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Office: Building 110, Main Quad
Mail Code: 2145
Phone: (650) 723-0479
Email: classics@stanford.edu
Web Site: http://classics.stanford.edu

Courses offered by the Department of Classics are listed on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site under the subject code CLASSICS.

The study of Classics has traditionally centered on the literature and material culture of ancient Greece and Rome, including Greek and Latin language, literature, philosophy, history, art, and archaeology. At Stanford, Classics also explores connections with other ancient cultures and with the modern world, as well as specialized fields such as ancient economics, law, papyrology, and science. The department’s faculty approaches Classics from an interdisciplinary perspective that crosses geographical, temporal, and thematic territories. Studying ancient epic poetry can lead to looking at modern cinema afresh; ancient Athenian politics opens new perspectives on modern politics; and the study of Rome presents parallels with other empires just as Latin illuminates the history of English and the Romance languages. In short, Classics at Stanford is an interdisciplinary subject concerned not only with Greek and Roman civilization but also with the interaction of cultures and societies that influenced the ancient Mediterranean basin and continue to influence human society across the globe.

Mission of the Undergraduate Program in Classics

The mission of the undergraduate program in Classics is to provide students with a broad background centered on the literature and material culture of ancient Greece and Rome, including Greek and Latin language, literature, philosophy, history, art, and archaeology. At Stanford, students in the Classics program also explore the connections between ancient cultures and the modern world as well as specialized fields such as ancient economics, law, papyrology, and science. The program's faculty approaches Classics from an interdisciplinary perspective that crosses geographical, temporal and thematic territories. The program is concerned not only with Greek and Roman civilization but also with the interaction of cultures and societies that influenced the ancient Mediterranean basin and continue to influence human society across the globe.

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduate)

The department expects undergraduate majors in the program to be able to demonstrate the following learning outcomes. These learning outcomes are used in evaluating students and the department's undergraduate program. Students are expected to demonstrate:

  1. The ability to develop effective and nuanced lines of interpretation.
  2. Critical thinking skills using primary source materials.
  3. Facility with the methodologies and presuppositions underlying interpretive positions in secondary literature and in their own work.
  4. Well-developed analytical writing skills and close reading skills.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The purpose of the master's program is to further develop knowledge and skills in Classics and to prepare students for a professional career or doctoral studies. This is achieved through completion of courses, in the primary field as well as related areas, and experience with independent work and specialization.

The Ph.D. is conferred upon candidates who have demonstrated substantial scholarship and the ability to conduct independent research and analysis in Classics. Through completion of advanced course work and rigorous skills training, the doctoral program prepares students to make original contributions to the knowledge of Classics and to interpret and present the results of such research.

Course Numbering

CLASSICS courses are numbered according to level and area of study.

Digit Area
001-099 Introductory Courses
100-199 Undergraduate Language, Core, Electives and Independent Study
200-299 Advanced Undergraduate, Coterminal, MA and PhD
300-399 Graduate Seminars and Dissertation Research

Bachelor of Arts in Classics

Those interested in majoring in Classics are encouraged to declare by spring of sophomore year but are urged to discuss their plans with the Director of Undergraduate Studies as early as possible. Students who choose the Greek and Latin field of study (option E below) should begin the curriculum as soon as possible because it is difficult to complete the language requirements without an early start; those with no previous knowledge of Latin or Greek should begin study in the freshman year, in a summer program following freshman year, or at the beginning of the sophomore year.

How to Declare

To declare the major, a student must fill out the Declaration of Major on Axess and meet with the Director of Undergraduate Studies in the Department of Classics. At that time, the Director of Undergraduate Studies assists the student to select a department adviser. To build a mentoring relationship, students should meet with their adviser at least once a quarter. At the time of declaration, the student should also meet with the Department of Classics' student services officer. Each student’s progress towards fulfillment of the major requirements is recorded in a file kept in the student services officer’s office. It is the student’s responsibility to work with the adviser and student services officer to keep this file up to date.

Grade and Course Requirements

A letter grade is required for all courses taken for the major. No course receiving a grade lower than ‘C’ is counted toward fulfilling major requirements. Enrollment in an independent study section (CLASSICS 198 Directed Readings) requires the prior approval of the Director of Undergraduate Studies, and a maximum of three such enrollments for a maximum total of 10 units may be counted toward the major.  University credit earned by placement tests or advanced placement work in secondary school is not counted towards any major requirement in the department.  Work done at other universities or colleges is subject to department evaluation and the university's transfer credit process. Counting graduate courses or cognate courses towards the major requires advance approval by the Director of Undergraduate Studies. Students are encouraged to meet with the Director of Undergraduate Studies to discuss options for pursuing a period of study in the Mediterranean region (see Study Abroad below).

The B.A. degree may be earned by fulfilling the requirