and Loving around the Mediterranean. 5 Units.

This course explores three watershed moments in Mediterranean history: the Carolingian Renaissance, the Twelfth-Century Renaissance, and the Italian Renaissance. The class examines how each renaissance redefined a specific place and how those changes influenced connections across the Mediterranean world.
Same as: 800-1500 CE

HISTORY 215B. Race and Ethnicity in Premodern Europe. 3-5 Units.

How do historians, art historians, and literary historians of premodern Europe shape their research and their teaching around questions of race? How do current debates on race theory shape our perception of the past and deepen historical inquiry? This graduate colloquium focuses on the most recent publications on race in medieval and early modern studies to reflect on such questions while examining the challenges that race studies put on historical definitions, research methodologies, as well as teaching institutions.
Same as: ARTHIST 207D, ARTHIST 407D, HISTORY 315B

HISTORY 216D. Nationalism, Colonialism, and the Lord of the Rings: The Middle Ages in the Modern World. 5 Units.

From its inception the term "Middle Ages" carried negative connotations. Renaissance humanists bewailed the fall of the Roman Empire and its replacement with "barbarian" kingdoms. Enlightenment philosophes abhorred the Middle Ages even more intensely than their Renaissance forerunners and decried medieval "superstition" and "barbarism." Nevertheless, as part of their rejection of the Enlightenment, nineteenth-century Romantics embraced the Middle Ages and sought inspiration for political and cultural renewal within medieval civilization. From nationalist movements, to colonialism, to movements within high and popular culture interest in the Middle Ages helped fashion the modern world in important ways. This class will explore the complex history associated with the images of the Middle Ages in the modern world.

HISTORY 217S. Minorities In Medieval Europe. 5 Units.

This course examines attitudes towards outsider groups within medieval society and the treatment of these groups by medieval Christians. Heretics, Jews, Muslims, homosexuals, prostitutes and usurers occupied ambivalent and at time dangerous positions within a society that increasingly defined itself as Christian. Differences in the treatment of these various 'outcast' groups, their depiction in art, their legal segregation, and their presumed association with demonic activity are addressed through discussion, and readings from primary and secondary source material.
Same as: RELIGST 217X

HISTORY 218C. Peace and War in Medieval Islam: From the Arab Conquests to the Crusades. 3-5 Units.

This course interrogates the theory and reality of war-making and peacemaking across the first millennium of Islamic history (c.600-c.1600 CE). We will examine major historical events (e.g. the struggle of the early community of Muslims against the pagan tribes of Arabia; Arab expansion and conquest during the seventh and eighth centuries; a sequence of civil wars, dynastic struggles, and schisms within Islam; and external invasions of the Islamic world by crusaders and steppe nomads, etc.). We will also investigate the development of major normative concepts across the Islamic tradition concerning peace and war (e.g. holy war; treaty- and truce-making; treatment of conquered enemies and prisoner; diplomacy with Muslims and non-Muslims, etc.). With respect to these concepts, we will attend especially to change over time and diversity across various sects. Mix of lecture and discussion. Readings will consist of both primary sources (in English translation) and modern scholarship. No previous experience with pre-modern or Islamic history required.
Same as: GLOBAL 190, GLOBAL 232, HISTORY 318C

HISTORY 219C. Science, Technology, and Modernity in the Soviet Union. 5 Units.

Science and technology were integral to the Soviet claim to offer a vision of modernity superior to that of Western capitalism. Science and technology would flourish; society would develop on a scientific basis. The results were more complex than the vision. Topics to be covered: science and Marxism-Leninism; the Lysenko affair; the R&D system; the role of the secret police; the atomic project; the space race; missile development; Andrei Sakharov; technology and innovation.
Same as: HISTORY 319C

HISTORY 221A. Men, Women, and Power in Early Modern Russia, 1500-1800. 5 Units.

Social values, gender relations, and social change in an era of rapid change; challenges to established norms by new constructions of deviance (witchcraft, religious reform, and revolt) and new standards of civility; encounters with non-Russians and the construction of national consciousness. Social values as political ethos: patrimonial autocracy and the reality of female rule in the late 17th and 18th century.

HISTORY 222. Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe and Russia. 4-5 Units.

Explores criminal law in early modern Europe and Russia, ca 1500-1800, in law and in practice. Engages debates about use of exemplary public executions as tactic of governance, and about gradual decline in "violence" in Europe over this time. Explores practice of accusatory and inquisitory judicial procedures, judicial torture, forms of punishment, concepts of justice.
Same as: HISTORY 322A

HISTORY 223. Art and Ideas in Imperial Russia. 4-5 Units.

Poetry, novels, symphonic music, theater, opera, painting, design, and architecture: what they reveal about the politics and culture of tsarist Russia.
Same as: HISTORY 323

HISTORY 223E. Cities of Empire: An Urban Journey through Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean. 3-5 Units.

This course explores the cities of the Habsburg, Ottoman and Russian empires in the dynamic and turbulent period of their greatest transformation from the 19th century through the Two World Wars. Through the reading of urban biographies of Venice and Trieste, Vienna, Budapest, Cracow, Lviv, Sarajevo, Belgrade, Salonica, and Odessa, we consider broad historical trends of political, economic, and social modernization, urbanization, identity formation, imperialism, cosmopolitanism, and orientalism. As vibrant centers of coexistence and economic exchange, social and cultural borderlands, and sites of transgression, these cities provide an ideal lens through which to examine these themes in the context of transition from imperial to post-imperial space.
Same as: HISTORY 323E, REES 204, REES 304

HISTORY 224A. The Soviet Civilization. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 224A is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 424A is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) Socialist visions and practices of the organization of society and messianic politics; Soviet mass state violence; culture, living and work spaces. Primary and secondary sources. Research paper or historiographical essay.
Same as: HISTORY 424A, REES 224A

HISTORY 224C. Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Traces the history of genocide in the 20th century and the question of humanitarian intervention to stop it, a topic that has been especially controversial since the end of the Cold War. The pre-1990s discussion begins with the Armenian genocide during the First World War and includes the Holocaust and Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s. Coverage of genocide and humanitarian intervention since the 1990s includes the wars in Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo, the Congo and Sudan.
Same as: HISTORY 324C, JEWISHST 284C, JEWISHST 384C, PEDS 224

HISTORY 224D. The Soviet Civilization, Part 2. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 224A/424A.
Same as: HISTORY 424B

HISTORY 225E. From Vladimir to Putin: Key Themes in Russian History. 4-5 Units.

Formative issues in Russian history from Muscovy to the present: autocracy and totalitarianism; tsars, emperors, and party secretaries; multi-ethnicity and nationalism; serfdom, peasantry; rebellions and revolutions, dissent and opposition; law and legality; public and private spheres; religion and atheism; patterns of collapse. Class format will be discussion of one to two assigned books or major articles per class.
Same as: HISTORY 325E, REES 225E

HISTORY 226D. The Holocaust: Insights from New Research. 4-5 Units.

Overview of the history of the Holocaust, the genocide of European Jews. Explores its causes, course, consequences, and memory. Addresses the events themselves, as well as the roles of perpetrators and bystanders, dilemmas faced by victims, collaboration of local populations, and the issue of rescue. Considers how the Holocaust was and is remembered and commemorated by victims and participants alike. Uses different kinds of sources: scholarly work, memoirs, diaries, film, and primary documents.
Same as: CSRE 226D, CSRE 326D, HISTORY 326D, JEWISHST 226E, JEWISHST 326D

HISTORY 226E. Famine in the Modern World. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Examines the major famines of modern history, the controversies surrounding them, and the reasons that famine persists in our increasingly globalized world. Focus is on the relative importance of natural, economic, and political factors as causes of famine in the modern world. Case studies include the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s; the Bengal famine of 1943-44; the Soviet famines of 1921-22 and 1932-33; China's Great Famine of 1959-61; the Ethiopian famines of the 1970s and 80s, and the Somalia famines of the 1990s and of 2011.
Same as: HISTORY 326E, PEDS 226

HISTORY 227B. The Business of Socialism: Economic Life in Cold War Eastern Europe. 5 Units.

This colloquium investigates the processes of buying, making, and selling goods and services in Cold War Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. We will familiarize ourselves with a variety of approaches to writing the history of economic life and discuss to what extent they are applicable to state socialist systems. Our focus will not be on theories of socialism but on empirically grounded studies that allow for insights into how the system operated in practice and interacted with capitalism. We will, among others, explore the following questions: What was the role of the state in the economies east and west of the Iron Curtain? Are socialism and capitalism two incompatible systems? How did women experience and shape economic life after the Second World War? What had a greater impact on the economies of the region: Cold War politics or globalization?.
Same as: REES 205

HISTORY 227D. All Quiet on the Eastern Front? East Europe and Russia in the First World War. 3-5 Units.

Until recently history has been comparatively quiet about the experience of World War I in the east. Far from being a peripheral theater of war, however, the experiences of war on the Eastern Front were central to shaping the 20th century. Not only was the first shot of the war fired in the east, it was also the site of the most dramatic political revolution. Using scholarly texts, literature and film, this course combines political, military, cultural and social approaches to introduce the causes, conduct and consequences of World War I with a focus on the experiences of soldiers and civilians on the Eastern Front. Topics include: the war of movement, occupation, extreme violence against civilians, the Armenian genocide, population exchanges, the Russian Revolution and civil war, and the disintegration of empires and rise of nation-states.
Same as: HISTORY 327D, REES 227, REES 327

HISTORY 228. Circles of Hell: Poland in World War II. 5 Units.

Looks at the experience and representation of Poland's wartime history from the Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939) to the aftermath of Yalta (1945). Examines Nazi and Soviet ideology and practice in Poland, as well as the ways Poles responded, resisted, and survived. Considers wartime relations among Polish citizens, particularly Poles and Jews. In this regard, interrogates the traditional self-characterization of Poles as innocent victims, looking at their relationship to the Holocaust, thus engaging in a passionate debate still raging in Polish society.
Same as: HISTORY 328, JEWISHST 282, JEWISHST 382

HISTORY 230A. The Witness in Modern History: Memoir, Reportage, Image. 5 Units.

The rise of the witness as icon and debates about its reliability as a historical source. The power of eyewitness accounts to convict accused criminals, inspire indignation about war and genocide, and attract attention to humanitarian crises. Their notorious unreliability due to exaggeration and misapprehension. Sources include reportage, photography, and documentary film. Case studies include criminal cases, war, poverty, and natural disasters.

HISTORY 230C. Paris: Capital of the Modern World. 4-5 Units.

This course explores how Paris, between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries, became the political, cultural, and artistic capital of the modern world. It considers how the city has both shaped and been shaped by the tumultuous events of modern history- class conflict, industrialization, imperialism, war, and occupation. It will also explore why Paris became the major world destination for intellectuals, artists and writers. Sources will include films, paintings, architecture, novels, travel journals, and memoirs. Course taught in English with an optional French section.
Same as: FRENCH 140, FRENCH 340, URBANST 184

HISTORY 230D. Europe in the World, 1789-Present. 4-5 Units.

The European conquest of parts of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific by European merchants, missionaries, armies, and administrators had significant, and often cataclysmic, effects on indigenous political alliances, cultural practices, and belief systems. But were the effects of expansion entirely one-sided? What impact did the experiences of colonialism have on European politics, culture,and Europe's relations with the rest of the world? Explores how interaction between Europe and the rest of the world redefined the political, racial, sexual, and religious boundaries of both Europe and its colonies and gave rise to the more "globalized' society we live in today.
Same as: HISTORY 330D

HISTORY 230L. Modern Irish History. 5 Units.

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HISTORY 231E. Paper, Printing, and Digital Revolutions: Transformations of the Book. 4-5 Units.

What is a book? This seminar explores the conceptual implications of approximately two millennia of transformations in the physical and material properties of books. How have the meaning and authority we assign the written word changed as technologies of book production and dissemination have evolved, and how have they remained continuous? Topics covered include the rise of the medieval manuscript codex, the emergence of print culture in early modern Europe, and current debates over the nature of text in the digital age.
Same as: HISTORY 331E

HISTORY 231G. European Reformations. 3-5 Units.

Readings in and discussion of theological and social aspects of sixteenth century reformations: Luther, Radical Reform, Calvin, and Council of Trent, missionary expansion, religious conflict, creative and artistic expressions. Texts include primary sources and secondary scholarly essays and monographs.
Same as: HISTORY 331G, RELIGST 231, RELIGST 331

HISTORY 232B. Heretics, Prostitutes and Merchants: The Venetian Empire. 5 Units.

Between 1200-1600, Venice created a powerful empire at the boundary between East and West that controlled much of the Mediterranean, with a merchant society that allowed social groups, religions, and ethnicities to coexist. Topics include the features of Venetian society, the relationship between center and periphery, order and disorder, orthodoxy and heresy, the role of politics, art, and culture in the Venetian Renaissance, and the empire's decline as a political power and reinvention as a tourist site and living museum.
Same as: ITALIAN 232B

HISTORY 232G. Early Modern Cities. 4-5 Units.

Colloquium on the history of early modern European cities, covering urbanization, street life, neighborhoods, fortifications, guilds and confraternities, charity, vagrancy, and begging, public health, city-countryside relationship, urban constitutions, and confederations. Assignments include annotated bibliography, book review, and a final paper. Second-quarter continuation of research seminar available (HIST299S or HIST402).
Same as: HISTORY 332G

HISTORY 233. Reformation to Civil War: England under the Tudors and Stuarts. 4-5 Units.

English political and religious culture from the end of the Wars of the Roses to the Civil War of the 1640s. Themes include the growth of the size and power of the state, Reformation, creation of a Protestant regime, transformation of the political culture of the ruling elite, emergence of Puritanism, and causes of the Civil War. HISTORY 333 is a prerequisite for HISTORY 402 (Spring quarter).
Same as: HISTORY 333

HISTORY 233C. Two British Revolutions. 4-5 Units.

Current scholarship on Britain,1640-1700, focusing on political and religious history. Topics include: causes and consequences of the English civil war and revolution; rise and fall of revolutionary Puritanism; the Restoration; popular politics in the late 17th century; changing contours of religious life; the crisis leading to the Glorious Revolution; and the new order that emerged after the deposing of James II.
Same as: HISTORY 333C

HISTORY 233F. Political Thought in Early Modern Britain. 4-5 Units.

1500 to 1700. Theorists include Hobbes, Locke, Harrington, the Levellers, and lesser known writers and schools. Foundational ideas and problems underlying modern British and American political thought and life.
Same as: HISTORY 333F

HISTORY 233G. Catholic Politics in Europe, 1789-1992. 5 Units.

What led to the creation of a specifically Catholic mass politics? How did these parties and movements interact with the Vatican and the wider Church? What accounts for political Catholicism's involvement in clerical-fascist states and its important role in shaping the EU? Sources focus on monographs. Research paper using primary sources.

HISTORY 233K. The Invention of the Modern Republic. 4-5 Units.

Examines the history of republican thinking in the Atlantic World from the Renaissance to the French Revolution.
Same as: HISTORY 333K

HISTORY 234P. The Age of Plague: Medicine and Society, 1300-1750. 5 Units.

(Undergraduates, enroll in 234P. Graduates, enroll in 334P) The arrival of plague in Eurasia in 1347-51 affected many late medieval and early modern societies. It transformed their understanding of disease, raised questions about the efficacy of medical knowledge, and inspired new notions of public health. This class explores the history of medicine in the medieval Islamic and European worlds. Changing ideas about the body, the roles of different healers and religion in healing, the growth of hospitals and universities, and the evolution of medical theory and practice will be discussed. How did medicine and society change in the age of plague?.
Same as: STS 200U

HISTORY 234R. Risk and Credit Before Modern Finance. 1 Unit.

In today's world, credit scores are nearly as important as citizenship. Creditworthiness is measured in numbers, but is also bound up with moral qualities. To lack credit is to be on the margins of society, and vice versa. How did we get here? How did lenders mitigate risks before credit scores were available? Where do the risk management tools of modern finance come from? How did merchants trade over long distances when information technology was extremely poor? This one-unit course will address these pressing questions from a historical perspective, starting from the modern U.S. and reaching back in time to the Middle Ages. Classroom discussions and readings include articles written by historians and social scientists, as well as primary sources in English translation.
Same as: HISTORY 334R

HISTORY 235. The Renaissance of War: Politics, Technology, and War in Late Medieval and Renaissance Italy. 5 Units.

The dynamic societies of the Italian Peninsula of the 14th to 16th centuries "prosperous, astonishingly creative, politically fractious, and endemically violent" produced sweeping, deeply consequential changes. Among these were new developments in the theory and practice of war, politics, and diplomacy that laid the foundations for the modern state system and European military power. The class covers: new diplomatic practice; the Military Revolution; state-building; war finance; court culture; and the intersection of these with the shimmering brilliance of Renaissance culture.

HISTORY 235C. Readings in the Supernatural. 4-5 Units.

Class will read and discuss a selection of monographs, scholarly essays, and primary sources on the rich supernatural world of early modern Europe. We will discuss how fairies, werewolves, nightmares, and trolls all became witches, how the binary of angels and demons figured in European thought, and how the marginalized imaginary was reconstituted in theatre and fiction.
Same as: HISTORY 335C

HISTORY 235D. When Worlds Collide: The Trial of Galileo. 4-5 Units.

In 1633, the Italian mathematician Galileo was tried and condemned for advocating that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the cosmos. The Catholic Church did not formally admit that Galileo was right until 1992. Examines the many factors that led to the trial of Galileo and looks at multiple perspectives on this signal event in the history of science and religion. Considers the nature and definition of intellectual heresy in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and examines the writings of Galileo's infamous predecessor Giordano Bruno (burned at the stake in 1600). Looks closely at documents surrounding the trial and related literature on Renaissance and Reformation Italy in order to understand the perspectives of various participants in this famous event. Focal point of seminar involves the examination of the many different histories that can be produced from Galileo's trial. What, in the end, were the crimes of Galileo?.
Same as: HISTORY 335D, ITALIAN 233, ITALIAN 333

HISTORY 235F. Camus. 4-5 Units.

"The admirable conjunction of a man, of an action, and of a work" for Sartre, "the ideal husband of contemporary letters" for Susan Sontag, reading "Camus's fiction as an element in France's methodically constructed political geography of Algeria" for Edward Said, Camus embodies the very French figure of the "intellectuel engagé," or public intellectual. From his birth in 1913 into a poor European family in Algeria to the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1957, from the Mediterranean world to Paris, Camus engaged in the great ethical and political battles of his time, often embracing controversial positions. Through readings and films, we will explore his multiple legacies. Readings from Albert Camus, Jean-Paul Sartre, Assia Djebar, Kamel Daoud, Mouloud Feraoun, Alice Kaplan, Edward Said, Edwidge Danticat. Students will work on their production of written French, in addition to speaking French and reading comprehension. Taught in French. Students are highly encouraged to complete FRENLANG 124 or to successfully test above this level through the Language Center. This course fulfills the Writing in the Major (WIM) requirement.
Same as: COMPLIT 229B, CSRE 129, FRENCH 129

HISTORY 235J. The Meaning of Life: Modern European Encounters with Consequential Questions. 5 Units.

(HISTORY 235J is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 335J is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) Across two centuries of social, political, and religious upheaval and transformation, modern Europeans confronted a series of interconnected ¿big questions¿: What is humanity¿s relationship with deity? Where does life, including human life, come from, and where is it going? What considerations should shape human beings¿ relationships with, and actions toward, one another? What is socially and morally acceptable¿or transgressive? Is there life after death, and a spiritual realm distinct from the material world? Through case studies in the history of religion, evolutionary thought, gender and sexuality, and the aims and ends of empire, this course will examine European engagement with these questions across the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (with some background in earlier periods), paying attention to the ways in which the questions people asked¿and the conclusions they drew¿were shaped by social, religious, and political institutions and structures.

HISTORY 235L. Alien Imaginations: Extraterrestrial Speculations in Modern European History. 5 Units.

(HISTORY 235L is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 335L is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) This course will examine the historical basis and evolution of modern European beliefs concerning the existence and nature of alien life throughout the universe, and the ways in which these imagined alien beings have historically reflected an interplay of social, religious, political, and scientific assumptions, hopes, fears, and preoccupations. We will explore the relationship between belief in extraterrestrial life and historical themes and episodes in European history including the debate over heliocentrism, deism and freethought, theories of life and of human nature, changing concepts of national identity, and the intertwined histories of immigration, colonialism, race, and gender. We will particularly examine how and why concepts of the alien took a dark and sinister turn across the late nineteenth- and early-to-mid-twentieth centuries.

HISTORY 236. The Ethics of Imperialism. 5 Units.

Can a commitment to liberty, progress, and universal rights be reconciled with imperialism? The ethical underpinnings of empire; how modern Europeans provided ethical and political justifications for colonial expansion. How European ideals were used to defend and justify inequality, violence, and genocide. The ethics of American-driven globalization and humanitarianism. Texts include primary sources, philosophical treatises, and historical studies.

HISTORY 236F. The End of the World As They Knew It: Culture, Cafés, and Crisis in Europe, 1880-1918. 4-5 Units.

The years stretching from roughly 1880 to end of the First World War were marked by profound social upheaval and an intense burst of creativity. This seminar will focus on the major cultural movements and big ideas of the period. Topics covered include the rise of mass culture and cinema, the origins of psychoanalysis, anti-Semitism and Zionism, new anxieties about sexuality and the ¿New Woman,¿ anarchism, decadence, degeneration, and Dada ¿ with cameos from Bernhardt, Freud, Klimt, Nietzsche, Toulouse-Lautrec, Wilde, Zola, and other luminaries of the age.
Same as: HISTORY 336F

HISTORY 236J. A Tour of Dangerous Ideas: Radical Thinkers in Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

In this course we will examine ideas radical to their context in modern European thought, paying close attention to what it has meant to explain features of society, government, and politics in terms of power. What is power? What is human nature, and do all humans possess natural rights? How is human identity interwoven with the practice of power? What makes an idea radical? We will examine these and other questions through close readings of seven thinkers whose ideas shaped the modern period: John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Mary Wollstonecraft, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, C.L.R. James, and Michel Foucault.
Same as: HISTORY 336J

HISTORY 237C. Building Modernity: Urban Planning and European Cities in the Twentieth Century. 5 Units.

This seminar explores the history of urban planning in twentieth-century Europe. We will discuss visions of ideal cities and attempts at their implementation in the context of democratic and authoritarian systems as well as capitalism and socialism. Through case studies from eastern and western Europe--from Berlin in Germany to Nowa Huta in Poland--we will examine how broader historical trends played out in, and were shaped by, specific local circumstances. The seminar is intended for advanced undergraduate students.
Same as: URBANST 152

HISTORY 237D. The French Revolution and the Birth of Modern Politics. 4-5 Units.

(Students who have taken HISTORY 134 should not enroll in this course.) This course will focus on the birth of modern politics in the French Revolution. The goal will be to understand the structural contradictions of the French monarchy in the pre-revolutionary period, the reasons for the monarchy's failure to resolve those contradictions, and the political dynamic unleashed as they were solved by the revolutionary action of 1789. Sovereignty, democracy, rights, representation, and terror will be principal themes. Lectures will be combined with close reading and discussions of political and philosophical writings of the period.
Same as: HISTORY 337D

HISTORY 237F. 20th Century British History through the Hoover Archives. 4-5 Units.

From the rich resources of the Hoover Institution, the students in this course will select a particular archive (war posters, politician, spy, literary figure, diplomat, etc. etc.) to investigate, to write about,discuss in class, and, it is hoped, present in an exhibition at the Hoover, learning museum skills along the way as well as the history of Britain in the 20th century.
Same as: HISTORY 337F

HISTORY 237G. Outer Space Exploration in Germany in the Twentieth Century. 1-5 Unit.

Since the nineteenth century, Germans, like their counterparts around the world, have considered the meaning and the role of humanity in outer space. As space travel developed from a dream to a reality, and as Germany changed borders and political systems among empires, dictatorships, socialist states, and capitalist states, German interest in spaceflight remained, although the meaning found in the stars changed dramatically. This course considers Germans' dreams of and predictions for outer space travel alongside German technological developments in spaceflight. It includes the different German states throughout the century, including Weimar Germany, National Socialism, East Germany, and West Germany. The course looks at science fiction films and novels, newspaper reports, scientific developments, and German space engineering projects, which together demonstrate how and why space travel often found high levels of support in Germany. Students will engage in historical and cultural analysis through course readings, discussions, and assignments.nNOTE: To be eligible for WAYS credit, you must take this course for a minimum of 3 units and a letter grade.
Same as: GERMAN 275

HISTORY 238C. Virtual Italy: Methods for Historical Data Science. 4-5 Units.

Classical Italy attracted thousands of travelers throughout the 1700s. Referring to their journey as the "Grand Tour," travelers pursued intellectual passions, promoted careers, and satisfied wanderlust, all while collecting antiquities to fill museums and estates back home. What can computational approaches tell us about who traveled, where and why? We will read travel accounts; experiment with parsing; and visualize historical data. Final projects to form credited contributions to the Grand Tour Project, a cutting-edge digital platform. No prior programming experience necessary.
Same as: CLASSICS 115, ENGLISH 115, ITALIAN 115

HISTORY 238G. Ethnography of the Late Middle Ages: Social history and popular culture in the age of the plague. 4-5 Units.

During the late Middle Ages, as Europe was recovering from the devastation of the Black Death, political reorganization contributed to a burst of archival documentation that allows historians richly detailed glimpses of societies in transition. We will be reading selected scholarly articles and monographs covering such topics as persecution, prechristian cultural remnants, folk theologies, festival cultures, peasant revolts, heresy, and the advent of the diabolic witch.
Same as: HISTORY 338G

HISTORY 238J. The European Scramble for Africa: Origins and Debates. 4-5 Units.

Why and how did Europeans claim control of 70% of African in the late nineteenth century? Students will engage with historiographical debates ranging from the national (e.g. British) to the topical (e.g. international law). Students will interrogate some of the primary sources on which debaters have rested their arguments. Key discussions include: the British occupation of Egypt; the autonomy of French colonial policy; the mystery of Germany¿s colonial entry; and, not least, the notorious Berlin Conference of 1884-1885.
Same as: AFRICAAM 238J, HISTORY 338J

HISTORY 239C. Humanities Core: Great Books, Big Ideas -- Europe, Modern. 3 Units.

This three-quarter sequence asks big questions of major texts in the European and American tradition. What is a good life? How should society be organized? Who belongs? How should honor, love, sin, and similar abstractions govern our actions? What duty do we owe to the past and future? This third and final quarter focuses on the modern period, from the rise of revolutionary ideas to the experiences of totalitarianism and decolonization in the twentieth century. Authors include Locke, Mary Shelley, Marx, Nietzsche, Freud, Weber, Primo Levi, and Frantz Fanon.
Same as: DLCL 13, FRENCH 13, HUMCORE 13, PHIL 13

HISTORY 239F. Empire and Information. 4-5 Units.

How do states see? How do they know what they know about their subjects, citizens, economies, and geographies? How does that knowledge shape society, politics, identity, freedom, and modernity? Focus is on the British imperial state activities in S. Asia and Britain: surveillance technologies and information-gathering systems, including mapping, statistics, cultural schemata, and intelligence systems, to render geographies and social bodies legible, visible, and governable.
Same as: HISTORY 339F

HISTORY 239G. The Algerian Wars. 3-5 Units.

From Algiers the White to Algiers the Red, Algiers, the Mecca of the Revolutionaries in the words of Amilcar Cabral, this course offers to study the Algerian Wars since the French conquest of Algeria (1830-) to the Algerian civil war of the 1990s. We will revisit the ways in which the war has been narrated in literature and cinema, popular culture, and political discourse. A special focus will be given to the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962). The course considers the racial representations of the war in the media, the continuing legacies surrounding the conflict in France, Africa, and the United States, from Che Guevara to the Black Panthers. A key focus will be the transmission of collective memory through transnational lenses, and analyses of commemorative events and movies. nReadings from James Baldwin, Assia Djebar, Albert Camus, Frantz Fanon, Mouloud Feraoun. Movies include "The Battle of Algiers," "Days of Glory," and "Viva Laldjérie." nTaught in English.
Same as: CSRE 249, FRENCH 249, JEWISHST 249

HISTORY 239H. Colonialism and Empire in Modern Europe. 5 Units.

To better understand the history of modern Europe within a global context, explores the following questions: What impact did more than a century of colonialism have on the social lives, cultural attitudes, political loyalties, and intellectual world views of European women and men during the nineteenth century? What accounts for the resiliency of empire during a period of rapid global change that witnessed the rise of modern democracy, economic liberalism, ethnic nationalism, and international socialism?.

HISTORY 239J. Work and Leisure in Nineteenth Century Britain. 4-5 Units.

This course charts the changes wrought by the Industrial Revolution, empire, and social factors in Britons' lives at work and at home in the nineteenth century. Readings will explore trade unionism and Chartism, urban migration, consumer culture, print culture, organized sports, shows, rational leisure" and the development of exhibitions and public museums. Students will gain a sense of how Britons worked and played in a century that gave birth to pastimes and institutions that continue to shape our own.
Same as: HISTORY 339J

HISTORY 239K. Sex, Death, and God in Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

In the midst of social and political upheaval and transformation, people in modern Europe have grappled with central questions of human existence. What place does humanity occupy in the universe and in relation to God? How does life begin, and under what circumstances? What gives life its meaning? What is socially and morally acceptable--or transgressive? Is there life after death, and a spiritual realm distinct from the material world? This course will examine answers to these questions across the late eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries, and the ways in which the questions people asked--and the conclusions they drew--were shaped by social, political, and religious assumptions, hopes, and fears.
Same as: HISTORY 339K

HISTORY 240. The History of Evolution. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the history of evolutionary biology from its emergence around the middle of the eighteenth century. We will consider the continual engagement of evolutionary theories of life with a larger, transforming context: philosophical, political, social, economic, institutional, aesthetic, artistic, literary. Our goal will be to achieve a historical rich and nuanced understanding of how evolutionary thinking about life has developed to its current form.
Same as: HISTORY 340

HISTORY 241C. History of Suggestion and Mind Control. 5 Units.

This course traces the history of suggestion and hypnosis from the birth of mesmerism in the late 18th-century to Cold War controversies over brainwashing, and recent debates on global terrorism and the ethics of technology. Born during the Age of Revolutions, the therapeutic system of mesmerism was quickly pushed to the margins of scientific practice as it was elaborated in the 19th-century but nonetheless remained a key determinant of human experience, politics, social relations, and medical practice. While reading secondary and primary texts, we will follow the evolution of various theories of trance and hypnotic induction alongside the development of scientific approaches to psychology in the West and the non-West to unravel the complex relationship between politics, social reform, labor, international relations, espionage, and indoctrination, and practices of suggestion and mind control.

HISTORY 242D. Knowledge and Information Infrastructures. 3-4 Units.

This course introduces historical, theoretical, and comparative perspectives on knowledge and information systems from the medieval world to the present. Cases include libraries, meteorology, climate science, the Internet, the World Wide Web, and social science data systems. It theorizes how infrastructures form, how they change, and how they shape (and are shaped by) social systems. The course ends with challenges to modern knowledge infrastructures, such as crowdsourcing, citizen science, and alternative and bogus knowledge.
Same as: STS 166

HISTORY 242G. Spaces and Practices of Natural History. 4-5 Units.

Gentleman scientists once practiced natural history by studying specimens collected from around the world, stored in cabinets of curiosity. From the 17th to 19th centuries, natural history moved out of the cabinet and into the field; these environments required new ways of thinking and different types of scientific workers. This course will track how new spaces, practices, and people became associated with natural history and explore how they shaped the content of the field and the social contours of science.
Same as: HISTORY 342G

HISTORY 242J. London Low Life in the Nineteenth Century. 5 Units.

(HISTORY 242J is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 342J is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) London began the nineteenth century as a city of one million, but was home to over six million people by the century¿s end. How did Londoners in the nineteenth century respond to the challenges and temptations of life in a growing metropolis? How did government and reformers try to influence and control city dwellers¿ behavior? This class seeks to answer these questions by exploring life in Britain¿s capital in the nineteenth century, using the digital database ¿London Low Life¿ as a guide. Contemporary street literature, night-life guides, pamphlets, broadsides, images, reformer¿s tracts, and public-interest journalism are some of the sources that will give us a window into vice, virtue, and daily life in London during a period of great uncertainty and change.

HISTORY 243C. People, Plants, and Medicine: Colonial Science and Medicine. 4-5 Units.

Explores the global exchange of knowledge, technologies, plants, peoples, disease, and medicines. Considers primarily Africans, Amerindians, and Europeans in the eighteenth-century West but also takes examples from other knowledge traditions. Readings treat science and medicine in relation to voyaging, colonialism, slavery, racism, plants, and environmental exchange. Colonial sciences and medicines were important militarily and strategically for positioning emerging nation states in global struggles for land and resources.
Same as: HISTORY 343C

HISTORY 243G. Tobacco and Health in World History. 4-5 Units.

Cigarettes are the world's leading cause of death--but how did we come into this world, where 6 trillion cigarettes are smoked every year? Here we explore the political, cultural, and technological origins of the cigarette and cigarette epidemic, using the tobacco industry's 80 million pages of secret documents. Topics include the history of cigarette advertising and cigarette design, the role of the tobacco industry in fomenting climate change denial, and questions raised by the testimony of experts in court.
Same as: HISTORY 343G

HISTORY 243S. Human Origins: History, Evidence, and Controversy. 4-5 Units.

Research seminar. Debates and controversies include: theories of human origins; interpretations of fossils, early art, and the oldest tools; the origin and fate of the Neanderthals; evolutionary themes in literature and film; visual rhetoric and cliché in anthropological dioramas and phyletic diagrams; the significance of hunting, gathering, and grandmothering; climatological theories and neocatastrophic geologies; molecular anthropology; the impact of racial theories on human origins discourse. Background in human evolution not required.
Same as: HISTORY 443A

HISTORY 244C. The History of the Body in Science, Medicine, and Culture. 4-5 Units.

The human body as a natural and cultural object, historicized. The crosscultural history of the body from the 18th century to the present. Topics include: sciences of sex and race; medical discovery of particular body parts; human experimentation, foot binding, veiling, and other bodily coverings; thinness and obesity; notions of the body politic.
Same as: HISTORY 444C

HISTORY 244F. Intersectional Design: An Expanded Approach to Gender in Tech. 4-5 Units.

This d-school seminar prototypes concepts and methods for "inclusive" design. From the moment we arrive on the planet, gender shapes our perception of the world. Examples of products (including objects, services, and systems) gone awry will serve as prompts for design activities, challenges, and discussions on gender issues to illustrate the different needs of women, men, and gender-fluid people. Class sessions mix use case explorations with design methodology, design thinking abilities, and guest speakers from technology, design, and academia. Students will be asked to work in interdisciplinary teams on several design challenges, culminating in the development of a toolkit for inclusive design. Methods will interact in crucial ways to create "intersectional thinking" (i.e., to consider how gender, ethnicity, sexuality, socio-economic status, etc. work together to require new solutions in design). Topics include: algorithms, media, seat belts for pregnant women, robotics, assistive technologies, tech for developing worlds, video games, urban/rural design, software development, and many more. Admission by application only. Visit d.school.stanford.edu/classes for more information.
Same as: FEMGEN 344F, HISTORY 344F

HISTORY 245C. Casablanca - Algiers - Tunis : Cities on the Edge. 3-5 Units.

Casablanca, Algiers and Tunis embody three territories, real and imaginary, which never cease to challenge the preconceptions of travelers setting sight on their shores. In this class, we will explore the myriad ways in which these cities of North Africa, on the edge of Europe and of Africa, have been narrated in literature, cinema, and popular culture. Home to Muslims, Christians, and Jews, they are an ebullient laboratory of social, political, religious, and cultural issues, global and local, between the nineteenth and twenty-first centuries. We will look at mass images of these cities, from films to maps, novels to photographs, sketching a new vision of these magnets as places where power, social rituals, legacies of the Ottoman and French colonial pasts, and the influence of the global economy collude and collide. Special focus on class, gender, and race.
Same as: AFRICAAM 236B, COMPLIT 236A, CSRE 140S, FRENCH 236, FRENCH 336, URBANST 140F

HISTORY 245G. Law and Colonialism in Africa. 4-5 Units.

Law in colonial Africa provides an opportunity to examine the meanings of social, cultural, and economic change in the anthropological, legal, and historical approaches. Court cases as a new frontier for the social history of Africa. Topics: meanings of conflicts over marriage, divorce, inheritance, property, and authority.
Same as: HISTORY 348D

HISTORY 246F. The African State: An Inconvenient History. 5 Units.

This course offers a history of the formation of postcolonial African states and how they came to be the way they are now. It will explore what exactly is meant by a "state", as well as examine the forms of governments that existed within Africa prior to, and during colonial rule. The course looks at structures and institutions the colonial state erected and what effects they had on their succeeding African states.

HISTORY 248. Religion, Radicalization and Media in Africa since 1945. 4-5 Units.

What are the paths to religious radicalization, and what role have media- new and old- played in these conversion journeys? We examine how Pentecostal Christians and Reformist Muslims in countries such as South Africa, Nigeria, Sudan, and Ethiopia have used multiple media forms- newspapers, cell phones, TV, radio, and the internet- to gain new converts, contest the authority of colonial and post-colonial states, construct transnational communities, and position themselves as key political players.
Same as: AFRICAST 248, AFRICAST 348, HISTORY 348, RELIGST 230X, RELIGST 330X

HISTORY 248D. Histories of Race in Science and Medicine at Home and Abroad. 4 Units.

This course has as its primary objective, the historical study of the intersection of race, science and medicine in the US and abroad with an emphasis on Africa and its Diasporas in the US. By drawing on literature from history, science and technology studies, sociology and other related disciplines, the course will consider the sociological and cultural concept of race and its usefulness as an analytical category. The course will explore how the study of race became its own ¿science¿ in the late-Enlightenment era, the history of eugenics--a science of race aimed at the ostensible betterment of the overall population through the systematic killing or "letting die" of humanity¿s "undesirable" parts, discuss how the ideology of pseudo-scientific racism underpinned the health policies of the French and British Empires in Africa, explore the fraught relationship between race and medicine in the US, discuss how biological notions of race have quietly slipped back into scientific projects in the 21st century and explore how various social justice advocates and scholars have resisted the scientific racisms of the present and future and/or proposed new paths towards a more equitable and accessible science.
Same as: AFRICAAM 122F, AFRICAST 122F, CSRE 122F

HISTORY 249. The Mamluks: Slave-Soldiers and Sultans of Medieval Egypt. 3-5 Units.

Known as ghulam or mamluk in Arabic, the slave-soldier was a ubiquitous phenomenon in the world of medieval Islam. Usually pagan steppe nomads, mamluks were purchased in adolescence, converted to Islam, taught Arabic, and trained to lead armies. Sometimes manumitted and sometimes not, in either case mamluks rose to positions of privilege and prominence in numerous regimes in the medieval Middle East.nnNowhere was the mamluk institution so fundamental as it was in Egypt between 1250 and 1517 CE, when Cairo was ruled by these slave-soldiers, their ranks constantly renewed by imports of new mamluks from the Black Sea and Caucuses. Born in the age of the crusades and ultimately conquered by the Ottoman Empire, the Mamluk Sultanate can be understood as a bridge between the worlds of medieval and early modern Islam, as well as between East and West, sitting astride the major Nile-Red Sea route that linked the Mediterranean world to that of the Indian Ocean and beyond. This class will investigate the rise and fall of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt and its key roles in the commercial, diplomatic, and political history both of the medieval Middle East and the wider world.
Same as: GLOBAL 102, GLOBAL 210, HISTORY 349A

HISTORY 250A. History of Native Americans in California. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the political histories and cultural themes of Native Americans in California, 1700s1950s. Throughout the semester we will focus on: demographics, diversity of tribal cultures; regional environmental backgrounds; the Spanish Era and missionization; the Mexican Era and secularization; relations with the United States Government and the State of California, including the gold rush period, statehood, unratified treaties, origin of reservations/rancherias, and other federal policies, e.g., Allotment Act, Indian Reorganization Act and termination.
Same as: CSRE 117S, NATIVEAM 117S

HISTORY 250E. Taxing America: From the Puritans to Prop. 13. 5 Units.

Taxes have shaped American society and politics since before the Revolution. And they've been extremely controversial just as long. In this course we'll try to understand American society and government by looking at the politics of taxation from the colonial period to the twentieth century. Topics include the legitimacy of taxation, the constitution, economic development, inequality, gender, and race.

HISTORY 251C. The American Enlightenment. 5 Units.

The eighteenth century saw the rise of many exciting new political, religious, and scientific theories about human happiness, perfectibility, and progress that today we call "the Enlightenment." Most people associate the Enlightenment with Europe, but in this course we will explore the many ways in which the specific conditions of eighteenth-century North America --such as slavery, the presence of large numbers of indigenous peoples, a colonial political context, and even local animals, rocks, and plants--also shaped the major questions and conversations of the people who strove to become "enlightened." We'll also explore how American Enlightenment ideas have profoundly shaped the way Americans think today about everything from politics to science to race. The class is structured as lecture and discussion, with deep reading in primary sources from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Same as: AMSTUD 251C

HISTORY 251J. The End of American Slavery, 1776-1865. 4-5 Units.

How did the institution of American slavery come to an end? The story is more complex than most people know. This course examines the rival forces that fostered slavery's simultaneous contraction in the North and expansion in the South between 1776 and 1861. It also illuminates, in detail, the final tortuous path to abolition during the Civil War. Throughout, the course introduces a diverse collection of historical figures, including seemingly paradoxical ones, such as slaveholding southerners who professed opposition to slavery and non-slaveholding northerners who acted in ways that preserved it. Historical attitudes toward race are a central integrative theme.
Same as: AFRICAAM 251J, AMSTUD 251J, HISTORY 351J

HISTORY 252B. Diplomacy on the Ground: Case Studies in the Challenges of Representing Your Country. 5 Units.

The tragic death of Ambassador Chris Stevens has recently highlighted the dangers of diplomacy in the modern era. This class will look at how Americans in embassies have historically confronted questions such as authoritarian rule, human rights abuses, violent changes of government, and covert action. Case studies will include the Berlin embassy in the 1930s, Tehran in 1979, and George Kennan's experiences in Moscow, among others. Recommended for students contemplating careers in diplomatic service. *Course satisfies the WiM requirement for International Relations majors. As space is limited, first-year students must obtain the instructor's prior consent before enrolling.
Same as: INTNLREL 174

HISTORY 252C. The Old South: Culture, Society, and Slavery. 5 Units.

This course explores the political, social, and cultural history of the antebellum American South, with an emphasis on the history of African-American slavery. Topics include race and race making, slave community and resistance, gender and reproduction, class and immigration, commodity capitalism, technology, disease and climate, indigenous Southerners, white southern honor culture, the Civil War, and the region's place in national mythmaking and memory.
Same as: AFRICAAM 252C, CSRE 252C

HISTORY 252E. From Gold Rush to Google Bus: History of San Francisco. 4 Units.

This class will examine the history of San Francisco from Native American and colonial settlement through the present. Focus is on social, environmental, and political history, with the theme of power in the city. Topics include Native Americans, the Gold Rush, immigration and nativism, railroads and robber barons, earthquake and fire, progressive reform and unionism, gender, race and civil rights, sexuality and politics, counterculture, redevelopment and gentrification. Students write final project in collaboration with ShapingSF, a participatory community history project documenting and archiving overlooked stories and memories of San Francisco. (Cardinal Course certified by the Haas Center).
Same as: AMSTUD 150X, URBANST 150

HISTORY 253F. Thinking the American Revolution. 4-5 Units.

No period in American history has generated as much creative political thinking as the era of the American Revolution. This course explores the origins and development of that thought from the onset of the dispute between Great Britain and its American colonies over liberty and governance through the debates surrounding the construction and implementation of the United States federal Constitution.
Same as: HISTORY 353F

HISTORY 253L. Caring Labor in the United States. 3-5 Units.

Who cares for America's children, elderly, and infirm? How is the structure of these labor forces influenced by ideologies of race, gender, and class? Beginning with theories of reproductive and caring labor, we examine the history of coerced and enslaved care and then caring as free labor. We will look at housework, child care, nursing, and elder care, among others, and will also examine how activists, policy makers, and workers have imagined new ways of performing and valuing care.
Same as: AFRICAAM 253, FEMGEN 253L

HISTORY 253P. Before the Model Minority: South Asians in the US. 5 Units.

The model minority myth has been used to create a wedge between Asian and Black people in the United States, and masks the histories and lives of itinerant South Asian traders, laborers, and farmers. Beginning in the 1860s, South Asians (mostly male, and often undocumented) traveled to major ports in the US, such as New York City, New Orleans, and the California coast, where they found working-class jobs and married Puerto Rican, African American, Creole, and Mexican women. Some South Asians were double migrants, first brought to British colonies in the Caribbean and South America through indentured servitude, and later migrated to the United States. Their life stories expand to the racial history of the United States by looking beyond a Black/white binary. nnBy juxtaposing immigrant stories with exclusionary US immigration laws, the course touches upon major themes of migration, capitalism, surveillance, race and racism, multiracial couples and communities, resistance, intersectional activism, borderlands and cities in the US, and the formation of national identity. During the quarter, we will seek to connect experiences in the past with contemporary issues of political culture in the United States to engage with the continuing challenge of locating and attaining self-definition, justice, and social progress in a fraught and divided world.
Same as: CSRE 153R

HISTORY 254. Popular Culture and American Nature. 5 Units.

Despite John Muir, Aldo Leopold, and Rachel Carson, it is arguable that the Disney studios have more to do with molding popular attitudes toward the natural world than politicians, ecologists, and activists. Disney as the central figure in the 20th-century American creation of nature. How Disney, the products of his studio, and other primary and secondary texts see environmentalism, science, popular culture, and their interrelationships.

HISTORY 254D. Religion and War in America. 4 Units.

Scholars have devoted much attention to wars in American history, but have not agreed as to whether religion was a major cause or simply a cover for political, economic, and other motives. We will compare interpretations that leave religion out, with those that take it into account. We will also look at the impact of war on the religious lives of ordinary Americans. We will examine both secondary as well as primary sources, beginning with King Philip's War in the 17th century, and ending with the "War on Terror" in the present day.
Same as: AMSTUD 105R, CSRE 105, HISTORY 354D, RELIGST 105

HISTORY 254G. The Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution. 5 Units.

Why did Britain's North American colonies declare independence from an empire they had long revered? What did the American Revolution mean for the people who experienced it? In this course we will explore the explosive origins of the American republic. Topics: revolutionary ideology, empire, the federal constitution, slavery, social conflict, and the international consequences of the American Revolution.

HISTORY 255. Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Social Gospel and the Struggle for Justice. 5 Units.

The religious and political thought of Martin Luther King, Jr., using the documentary resources of the King Institute at Stanford. His social gospel Christianity and prophetic message of radical social transformation. Readings include the forthcoming The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., Volume VI: Advocate of the Social Gospel.

HISTORY 255B. Contested Masculinities in Modern America. 5 Units.

This course examines masculinity in the twentieth-century United States across academic disciplines. Suspending the idea that manhood is biologically fixed or innate, this course presents masculinity as socially constructed and in a state of ongoing contest and crisis. Students will explore what it has meant (and means) to be a man in America, how masculinity has related to femininity and feminism, and masculinity's intersection with other identities like race, ethnicity, religion, and sexual orientation. Assigned materials include an array of readings in History, African and African American Studies, Gender and Women's Studies, Art History, and American Studies, along with documentary and fictional films.
Same as: FEMGEN 255B

HISTORY 255E. Education, Race, and Inequality in African American History, 1880-1990. 3-5 Units.

Seminar. The relationship among race, power, inequality, and education from the 1880s to the 1990s. How schools have constructed race, the politics of school desegregation, and ties between education and the late 20th-century urban crisis.
Same as: AFRICAAM 116, AMSTUD 216, CSRE 216X, EDUC 216

HISTORY 256E. The American Civil War: The Lived Experience. 5 Units.

What was it like to live in the United States during the Civil War? This course uses the lenses of racial/ethnic identity, gender, class, and geography (among others) to explore the breadth of human experience during this singular moment in American history. It illuminates the varied ways in which Americans, in the Union states and the Confederate states, struggled to move forward and to find meaning in the face of unprecedented division and destruction.
Same as: AFRICAAM 256E, AMSTUD 256E

HISTORY 256G. Constructing Race and Religion in America. 4-5 Units.

This seminar focuses on the interrelationships between social constructions of race and social interpretations of religion in America. How have assumptions about race shaped religious worldviews? How have religious beliefs shaped racial attitudes? How have ideas about religion and race contributed to notions of what it means to be "American"? We will look at primary and secondary sources and at the historical development of ideas and practices over time.
Same as: AFRICAAM 236, AMSTUD 246, CSRE 246, HISTORY 356G, RELIGST 246, RELIGST 346

HISTORY 257C. LGBTQ History of the United States. 4-5 Units.

An introductory course that explores LGBT/Queer social, cultural, and political history in the United States. By analyzing primary documents that range from personal accounts (private letters, autobiography, early LGBT magazines, and oral history interviews) to popular culture (postcards, art, political posters, lesbian pulp fiction, and film) to medical, military, and legal papers, students will understand how the categories of gender and sexuality have changed over the past 150 years. This class investigates the relationship among queer, straight and transgender identities. Seminar discussions will question how the intersections of race, class, gender, and sexuality influenced the construction of these categories.
Same as: FEMGEN 140D, FEMGEN 240D

HISTORY 257E. History of Conservatism. 4-5 Units.

What is conservatism in America? Where did it come from, and where might it be going? Looking at conservatism as a political, social, and intellectual movement, we will consider these questions by reading primary and secondary sources and archival material. Suitable for students of any or no particular political persuasion. No prerequisites or background required, although the reading will be considerable.
Same as: HISTORY 357E

HISTORY 258. History of Sexual Violence in America. 4-5 Units.

This undergraduate/graduate colloquium explores the history of sexual violence in America, with particular attention to the intersections of gender and race in the construction of rape. We discuss the changing definitions of sexual violence in law and in cultural representations from early settlement through the late-twentieth century, including slavery, wartime and prison rape, the history of lynching and anti-lynching movements, and feminist responses to sexual violence. In addition to introducing students to the literature on sexual violence, the course attempts to teach critical skills in the analysis of secondary and primary historical texts. Students write short weekly reading responses and a final paper; no final exam; fifth unit research or CEL options.nnLimited enrollment, permission of instructor required. Submit application form and indicate interest in CEL option. Priority admission to History, FGSS, CSRE, AFRICAAM, and AMSTUD declared majors and minors. (Cardinal Course certified by the Haas Center).
Same as: AFRICAAM 192, AMSTUD 258, CSRE 192E, FEMGEN 258, FEMGEN 358, HISTORY 358

HISTORY 258B. History of Education in the United States. 3-5 Units.

How education came to its current forms and functions, from the colonial experience to the present. Focus is on the 19th-century invention of the common school system, 20th-century emergence of progressive education reform, and the developments since WW II. The role of gender and race, the development of the high school and university, and school organization, curriculum, and teaching. Class meetings will typically end around 1:50pm.
Same as: AMSTUD 201, EDUC 201

HISTORY 258E. History of School Reform: Origins, Policies, Outcomes, and Explanations. 3-5 Units.

Strongly recommended for students in the POLS M.A. program; others welcome. Focus is on 20th-century U.S. Intended and unintended patterns in school change; the paradox of reform that schools are often reforming but never seem to change much; rhetorics of reform and factors that inhibit change. Case studies emphasize the American high school. This course is strongly recommended for POLS students pursuing K -12 leadership.
Same as: EDUC 220D

HISTORY 259A. Poverty and Homelessness in America. 4-5 Units.

Service learning. Students participate in a two quarter internship at a local shelter for homeless individuals or families. Readings include historical, social science, and social commentary literature. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center).

HISTORY 259E. American Interventions, 1898-Present. 5 Units.

This class seeks to examine the modern American experience with limited wars, beginning with distant and yet pertinent cases, and culminating in the war in Iraq. Although this class will examine war as a consequence of foreign policy, it will not focus primarily on presidential decision making. Rather, it will place wartime policy in a broader frame, considering it alongside popular and media perceptions of the war, the efforts of antiwar movements, civil-military relations, civil reconstruction efforts, and conditions on the battlefield. We will also examine, when possible, the postwar experience.
Same as: HISTORY 359E, INTNLREL 168A

HISTORY 260K. Exploring American Religious History. 4 Units.

This course will trace how contemporary beliefs and practices connect to historical trends in the American religious landscape.
Same as: AMSTUD 91, CSRE 91, RELIGST 91

HISTORY 260P. American Protest Movements, Past and Present. 5 Units.

(HISTORY 260P is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 360P is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) Societal change comes only when individuals and groups speak out, perseverantly, against prevailing norms. This course examines the overlapping histories of three nineteenth-century protest movements: antislavery, women¿s rights, and temperance. It focuses on the arguments and tactics used by these movements to persuade Americans to oppose the status quo, and it examines the points of agreement and disagreement that arose within and among these movements. Ultimately, the course connects these past protest movements to more recent analogs, such as Black Lives Matter, ERA ratification, and marijuana legalization. Throughout the course, race, gender, and class serve as central analytical themes.

HISTORY 261. Race, Gender, and Class in Jim Crow America. 5 Units.

How African American life and labor were redefined from 1890-1954. Topics include family life, work, leisure patterns, transnational relations, cultural expressions emphasizing literature and music, resistance and social activisim. Primary sources including visual materials, literature, and film; historical interpretations of the period.

HISTORY 261D. Democracy in Crisis: Historical Perspectives. 5 Units.

Scholars and pundits warn that American democracy is in crisis. But what is at stake? How new is this crisis? And can historical analysis offer insight into our present predicament?nnThis course will examine five historical crises of democracy: the Constitutional Convention, the Civil War, the Progressive Movement, World War II, and the protest movements of the 1960s. For each crisis, we will explore the political, cultural, and intellectual factors that defined and resolved (or failed to resolve) each crisis.

HISTORY 261E. Introduction to Asian American History. 5 Units.

This course provides an introduction to the field of Asian American history. Tracing this history between the arrival of the first wave of Asian immigrants to the US in the mid-nineteenth century and the present, we foreground the voices and personal histories of seemingly everyday Asian Americans. In the process, the course disrupts totalizing national historical narratives that center the US nation-state and its political leaders as the primary agents of historical change.
Same as: AMSTUD 261W, ASNAMST 261

HISTORY 261G. Presidents and Foreign Policy in Modern History. 5 Units.

Nothing better illustrates the evolution of the modern presidency than the arena of foreign policy. This class will examine the changing role and choices of successive presidential administrations over the past century, examining such factors as geopolitics, domestic politics, the bureaucracy, ideology, psychology, and culture. Students will be encouraged to think historically about the institution of the presidency, while examining specific case studies, from the First World War to the conflicts of the 21st century.
Same as: INTNLREL 173

HISTORY 263C. Nature's Bounty: Natural Resources and U.S. Political Economy. 5 Units.

The United States has long been among the wealthiest countries in the world, and its economic life has been closely tied to natural resource extraction. Taking the relation between these two historical facts as a question to be examined rather than a truism to be repeated, this course considers the histories of fossil fuels, plantation agriculture, farming, forestry, fishing, and nuclear energy as they relate to wealth, poverty, and economic thought.

HISTORY 263D. Junipero Serra. 3-5 Units.

Why is Junipero Serra considered a representative figure of California? How have assessments of Serra evolved over the last 200 years? Why does his name appear so often on our campus? In this course we will consider these and other questions in terms of Spanish empire, Native American history, California politics of memory and commemoration, among other approachs. Requirements include weekly reading, class discussion, a field trip to Carmel Mission, short writing assignments, and a formal debate on the ethics naming university or public buildings after historical figures with contested pasts. Taught in English.

HISTORY 264. History of Prisons and Immigration Detention. 4-5 Units.

This course will explore the history of the growing prison and immigration detention systems in the United States. They will pay particular attention to how they developed and how they affect different populations.
Same as: AMSTUD 264, CSRE 264, HISTORY 364

HISTORY 264D. Modern America in Historical Perspective. 5 Units.

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Same as: SIW 185

HISTORY 267E. Martin Luther King, Jr. - His Life, Ideas, and Legacy. 4-5 Units.

Using the unique documentary resources and publications of Stanford's King Research and Education Institute, this course will provide a general introduction to King's life, visionary ideas, and historical significance. In addition to lectures and discussions, the course will include presentations of documentaries such as Eyes on the Prize. Students will be expected to read the required texts, participate in class discussions, and submit a research paper or an audio-visual project developed in consultation with the professor.
Same as: AFRICAAM 267E, AMSTUD 267E

HISTORY 269F. Modern American History: From Civil Rights to Human Rights. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 269F is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 369F is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) This focuses on American social justice movements during the years since the passage of landmark civil rights legislation during the 1960s, with particular emphasis on efforts to extend rights to all people.
Same as: HISTORY 369F

HISTORY 270E. Queer History of the Americas. 4-5 Units.

This course will examine LGBT history in the Americas. It traces the development of homosexuality as a category of analysis; the construction of trans identity; the ways in which same-sex desire and gender identity were regulated over time; and queer people's struggles for recognition, liberation, and, ultimately, rights.
Same as: HISTORY 370E

HISTORY 270F. History of the Police in the United States. 5 Units.

How did police come to have the power to use violence? Who counts as a police officer and why? Topics include: growth of professional policing, creation of private police forces and vigilantism, slave patrols, political economy of policing, global policing, and cultural depictions of police. The entanglement of race, class, gender, and state power with police work is central.

HISTORY 271. Mexicans in the United States. 5 Units.

This course explores the lives and experiences of Mexicans living in the United States, from 1848 to the present. Themes and topics include: the legacies of colonialism, the Mexican-American War, transnational migration, the effects of economic stratification, race and racialization, and the impact of sexual and gender ideologies on the lives of Mexicans residing north of the border.
Same as: AMSTUD 271, CHILATST 171, CSRE 171H

HISTORY 272. Colonial Mexico: Images and Power. 3-5 Units.

How did images maintain, construct, or transform political power during the conquest and colonization of Mexico? The creation and destruction of visual materials in this period had a complicated relationship with power. The pictographic codices that celebrated the expansive Aztec Empire were created after its fall; and the conquistadors' indigenous allies painted some of the most triumphalist narratives of the conquest. Friars accused indigenous peoples of "idolatry" both to justify the destruction of their images and objects, and to construct legal defenses of their humanity. Colonial authorities frequently claimed Afro-Catholic festivals were seditious. In light of such complexity, official histories that recount the top-down consolidation of royal and viceroyal power are suspiciously simple. What counter-narratives do images and other visual phenomena from this tumultuous period offer? This course introduces students to major texts from Colonial Mexico (royal chronicles, conquistadors' tales, letters, poems, festival accounts) alongside a fascinating trove of images (painted codices with Nahuatl texts, feather mosaics, and indigenous heraldry) and considers how experiences of images and spectacles were transformed into textual accounts ("ekphrasis" or the literary device of description). Taught in Spanish.
Same as: HISTORY 372B, ILAC 214, ILAC 314

HISTORY 273. The European Expansion. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between European monarchies and their colonial domains from the 16th-18th centuries. Reasons for expansion, methods, and results. Case studies include the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English domains in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Readings include primary and secondary sources.
Same as: HISTORY 373A

HISTORY 273E. The Emergence of Nations in Latin America: Independence Through 1880. 4-5 Units.

This course provides an introduction to the main themes of nineteenth-century Latin American history, including independence from Spain, the emergence of various nation-states, and the development of a new social, political, and economic order in the region.
Same as: HISTORY 373E

HISTORY 274C. The History of Mexicans and Mexican Americans. 4-5 Units.

This course will explore the history of Mexican migrants and Mexican Americans from 1848 to the present.
Same as: CHILATST 274, HISTORY 374C

HISTORY 274E. Urban Poverty and Inequality in Latin America. 5 Units.

We examine historical issues of social inequality, poverty, crime, industrialization, globalization, and environment in major Latin American cities.

HISTORY 278B. The Historical Ecology of Latin America. 4-5 Units.

What role did the natural environment play in the emergence of Latin America as a distinct geographical and socio-cultural world region? How do we analyze the historical relationship between the regions rich and seemingly abundant natural resources and its status as "underdeveloped"? What historical consequences did this relationship have and what alternative, more sustainable developmental paths can we envision for the future in light of the past that we will study? In this course, students will become familiar with the historiography on Latin America (with emphasis on Mexico) that has explored these questions through a variety of approaches, methodologies and points of view.
Same as: HISTORY 378

HISTORY 279. Latin American Development: Economy and Society, 1800-2014. 4-5 Units.

The newly independent nations of Latin America began the 19th century with economies roughly equal to the U.S. and Canada. What explains the economic gap that developed since 1800? Why are some Latin American nations rich and others poor and how have societies changed over time? Marxist, dependency, neoclassical, and institutionalist interpretive frameworks are explored. The effects of globalization on Latin American economic growth, autonomy, and potential for social justice are examined and debated.
Same as: HISTORY 379

HISTORY 279B. Potatoes, Coca, and Tamales: Food in Latin American History. 5 Units.

The history of Latin America is profoundly marked by the production, circulation, preparation, and consumption of food in its most different forms: as a staple food, drugs, ethnic dishes, drinks, etc. This course examines the cultural, social, economic, and environmental significance of food throughout the history of the region, from pre-Columbian times to the present. By selecting specific examples of ingredients, spices, dishes, cooking practices, and dietary habits, we will explore the role of new foods in shaping empires and global trading networks, the global circulation of Latin America's food commodities and internationalization of its cuisine, and food as an expression of identities based on race, class, gender, and nationality, linking them to major trends in the region's history. Students are welcome to explore themes of their interest related to the course topic in their assignments.

HISTORY 279D. Modern Brazil: Economy, Society & Culture. 4-5 Units.

This course addresses the history of modern Brazil from independence in 1822 to the present day. The class focuses on theories of economic development, social structure and change, and cultural life in Brazil's diverse regions.
Same as: HISTORY 379D

HISTORY 280B. The Birth of Islam: Authority, Community, and Resistance. 3-5 Units.

This course explores the historical problem of how authority and community (in both the political and religious sense) were defined and challenged in the early Islamic period. Chronological topics covered include: the political, cultural, and religious world of Late Antiquity into which Muhammad was born; the crystallization of a small community of believers who supported Muhammad's message of radical monotheism and aided him in the conquest and conversion of the Arabian Peninsula; the problems of legacy and leadership in the community of the faithful after Muhammad's death; the Arabo-Islamic conquests beyond Arabia during the 7th and early 8th centuries and the establishment of the first Islamic empire under the rule of the Umayyad clan; the Sunni/Shi'a split (and further splits in Shi'ism); the revolution of 750 A.D. and overthrow of the Umayyads by the 'Abbasids; the flourishing of a sophisticated world of learning and culture under the 'Abbasids; and the waning of the 'Abbasids empire in the tenth century and political reconfiguration of the Islamic lands.
Same as: GLOBAL 134, GLOBAL 234, HISTORY 380B

HISTORY 281A. Twentieth-Century Iraq: A Political and Social History. 5 Units.

The colonial experience, creation of the modern Iraqi state, and transition to military dictatorship. Political movements, religious and tribal elements, and their relation to the state. Geopolitical context.

HISTORY 281E. Oil, Maps, Data: Technology in the Middle East. 4-5 Units.

This course introduces students to a wide range of humanities and social science concepts pertaining to the global study of technology with an emphasis on the Middle East in the 19th, 20th and 21st-centuries. The main body of the course focuses on three case studies namely oil, mapping, and the internet through which issues of power, race, colonialism, financial imperialism, violence, and surveillance will be explored. This colloquium provides a unique perspective on contemporary debates about the politics and ethics of technology through a study of their global circulation.
Same as: HISTORY 381E

HISTORY 281J. The Road to Global Jihad: From Radical Networks to Militant Islamism. 4-5 Units.

This course traces the historical development of Islamically-oriented armed networks without theologizing or essentializing their nature, organizational structures, activities, or violence. We will cover the scholarly studies on militant organizations such as Egyptian Jihad, Al-Gama'at Al-Islamiyya, Taliban, Al-Qaeda, IS(IS), Hizbullah with their sectarian, ideological, and strategic diversity. The trajectory of militant Islamism as various offshoots from earlier global radical Muslim networks will be of critical focus. Basic jihadi texts and historical surveys and monographs on organizations will form the major components of the readings.".

HISTORY 281K. Departures: Late Ottoman Displacements of Muslims, Christians, and Jews, 1853-1923. 5 Units.

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, millions of people moved into and out of the Ottoman Empire, sometimes voluntarily and sometimes under extremely violent circumstances. More often than not, they moved in groups that were religiously defined. This course examines how these developments shaped the future of the modern Middle East, Balkans, and beyond. Questions include: How did migration and the idea of the nation shape each other? What does it mean to call a group or a migration "religious"? Why did certain types of diversity become a "problem," in the eyes of the state? What caused these population displacements? What can this topic teach us about today's mass migrations?.
Same as: JEWISHST 281K

HISTORY 282. The United States and the Middle East since 1945. 4-5 Units.

Since the end of WW II, U.S. interests in the Middle East have traditionally been defined as access to oil at a reasonable price, trade and markets, containing the influence of the Soviet Union, and the security of Israel. Is this the full range of U.S. interests? How has the pursuit of these interests changed over time? What forces have shaped U.S. policy? What is the impact of U.S. policy on the region itself?.
Same as: HISTORY 382

HISTORY 282J. Disasters in Middle Eastern History. 5 Units.

(HISTORY 282J is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 382J is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) nnThis course explores the history of disasters in the Middle East from the early modern period to the mid-20th-century. We will trace the evolving meanings of disasters and misfortunes by focusing on critical moments -- plagues, fires, earthquakes, wars -- to examine how people have responded to these events, labeled them, and devised strategies to live with or forget them. The course readings follow the evolution of policies and norms together with the articulation of new forms of knowledge and expertise in the wake of catastrophe. Additionally, particular attention will be paid to how modern conceptions of disaster relate to older understandings of apocalypse, as well as to various strands of "disaster reformism," when rethinking tragedy and time helped assert radical agendas for reforming political, economic, social, communal, racial, and gender relations while remodeling social science and intellectual life. The course focuses on various trajectories of disaster thinking in Arabic, Turkish, Greek, Armenian, and Hebrew.

HISTORY 283C. The Medieval Middle East: Crusaders, Turks, and Mongols. 3-5 Units.

This course surveys the history of the Middle East from c.950 A.D. to c.1517 A.D., placing particular emphasis on the following questions: What were the social, cultural, and political contexts for conversion to Islam in the Middle Ages? How did the interplay of nomadic and sedentary peoples shape Middle Eastern history? What were the nature of Christian-Muslim relations and the fate of religious minorities in an age of Crusade and Jihad? What were the conditions for the rise, flourishing, and eventual collapse of a ¿world-system¿ in this period (with the lands of the Middle East serving as its nexus)? Chronological topics include: the arrival in the Middle East of the Seljuk Turks, new adopters of Islam and recent nomads; the western European crusades to the Holy Land and the establishment of so-called ¿Crusader States¿ in Syria; the subjugation of Iran to pagan Mongols¿and the Mongols¿ eventual conversion to Islam; the rise to power of a dynasty of Turkish slave-soldiers (mamluks) in Cairo and the political reunification of Syria and Egypt under their rule. Readings will consist of both primary sources and works of modern scholarship.
Same as: GLOBAL 133, GLOBAL 233, HISTORY 383C

HISTORY 283F. Capital and Crisis in the Middle East and the World. 5 Units.

(HISTORY 283F is an undergraduate course for 5 units; HISTORY 383F is a graduate course for 4-5 units.) How do economies change in times of crisis? How do economic crises intersect with pandemics, violence and environmental disaster to redefine the workings of capital? This course approaches these questions through critical reading in the histories of capitalism, crisis, and intersections between legal history and political economy, using the Middle East region as a starting point for the study of global phenomena. We will examine the ways in which constructions like race and ethnicity, gender, and the human/non-human divide have mediated the social and spatial expansion of capital in the region, especially through legal categories and instruments that transform rapidly in times of crisis. Temporally, we will focus our examination between two moments of economic crisis: the ¿long depression¿ of the late nineteenth century and the financial crisis of 2008. We will ground our historical reading in attention to current events, in particular the Middle East¿s ongoing experience of the pandemic-induced global financial crisis of 2020.

HISTORY 283J. Global Islam. 5 Units.

(Undergraduates, enroll in 283J; Graduates, enroll in 383J.) Explores the history and politics of Islam in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East and the Americas --- and of the novel connections that have linked Muslim communities across the globe in modern times.

HISTORY 284. The Ottoman Empire: Conquest, Coexistence, and Coffee. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 284 is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 384 is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) The Ottoman Empire ruled the Middle East, North Africa and Eastern Europe from the 15th to the early 20th centuries. How did the Ottoman enterprise appear in the frontier region between Christendom and the Islamic world? How were diverse peoples, religions, and regions integrated under the Ottoman order? Was there an Ottoman Mediterranean and Indian Ocean? How did reform movements in Islamic, Christian and Jewish thinking transform Ottoman societies? Topics include the Ottoman Empire between Europe and Eastern Islamic World; merchants and their markets; elite, urban, rural and nomadic lives; women, family, childhood and sexuality; life, afterlife and dreams; epidemics and natural disasters. Special emphasis will be given to coffee and coffee houses which shaped public life in the Ottoman World since the 16th century. The survey ends with the rise of nationalism, inter-communal violence and the disintegration of the Ottoman world.
Same as: HISTORY 384

HISTORY 284E. Contemporary Muslim Political Thought. 4-5 Units.

This course aims to provide an intellectual history of contemporary Muslim political thought. It presents post-nineteenth century Muslim contributions to political thought. It is designed as a survey of some major thinkers from the Arab world to Iran and Southeast Asia, from Turkey to North America, who sought to interpret Islam's basic sources and Islamic intellectual legacy. Our readings include primary texts by Tahtawi, Tunisi, Afghani, Rida, Huda Sharawi, Qutb, Shariati, and Mernissi among other prominent figures. We will analyze recurring ideas in this body of thought such as decline, civilization, rationality, ijtihad (Islamic independent reasoning), shura (deliberative decision-making), democracy, secularism, Muslim unity, khilafah (caliphate and vicegerency), freedom, equality, and justice. We will discuss their current significance for the ongoing theoretical debates in Muslim political thought, Muslim intellectual history, and comparative political theory.
Same as: HISTORY 384E

HISTORY 284F. Empires, Markets and Networks: Early Modern Islamic World Between Europe and China, 1400-1900. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on political regimes, transregional connections, economic interactions and sociocultural formations in the early modern Islamic Afro-Eurasia. Topics include complex political-economic systems of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires and expansion of Turco-Persianate political and literary cultures across the Post-Mongolian Eurasia; experiences of various Muslim, Christian, Jewish and Hindu, as well as urban, rural and nomadic communities and networks under Islamicate political regimes; consolidation of transregional commerce and cultural exchange with the proliferation of networks of merchants, scholars and sufis; new tendencies in knowledge, individual, gender, family, social order, and religion; incorporation of the Islamic world in the global economy; Muslims in the age of revolutions; political and social reforms and consolidation of Muslim internationalism in the age of imperialism.
Same as: HISTORY 384F

HISTORY 285C. The Immigrant in Modern America. 5 Units.

The 2016 presidential election propelled the topic of immigration to the center of public attention. This is not the first time, however, that questions of immigration and what it means to be an American have revealed deep divisions within the U.S. This course explores the reception of immigrants in modern America, including differing views toward immigration; how immigrants help shape ideas about the American nation; and the growth of state bureaucracy and policing apparatus as a response.
Same as: JEWISHST 285C

HISTORY 285E. Counterinsurgency and Torture: Algeria, Vietnam, and Iraq. 5 Units.

This course covers the post-WWII history of counterinsurgency, a type of warfare in which a powerful, state-backed military is pitted against guerrilla fighters, or insurgents. In the context of decolonization (the dissolution of European overseas empires) and the United States' growing role on the world stage, we will examine four counterinsurgency campaigns: the French in Indochina (1946-1954) and Algeria (1954-1962); and the Americans in Vietnam (1964-1973) and Iraq (2003-2011). Using a combination of secondary and primary sources, including declassified government documents, maps, photography, film, music, news broadcasts, and recorded tapes of presidential phone calls, we will ask four overarching questions: 1) How did military planners and politicians learn from prior counterinsurgencies, and what are the strengths and pitfalls of an approach to warfare that applies historical "lessons learned" to contemporary problems? 2) Are torture and violence against civilians the results of mishandled counterinsurgency, or are they inherent to the doctrine? 3) Why have counterinsurgency strategies persisted despite long-term failures and public criticism? 4) How does historical thinking allow us to participate more effectively in debates about counterinsurgency and torture in America today? Throughout, we will explore how counterinsurgency and torture have traveled across space and time, intertwining historical trajectories in Southeast Asia, North Africa, and the Middle East.

HISTORY 286D. Yours in Struggle: African Americans and Jews in the 20th Century U.S.. 5 Units.

This colloquium explores the history of African Americans and Jews in 20th century US beginning with Jewish immigration from Eastern Europe and the Great Migration to America's urban centers. It considers the geographical and economic tensions that developed between two minority groups living in close proximity; the appropriation of black culture; Jewish claims to whiteness and performance of blackness; intercommunal relations during the Civil Rights movement; the breakdown of the black-Jewish alliance in the late 1960s; and the lingering ramifications of this shift today.
Same as: JEWISHST 286D

HISTORY 286E. Labor Migration: Gender, Race, and Capitalism in North Africa and the Middle East. 5 Units.

Current media coverage dwells on the plight of migrants passing through North Africa in search of higher-wage jobs in Europe. But labor migration from, to, and through North Africa and the Middle East is nothing new. Pushing beyond widespread views of labor migration as a policy problem for Western governments to "solve," we will instead explore how migrant laborers shaped the modern history of North Africa and the Middle East, from the late Ottoman Empire until today. We will read an array of texts in history and historical anthropology--each deploying different sources, methods, and empirical examples--to discuss how migrant laborers molded 1) conceptions of race and gender, 2) the development of capitalism, 3) political mobilization, and 4) the boundaries between nations and regions. Among other examples, we will discuss trans-Atlantic migrants from the Ottoman Levant who shaped labor and gender relations within the Middle East and the Americas; migrant workers from North Africa and the Middle East who sustained wartime industries in European empires and metropoles; the construction of an oil economy in the Gulf that was built by migrant labor; and sub-Saharan African domestic workers in the Middle East facing exploitation and crisis. Throughout, we will devote particular attention to the ways in which our readings place migrant laborers and their communities at the center of analysis, despite the fact that migrant laborers do not have a voice in dominant archives.

HISTORY 286F. Jews in Trump's America and Before. 5 Units.

This class considers the notion of American Jewish exceptionalism through the lens of Trump's America. The social and economic success of American Jewry over the last 350 years is remarkable, yet Jews continue to find their position in American society called into question. This course moves between past and present and will consider key moments in American Jewish life with a particular emphasis on contemporary currents, including post-liberal identity politics, Israel, and the rise of white supremacy.
Same as: JEWISHST 186

HISTORY 288C. Jews of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. 5 Units.

This course will explore the cultural, social, and political histories of the Jews of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) from 1860 to present times. The geographic concentration will range from Morocco to Iran, Iraq to Turkey, and everywhere in between. Topics include: Jewish culture and identity in Islamic contexts; the impacts of colonialism, westernization, and nationalism; Jewish-Muslim relations; the racialization of MENA Jews; the Holocaust; the experience and place of MENA Jews in Israel; and "Jews of Color.".
Same as: JEWISHST 288C

HISTORY 288D. American Jewish History: Learning to be Jewish in America. 2-4 Units.

This course will be a seminar in American Jewish History through the lens of education. It will address both the relationship between Jews and American educational systems, as well as the history of Jewish education in America. Plotting the course along these two axes will provide a productive matrix for a focused examination of the American Jewish experience. History students must take course for at least 3 units.
Same as: AMSTUD 279X, EDUC 279, JEWISHST 297X, RELIGST 279X

HISTORY 290. North Korea in Historical Perspective. 4-5 Units.

This colloquium will approach North Korea from a longer historical perspective and also discuss the country's current crisis and its future. Themes will include the northern region in colonial Korea, Kim Il Sung and Manchurian guerrillas, the USSR and North Korean Revolution, the reconstruction after the Korean War, Juche ideology and the political system, the everyday life of North Korea people, the Cold War and North Korean diplomacy, culture and mass performance, the great famine and economy in transition, the military and nuclear development, and refugees and the succession of leadership.
Same as: HISTORY 390

HISTORY 291G. Pre-Modern Chinese Warfare. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the evolution of warfare in China, and its impact on the evolving political and social orders, from the earliest states through the Mongol conquest. It will study how changing military technology was inextricably linked to changes in the state and society. It will also look at changing Chinese attitudes towards warfare over the same period, from the celebration of heroism, through writing about warfare as an intellectual art, to the links of militarism with steppe peoples/.
Same as: HISTORY 391G

HISTORY 291K. Korean History and Culture before 1900. 3-5 Units.

This course serves as an introduction to Korean culture, society, and history before the modern period. It begins with a discussion of early Korea and controversies over Korean origins; the bulk of the course will be devoted to the Chos'n period (1392-1910), that from the end of medieval Korea to the modern period. Topics to be covered include: Korean national and ethnic origins, the role of religious and intellectual traditions such as Buddhism and Confucianism, popular and indigenous religious practices, the traditional Korean family and social order, state and society during the Chos'n dynasty, vernacular prose literature, Korean's relations with its neighbors in East Asia, and changing conceptions of Korean identity.nThe course will be conducted through the reading and discussion of primary texts in English translation alongside scholarly research. As such, it will emphasize the interpretation of historical sources, which include personal letters, memoirs, and diaries, traditional histories, diplomatic and political documents, along with religious texts and works of art. Scholarly work will help contextualize these materials, while the class discussions will introduce students to existing scholarly debates about the Korean past. Students will be asked also to examine the premodern past with an eye to contemporary reception. The final project for the class is a film study, where a modern Korean film portraying premodern Korea will be analyzed as a case study of how the past works in public historical memory in contemporary Korea, both North and South. An open-ended research paper is also possible, pending instructor approval.
Same as: HISTORY 391K, KOREA 158, KOREA 258

HISTORY 292C. Gender in Modern South Asia. 5 Units.

Gender is crucial to understanding the political, cultural, and economic trajectories of communities in colonial and postcolonial South Asia. Throughout this course, we will ask a series of questions: How does gender structure conceptions of home, community, and homeland in South Asia? How do gender and religion become represented in movements for nation-states? How does women's participation in anticolonial politics and fights for equal representation in postcolonial nation-states affect our understanding of gender in South Asia today? Readings examine the creation and impact of religious personal law under British colonial rule, the role of masculinity in the British-Indian army, perspectives on religion and clothing, the interplay of rights movements and anti-colonialism, and the status of women in postcolonial India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Students will also explore a range of primary sources, including political treatises, short stories, didactic manuals, autobiographies, and travelogues.
Same as: FEMGEN 292

HISTORY 292D. Japan in Asia, Asia in Japan. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 292D is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 392D is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) How Japan and Asia mutually shaped each other in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Focus is on Japanese imperialism in Asia and its postwar legacies. Topics include: pan-Asianism and orientalism; colonial modernization in Korea and Taiwan; collaboration and resistance; popular imperialism in Manchuria; total war and empire; comfort women and the politics of apology; the issue of resident Koreans; and economic and cultural integration of postwar Asia.
Same as: HISTORY 392D

HISTORY 292F. Culture and Religions in Korean History. 4-5 Units.

This colloquium explores the major themes of Korean history before 1800 and the role of culture and religions in shaping the everyday life of Chosôn-dynasty Koreans. Themes include the aristocracy and military in the Koryô dynasty, Buddhism and Confucianism in the making of Chosôn Korea, kingship and court culture, slavery and women, family and rituals, death and punishment, and the Korean alphabet (Hangûl) and print culture.
Same as: HISTORY 392F

HISTORY 293C. Stateless in South Asia. 4-5 Units.

Taking statelessness as more than a political condition, this course reviews the myriad aspects of statelessness. Exploring a few critical moments in modern South Asia (1945-2010), this seminar thematically follows the historical construction of statelessness in some of the most conflict-ridden theatres of world politics. This course explores the following questions: Is statelessness always a result of national and nationalist exclusion? What are the ways in which statelessness has amplified the gaps in the coherent rationale of national belonging?.

HISTORY 293F. Chinese Politics and Society. 3-5 Units.

(Doctoral students register for 317B.) This seminar surveys the major turning points that have shaped China's evolution since 1949. The topics covered include the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, the political and economic turning point of the early 1980s, the political crisis of 1989, the restructuring of the state sector since the 1990s, and the patterns of protest that have accompanied the rapid social changes over the past three decades. We will conclude the course with current debates about China's future.
Same as: HISTORY 393F, SOC 217B, SOC 317B

HISTORY 294D. Manchuria: Cradle of Conflict, Cockpit of Asia. 4-5 Units.

How did Manchuria become Chinese? This course utilizes the dual waves of early twentieth-century writings and a wide array of recent scholarship dealing with Manchuria to explore the formation of nation-states out of the Qing and Japanese empires in Northeast Asia through the lenses of opium, migration, cities, warlords, and memoir. This course will be of interest to students concerned with developing transcultural understandings of Northeast Asian history.
Same as: HISTORY 394D

HISTORY 294E. The Past in Ancient China. 4-5 Units.

Introduction to the most important sources in the early Chinese historiographical tradition (broadly conceived), examining how the past was mobilized across a range of textual genres including poetry, speeches, philosophy, narrative, and rhetoric. Prior knowledge of premodern Chinese history and culture is not required. All reading materials will be in English; no knowledge of modern or classical Chinese is expected.
Same as: HISTORY 394E

HISTORY 294J. Science, Power, and Knowledge: East Asia to 1900. 3-5 Units.

In the early modern period, East Asian societies featured long-established institutions of learning and traditions of knowledge. This course examines the relationship between knowledge and power in East Asia societies prior to 1900. It explores how knowledge production operated in late imperial China (1550-1900), Chos'n Korea (1392-1910), and Tokugawa Japan (1600-1868). Among the themes addressed are: the state's role in patronizing science and knowledge; major intellectual movements; engagement with Western science and religion; East Asian statecraft; and East Asian understandings of space and geography. nTaking a holistic perspective, it places science and technology in 1) a social and cultural context 2) in relation to other bodies and fields of knowledge 3) in comparison to other societies in a similar historical time period. A socially embedded perspective on knowledge and science seeks to appreciate how politics, society, and knowledge are integrated, and in particular how science and knowledge can be both instruments and sites of political power. By exploring these links, the course will also illustrate how our modern disciplinary categories of natural science,social science and the humanities cannot be taken for granted and the areas of knowledge they cover can be deeply intertwined. nnThe course will also address these issues historically and across geographic regions in East Asia and beyond. The comparative lens and frameworks these perspectives can offer will bring an awareness of the diverse traditions of knowledge production in East Asia. Its examination of East Asian encounters with Western paradigms of knowledge throughout the early modern period will also illustrate how communication occurs across cultural, social, and linguistic barriers and how diverse world-views were managed in these encounters. These encounters of knowledge-exchange between Jesuit missionaries, Ming literati, Korean aristocrats, and Japanese doctors also show how cultural identities were constructed, reinforced, and challenged. These identities, expressed through the mastery of knowledge, are essential for understanding how East Asian reckoned with growing pressures to adopt Western industrial technology and military science in the late nineteenth century.
Same as: CHINA 157, CHINA 257, JAPAN 157, JAPAN 257, KOREA 157, KOREA 257

HISTORY 296. Communism and Revolution in China. 5 Units.

From the formation of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1921 through the 1949 founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Topics include: early theories of socialism in China; the relationship between Chinese communism and the Communist International and Soviet Union; agrarian reformulation of communism by Mao; the communist-nationalist civil war; the Communist Revolution of 1949; and the consolidation of communist power in the PRC.

HISTORY 296E. Modern South Asia, 1500- Present. 5 Units.

This course examines the major political, social, religious, and cultural developments within early modern, colonial, and postcolonial South Asia. Topics include religious reform, the role of women, anticolonialism, and national formation. Students will be introduced to critical writings on the emergence of modernity on the Indian subcontinent.

HISTORY 297. The Cold War and East Asia. 5 Units.

Explores how East Asia negotiated superpower rivalry and global ideological competition during the Cold War. Considers the ways in which China, Japan, and Korea were more than battlegrounds for US-Soviet contestation and played active roles in defining the nature and dynamics of the conflict. Re-examines conventional narratives and periodizations against alternative conceptual models and interpretive frameworks highlighting the constructed nature of the struggle as well as the role of historical and cultural factors in shaping the East Asian experience.
Same as: HISTORY 397

HISTORY 297F. Religion and Power in the Making of Modern South Asia. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the diverse ways that religious traditions have been involved in the brokering of power in South Asia from the late seventeenth century to the present day. We will examine the intersection of religion and power in different arenas, including historical memory, religious festivals, language politics, and violent actions. At the core of our inquiry is how religion is invoked in political contexts (and vice-versa), public displays of religiosity, and the complex dynamics of religion and the state. Among other issues, we will particularly engage with questions of religious identity, knowledge, and violence. Undergraduates must enroll in RELIGST 255 for 5 units. Graduate students must enroll RELIGST 355 for 3-5 units. HISTORY297F must be taken for 4-5 units.
Same as: RELIGST 255, RELIGST 355

HISTORY 297G. Rulers, Reformers, Radicals: History of India in Two Centuries. 5 Units.

This course traces the cultural, religious, literary, and political lineages of India during the last two centuries. It investigates the conditions and impact of colonialism in the formation of the contemporary subcontinent. In doing so, the course examines the ways in which Indians changed their society, culture, and identities as they became entwined with colonial, imperial, and global forces. Over the course of the quarter, we will address the following questions: What was the nature of colonial rule in India? How did the process of colonization shape questions of gender and class, race and caste in India? In societies as diverse as India, is anticolonialism synonymous with nationalism?.

HISTORY 298C. Race, Gender, & Sexuality in Chinese History. 5 Units.

This course examines the diverse ways in which identities--particularly race, ethnicity, gender and sexuality have been understood and experienced in Chinese societies, broadly defined, from the imperial period to the present day. Topics include changes in women's lives and status, racial and ethnic categorizations, homosexuality, prostitution, masculinity, and gender-crossing.
Same as: ASNAMST 298, CSRE 298G, FEMGEN 298C, HISTORY 398C

HISTORY 298E. Chinese Pop Culture: A History. 5 Units.

This discussion course examines the evolution of popular culture in the Chinese-speaking world and diaspora from the late imperial era to the present. Analyzing myth, literature, medicine, music, art, film, fashion, and internet culture will help students understand the revolutionary social and political changes that have transformed modern East Asia.

HISTORY 299A. Senior Research I. 1-5 Unit.

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HISTORY 299B. Senior Research II. 1-5 Unit.

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HISTORY 299C. Senior Research III. 1-5 Unit.

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HISTORY 299D. Tooling Up for Digital Humanities. 1 Unit.

What are the digital humanities? The twenty-first century presents new opportunities in the humanities, such as unprecedented access to millions upon millions of digitized sources along with powerful technological tools to study those sources. Yet it also raises new challenges, such as the responsible and effective use of technology, and defining the nature of digital scholarship and communication. This workshop offers an introduction to fundamental concepts, methods, and issues within the growing field of digital humanities, including managing your online identity, digitizing sources, managing databases, text mining, spatial analysis, visualization, and pedagogy.

HISTORY 299F. Curricular Practical Training. 1 Unit.

Following internship work, students complete a research report outlining work activity, problems investigated, key results and follow-up projects. Meets the requirements for curricular practical training for students on F-1 visas. Student is responsible for arranging own internship and faculty sponsorship.

HISTORY 299H. Junior Honors Colloquium. 1 Unit.

Required of junior History majors planning to write a History honors thesis during senior year. Meets four times during the quarter.

HISTORY 299M. Undergraduate Directed Research: Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute. 1-4 Unit.

May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 299P. Mastering Uncertainty: The Power of Archival Thinking. 1 Unit.

When confronted with chaos and uncertainty, do you know how to stay calm, ask the right questions, and find the answers? Archival researchers do. Do you realize that less than 1 percent of primary sources have been digitized, and that 99 percent still exist in their original formats in collections, small and large, scattered all across the world? Do you know how to find them and use them? Archival researchers do. Through hands-on exercises in Stanford's archives, students learn the fundamentals of archival research. Pursuing their own research interests, students will learn to become self-sufficient, independent researchers capable of navigating uncertainty and producing knowledge--a skill set in demand no matter what their major or post-graduate plans.
Same as: HISTORY 399P

HISTORY 299S. Undergraduate Directed Research and Writing. 1-5 Unit.

May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 299T. Tough Questions. 1 Unit.

A H&S initiative course.
Same as: HISTORY 399T

HISTORY 301A. The Global Drug Wars. 4-5 Units.

Explores the global story of the struggle over drugs from the nineteenth century to the present. Topics include the history of the opium wars in China, controversies over wine and tobacco in Iran, narco-trafficking and civil war in Lebanon, the Afghan 'narco-state,' Andean cocaine as a global commodity, the politics of U.S.- Mexico drug trafficking, incarceration, drugs, and race in the U.S., and the globalization of the American 'war on drugs.'.
Same as: HISTORY 201A

HISTORY 301D. History Goes Pop! Songwriting the Past. 3 Units.

Historical research doesn't always take the form of a thesis, an article, or a book. Sometimes, research leads to film, museum exhibits, works of art, or... music. In this class, students will collaborate to write, record, and produce original pop music (perhaps even an entire album) based on original research in Stanford's wealth of archives and Special Collections. Background in music is NOT required.
Same as: HISTORY 201D

HISTORY 301J. Objects of History: From "Material Culture" to "Making". 4-5 Units.

This class considers objects as historical sources. It surveys diverse approaches to the study and display of physical evidence, from "material culture" to "making." These explorations of object-oriented research will inform the course's hands-on components, working with objects and replicating historical experiences. With its focus on the question of what historical knowledge can be gained through interactivity, the course is suited to students whose interests include museums and public history, reenactment and performance, the maker movement, or interdisciplinary methodology.
Same as: HISTORY 201J

HISTORY 302. Technopolitics: Materiality, Power, Theory. 4-5 Units.

This graduate readings seminar provides a lively introduction to some of the major themes and issues in the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). How do technologies and material assemblages perform power? How are their designs and uses shaped by social, cultural, and political dynamics? How do they shape those dynamics? The course draws on an interdisciplinary body of literature in humanities and social science, mixing theoretical material with more empirically oriented studies, and classics with new scholarship.
Same as: ANTHRO 302A

HISTORY 302B. Coffee, Sugar, and Chocolate: Commodities and Consumption in World History, 1200-1800. 4-5 Units.

Many of the basic commodities that we consider staples of everyday life became part of an increasingly interconnected world of trade, goods, and consumption between 1200 and 1800. This seminar offers an introduction to the material culture of the late medieval and early modern world, with an emphasis on the role of European trade and empires in these developments. We will examine recent work on the circulation, use, and consumption of things, starting with the age of the medieval merchant, and followed by the era of the Columbian exchange in the Americas that was also the world of the Renaissance collector, the Ottoman patron, and the Ming connoisseur. This seminar will explore the material horizons of an increasingly interconnected world, with the rise of the Dutch East India Company and other trading societies, and the emergence of the Atlantic economy. It concludes by exploring classic debates about the "birth" of consumer society in the eighteenth century. How did the meaning of things and people's relationships to them change over these centuries? What can we learn about the past by studying things?.
Same as: ARTHIST 302B, HISTORY 202B

HISTORY 302F. Surveillance States and Societies. 4-5 Units.

The course analyzes the evolution, functions, structures and consequences of surveillance in the modern era. Among issues discussed are the rise of the modern state and population politics, information gathering and its uses in domestic and national security arenas, institutions of surveillance in various regimes, the challenge of privacy and ethical dilemmas.
Same as: HISTORY 202F

HISTORY 302G. Peoples, Armies and Governments of the Second World War. 4-5 Units.

Clausewitz conceptualized war as always consisting of a trinity of passion, chance, and reason, mirrored, respectively, in the people, army and government. Following Clausewitz, this course examines the peoples, armies, and governments that shaped World War II. Analyzes the ideological, political, diplomatic and economic motivations and constraints of the belligerents and their resulting strategies, military planning and fighting. Explores the new realities of everyday life on the home fronts and the experiences of non-combatants during the war, the final destruction of National Socialist Germany and Imperial Japan, and the emerging conflict between the victors. How the peoples, armies and governments involved perceived their possibilities and choices as a means to understand the origins, events, dynamics and implications of the greatest war in history.
Same as: HISTORY 202G

HISTORY 302K. The Holocaust and Its Aftermath. 4-5 Units.

This seminar gives an overview over different aspects of the history of the Holocaust and its aftermath and will examine key issues in recent Holocaust historiography and questions of memory and representation. Special emphasis is put on the nature of the historian's task, as viewed through the lens of historians of the Holocaust, as well as to the significance of the Holocaust in history and how it has changed over time. The course will confront students with historiographical texts and historical documents, with photography and film, works of scholarship and art.
Same as: HISTORY 202K, JEWISHST 282K, JEWISHST 382K

HISTORY 303. Premodern Economic Cultures. 4-5 Units.

Modern economists have made a science of studying the aggregate effects of individual choices. This science is based on the realities of personal freedom and individual choice. Prior to the modern era, however, different realities comprised very different economic cultures: moral economies in which greed was evil and generosity benefitted the patron¿s soul; familial collectives operating within historical conditioned diasporas; economies of obligation that threatened to collapse under their own weight as economic structures shifted. In this course we will be reading cross-culturally to develop an understanding of the shared and distinct elements of premodern economic cultures.
Same as: HISTORY 203

HISTORY 303C. History of Ignorance. 4-5 Units.

Scholars pay a lot of attention to knowledge--how it arises and impacts society--but much less attention has been given to ignorance, even though its impacts are equally profound. Here we explore the political history of ignorance, through case studies including: corporate denials of harms from particular products (tobacco, asbestos), climate change denialism, and creationist rejections of Darwinian evolution. Students will be expected to produce a research paper tracing the origins and impact of a particular form of ignorance.

HISTORY 303E. Infrastructure & Power in the Global South. 4-5 Units.

In the last decade, the field of infrastructure studies has entered into conversation with area studies, post/colonial studies, and other scholarship on the "Global South." These intersections have produced dramatic new understandings of what "infrastructures" are, and how to analyze them as conduits of social and political power. This course offers a graduate-level introduction to this recent scholarship, drawing primarily on works from history, anthropology, geography, and architecture.
Same as: AFRICAST 303E, ANTHRO 303E

HISTORY 303F. Words and Things in the History of Classical Scholarship. 4-5 Units.

How have scholars used ancient texts and objects since the revival of the classical tradition? How did antiquarians study and depict objects and relate them to texts and reconstructions of the past? What changed and what stayed the same as humanist scholarship gave way to professional archaeologists, historians, and philologists? Focus is on key works in the history of classics, such as Erasmus and Winckelmann, in their scholarly, cultural, and political contexts, and recent critical trends in intellectual history and the history of disciplines.
Same as: CLASSICS 331

HISTORY 303K. Trauma and History: Intergenerational suffering and collective healing. 4-5 Units.

This course will examine trauma as a historical process, following the intergenerational impacts of history's darker dramas, analyzing collective strategies for coping and healing after trauma, and asking whether we can speak of "traumatized societies." Readings for graduate students will include Ben Shephard's A War of Nerves, Didier Fassin and Richard Rechtman's The Empire of Trauma, and selections from Yael Danieli, ed., Intergenerational Handbook of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma. Colloquium will be discussion-oriented, but will also include guest discussants from around the world. The course will culminate in a conference to be held at Stanford, June 4-6: "Soul Wounds: Trauma and Healing Across Generations." Undergraduate requirements for 1 credit: Attend weekly "Mind, Body, and Culture" workshop and first hour of Wednesday morning discussion, attend some part of conference on June 4-6. Graduate requirements for 4-5 credits: Attend workshop, read weekly, discussion on Wednesday mornings, write a paper and if desired present at conference.

HISTORY 304. Approaches to History. 4-5 Units.

For first-year History and Classics Ph.D. students. This course explores ideas and debates that have animated historical discourse and shaped historiographical practice over the past half-century or so. The works we will be discussing raise fundamental questions about how historians imagine the past as they try to write about it, how they constitute it as a domain of study, how they can claim to know it, and how (and why) they argue about it.

HISTORY 304A. Reimagining History: Or, Finding the "I" in History. 4-5 Units.

This class explores, through analysis and practice, the ways in which history can be told and experienced through means other than traditional scholarly narratives. Approaches include literary fiction and non-fiction, digital media, graphic arts, maps, exhibitions, and film. A final project will require students to produce their own innovative work of history.
Same as: HISTORY 204A

HISTORY 304D. Advanced Topics in Agnotology. 4-5 Units.

Advanced research into the history of ignorance. Our goal will be to explore how ignorance is created, maintained and destroyed, using case studies from topics such as tobacco denialism, global climate denialism, and other forms of resistance to knowledge making. Course culminates in a research paper on the theory and practice of agnotology, the science of ignorance.
Same as: HISTORY 204D

HISTORY 304G. War and Society. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 204G is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 304G is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) How Western societies and cultures have responded to modern warfare. The relationship between its destructive capacity and effects on those who produce, are subject to, and must come to terms with its aftermath. Literary representations of WW I; destructive psychological effects of modern warfare including those who take pleasure in killing; changes in relations between the genders; consequences of genocidal ideology and racial prejudice; the theory of just war and its practical implementation; how wars end and commemorated.
Same as: HISTORY 204G, REES 304G

HISTORY 305. Graduate Pedagogy Workshop. 1 Unit.

Required of first-year History Ph.D. students. Perspectives on pedagogy for historians: course design, lecturing, leading discussion, evaluation of student learning, use of technology in teaching lectures and seminars. Addressing today's classroom: sexual harassment issues, integrating diversity, designing syllabi to include students with disabilities.

HISTORY 305C. Graduate Workshop Series. 1 Unit.

This is a 1-credit course for which only regular attendance is required, and graduate students may audit any or all of the sessions as they find useful. The majority of the course addresses questions of research, grant writing, and professionalization, while the last few sessions offer general guidance on preparing for the job market.

HISTORY 305K. The Age of Revolution: America, France, and Haiti. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 205K is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 305K is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) This course examines the "Age of Revolution," spanning the 18th and 19th centuries. Primarily, this course will focus on the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions (which overthrew both French and white planter rule). Taken together, these events reshaped definitions of citizenship, property, and government. But could republican principles-- color-blind in rhetoric-- be so in fact? Could nations be both republican and pro-slavery? Studying a wide range of primary materials, this course will explore the problem of revolution in an age of empires, globalization, and slavery.
Same as: AFRICAAM 205K, HISTORY 205K

HISTORY 305L. Prostitution & Sex Trafficking: Regulating Morality and the Status of Women. 4-5 Units.

Examines governmental policies toward prostitution from the late 19th century to the present. Focuses on the underlying attitudes, assumptions, strategies, and consequences of various historical and current legal frameworks regulating prostitution, including: prohibitionism, abolitionism, legalization, partial decriminalization, and full decriminalization. Special focus on these policies' effects on sex trafficking, sex worker rights, and the status of women. Emphasis on Europe and the U.S., with additional cases from across the globe.

HISTORY 306. Beyond Borders: Approaches to Transnational History. 4-5 Units.

This core colloquium for the Transnational, International, and Global (TIG) field will introduce students to the major historiographical trends, methodological challenges, and theoretical approaches to studying and writing transnational histories.

HISTORY 306A. City, Society, Literature- 19th Century Histories. 4 Units.

This course examines the rise of modern cities through an analysis of urban society and the imaginative literature of the 1800s.
Same as: HISTORY 206A, URBANST 106

HISTORY 306D. World History: Graduate Colloquium. 4 Units.

How do historians engage the global scale in the classroom as well as in research? The world history canon including Toynbee, McNeill, Braudel, Wolf, and Wallerstein; contrasting approaches, recent research, and resources for teaching. Recommended: concurrent enrollment in HISTORY 306K.

HISTORY 306F. Identities and Identification in the Atlantic World. 4-5 Units.

How identities and processes of identification changed in Europe, Africa, and the Americas during the early modern period and as a result of the engagement of the inhabitants of these three continents in the Atlantic world.

HISTORY 306G. Colonial Law. 4-5 Units.

Examines the relationship between law and colonialism in Latin America, Africa and Asia during both the early modern and the modern period. By reading some of the seminal works that have been published on this issue, we will seek to understand how law both facilitated and limited colonialism and how colonialism, in turn, had modified the legal systems that had existed previously. Attention will also be given to law an an acculturating agent and to the legal arena as a sphere for conflict resolution, negotiation,and identity formation.

HISTORY 306K. World History Pedagogy Workshop. 1 Unit.

Students draft a syllabus and create a curriculum module for use in a world history lecture course. Corequisite: HISTORY 306D, recommended.

HISTORY 307A. Legal History Workshop. 4-5 Units.

(Same as LAW 3516.) The Legal History Workshop is designed as a forum in which faculty and students from the Law School, the History Department, and elsewhere in the university can discuss some of the best work now being done in the field of legal history. Every other week, an invited speaker will present his or her current research for discussion. In the week prior to a given speaker's presentation, the class will meet as a group to discuss secondary literature relevant to understanding and critiquing the speaker's research. Students will then read the speaker's paper in advance of the following week's workshop presentation. Special Instructions: Students may choose to enroll in one of two sections of the course. In the first, students must write brief responses to each speaker's paper. There will be a total of four speakers, and thus four papers. Guidance will be provided concerning how to frame these response papers, which will be due every two weeks - i.e., on the day before speaker presents. In the second section, students must write a research paper on a legal history topic that they select in consultation with the professors. Enrollment will be limited to 30 students -- 20 from SLS who will be selected by lottery and 10 from H&S. Elements used in grading: Class participation, attendance, assignments and final paper.

HISTORY 307D. Transhistory Colloquium. 4-5 Units.

Colloquium on the history of transgender practices and identities. Readings will include scholarly texts from the emerging historical field of transhistory as well as adjacent fields within gender history. Colloquium will investigate avenues for deepening transhistory through further historical inquiry.
Same as: FEMGEN 207D, FEMGEN 307D, HISTORY 207D

HISTORY 307E. Totalitarianism. 4-5 Units.

This course analyzes the evolution and nature of revolutionary and totalitarian polities through the reading of monographs on the Puritan Reformation, French Revolutionary, turn of the 20th Century, interwar, and Second World War eras. Among topics explored are the essence of modern ideology and politics, the concept of the body national and social, the modern state, state terror, charismatic leadership, private and public spheres, totalitarian economies, and identities and practices in totalitarian polities.
Same as: HISTORY 204E

HISTORY 308. Biography and History. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between biographical and historical writing, primarily in Europe and America. Problems of methodology, evidence, dispassion, and empathy. Texts: biographies, critical literature on biographical work, and novels (A. S. Byatt's Possession, Bernard Malamud's Dubin's Lives) that illuminate the intellectual underpinnings of biographical labor.
Same as: HISTORY 207

HISTORY 308D. Pre-Modern Warfare. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the evolving nature of warfare and its impact on society across the Eurasian continent up to the Gunpowder Revolution and rise of the nation-state. Beginning with an attempt to define war, it will trace the evolution of military technology from the Stone Age through the rise of the chariot, the sword, and the mounted rider, and examine how changing methods of conducting warfare were inextricably linked to changes in the social order and political structures.
Same as: HISTORY 208D

HISTORY 309A. Postcolonialism and Universalism. 4-5 Units.

Key texts and motifs from postcolonial theory: empire, class, exile, suffering, textuality, archive in juxtaposition to 20th-century philosophical questions about universal history and the relevance of humanist inquiry.
Same as: HISTORY 209D

HISTORY 309B. The Idea of Politics. 4-5 Units.

Can we live without politics? Is politics indispensable for humanity and vice-versa? The idea of politics is that it must transform, through human action, conditions of collective life. But the 20th century produced colliding beliefs about what that life might be and what the human being itself might look like. Explore whether, after the century, we might still think of politics as an ethical idea and the "human" as foundational political category. Keywords: Civility, Cruelty, Friendship, Empire, Democracy, Humanism, Animals.
Same as: HISTORY 209B

HISTORY 309E. History Meets Geography. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on developing competence in GIS computer applications and applying it to historical problems. Previous experience with GIS not required. Recommended: complete the GIS tutorial in Branner Library before the course starts.

HISTORY 309F. Maps in the Early Modern World. 4-5 Units.

The significance of cartographic enterprise across the early modern world. Political, economic, and epistemological imperatives that drove the proliferation of nautical charts, domain surveys, city plans, atlases, and globes; the types of work such artifacts performed for their patrons, viewers, and subjects. Contributions of indigenous knowledge to imperial maps; the career of the map in commerce, surveillance, diplomacy, conquest, and indoctrination. Sources include recent research from Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
Same as: HISTORY 209F

HISTORY 309G. Paleography of Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts. 3-5 Units.

Introductory course in the history of writing and of the book, from the late antique period until the advent of printing. Opportunity to learn to read and interpret medieval manuscripts through hands-on examination of original materials in Special Collections of Stanford Libraries as well as through digital images. Offers critical training in the reading of manuscripts for students from departments as diverse as Classics, History, Philosophy, Religious Studies, English, and the Division of Languages Cultures and Literatures.
Same as: CLASSICS 215, DLCL 209, RELIGST 204

HISTORY 310. The History of Occupation, 1914-2010. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 210 is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 310 is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) Examines the major cases of occupation in the twentieth century, from the first World War until the present, and issues of similarities, differences, and implications for contemporary policy making. Topics include European and Asian cases emerging from World War I and World War II, the Israeli occupation of the West Bank; the Soviet and American occupations of Afghanistan; and the American occupation of Iraq. Discussions will revolve around the problems, efficacy, and effects of occupation in historical perspective.
Same as: HISTORY 210

HISTORY 311. Out of Eden: Deportation, Exile, and Expulsion from Antiquity to the Renaissance. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the long pedigree of modern deportations and mass expulsions, from the forced resettlements of the ancient world to the expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492, and from the outlawry of Saga-era Iceland to the culture of civic exile in Renaissance Italy. The course focuses on Europe and the Mediterranean from antiquity to the early modern period, but students are welcome to venture beyond these geographical and chronological boundaries for their final papers.
Same as: HISTORY 211

HISTORY 311A. Family, Gender, and Production in Ancient Rome. 4-5 Units.

Seminar. The household as the basic unit of production in Rome in the context of family relations and ideologies of gender. Methodological challenges of doing social and economic history from literary, epigraphic, and literary texts. Demography of family and kinship in ancient Rome. Ideologies of gender and family roles and their influence on economic production. Economic theories of the family and human capital.

HISTORY 311G. Big Ancient History. 4-5 Units.

How the shift away from thinking about European history in terms of a western civilization model toward embedding it in stories of how global history affects research and teaching on ancient Greece and Rome. Conventional, evolutionary, and global history narratives of the past 5,000 to 15,000 years and some new ideas about how Greco-Roman history might fit into different storylines.

HISTORY 313. Core Colloquium: Graduate Readings in Medieval History. 4-5 Units.

This course serves as a graduate-level introduction to major themes, problems, methods, and historiographical traditions in medieval European history.

HISTORY 313F. Medieval Germany, 900-1250. 1-5 Unit.

(Undergraduates may sign up for GERMAN 213 or HISTORY 213F, graduate students should sign up for GERMAN 313 or HISTORY 313F. This course may be taken for variable units. Check the individual course numbers for unit spreads.) This course will provide a survey of the most important political, historical, and cultural events and trends that took place in the German-speaking lands between 900 and 1250. Important themes include the evolution of imperial ideology and relations with Rome, expansion along the eastern frontier, the crusades, the investiture controversy, the rise of powerful cities and civic identities, monastic reform and intellectual renewal, and the flowering of vernacular literature.nnTo satisfy a Ways requirement, this course must be taken for at least 3 units. In AY 2020-21, a letter grade or "CR" grade satisfies the Ways requirement.
Same as: GERMAN 213, GERMAN 313, HISTORY 213F

HISTORY 315. Advanced Paleography. 5 Units.

This course will train students in the transcription and editing of original Medieval and Early Modern textual materials from c. 1000 to 1600, written principally in Latin and English (but other European languages are possible, too). Students will hone their archival skills, learning how to describe, read and present a range of manuscripts and single-leaf documents, before turning their hand to critical interpretation and editing. Students, who must already have experience of working with early archival materials, will focus on the full publication of one individual fragment or document as formal assessment.
Same as: CLASSICS 216, RELIGST 329X

HISTORY 315B. Race and Ethnicity in Premodern Europe. 3-5 Units.

How do historians, art historians, and literary historians of premodern Europe shape their research and their teaching around questions of race? How do current debates on race theory shape our perception of the past and deepen historical inquiry? This graduate colloquium focuses on the most recent publications on race in medieval and early modern studies to reflect on such questions while examining the challenges that race studies put on historical definitions, research methodologies, as well as teaching institutions.
Same as: ARTHIST 207D, ARTHIST 407D, HISTORY 215B

HISTORY 318C. Peace and War in Medieval Islam: From the Arab Conquests to the Crusades. 3-5 Units.

This course interrogates the theory and reality of war-making and peacemaking across the first millennium of Islamic history (c.600-c.1600 CE). We will examine major historical events (e.g. the struggle of the early community of Muslims against the pagan tribes of Arabia; Arab expansion and conquest during the seventh and eighth centuries; a sequence of civil wars, dynastic struggles, and schisms within Islam; and external invasions of the Islamic world by crusaders and steppe nomads, etc.). We will also investigate the development of major normative concepts across the Islamic tradition concerning peace and war (e.g. holy war; treaty- and truce-making; treatment of conquered enemies and prisoner; diplomacy with Muslims and non-Muslims, etc.). With respect to these concepts, we will attend especially to change over time and diversity across various sects. Mix of lecture and discussion. Readings will consist of both primary sources (in English translation) and modern scholarship. No previous experience with pre-modern or Islamic history required.
Same as: GLOBAL 190, GLOBAL 232, HISTORY 218C

HISTORY 319B. Secularity. 4-5 Units.

Classic theories of secularity. Is a secular world possible? How does, historically seen, the notion of the secular emerge, impose itself, and get challenged? Readings include Max Weber, E. Durkheim, R.A. Markus, Carl Schmitt, and Hans Blumenberg, and studies bearing on the Middle Ages, English monastic secularization, the French Revolution, and 20th-century political religions.

HISTORY 319C. Science, Technology, and Modernity in the Soviet Union. 5 Units.

Science and technology were integral to the Soviet claim to offer a vision of modernity superior to that of Western capitalism. Science and technology would flourish; society would develop on a scientific basis. The results were more complex than the vision. Topics to be covered: science and Marxism-Leninism; the Lysenko affair; the R&D system; the role of the secret police; the atomic project; the space race; missile development; Andrei Sakharov; technology and innovation.
Same as: HISTORY 219C

HISTORY 321A. State, Society and Nation in Modern Russian Historiography. 4-5 Units.

Main trends of Russian intellectual history as seen through major historians' treatment of Muscovy: Romanticism, Slavophilism, Hegelianism, Populism, Social Democracy, New Idealism, and Marxism-Leninism.

HISTORY 322A. Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe and Russia. 4-5 Units.

Explores criminal law in early modern Europe and Russia, ca 1500-1800, in law and in practice. Engages debates about use of exemplary public executions as tactic of governance, and about gradual decline in "violence" in Europe over this time. Explores practice of accusatory and inquisitory judicial procedures, judicial torture, forms of punishment, concepts of justice.
Same as: HISTORY 222

HISTORY 323. Art and Ideas in Imperial Russia. 4-5 Units.

Poetry, novels, symphonic music, theater, opera, painting, design, and architecture: what they reveal about the politics and culture of tsarist Russia.
Same as: HISTORY 223

HISTORY 323B. Research Methodologies in Early Modern Russian History. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 323E. Cities of Empire: An Urban Journey through Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean. 3-5 Units.

This course explores the cities of the Habsburg, Ottoman and Russian empires in the dynamic and turbulent period of their greatest transformation from the 19th century through the Two World Wars. Through the reading of urban biographies of Venice and Trieste, Vienna, Budapest, Cracow, Lviv, Sarajevo, Belgrade, Salonica, and Odessa, we consider broad historical trends of political, economic, and social modernization, urbanization, identity formation, imperialism, cosmopolitanism, and orientalism. As vibrant centers of coexistence and economic exchange, social and cultural borderlands, and sites of transgression, these cities provide an ideal lens through which to examine these themes in the context of transition from imperial to post-imperial space.
Same as: HISTORY 223E, REES 204, REES 304

HISTORY 324C. Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Traces the history of genocide in the 20th century and the question of humanitarian intervention to stop it, a topic that has been especially controversial since the end of the Cold War. The pre-1990s discussion begins with the Armenian genocide during the First World War and includes the Holocaust and Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s. Coverage of genocide and humanitarian intervention since the 1990s includes the wars in Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo, the Congo and Sudan.
Same as: HISTORY 224C, JEWISHST 284C, JEWISHST 384C, PEDS 224

HISTORY 324F. The Caucasus and the Muslim World. 4-5 Units.

The linkages connecting the societies of the Caucasus to Muslim communities in Iran, Russia, the Ottoman Empire and Turkey, S. Asia, and the Middle East.

HISTORY 325E. From Vladimir to Putin: Key Themes in Russian History. 4-5 Units.

Formative issues in Russian history from Muscovy to the present: autocracy and totalitarianism; tsars, emperors, and party secretaries; multi-ethnicity and nationalism; serfdom, peasantry; rebellions and revolutions, dissent and opposition; law and legality; public and private spheres; religion and atheism; patterns of collapse. Class format will be discussion of one to two assigned books or major articles per class.
Same as: HISTORY 225E, REES 225E

HISTORY 326A. Modern Europe: Society and Politics. 5 Units.

The goal of this course is to introduce graduate students to major works of history and literature in the field of nineteenth and early-twentieth century history. A colloquia will be given in tandem with a research seminar.

HISTORY 326C. Graduate Colloquium on Balkan History. 4-5 Units.

Designed for History Ph.D. students to develop competence in the history and historiography of the modern Balkans, from the French Revolution to the present. Areas of study include the influence of empires on the region, the rise of nationalism and nation states, the dilemmas of independence, the emergence and decline of communism in the region, and the recurrence of war and ethnic conflict.

HISTORY 326D. The Holocaust: Insights from New Research. 4-5 Units.

Overview of the history of the Holocaust, the genocide of European Jews. Explores its causes, course, consequences, and memory. Addresses the events themselves, as well as the roles of perpetrators and bystanders, dilemmas faced by victims, collaboration of local populations, and the issue of rescue. Considers how the Holocaust was and is remembered and commemorated by victims and participants alike. Uses different kinds of sources: scholarly work, memoirs, diaries, film, and primary documents.
Same as: CSRE 226D, CSRE 326D, HISTORY 226D, JEWISHST 226E, JEWISHST 326D

HISTORY 326E. Famine in the Modern World. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Examines the major famines of modern history, the controversies surrounding them, and the reasons that famine persists in our increasingly globalized world. Focus is on the relative importance of natural, economic, and political factors as causes of famine in the modern world. Case studies include the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s; the Bengal famine of 1943-44; the Soviet famines of 1921-22 and 1932-33; China's Great Famine of 1959-61; the Ethiopian famines of the 1970s and 80s, and the Somalia famines of the 1990s and of 2011.
Same as: HISTORY 226E, PEDS 226

HISTORY 327B. The Business of Socialism: Economic Life in Cold War Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students, enroll in 327B. Undergraduate students, enroll in 227B.) This colloquium investigates the processes of buying, making, and selling goods and services in Cold War Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. We will familiarize ourselves with a variety of approaches to writing the history of economic life and discuss to what extent they are applicable to state socialist systems. Our focus will not be on theories of socialism but on empirically grounded studies that allow for insights into how the system operated in practice and interacted with capitalism. We will, among others, explore the following questions: What was the role of the state in the economies east and west of the Iron Curtain? Are socialism and capitalism two incompatible systems? How did women experience and shape economic life after the Second World War? What had a greater impact on the economies of the region: Cold War politics or globalization?.

HISTORY 327D. All Quiet on the Eastern Front? East Europe and Russia in the First World War. 3-5 Units.

Until recently history has been comparatively quiet about the experience of World War I in the east. Far from being a peripheral theater of war, however, the experiences of war on the Eastern Front were central to shaping the 20th century. Not only was the first shot of the war fired in the east, it was also the site of the most dramatic political revolution. Using scholarly texts, literature and film, this course combines political, military, cultural and social approaches to introduce the causes, conduct and consequences of World War I with a focus on the experiences of soldiers and civilians on the Eastern Front. Topics include: the war of movement, occupation, extreme violence against civilians, the Armenian genocide, population exchanges, the Russian Revolution and civil war, and the disintegration of empires and rise of nation-states.
Same as: HISTORY 227D, REES 227, REES 327

HISTORY 328. Circles of Hell: Poland in World War II. 5 Units.

Looks at the experience and representation of Poland's wartime history from the Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939) to the aftermath of Yalta (1945). Examines Nazi and Soviet ideology and practice in Poland, as well as the ways Poles responded, resisted, and survived. Considers wartime relations among Polish citizens, particularly Poles and Jews. In this regard, interrogates the traditional self-characterization of Poles as innocent victims, looking at their relationship to the Holocaust, thus engaging in a passionate debate still raging in Polish society.
Same as: HISTORY 228, JEWISHST 282, JEWISHST 382

HISTORY 330. Core Colloquium on Early Modern Europe: Ancien Regime. 4-5 Units.

Topics in the social, political, and religious history of Western Europe, 1550-1789, with an emphasis on France. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 330A. Early Modern Colloquium. 4-5 Units.

Historiographical survey from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment. Topics include Renaissance, Reformation, European expansion, state and nation building, printing, military, and scientific revolutions, origins of Enlightenment. Designed to prepare students doing either a primary or secondary graduate field in early modern European history.

HISTORY 330D. Europe in the World, 1789-Present. 4-5 Units.

The European conquest of parts of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific by European merchants, missionaries, armies, and administrators had significant, and often cataclysmic, effects on indigenous political alliances, cultural practices, and belief systems. But were the effects of expansion entirely one-sided? What impact did the experiences of colonialism have on European politics, culture,and Europe's relations with the rest of the world? Explores how interaction between Europe and the rest of the world redefined the political, racial, sexual, and religious boundaries of both Europe and its colonies and gave rise to the more "globalized' society we live in today.
Same as: HISTORY 230D

HISTORY 331C. Modern European Core: The Twentieth Century. 4-5 Units.

The historiography of 20th-century Europe. Topics include WW I, the Russian Revolution, National Socialism, and the EU.

HISTORY 331D. Core Colloquium on Modern Europe: Intellectual History. 4-5 Units.

.

HISTORY 331E. Paper, Printing, and Digital Revolutions: Transformations of the Book. 4-5 Units.

What is a book? This seminar explores the conceptual implications of approximately two millennia of transformations in the physical and material properties of books. How have the meaning and authority we assign the written word changed as technologies of book production and dissemination have evolved, and how have they remained continuous? Topics covered include the rise of the medieval manuscript codex, the emergence of print culture in early modern Europe, and current debates over the nature of text in the digital age.
Same as: HISTORY 231E

HISTORY 331G. European Reformations. 3-5 Units.

Readings in and discussion of theological and social aspects of sixteenth century reformations: Luther, Radical Reform, Calvin, and Council of Trent, missionary expansion, religious conflict, creative and artistic expressions. Texts include primary sources and secondary scholarly essays and monographs.
Same as: HISTORY 231G, RELIGST 231, RELIGST 331

HISTORY 332B. Heretics, Prostitutes and Merchants: The Venetian Empire. 4-5 Units.

Between 1200-1600, Venice created a powerful empire at the boundary between East and West that controlled much of the Mediterranean, with a merchant society that allowed social groups, religions, and ethnicities to coexist. Topics include the features of Venetian society, the relationship between center and periphery, order and disorder, orthodoxy and heresy, the role of politics, art, and culture in the Venetian Renaissance, and the empire's decline as a political power and reinvention as a tourist site and living museum.
Same as: ITALIAN 332B

HISTORY 332G. Early Modern Cities. 4-5 Units.

Colloquium on the history of early modern European cities, covering urbanization, street life, neighborhoods, fortifications, guilds and confraternities, charity, vagrancy, and begging, public health, city-countryside relationship, urban constitutions, and confederations. Assignments include annotated bibliography, book review, and a final paper. Second-quarter continuation of research seminar available (HIST299S or HIST402).
Same as: HISTORY 232G

HISTORY 333. Reformation to Civil War: England under the Tudors and Stuarts. 4-5 Units.

English political and religious culture from the end of the Wars of the Roses to the Civil War of the 1640s. Themes include the growth of the size and power of the state, Reformation, creation of a Protestant regime, transformation of the political culture of the ruling elite, emergence of Puritanism, and causes of the Civil War. HISTORY 333 is a prerequisite for HISTORY 402 (Spring quarter).
Same as: HISTORY 233

HISTORY 333C. Two British Revolutions. 4-5 Units.

Current scholarship on Britain,1640-1700, focusing on political and religious history. Topics include: causes and consequences of the English civil war and revolution; rise and fall of revolutionary Puritanism; the Restoration; popular politics in the late 17th century; changing contours of religious life; the crisis leading to the Glorious Revolution; and the new order that emerged after the deposing of James II.
Same as: HISTORY 233C

HISTORY 333F. Political Thought in Early Modern Britain. 4-5 Units.

1500 to 1700. Theorists include Hobbes, Locke, Harrington, the Levellers, and lesser known writers and schools. Foundational ideas and problems underlying modern British and American political thought and life.
Same as: HISTORY 233F

HISTORY 333K. The Invention of the Modern Republic. 4-5 Units.

Examines the history of republican thinking in the Atlantic World from the Renaissance to the French Revolution.
Same as: HISTORY 233K

HISTORY 334F. Science, Technology, and Empire. 4-5 Units.

How modern Europe came to be connected to thennwider world through repeated cycles of expansion, circulation, andnnexchange from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Using weeklynnthemes and in-depth discussions of ¿watershed¿ moments, nnthe roles played by colonialism, migration, commerce, warfare,nntelecommunications, and popular culture in redefining the place ofnnEurope in a changing global landscape will be explored.

HISTORY 334P. The Age of Plague: Medicine and Society, 1300-1750. 4-5 Units.

(Graduates, enroll in 334P. Undergraduates, enroll in 234P.) The arrival of plague in Eurasia in 1347-51 affected many late medieval and early modern societies. It transformed their understanding of disease, raised questions about the efficacy of medical knowledge, and inspired new notions of public health. This class explores the history of medicine in the medieval Islamic and European worlds. Changing ideas about the body, the roles of different healers and religion in healing, the growth of hospitals and universities, and the evolution of medical theory and practice will be discussed. How did medicine and society change in the age of plague?.

HISTORY 334R. Risk and Credit Before Modern Finance. 1 Unit.

In today's world, credit scores are nearly as important as citizenship. Creditworthiness is measured in numbers, but is also bound up with moral qualities. To lack credit is to be on the margins of society, and vice versa. How did we get here? How did lenders mitigate risks before credit scores were available? Where do the risk management tools of modern finance come from? How did merchants trade over long distances when information technology was extremely poor? This one-unit course will address these pressing questions from a historical perspective, starting from the modern U.S. and reaching back in time to the Middle Ages. Classroom discussions and readings include articles written by historians and social scientists, as well as primary sources in English translation.
Same as: HISTORY 234R

HISTORY 335. The Renaissance of War: Politics, Technology, and War in Late Medieval and Renaissance Italy. 4-5 Units.

The dynamic societies of the Italian Peninsula of the 14th to 16th centuries "prosperous, astonishingly creative, politically fractious, and endemically violent" produced sweeping, deeply consequential changes. Among these were new developments in the theory and practice of war, politics, and diplomacy that laid the foundations for the modern state system and European military power. The class covers: new diplomatic practice; the Military Revolution; state-building; war finance; court culture; and the intersection of these with the shimmering brilliance of Renaissance culture.

HISTORY 335C. Readings in the Supernatural. 4-5 Units.

Class will read and discuss a selection of monographs, scholarly essays, and primary sources on the rich supernatural world of early modern Europe. We will discuss how fairies, werewolves, nightmares, and trolls all became witches, how the binary of angels and demons figured in European thought, and how the marginalized imaginary was reconstituted in theatre and fiction.
Same as: HISTORY 235C

HISTORY 335D. When Worlds Collide: The Trial of Galileo. 4-5 Units.

In 1633, the Italian mathematician Galileo was tried and condemned for advocating that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the cosmos. The Catholic Church did not formally admit that Galileo was right until 1992. Examines the many factors that led to the trial of Galileo and looks at multiple perspectives on this signal event in the history of science and religion. Considers the nature and definition of intellectual heresy in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and examines the writings of Galileo's infamous predecessor Giordano Bruno (burned at the stake in 1600). Looks closely at documents surrounding the trial and related literature on Renaissance and Reformation Italy in order to understand the perspectives of various participants in this famous event. Focal point of seminar involves the examination of the many different histories that can be produced from Galileo's trial. What, in the end, were the crimes of Galileo?.
Same as: HISTORY 235D, ITALIAN 233, ITALIAN 333

HISTORY 335J. The Meaning of Life: Modern European Encounters with Consequential Questions. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 235J is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 335J is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) Across two centuries of social, political, and religious upheaval and transformation, modern Europeans confronted a series of interconnected ¿big questions¿: What is humanity¿s relationship with deity? Where does life, including human life, come from, and where is it going? What considerations should shape human beings¿ relationships with, and actions toward, one another? What is socially and morally acceptable¿or transgressive? Is there life after death, and a spiritual realm distinct from the material world? Through case studies in the history of religion, evolutionary thought, gender and sexuality, and the aims and ends of empire, this course will examine European engagement with these questions across the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (with some background in earlier periods), paying attention to the ways in which the questions people asked¿and the conclusions they drew¿were shaped by social, religious, and political institutions and structures.

HISTORY 335L. Alien Imaginations: Extraterrestrial Speculations in Modern European History. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 235L is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 335L is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) This course will examine the historical basis and evolution of modern European beliefs concerning the existence and nature of alien life throughout the universe, and the ways in which these imagined alien beings have historically reflected an interplay of social, religious, political, and scientific assumptions, hopes, fears, and preoccupations. We will explore the relationship between belief in extraterrestrial life and historical themes and episodes in European history including the debate over heliocentrism, deism and freethought, theories of life and of human nature, changing concepts of national identity, and the intertwined histories of immigration, colonialism, race, and gender. We will particularly examine how and why concepts of the alien took a dark and sinister turn across the late nineteenth- and early-to-mid-twentieth centuries.

HISTORY 336. Modern France. 4-5 Units.

(Daughton).

HISTORY 336E. Humanities+Design: Visualizing the Grand Tour. 4-5 Units.

Study of the eighteenth-century Grand Tour of Italy through visualization tools of the digital age. Critical readings in both visual epistemology and current Grand Tour studies; interrogating the relationship between quantitative and qualitative approaches in digital humanities; what new insights in eighteenth-century British travel to Italy does data visualization offer us? Students will transform traditional texts and documents into digital datasets, developing individual data analysis projects using text mining, data capture and visualization techniques.
Same as: CLASSICS 396, DLCL 396

HISTORY 336F. The End of the World As They Knew It: Culture, Cafés, and Crisis in Europe, 1880-1918. 4-5 Units.

The years stretching from roughly 1880 to end of the First World War were marked by profound social upheaval and an intense burst of creativity. This seminar will focus on the major cultural movements and big ideas of the period. Topics covered include the rise of mass culture and cinema, the origins of psychoanalysis, anti-Semitism and Zionism, new anxieties about sexuality and the ¿New Woman,¿ anarchism, decadence, degeneration, and Dada ¿ with cameos from Bernhardt, Freud, Klimt, Nietzsche, Toulouse-Lautrec, Wilde, Zola, and other luminaries of the age.
Same as: HISTORY 236F

HISTORY 336J. A Tour of Dangerous Ideas: Radical Thinkers in Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

In this course we will examine ideas radical to their context in modern European thought, paying close attention to what it has meant to explain features of society, government, and politics in terms of power. What is power? What is human nature, and do all humans possess natural rights? How is human identity interwoven with the practice of power? What makes an idea radical? We will examine these and other questions through close readings of seven thinkers whose ideas shaped the modern period: John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Mary Wollstonecraft, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, C.L.R. James, and Michel Foucault.
Same as: HISTORY 236J

HISTORY 337C. Street History: Learning the Past in School and Out. 3-5 Units.

Interdisciplinary. Since Herodotus, history and memory have competed to shape minds: history cultivates doubt and demands interpretation; memory seeks certainty and detests that which thwarts its aims. History and memory collide in modern society, often violently. How do young people become historical amidst these forces; how do school, family, nation, and mass media contribute to the process?.
Same as: EDUC 356

HISTORY 337D. The French Revolution and the Birth of Modern Politics. 4-5 Units.

(Students who have taken HISTORY 134 should not enroll in this course.) This course will focus on the birth of modern politics in the French Revolution. The goal will be to understand the structural contradictions of the French monarchy in the pre-revolutionary period, the reasons for the monarchy's failure to resolve those contradictions, and the political dynamic unleashed as they were solved by the revolutionary action of 1789. Sovereignty, democracy, rights, representation, and terror will be principal themes. Lectures will be combined with close reading and discussions of political and philosophical writings of the period.
Same as: HISTORY 237D

HISTORY 337F. 20th Century British History through the Hoover Archives. 4-5 Units.

From the rich resources of the Hoover Institution, the students in this course will select a particular archive (war posters, politician, spy, literary figure, diplomat, etc. etc.) to investigate, to write about,discuss in class, and, it is hoped, present in an exhibition at the Hoover, learning museum skills along the way as well as the history of Britain in the 20th century.
Same as: HISTORY 237F

HISTORY 338A. Graduate Colloquium in Modern British History, Part I. 4-5 Units.

Influential approaches to problems in British, European, and imperial history. The 19th-century British experience and its relationship to Europe and empire. National identity, the industrial revolution, class formation, gender, liberalism, and state building. Goal is to prepare specialists and non-specialists for oral exams.

HISTORY 338B. MODERN BRITISH HISTORY PART II. 4-5 Units.

Themes include empire and racism, the crisis of liberalism, the rise of the welfare state, national identity, the experience of total war, the politics of decline, and modernity and British culture.

HISTORY 338G. Ethnography of the Late Middle Ages: Social history and popular culture in the age of the plague. 4-5 Units.

During the late Middle Ages, as Europe was recovering from the devastation of the Black Death, political reorganization contributed to a burst of archival documentation that allows historians richly detailed glimpses of societies in transition. We will be reading selected scholarly articles and monographs covering such topics as persecution, prechristian cultural remnants, folk theologies, festival cultures, peasant revolts, heresy, and the advent of the diabolic witch.
Same as: HISTORY 238G

HISTORY 338J. The European Scramble for Africa: Origins and Debates. 4-5 Units.

Why and how did Europeans claim control of 70% of African in the late nineteenth century? Students will engage with historiographical debates ranging from the national (e.g. British) to the topical (e.g. international law). Students will interrogate some of the primary sources on which debaters have rested their arguments. Key discussions include: the British occupation of Egypt; the autonomy of French colonial policy; the mystery of Germany¿s colonial entry; and, not least, the notorious Berlin Conference of 1884-1885.
Same as: AFRICAAM 238J, HISTORY 238J

HISTORY 339F. Empire and Information. 4-5 Units.

How do states see? How do they know what they know about their subjects, citizens, economies, and geographies? How does that knowledge shape society, politics, identity, freedom, and modernity? Focus is on the British imperial state activities in S. Asia and Britain: surveillance technologies and information-gathering systems, including mapping, statistics, cultural schemata, and intelligence systems, to render geographies and social bodies legible, visible, and governable.
Same as: HISTORY 239F

HISTORY 339H. Modern European History in a Global Age. 4-5 Units.

How scholars can write the history of modern Europe in a way that integrates global and transnational perspectives. Discussed the methodological challenges and merits of various approaches and reviews relevant theoretical and interdisciplinary models for how this can best be done. Topics include globalization, migration, internationalism, colonialism, post-colonialism, modern warfare, and the media.

HISTORY 339J. Work and Leisure in Nineteenth Century Britain. 4-5 Units.

This course charts the changes wrought by the Industrial Revolution, empire, and social factors in Britons' lives at work and at home in the nineteenth century. Readings will explore trade unionism and Chartism, urban migration, consumer culture, print culture, organized sports, shows, rational leisure" and the development of exhibitions and public museums. Students will gain a sense of how Britons worked and played in a century that gave birth to pastimes and institutions that continue to shape our own.
Same as: HISTORY 239J

HISTORY 339K. Sex, Death, and God in Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

In the midst of social and political upheaval and transformation, people in modern Europe have grappled with central questions of human existence. What place does humanity occupy in the universe and in relation to God? How does life begin, and under what circumstances? What gives life its meaning? What is socially and morally acceptable--or transgressive? Is there life after death, and a spiritual realm distinct from the material world? This course will examine answers to these questions across the late eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries, and the ways in which the questions people asked--and the conclusions they drew--were shaped by social, political, and religious assumptions, hopes, and fears.
Same as: HISTORY 239K

HISTORY 340. The History of Evolution. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the history of evolutionary biology from its emergence around the middle of the eighteenth century. We will consider the continual engagement of evolutionary theories of life with a larger, transforming context: philosophical, political, social, economic, institutional, aesthetic, artistic, literary. Our goal will be to achieve a historical rich and nuanced understanding of how evolutionary thinking about life has developed to its current form.
Same as: HISTORY 240

HISTORY 341C. History of Suggestion and Mind Control. 4-5 Units.

This course traces the history of suggestion and hypnosis from the birth of mesmerism in the late 18th-century to Cold War controversies over brainwashing, and recent debates on global terrorism and the ethics of technology. Born during the Age of Revolutions, the therapeutic system of mesmerism was quickly pushed to the margins of scientific practice as it was elaborated in the 19th-century but nonetheless remained a key determinant of human experience, politics, social relations, and medical practice. While reading secondary and primary texts, we will follow the evolution of various theories of trance and hypnotic induction alongside the development of scientific approaches to psychology in the West and the non-West to unravel the complex relationship between politics, social reform, labor, international relations, espionage, and indoctrination, and practices of suggestion and mind control.

HISTORY 342. Darwin in the History of Life. 4-5 Units.

Origins and impact of evolutionary theory from the nineteenth century to the present. Early theories of fossils, the discovery of deep time and uniformitarian geology, debates over evolution vs. extinction, the origin of life, and human origins; the rise of anthropology and racial theory; the changing challenge of creationism, the abuse of evolution in eugenics and Nazi racial hygiene; and new discoveries in the realm of extreme life, evo-devo, neocatastrophism, and the new technological frontier of biomimicry. Attendance at the lectures of HISTORY 142 is required.

HISTORY 342G. Spaces and Practices of Natural History. 4-5 Units.

Gentleman scientists once practiced natural history by studying specimens collected from around the world, stored in cabinets of curiosity. From the 17th to 19th centuries, natural history moved out of the cabinet and into the field; these environments required new ways of thinking and different types of scientific workers. This course will track how new spaces, practices, and people became associated with natural history and explore how they shaped the content of the field and the social contours of science.
Same as: HISTORY 242G

HISTORY 342J. London Low Life in the Nineteenth Century. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 242J is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 342J is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) London began the nineteenth century as a city of one million, but was home to over six million people by the century's end. How did Londoners in the nineteenth century respond to the challenges and temptations of life in a growing metropolis? How did government and reformers try to influence and control city dwellers' behavior? This class seeks to answer these questions by exploring life in Britain's capital in the nineteenth century, using the digital database ¿London Low Life¿ as a guide. Contemporary street literature, night-life guides, pamphlets, broadsides, images, reformer's tracts, and public-interest journalism are some of the sources that will give us a window into vice, virtue, and daily life in London during a period of great uncertainty and change.

HISTORY 343C. People, Plants, and Medicine: Colonial Science and Medicine. 4-5 Units.

Explores the global exchange of knowledge, technologies, plants, peoples, disease, and medicines. Considers primarily Africans, Amerindians, and Europeans in the eighteenth-century West but also takes examples from other knowledge traditions. Readings treat science and medicine in relation to voyaging, colonialism, slavery, racism, plants, and environmental exchange. Colonial sciences and medicines were important militarily and strategically for positioning emerging nation states in global struggles for land and resources.
Same as: HISTORY 243C

HISTORY 343G. Tobacco and Health in World History. 4-5 Units.

Cigarettes are the world's leading cause of death--but how did we come into this world, where 6 trillion cigarettes are smoked every year? Here we explore the political, cultural, and technological origins of the cigarette and cigarette epidemic, using the tobacco industry's 80 million pages of secret documents. Topics include the history of cigarette advertising and cigarette design, the role of the tobacco industry in fomenting climate change denial, and questions raised by the testimony of experts in court.
Same as: HISTORY 243G

HISTORY 344. Narrative Knowing. 1-2 Unit.

Philosophers and historians have been debating the status of narrative explanation for well over 50 years. Until quite recently, a supposed dichotomy between natural science and history has shaped the discussion. Beginning from the origins, history, and limitations of the dichotomy, this seminar will explore how claims for narrative understanding and explanation have come to occupy an increasingly important role in the natural sciences as well as the social sciences. Some classic contributors are Hempel, Danto, Mink, Kuhn, White, Ricouer, Geertz, and Ginzburg. Current authors include Roth, Rheinberger, Kitcher, Beatty, Morgan, and (yes) Wise.
Same as: PHIL 344

HISTORY 344F. Intersectional Design: An Expanded Approach to Gender in Tech. 4-5 Units.

This d-school seminar prototypes concepts and methods for "inclusive" design. From the moment we arrive on the planet, gender shapes our perception of the world. Examples of products (including objects, services, and systems) gone awry will serve as prompts for design activities, challenges, and discussions on gender issues to illustrate the different needs of women, men, and gender-fluid people. Class sessions mix use case explorations with design methodology, design thinking abilities, and guest speakers from technology, design, and academia. Students will be asked to work in interdisciplinary teams on several design challenges, culminating in the development of a toolkit for inclusive design. Methods will interact in crucial ways to create "intersectional thinking" (i.e., to consider how gender, ethnicity, sexuality, socio-economic status, etc. work together to require new solutions in design). Topics include: algorithms, media, seat belts for pregnant women, robotics, assistive technologies, tech for developing worlds, video games, urban/rural design, software development, and many more. Admission by application only. Visit d.school.stanford.edu/classes for more information.
Same as: FEMGEN 344F, HISTORY 244F

HISTORY 345A. Africa in the Era of the Slave Trade. 4-5 Units.

The slave trade, including the trans-Saharan, Indian Ocean, and trans-Atlantic trades, constituted nearly a millennium of interaction with the wider world and set in motion transformations in African societies, polities, and cultures. Topics include the debates about slavery in Africa, the impact of the slave trade on African societies, state formation, economic change, religious change, and household change in the period before the scramble for Africa in the late 19th century.

HISTORY 345B. African Encounters with Colonialism. 4-5 Units.

This colloquium is a broad sweep of some of the main themes in the history of the colonial period for Africa. A course of this nature can not help but be a selective sample of the field. For example, topics on the end of slavery in Africa, on the social history of law in colonial Africa, Islam and religious conversion, nationalism and decolonization are not included here because they are covered by more specialized courses. This course is designed to let students sample different approaches to the history of the colonial period.

HISTORY 346F. Women in African history, Gender in Herstory. 4-5 Units.

The history of African nationalism throughout the twentieth century is still largely the history of male leaders. With few prominent exceptions, the stories of influential women who participated in politics are largely untold. This course argues for the case of women within the canon of transformative African leaders. Prominent women did exist, and they made significant contributions to their countries¿ political cultures. We will focus on female political and community activists, on religious leaders, on scholars and on writers.

HISTORY 348. Religion, Radicalization and Media in Africa since 1945. 4-5 Units.

What are the paths to religious radicalization, and what role have media- new and old- played in these conversion journeys? We examine how Pentecostal Christians and Reformist Muslims in countries such as South Africa, Nigeria, Sudan, and Ethiopia have used multiple media forms- newspapers, cell phones, TV, radio, and the internet- to gain new converts, contest the authority of colonial and post-colonial states, construct transnational communities, and position themselves as key political players.
Same as: AFRICAST 248, AFRICAST 348, HISTORY 248, RELIGST 230X, RELIGST 330X

HISTORY 348D. Law and Colonialism in Africa. 4-5 Units.

Law in colonial Africa provides an opportunity to examine the meanings of social, cultural, and economic change in the anthropological, legal, and historical approaches. Court cases as a new frontier for the social history of Africa. Topics: meanings of conflicts over marriage, divorce, inheritance, property, and authority.
Same as: HISTORY 245G

HISTORY 349. Bodies, Technologies, and Natures in Africa. 4-5 Units.

This interdisciplinary course explores how modern African histories, bodies, and natures have been entangled with technological activities. Viewing Africans as experts and innovators, we consider how technologies have mediated, represented, or performed power in African societies. Topics include infrastructure, extraction, medicine, weapons, communications, sanitation, and more. Themes woven through the course include citizenship, mobility, labor, bricolage, in/formal economies, and technopolitical geographies, among others. Readings draw from history, anthropology, geography, and social/cultural theory.
Same as: AFRICAST 249, ANTHRO 348B

HISTORY 349A. The Mamluks: Slave-Soldiers and Sultans of Medieval Egypt. 3-5 Units.

Known as ghulam or mamluk in Arabic, the slave-soldier was a ubiquitous phenomenon in the world of medieval Islam. Usually pagan steppe nomads, mamluks were purchased in adolescence, converted to Islam, taught Arabic, and trained to lead armies. Sometimes manumitted and sometimes not, in either case mamluks rose to positions of privilege and prominence in numerous regimes in the medieval Middle East.nnNowhere was the mamluk institution so fundamental as it was in Egypt between 1250 and 1517 CE, when Cairo was ruled by these slave-soldiers, their ranks constantly renewed by imports of new mamluks from the Black Sea and Caucuses. Born in the age of the crusades and ultimately conquered by the Ottoman Empire, the Mamluk Sultanate can be understood as a bridge between the worlds of medieval and early modern Islam, as well as between East and West, sitting astride the major Nile-Red Sea route that linked the Mediterranean world to that of the Indian Ocean and beyond. This class will investigate the rise and fall of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt and its key roles in the commercial, diplomatic, and political history both of the medieval Middle East and the wider world.
Same as: GLOBAL 102, GLOBAL 210, HISTORY 249

HISTORY 351A. Core in American History, Part I. 4-5 Units.

May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 351B. Core in American History, Part II. 4-5 Units.

.

HISTORY 351C. Core in American History, Part III. 4-5 Units.

.

HISTORY 351D. Core in American History, Part IV. 4-5 Units.

May be repeated once for credit.

HISTORY 351E. Core in American History, Part V. 4-5 Units.

Required of all first-year United States History Ph.D. students. Topics in Twentieth Century United States History.

HISTORY 351F. Core in American History, Part VI. 4-5 Units.

Required of all first-year Ph.D. students in U.S. History.

HISTORY 351J. The End of American Slavery, 1776-1865. 4-5 Units.

How did the institution of American slavery come to an end? The story is more complex than most people know. This course examines the rival forces that fostered slavery's simultaneous contraction in the North and expansion in the South between 1776 and 1861. It also illuminates, in detail, the final tortuous path to abolition during the Civil War. Throughout, the course introduces a diverse collection of historical figures, including seemingly paradoxical ones, such as slaveholding southerners who professed opposition to slavery and non-slaveholding northerners who acted in ways that preserved it. Historical attitudes toward race are a central integrative theme.
Same as: AFRICAAM 251J, AMSTUD 251J, HISTORY 251J

HISTORY 352B. History of American Law. 5 Units.

(Formerly Law 318. Now Law 3504.) This course examines the growth and development of American legal institutions with particular attention to crime and punishment, slavery and race relations, the role of law in developing the economy, and the place of lawyers in American society, from colonial times to the present. Special Instructions: Any student may write a paper in lieu of the final exam with consent of instructor. After the term begins, students accepted into the course can transfer from section (01) into section (02), which meets the R requirement, with consent of the instructor. Elements used in grading: Final exam or paper. Automatic grading penalty waived for writers. Cross-listed with History (HISTORY 152 Consent of instructor required) & (HISTORY 352B).
Same as: HISTORY 152

HISTORY 353D. Approaches to American Legal History. 4-5 Units.

(Same as LAW 651.) Legal history may once have been primarily devoted to exploring legal doctrines and key judicial opinions, and thus to be of interest mainly to legal scholars and lawyers. Now, the best writing in legal history resembles historical writing more generally, and the study of legal ideas and practices is increasingly integrated with social, intellectual, cultural, and political history. Examines recent writings in American legal history, ranging broadly across time and space to ask how the field reflects developments in historical writing more generally, and how the use of legal materials affects our understanding of major aspects of American history.

HISTORY 353F. Thinking the American Revolution. 4-5 Units.

No period in American history has generated as much creative political thinking as the era of the American Revolution. This course explores the origins and development of that thought from the onset of the dispute between Great Britain and its American colonies over liberty and governance through the debates surrounding the construction and implementation of the United States federal Constitution.
Same as: HISTORY 253F

HISTORY 354D. Religion and War in America. 4 Units.

Scholars have devoted much attention to wars in American history, but have not agreed as to whether religion was a major cause or simply a cover for political, economic, and other motives. We will compare interpretations that leave religion out, with those that take it into account. We will also look at the impact of war on the religious lives of ordinary Americans. We will examine both secondary as well as primary sources, beginning with King Philip's War in the 17th century, and ending with the "War on Terror" in the present day.
Same as: AMSTUD 105R, CSRE 105, HISTORY 254D, RELIGST 105

HISTORY 354F. Law and Empire in U.S. History. 2-3 Units.

(Same as LAW 3506. Instructor consent required for HISTORY 354F.) This course will examine the interrelationship between legal norms and empire in the history of the United States. Topics in this part will include the Constitution as an imperial document; law and the expansion of the United States in western North America, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii; the Insular Cases; and current debates over extraterritoriality and the War on Terror. Substantial readings will consist of scholarly articles, historical cases, and primary sources, and will be provided online. Requirements for the course include regular class participation and, at the students' election, either response papers or a historiographical essay. Students may also elect to complete a research paper, in which case they will receive 3 units and "R" credit.

HISTORY 356E. The American Civil War: The Lived Experience. 4-5 Units.

What was it like to live in the United States during the Civil War? This course uses the lenses of racial/ethnic identity, gender, class, and geography (among others) to explore the breadth of human experience during this singular moment in American history. It illuminates the varied ways in which Americans, in the Union states and the Confederate states, struggled to move forward and to find meaning in the face of unprecedented division and destruction.

HISTORY 356G. Constructing Race and Religion in America. 4-5 Units.

This seminar focuses on the interrelationships between social constructions of race and social interpretations of religion in America. How have assumptions about race shaped religious worldviews? How have religious beliefs shaped racial attitudes? How have ideas about religion and race contributed to notions of what it means to be "American"? We will look at primary and secondary sources and at the historical development of ideas and practices over time.
Same as: AFRICAAM 236, AMSTUD 246, CSRE 246, HISTORY 256G, RELIGST 246, RELIGST 346

HISTORY 357E. History of Conservatism. 4-5 Units.

What is conservatism in America? Where did it come from, and where might it be going? Looking at conservatism as a political, social, and intellectual movement, we will consider these questions by reading primary and secondary sources and archival material. Suitable for students of any or no particular political persuasion. No prerequisites or background required, although the reading will be considerable.
Same as: HISTORY 257E

HISTORY 358. History of Sexual Violence in America. 4-5 Units.

This undergraduate/graduate colloquium explores the history of sexual violence in America, with particular attention to the intersections of gender and race in the construction of rape. We discuss the changing definitions of sexual violence in law and in cultural representations from early settlement through the late-twentieth century, including slavery, wartime and prison rape, the history of lynching and anti-lynching movements, and feminist responses to sexual violence. In addition to introducing students to the literature on sexual violence, the course attempts to teach critical skills in the analysis of secondary and primary historical texts. Students write short weekly reading responses and a final paper; no final exam; fifth unit research or CEL options.nnLimited enrollment, permission of instructor required. Submit application form and indicate interest in CEL option. Priority admission to History, FGSS, CSRE, AFRICAAM, and AMSTUD declared majors and minors. (Cardinal Course certified by the Haas Center).
Same as: AFRICAAM 192, AMSTUD 258, CSRE 192E, FEMGEN 258, FEMGEN 358, HISTORY 258

HISTORY 359E. American Interventions, 1898-Present. 5 Units.

This class seeks to examine the modern American experience with limited wars, beginning with distant and yet pertinent cases, and culminating in the war in Iraq. Although this class will examine war as a consequence of foreign policy, it will not focus primarily on presidential decision making. Rather, it will place wartime policy in a broader frame, considering it alongside popular and media perceptions of the war, the efforts of antiwar movements, civil-military relations, civil reconstruction efforts, and conditions on the battlefield. We will also examine, when possible, the postwar experience.
Same as: HISTORY 259E, INTNLREL 168A

HISTORY 360P. American Protest Movements, Past and Present. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 260P is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 360P is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) Societal change comes only when individuals and groups speak out, perseverantly, against prevailing norms. This course examines the overlapping histories of three nineteenth-century protest movements: antislavery, women¿s rights, and temperance. It focuses on the arguments and tactics used by these movements to persuade Americans to oppose the status quo, and it examines the points of agreement and disagreement that arose within and among these movements. Ultimately, the course connects these past protest movements to more recent analogs, such as Black Lives Matter, ERA ratification, and marijuana legalization. Throughout the course, race, gender, and class serve as central analytical themes.

HISTORY 361D. History of Civil Rights Law. 5 Units.

(Same as LAW 7838.) This is a seminar that will examine canonical civil rights law using history. We will investigate the historical context behind the enactment of particular laws and judicial decisions. We will also discuss the meaning and implications of the term "civil rights law." Readings will include cases, law review articles, primary sources, and history articles. Topics will include segregation, abortion, workers' rights, and disability. 14th Amendment is not a prerequisite for the seminar. Requirements for the course include regular class participation and, at the students' election, either response papers or a historiographical essay. Elements used in grading: Attendance, Class Participation, Written Assignments, Final Paper. CONSENT APPLICATION: To apply for this course, students must complete and submit a Consent Application Form available on the SLS website (Click Courses at the bottom of the homepage and then click Consent of Instructor Forms). See Consent Application Form for instructions and submission deadline.

HISTORY 362G. The Pivotal Decade in U.S. History: 1960's or 1970's?. 4-5 Units.

Which had more lasting impact, the civil war of the 1960s or the conservative revolt of the 1970s? Should the 1970s supersede the 1960s as a pivotal moment when something happened of considerable importance to historians? Considers this debate of the decades comparatively and thematically, addressing topics including civil rights, foreign policy, electoral politics, popular culture, law, economics, labor, and social movement organizing.

HISTORY 364. History of Prisons and Immigration Detention. 4-5 Units.

This course will explore the history of the growing prison and immigration detention systems in the United States. They will pay particular attention to how they developed and how they affect different populations.
Same as: AMSTUD 264, CSRE 264, HISTORY 264

HISTORY 366B. Immigration Debates in America, Past and Present. 3-5 Units.

Examines the ways in which the immigration of people from around the world and migration within the United States shaped American nation-building and ideas about national identity in the twentieth century. Focuses on how conflicting ideas about race, gender, ethnicity, and citizenship with respect to particular groups led to policies both of exclusion and integration. Part One begins with the ways in which the American views of race and citizenship in the colonial period through the post-Reconstruction Era led to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 and subsequently to broader exclusions of immigrants from other parts of Asia, Southern and Eastern Europe, and Mexico. Explores how World War II and the Cold War challenged racial ideologies and led to policies of increasing liberalization culminating in the passage of the 1965 Immigration Act, which eliminated quotas based on national origins and opened the door for new waves of immigrants, especially from Asia and Latin America. Part Two considers new immigration patterns after 1965, including those of refugees, and investigates the contemporary debate over immigration and immigration policy in the post 9/11 era as well as inequalities within the system and the impact of foreign policy on exclusions and inclusions.
Same as: CSRE 166B, HISTORY 166B

HISTORY 369F. Modern American History: From Civil Rights to Human Rights. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 269F is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 369F is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) This focuses on American social justice movements during the years since the passage of landmark civil rights legislation during the 1960s, with particular emphasis on efforts to extend rights to all people.
Same as: HISTORY 269F

HISTORY 370. Graduate Colloquium on Colonial Latin American History. 4-5 Units.

Sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. Indigenous cultures. The arrival of Europeans and its impact on native and European societies. Culture, religion and institutions, and everyday life. The independence period and the formation of new nations.

HISTORY 370E. Queer History of the Americas. 4-5 Units.

This course will examine LGBT history in the Americas. It traces the development of homosexuality as a category of analysis; the construction of trans identity; the ways in which same-sex desire and gender identity were regulated over time; and queer people's struggles for recognition, liberation, and, ultimately, rights.
Same as: HISTORY 270E

HISTORY 371. Graduate Colloquium: Explorations in Latin American History and Historiography. 4-5 Units.

Introduction to modern Latin American history and historiography, including how to read and use primary sources for independent research.
Same as: ILAC 371

HISTORY 372A. Mexico: From Colony to Nation or the History of an Impossible Republic?. 5 Units.

Was a republican form of government even possible in 19th-century Mexico after 300 years of colonial rule under the Spanish monarchy? Was the Spanish colonial heritage a positive or a negative legacy according to 19th-century Mexican politicians? How were they to forge a new national identity with so many ethnically and culturally diverse peoples throughout the territory? Just how ¿traditional¿ was, in fact, the colonial period? These are some of the questions we will explore in this course. Journeying from the late colonial period (c.1700) to the 35-year dictatorship known as El Porfiriato (1876-1911) we will examine how Mexico¿s diverse indigenous peoples adapted to both colonial and postcolonial rule, how they actively participated in politics and political discourse to preserve their cultures, customs and colonial privileges, and how after independence in 1821, a new republican political culture was forged. Mexico was not an impossible republic, but rather another kind of republic.

HISTORY 372B. Colonial Mexico: Images and Power. 3-5 Units.

How did images maintain, construct, or transform political power during the conquest and colonization of Mexico? The creation and destruction of visual materials in this period had a complicated relationship with power. The pictographic codices that celebrated the expansive Aztec Empire were created after its fall; and the conquistadors' indigenous allies painted some of the most triumphalist narratives of the conquest. Friars accused indigenous peoples of "idolatry" both to justify the destruction of their images and objects, and to construct legal defenses of their humanity. Colonial authorities frequently claimed Afro-Catholic festivals were seditious. In light of such complexity, official histories that recount the top-down consolidation of royal and viceroyal power are suspiciously simple. What counter-narratives do images and other visual phenomena from this tumultuous period offer? This course introduces students to major texts from Colonial Mexico (royal chronicles, conquistadors' tales, letters, poems, festival accounts) alongside a fascinating trove of images (painted codices with Nahuatl texts, feather mosaics, and indigenous heraldry) and considers how experiences of images and spectacles were transformed into textual accounts ("ekphrasis" or the literary device of description). Taught in Spanish.
Same as: HISTORY 272, ILAC 214, ILAC 314

HISTORY 373A. The European Expansion. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between European monarchies and their colonial domains from the 16th-18th centuries. Reasons for expansion, methods, and results. Case studies include the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English domains in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Readings include primary and secondary sources.
Same as: HISTORY 273

HISTORY 373E. The Emergence of Nations in Latin America: Independence Through 1880. 4-5 Units.

This course provides an introduction to the main themes of nineteenth-century Latin American history, including independence from Spain, the emergence of various nation-states, and the development of a new social, political, and economic order in the region.
Same as: HISTORY 273E

HISTORY 374. Mexico Since 1876: History of a "Failed State"?. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 174.) This course is an introduction to the history and diverse peoples of modern Mexico from 1876 to the present. Through lectures, discussions, primary and secondary readings, short documentaries, and written assignments, students will critically explore and analyze the multiplicity of historical processes, events and trends that shaped and were shaped by Mexicans over the course of a century. The course will cover some of the social and political dimensions of rural social change, urbanization and industrialization, technological innovation and misuse, environmental degradation and conservation, education, ideology, culture and media, migration, and the drug trade.

HISTORY 374C. The History of Mexicans and Mexican Americans. 4-5 Units.

This course will explore the history of Mexican migrants and Mexican Americans from 1848 to the present.
Same as: CHILATST 274, HISTORY 274C

HISTORY 375B. Borders and Borderlands in Modern Mexico. 4-5 Units.

Surveys the history of Mexico's borders and borderlands from the nineteenth century to the present. Examines theoretical conceptualizations of the borderlands as well as the historical development of identities and geographic borders within and around Mexico. Topics include the legacies of war, map making, the construction of lo Mexicano, the politics of culture, and migrations to, from, and through Mexico. Analyzes the prevailing trends in Mexicanist historiography.

HISTORY 378. The Historical Ecology of Latin America. 4-5 Units.

What role did the natural environment play in the emergence of Latin America as a distinct geographical and socio-cultural world region? How do we analyze the historical relationship between the regions rich and seemingly abundant natural resources and its status as "underdeveloped"? What historical consequences did this relationship have and what alternative, more sustainable developmental paths can we envision for the future in light of the past that we will study? In this course, students will become familiar with the historiography on Latin America (with emphasis on Mexico) that has explored these questions through a variety of approaches, methodologies and points of view.
Same as: HISTORY 278B

HISTORY 378A. The Logic of Authoritarian Government, Ancient and Modern. 5 Units.

If authoritarianism is less economically efficient than democracy, and if authoritarianism is a less stable form of political organization than democracy, then why are there more authoritarian governments than democracies? To address this paradox, focus is on theoretical and empirical literature on authoritarian governments, and related literatures on the microeconomic analysis of property rights and credible commitments.

HISTORY 379. Latin American Development: Economy and Society, 1800-2014. 4-5 Units.

The newly independent nations of Latin America began the 19th century with economies roughly equal to the U.S. and Canada. What explains the economic gap that developed since 1800? Why are some Latin American nations rich and others poor and how have societies changed over time? Marxist, dependency, neoclassical, and institutionalist interpretive frameworks are explored. The effects of globalization on Latin American economic growth, autonomy, and potential for social justice are examined and debated.
Same as: HISTORY 279

HISTORY 379D. Modern Brazil: Economy, Society & Culture. 4-5 Units.

This course addresses the history of modern Brazil from independence in 1822 to the present day. The class focuses on theories of economic development, social structure and change, and cultural life in Brazil's diverse regions.
Same as: HISTORY 279D

HISTORY 380B. The Birth of Islam: Authority, Community, and Resistance. 3-5 Units.

This course explores the historical problem of how authority and community (in both the political and religious sense) were defined and challenged in the early Islamic period. Chronological topics covered include: the political, cultural, and religious world of Late Antiquity into which Muhammad was born; the crystallization of a small community of believers who supported Muhammad's message of radical monotheism and aided him in the conquest and conversion of the Arabian Peninsula; the problems of legacy and leadership in the community of the faithful after Muhammad's death; the Arabo-Islamic conquests beyond Arabia during the 7th and early 8th centuries and the establishment of the first Islamic empire under the rule of the Umayyad clan; the Sunni/Shi'a split (and further splits in Shi'ism); the revolution of 750 A.D. and overthrow of the Umayyads by the 'Abbasids; the flourishing of a sophisticated world of learning and culture under the 'Abbasids; and the waning of the 'Abbasids empire in the tenth century and political reconfiguration of the Islamic lands.
Same as: GLOBAL 134, GLOBAL 234, HISTORY 280B

HISTORY 380C. Archives, Documents, and Manuscripts: Sources of Ottoman History. 4-5 Units.

The seminar focuses on Ottoman-Turkish texts in various genres - political and moral treatises, histories, legal canons and court records, imperial decrees and fiscal documents, travelogues, private letters and novellas - gathered from archival sources, manuscripts and printed primary material from the 16th to 19th centuries. Students will be introduced to various paleographical and codicological skills. The seminar explores Ottoman-Turkish manuscripts in the Special Collections at Stanford Library. Knowledge of Turkish and Ottoman-Turkish is required.

HISTORY 381. Economic and Social History of the Modern Middle East. 4-5 Units.

The integration of the Middle East into the world capitalist market on a subordinate basis and the impact on economic development, class formation, and politics. Alternative theoretical perspectives on the rise and expansion of the international capitalist market are combined with possible case studies of Egypt, Iraq, and Palestine.

HISTORY 381E. Oil, Maps, Data: Technology in the Middle East. 4-5 Units.

This course introduces students to a wide range of humanities and social science concepts pertaining to the global study of technology with an emphasis on the Middle East in the 19th, 20th and 21st-centuries. The main body of the course focuses on three case studies namely oil, mapping, and the internet through which issues of power, race, colonialism, financial imperialism, violence, and surveillance will be explored. This colloquium provides a unique perspective on contemporary debates about the politics and ethics of technology through a study of their global circulation.
Same as: HISTORY 281E

HISTORY 382. The United States and the Middle East since 1945. 4-5 Units.

Since the end of WW II, U.S. interests in the Middle East have traditionally been defined as access to oil at a reasonable price, trade and markets, containing the influence of the Soviet Union, and the security of Israel. Is this the full range of U.S. interests? How has the pursuit of these interests changed over time? What forces have shaped U.S. policy? What is the impact of U.S. policy on the region itself?.
Same as: HISTORY 282

HISTORY 382G. Israel from the Margins. 4-5 Units.

Although secular, European Jews form a minority of the population of the State of Israel, and its history is typically narrated and interpreted from that perspective. Israel looks like a rather different place if it is seen and understood from the point of view of Middle Eastern and North African Jews,including those indigenous to the country before the advent of the modern Zionist movement, orthodox and ultra-orthodox Jews, Palestinian Arabs (nearly twenty percent of Israel's population today), migrant workers (about 200,000), and women. This course does not suggest that their perspectives are necessarily more real or true, only that an understanding of Israel that does not adequately consider them is necessarily false.

HISTORY 382J. Disasters in Middle Eastern History. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 282J is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 382J is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) This course explores the history of disasters in the Middle East from the early modern period to the mid-20th-century. We will trace the evolving meanings of disasters and misfortunes by focusing on critical moments -- plagues, fires, earthquakes, wars -- to examine how people have responded to these events, labeled them, and devised strategies to live with or forget them. The course readings follow the evolution of policies and norms together with the articulation of new forms of knowledge and expertise in the wake of catastrophe. Additionally, particular attention will be paid to how modern conceptions of disaster relate to older understandings of apocalypse, as well as to various strands of "disaster reformism," when rethinking tragedy and time helped assert radical agendas for reforming political, economic, social, communal, racial, and gender relations while remodeling social science and intellectual life. The course focuses on various trajectories of disaster thinking in Arabic, Turkish, Greek, Armenian, and Hebrew.
Same as: ANTHRO 382J

HISTORY 383C. The Medieval Middle East: Crusaders, Turks, and Mongols. 3-5 Units.

This course surveys the history of the Middle East from c.950 A.D. to c.1517 A.D., placing particular emphasis on the following questions: What were the social, cultural, and political contexts for conversion to Islam in the Middle Ages? How did the interplay of nomadic and sedentary peoples shape Middle Eastern history? What were the nature of Christian-Muslim relations and the fate of religious minorities in an age of Crusade and Jihad? What were the conditions for the rise, flourishing, and eventual collapse of a ¿world-system¿ in this period (with the lands of the Middle East serving as its nexus)? Chronological topics include: the arrival in the Middle East of the Seljuk Turks, new adopters of Islam and recent nomads; the western European crusades to the Holy Land and the establishment of so-called ¿Crusader States¿ in Syria; the subjugation of Iran to pagan Mongols¿and the Mongols¿ eventual conversion to Islam; the rise to power of a dynasty of Turkish slave-soldiers (mamluks) in Cairo and the political reunification of Syria and Egypt under their rule. Readings will consist of both primary sources and works of modern scholarship.
Same as: GLOBAL 133, GLOBAL 233, HISTORY 283C

HISTORY 383F. Capital and Crisis in the Middle East and the World. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 383F is a graduate course for 4-5 units; HISTORY 283F is an undergraduate course for 5 units.) How do economies change in times of crisis? How do economic crises intersect with pandemics, violence and environmental disaster to redefine the workings of capital? This course approaches these questions through critical reading in the histories of capitalism, crisis, and intersections between legal history and political economy, using the Middle East region as a starting point for the study of global phenomena. We will examine the ways in which constructions like race and ethnicity, gender, and the human/non-human divide have mediated the social and spatial expansion of capital in the region, especially through legal categories and instruments that transform rapidly in times of crisis. Temporally, we will focus our examination between two moments of economic crisis: the ¿long depression¿ of the late nineteenth century and the financial crisis of 2008. We will ground our historical reading in attention to current events, in particular the Middle East¿s ongoing experience of the pandemic-induced global financial crisis of 2020.

HISTORY 383J. Global Islam. 4-5 Units.

(Undergraduates, enroll in 283J; Graduates, enroll in 383J.) Explores the history and politics of Islam in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East and the Americas --- and of the novel connections that have linked Muslim communities across the globe in modern times.

HISTORY 384. The Ottoman Empire: Conquest, Coexistence, and Coffee. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 284 is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 384 is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) The Ottoman Empire ruled the Middle East, North Africa and Eastern Europe from the 15th to the early 20th centuries. How did the Ottoman enterprise appear in the frontier region between Christendom and the Islamic world? How were diverse peoples, religions, and regions integrated under the Ottoman order? Was there an Ottoman Mediterranean and Indian Ocean? How did reform movements in Islamic, Christian and Jewish thinking transform Ottoman societies? Topics include the Ottoman Empire between Europe and Eastern Islamic World; merchants and their markets; elite, urban, rural and nomadic lives; women, family, childhood and sexuality; life, afterlife and dreams; epidemics and natural disasters. Special emphasis will be given to coffee and coffee houses which shaped public life in the Ottoman World since the 16th century. The survey ends with the rise of nationalism, inter-communal violence and the disintegration of the Ottoman world.
Same as: HISTORY 284

HISTORY 384E. Contemporary Muslim Political Thought. 4-5 Units.

This course aims to provide an intellectual history of contemporary Muslim political thought. It presents post-nineteenth century Muslim contributions to political thought. It is designed as a survey of some major thinkers from the Arab world to Iran and Southeast Asia, from Turkey to North America, who sought to interpret Islam's basic sources and Islamic intellectual legacy. Our readings include primary texts by Tahtawi, Tunisi, Afghani, Rida, Huda Sharawi, Qutb, Shariati, and Mernissi among other prominent figures. We will analyze recurring ideas in this body of thought such as decline, civilization, rationality, ijtihad (Islamic independent reasoning), shura (deliberative decision-making), democracy, secularism, Muslim unity, khilafah (caliphate and vicegerency), freedom, equality, and justice. We will discuss their current significance for the ongoing theoretical debates in Muslim political thought, Muslim intellectual history, and comparative political theory.
Same as: HISTORY 284E

HISTORY 384F. Empires, Markets and Networks: Early Modern Islamic World Between Europe and China, 1400-1900. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on political regimes, transregional connections, economic interactions and sociocultural formations in the early modern Islamic Afro-Eurasia. Topics include complex political-economic systems of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires and expansion of Turco-Persianate political and literary cultures across the Post-Mongolian Eurasia; experiences of various Muslim, Christian, Jewish and Hindu, as well as urban, rural and nomadic communities and networks under Islamicate political regimes; consolidation of transregional commerce and cultural exchange with the proliferation of networks of merchants, scholars and sufis; new tendencies in knowledge, individual, gender, family, social order, and religion; incorporation of the Islamic world in the global economy; Muslims in the age of revolutions; political and social reforms and consolidation of Muslim internationalism in the age of imperialism.
Same as: HISTORY 284F

HISTORY 385A. Core Colloquium in Jewish History, 17th to 19th Centuries. 4-5 Units.

.
Same as: JEWISHST 385A

HISTORY 385B. Graduate Colloquium in Jewish History, 19th-20th Centuries. 4-5 Units.

Instructor consent required.
Same as: JEWISHST 385B

HISTORY 385C. Jews in the Contemporary World. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 185B is 5 units; HISTORY 85B IS 3 units.) Who are American Jews as depicted in popular media -- film, television, etc. -- since the Second World War? How are their religion, politics, mores, and practices represented and what ways, if at all, do such portraits reflect historical trends among Jews and society in general? What can be learned from film or tv about Jewish identity, notions of Jewish power and powerlessness, communal cohesiveness and assimilation, sexuality and the wages of intermarriage or race?.
Same as: CSRE 185B, HISTORY 185B, JEWISHST 185B, REES 185B, SLAVIC 183

HISTORY 385K. History of Modern Antisemitism: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. 4-5 Units.

The articulations of anti-Jewish hatred from the advent of Jewish emancipation in Europe. The legacy of premodern Christian demonization and its modern protean transformations as they penetrated and annexed new currents of ideology, notions of identity (social, national, racial), taste, and aesthetics. A history of ideas, representations, and stereotypes, and their relation to historical experience, action, and mobilization. Europe is the focus; case studies also include the Middle East and elsewhere.

HISTORY 386B. The Ottoman Empire in the Age of Revolutions, 1750-1850. 4-5 Units.

Investigates the Ottoman World (the Balkans and the Middle East under the Ottoman Empire) in the Age of Revolutions in the global context. While the Ottoman World is the primary interest, developments in Europe, India and China are also discussed in a comparative perspective. Topics include military and fiscal transformation; regionalism; urban life and formations of public spheres; political crisis, social disturbances and political violence; transformation in the ethnoreligious structures, gender relations and family life; protonationalism in the Balkans and Egypt.

HISTORY 387K. Gentlemen and Jews: History of the Jews of England. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on key chapters in the cultural and political histories of Britain and itsnnJews, between 1650 and 1950 and examines the advantages, as well as possible difficulties, that emerge when connecting Anglo-Jewish history to mainstream British history. What is unique about Jewish emancipation in England, and what are its connections to the formation of British national identity? Is there unique path in which Jewish Enlightenment developed in England? What was the contribution of Jews to British Imperialism? Is there a cultural affinity betweennnEnglish philosemitism and liberalism?.

HISTORY 390. North Korea in Historical Perspective. 4-5 Units.

This colloquium will approach North Korea from a longer historical perspective and also discuss the country's current crisis and its future. Themes will include the northern region in colonial Korea, Kim Il Sung and Manchurian guerrillas, the USSR and North Korean Revolution, the reconstruction after the Korean War, Juche ideology and the political system, the everyday life of North Korea people, the Cold War and North Korean diplomacy, culture and mass performance, the great famine and economy in transition, the military and nuclear development, and refugees and the succession of leadership.
Same as: HISTORY 290

HISTORY 390A. Major Topics in Modern Chinese History: Qing/Republican Transition. 4-5 Units.

Continuities and discontinuities in society, economy, politics, culture, and thought during the transition from the Qing dynasty to the republic. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 391. East Asia in the Early Buddhist Age. 4-5 Units.

Evolution of cities in imperial China through early imperial, medieval, and early modern periods. Topics include physical structure, social order, cultural forms, economic roles, relations to rural hinterlands, and the contrast between imperial capitals and other cities. Comparative examination of cases from European history.

HISTORY 391B. The City in Imperial China. 4-5 Units.

The evolution of cities in the early imperial, medieval, and early modern periods. Topics include physical structure, social order, cultural forms, economic roles, relations to rural hinterlands, and the contrast between imperial capitals and other cities. Comparative cases from European history. Readings include primary and secondary sources, and visual materials.

HISTORY 391C. Early Imperial China. 4-5 Units.

The first millennium of imperial China, what endured over the centuries, and the major changes that took place in the political, social, and intellectual realms. Topics include the evolving geographic and environmental background, cities, the countryside, kinship, relations with the outer world, religion, philosophy,and literature. Also examines the nature of empire as a distinctive political form.

HISTORY 391G. Pre-Modern Chinese Warfare. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the evolution of warfare in China, and its impact on the evolving political and social orders, from the earliest states through the Mongol conquest. It will study how changing military technology was inextricably linked to changes in the state and society. It will also look at changing Chinese attitudes towards warfare over the same period, from the celebration of heroism, through writing about warfare as an intellectual art, to the links of militarism with steppe peoples/.
Same as: HISTORY 291G

HISTORY 391K. Korean History and Culture before 1900. 3-5 Units.

This course serves as an introduction to Korean culture, society, and history before the modern period. It begins with a discussion of early Korea and controversies over Korean origins; the bulk of the course will be devoted to the Chos'n period (1392-1910), that from the end of medieval Korea to the modern period. Topics to be covered include: Korean national and ethnic origins, the role of religious and intellectual traditions such as Buddhism and Confucianism, popular and indigenous religious practices, the traditional Korean family and social order, state and society during the Chos'n dynasty, vernacular prose literature, Korean's relations with its neighbors in East Asia, and changing conceptions of Korean identity.nThe course will be conducted through the reading and discussion of primary texts in English translation alongside scholarly research. As such, it will emphasize the interpretation of historical sources, which include personal letters, memoirs, and diaries, traditional histories, diplomatic and political documents, along with religious texts and works of art. Scholarly work will help contextualize these materials, while the class discussions will introduce students to existing scholarly debates about the Korean past. Students will be asked also to examine the premodern past with an eye to contemporary reception. The final project for the class is a film study, where a modern Korean film portraying premodern Korea will be analyzed as a case study of how the past works in public historical memory in contemporary Korea, both North and South. An open-ended research paper is also possible, pending instructor approval.
Same as: HISTORY 291K, KOREA 158, KOREA 258

HISTORY 392A. Gender in Modern South Asia. 4-5 Units.

Gender is crucial to understanding the political, cultural, and economic trajectories of communities in colonial and postcolonial South Asia. Throughout this course, we will ask a series of questions: How does gender structure conceptions of home, community, and homeland in South Asia? How do gender and religion become represented in movements for nation-states? How does women's participation in anticolonial politics and fights for equal representation in postcolonial nation-states affect our understanding of gender in South Asia today? Readings examine the creation and impact of religious personal law under British colonial rule, the role of masculinity in the British-Indian army, perspectives on religion and clothing, the interplay of rights movements and anti-colonialism, and the status of women in postcolonial India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Students will also explore a range of primary sources, including political treatises, short stories, didactic manuals, autobiographies, and travelogues.

HISTORY 392D. Japan in Asia, Asia in Japan. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 292D is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 392D is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) How Japan and Asia mutually shaped each other in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Focus is on Japanese imperialism in Asia and its postwar legacies. Topics include: pan-Asianism and orientalism; colonial modernization in Korea and Taiwan; collaboration and resistance; popular imperialism in Manchuria; total war and empire; comfort women and the politics of apology; the issue of resident Koreans; and economic and cultural integration of postwar Asia.
Same as: HISTORY 292D

HISTORY 392E. The Historical Roots of Modern East Asia. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on China and Japan before and during their transition to modernity. The populous, urbanized, economically advanced, and culturally sophisticated Ming empire and Muromachi shogunate in the 16th century when Europeans first arrived. How the status quo had turned on its head by the early 20th century when European and American steamships dominated the Pacific, China was in social and political upheaval, and Japan had begun its march to empire.
Same as: HISTORY 92A

HISTORY 392F. Culture and Religions in Korean History. 4-5 Units.

This colloquium explores the major themes of Korean history before 1800 and the role of culture and religions in shaping the everyday life of Chosôn-dynasty Koreans. Themes include the aristocracy and military in the Koryô dynasty, Buddhism and Confucianism in the making of Chosôn Korea, kingship and court culture, slavery and women, family and rituals, death and punishment, and the Korean alphabet (Hangûl) and print culture.
Same as: HISTORY 292F

HISTORY 393. Frontier Expansion and Ethnic Statecraft in the Qing Empire. 4-5 Units.

The legacy of the Qing dynasty in the territorial boundaries claimed by the People's Republic of China including the frontier zones that lie outside China proper. How the Qing acquired and ruled its frontier territories. Growth and migration of the Han Chinese population. How the dynasty's Manchu rulers managed ethnic difference. Consequences of Qing expansionism and ethnic statecraft for subject peoples and for the dynasty itself. At what point and by what processes did the Qing become China.
Same as: CHINA 393

HISTORY 393F. Chinese Politics and Society. 3-5 Units.

(Doctoral students register for 317B.) This seminar surveys the major turning points that have shaped China's evolution since 1949. The topics covered include the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, the political and economic turning point of the early 1980s, the political crisis of 1989, the restructuring of the state sector since the 1990s, and the patterns of protest that have accompanied the rapid social changes over the past three decades. We will conclude the course with current debates about China's future.
Same as: HISTORY 293F, SOC 217B, SOC 317B

HISTORY 394D. Manchuria: Cradle of Conflict, Cockpit of Asia. 4-5 Units.

How did Manchuria become Chinese? This course utilizes the dual waves of early twentieth-century writings and a wide array of recent scholarship dealing with Manchuria to explore the formation of nation-states out of the Qing and Japanese empires in Northeast Asia through the lenses of opium, migration, cities, warlords, and memoir. This course will be of interest to students concerned with developing transcultural understandings of Northeast Asian history.
Same as: HISTORY 294D

HISTORY 394E. The Past in Ancient China. 4-5 Units.

Introduction to the most important sources in the early Chinese historiographical tradition (broadly conceived), examining how the past was mobilized across a range of textual genres including poetry, speeches, philosophy, narrative, and rhetoric. Prior knowledge of premodern Chinese history and culture is not required. All reading materials will be in English; no knowledge of modern or classical Chinese is expected.
Same as: HISTORY 294E

HISTORY 395B. Readings in Early Modern Japanese History. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 395J. Gender and Sexuality in Chinese History. 4-5 Units.

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Same as: CHINA 395, FEMGEN 395J

HISTORY 396D. Historiography of Modern Japan. 4-5 Units.

Introduces students to the major historical problems and historiographic trends in the study of modern Japan from the Meiji period to the present. Themes include approaches to late Meiji culture and politics, the formation of imperial subjects and citizens, agrarian society and politics, gender in modern Japan, empire and modernity, total war and transwar state and society, U.S. occupation, and postwar Japan.

HISTORY 397. The Cold War and East Asia. 5 Units.

Explores how East Asia negotiated superpower rivalry and global ideological competition during the Cold War. Considers the ways in which China, Japan, and Korea were more than battlegrounds for US-Soviet contestation and played active roles in defining the nature and dynamics of the conflict. Re-examines conventional narratives and periodizations against alternative conceptual models and interpretive frameworks highlighting the constructed nature of the struggle as well as the role of historical and cultural factors in shaping the East Asian experience.
Same as: HISTORY 297

HISTORY 398C. Race, Gender, & Sexuality in Chinese History. 5 Units.

This course examines the diverse ways in which identities--particularly race, ethnicity, gender and sexuality have been understood and experienced in Chinese societies, broadly defined, from the imperial period to the present day. Topics include changes in women's lives and status, racial and ethnic categorizations, homosexuality, prostitution, masculinity, and gender-crossing.
Same as: ASNAMST 298, CSRE 298G, FEMGEN 298C, HISTORY 298C

HISTORY 398E. Chinese Pop Culture: A History. 4-5 Units.

This discussion course examines the evolution of popular culture in the Chinese-speaking world and diaspora from the late imperial era to the present. Analyzing myth, literature, medicine, music, art, film, fashion, and internet culture will help students understand the revolutionary social and political changes that have transformed modern East Asia.

HISTORY 399E. Preparing for International Field Research: Public Svc or Research, Electronic Version. 1 Unit.

Restricted to students studying at a Stanford Overseas Studies campus; same course content as HISTORY 299X. Problems involved in research abroad: ethical issues; safety; security and conduct; human subjects protocol. Methodologies of research: interviewing, networking, case studies, participant observation, large surveys. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

HISTORY 399P. Mastering Uncertainty: The Power of Archival Thinking. 1 Unit.

When confronted with chaos and uncertainty, do you know how to stay calm, ask the right questions, and find the answers? Archival researchers do. Do you realize that less than 1 percent of primary sources have been digitized, and that 99 percent still exist in their original formats in collections, small and large, scattered all across the world? Do you know how to find them and use them? Archival researchers do. Through hands-on exercises in Stanford's archives, students learn the fundamentals of archival research. Pursuing their own research interests, students will learn to become self-sufficient, independent researchers capable of navigating uncertainty and producing knowledge--a skill set in demand no matter what their major or post-graduate plans.
Same as: HISTORY 299P

HISTORY 399T. Tough Questions. 1 Unit.

A H&S initiative course.
Same as: HISTORY 299T

HISTORY 399W. Graduate Directed Reading. 1-10 Unit.

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HISTORY 401A. Spatial History: Concepts, Methods, Problems. 4-5 Units.

What can digital mapping and spatial analysis bring to history? How have historians written spatial history in the past? How do scholars in other disciplines deal with space and what can we learn from them? The course provides students with conceptual and technical skills in spatial history. As part of the exercise to think spatially about the past, students will receive training in Geographic Informational Science (GIS) and develop their own spatial history projects. No prior technical skills are needed for this course.
Same as: HISTORY 201B

HISTORY 401B. Spatial History, Part II. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: 401A.

HISTORY 403A. Materialities of Power, Part I. 4-5 Units.

How is power made material? And how do material things--objects, commodities, technologies, and infrastructures --reflect, change, consolidate, or distribute power? This research seminar is aimed at PhD students in history, anthropology, and STS who are working on such questions. All geographic specialties welcome. A small amount of common reading will launch the course, whose main goal is to guide students towards producing a research paper draft that's close to submission-ready for a journal. Along the way, we'll also address practical topics, including how to pick and submit to a journal, how to present a paper, and more.
Same as: ANTHRO 402D

HISTORY 403B. Materialities of Power, Part II. 4-5 Units.

How is power made material? And how do material things --objects, commodities, technologies, and infrastructures--reflect, change, consolidate, or distribute power? This research seminar is aimed at PhD students in history, anthropology, and STS who are working on such questions. All geographic specialties welcome. A small amount of common reading will launch the course, whose main goal is to guide students towards producing a research paper draft that's close to submission-ready for a journal. Along the way, we'll also address practical topics, including how to pick and submit to a journal, how to present a paper, and more.
Same as: ANTHRO 402F

HISTORY 406. Graduate Research Seminar on Colonial Law. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 306G.

HISTORY 421A. Early Modern Russia. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 422A. Research Seminar on the History of the Russian Empire. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 422B. Research Seminar in Imperial Russia. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 424A. The Soviet Civilization. 4-5 Units.

(HISTORY 224A is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 424A is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) Socialist visions and practices of the organization of society and messianic politics; Soviet mass state violence; culture, living and work spaces. Primary and secondary sources. Research paper or historiographical essay.
Same as: HISTORY 224A, REES 224A

HISTORY 424B. The Soviet Civilization, Part 2. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 224A/424A.
Same as: HISTORY 224D

HISTORY 424C. The End of Communism in Europe. 4-5 Units.

Causes, course, and consequences.

HISTORY 430A. Graduate Research Seminar: Early Modern Europe. 3-5 Units.

Students will begin a research project on any aspect of early modern European history, 1400-1800, by taking HISTORY 430A in winter quarter as the first quarter of this two-quarter sequence. Enrollment by permission of instructor.

HISTORY 431. Early Modern Things. 4-5 Units.

How do objects reveal their histories? What can be learned about the past by studying things? The material culture of early modern Europe, ca 1450-1750. Recent work on the circulation, use, and consumption of things, starting with the Columbian exchange which expanded the material horizons of the early modern world in the late 15th century, exploring challenges to the meaning of things in the age of the Reformation and Scientific Revolution, and ending with the birth of consumer society in the 18th century How did the meaning of things and people's relationships to them change over these centuries? What objects, ordinary and extraordinary, secular and sacred, natural and man-made, came to define the emerging features of the early modern world?.

HISTORY 433A. Research Seminar in Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

Students will complete an article-length research paper based on primary sources.

HISTORY 433B. Research Seminar in Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 433A.

HISTORY 438. European History Workshop. 1 Unit.

All European history graduate students in residence register for this weekly workshop, at which dissertation chapters and prospectuses, papers, and grant proposals by students and faculty are read and discussed.

HISTORY 439A. Graduate Research Seminar: Modern Britain and the British Empire. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 439B. Graduate Research Seminar: Modern Britain and the British Empire II. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 443A. Human Origins: History, Evidence, and Controversy. 4-5 Units.

Research seminar. Debates and controversies include: theories of human origins; interpretations of fossils, early art, and the oldest tools; the origin and fate of the Neanderthals; evolutionary themes in literature and film; visual rhetoric and cliché in anthropological dioramas and phyletic diagrams; the significance of hunting, gathering, and grandmothering; climatological theories and neocatastrophic geologies; molecular anthropology; the impact of racial theories on human origins discourse. Background in human evolution not required.
Same as: HISTORY 243S

HISTORY 444. Graduate Research Seminar: Gender in Science, Medicine, and Engineering. 5 Units.

Theory and practice of gender in STEM. 1. "Fix the Numbers of Women" focuses on increasing women's participation; 2. "Fix the Institutions" promotes gender equality in careers through structural change in research organizations; 3. "Fix the Knowledge" or "gendered innovations" stimulates excellence in science and technology by integrating gender analysis into research. Seminar explores harnessing the creative power of gender analysis to enhance knowledge and spark innovation.
Same as: FEMGEN 444

HISTORY 444C. The History of the Body in Science, Medicine, and Culture. 4-5 Units.

The human body as a natural and cultural object, historicized. The crosscultural history of the body from the 18th century to the present. Topics include: sciences of sex and race; medical discovery of particular body parts; human experimentation, foot binding, veiling, and other bodily coverings; thinness and obesity; notions of the body politic.
Same as: HISTORY 244C

HISTORY 445A. Research Seminar in African History. 4-5 Units.

Primary sources such as government records and missionary archives. Students present work in progress. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

HISTORY 445B. Research Seminar in African History. 4-5 Units.

Primary sources such as government records and missionary archives. Students present work in progress. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

HISTORY 448A. Colonial States and African Societies, Part I. 4-5 Units.

(History 248S is an undergraduate course offered for 5 units; HISTORY 448A is a graduate course offered for 4-5 units.) Colonialism set in motion profound transformations of African societies. These transformations did not occur immediately following military conquest, nor did they occur uniformly throughout the continent. This research seminar will focus directly on the encounter between the colonial state and African societies. The seminar will examine problems of social transformation, the role of the colonial state, and the actions of Africans. Following four weeks of collloquim style discussion, students then embark on independent research on the encounter between one colonial state and its constituent African societies.

HISTORY 448B. Colonial States and African Societies, Part II. 4-5 Units.

Second part of the research seminar offered in the Winter. Students continue their research and present their penultimate drafts in week 8.

HISTORY 452A. Graduate Research Seminar: American Cultural and Intellectual History. 4-5 Units.

Major methods and issues. Goal is to produce a research paper based on primary sources suitable for inclusion in a doctoral dissertation or submission to a peer-reviewed scholarly journal. Topics include: compiling primary and secondary source bibliographies; primary and secondary source issues; and how to articulate an argument. Students produce a prospectus by the end of Spring Quarter. Summer Quarter meetings to discuss outlines, drafts, and problems, culminating in presentation of papers in scholarly conference format.

HISTORY 459A. Grad Research Seminar in U.S. History. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 460. Research Seminar in America in the World. 4-5 Units.

Ways to place American history in an international context. Comparative, transnational, diplomatic, and world systems are approaches to complete a research paper based on research into primary materials. Historical methodologies, research strategies, and essay projects. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 468A. Graduate Research Seminar: U.S. History in the 20th Century. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 468B. Graduate Research Seminar: U.S. History in the 20th Century Part II. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 468A.

HISTORY 471A. Environmental History of Latin America. 5 Units.

What role did the natural environment play in the emergence of Latin America as a distinct geographical and socio-cultural world region? How do we analyze the historical relationship between the regions rich and seemingly abundant natural resources and its status as underdeveloped? What historical consequences did this relationship have and what alternative, more sustainable developmental paths can we envision for the future in light of the past that we will study? In this course, students will become familiar with the historiography on Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Cuba and Honduras that has explored these questions through a variety of approaches, methodologies and points of view.

HISTORY 471B. Environmental History of Latin America. 5 Units.

What role did the natural environment play in the emergence of Latin America as a distinct geographical and socio-cultural world region? How do we analyze the historical relationship between the region's rich and seemingly abundant natural resources and its status as 'underdeveloped'? What historical consequences did this relationship have and what alternative, more sustainable developmental paths can we envision for the future in light of the past that we will study? In this course, students will become familiar with the historiography on Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Cuba and Honduras that has explored these questions through a variety of approaches, methodologies and points of view.

HISTORY 481. Research Seminar in Ottoman and Middle East History. 4-5 Units.

Student-selected research topics. May be repeated for credit.
Same as: JEWISHST 287S, JEWISHST 481

HISTORY 486A. Graduate Research Seminar in Jewish History. 4-5 Units.

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Same as: JEWISHST 486A

HISTORY 486B. Graduate Research Seminar in Jewish History. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 486A.
Same as: JEWISHST 486B

HISTORY 491A. Modern Korea Research Seminar. 4-5 Units.

This graduate seminar prepares students to undertake research using Korean-language sources on a variety of themes in modern Korea. Students will identify characteristics of major online and offline archives in Korean studies, learn essential skills in investigating primary sources, and analyze selected sample documents in class.

HISTORY 491B. Modern Korea Research Seminar. 4-5 Units.

This graduate seminar prepares students to undertake research using Korean-language sources on a variety of themes in modern Korea. Students will identify characteristics of major online and offline archives in Korean studies, learn essential skills in investigating primary sources, and analyze selected sample documents in class.

HISTORY 496A. Research Seminar in Chinese History. 4-5 Units.

First part of a two part sequence. Primary sources and research methods to be used in the study of modern Chinese history.

HISTORY 496B. Research Seminar in Chinese History. 4-5 Units.

Second part of a two part sequence. Primary sources and research methods to be used in the study of modern Chinese history. Prerequisite: HISTORY 496A.

HISTORY 497A. Maps and Gazetteers as Sources for East Asian History. 4-5 Units.

For graduate students of early modern or modern East Asia. Includes weekend workshop on Chinese historical GIS with Harvard's Peter Bol. Students work with the Stanford Spatial History Lab to develop analytical techniques. Prerequisite: background in GIS.

HISTORY 497B. Maps and Gazetters as Sources for East Asian History, Part 2. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 497A.

HISTORY 498C. Japanese Imperial Archives, Part 1. 4-5 Units.

First part of a two-quarter research graduate seminar on Japanese imperialism in Asia. Students explore different types of archives, from national and research libraries to online databases; learn various methods of research including oral history; and translate and analyze sample documents including government publications, company histories, police records, and media sources. Prerequisite: advanced reading ability in Japanese.

HISTORY 498D. Japanese Imperial Archives, Part 2. 4-5 Units.

Second part of a two-quarter research graduate seminar on Japanese imperialism in Asia. Students complete research papers based on research conducted for HISTORY 498C; the class meets occasionally to report on progress and discuss working drafts. Prerequisite: HISTORY 498C.

HISTORY 499X. Graduate Research. 1-10 Unit.

Units by arrangement. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 802. TGR Dissertation. 0 Units.

Units by arrangement.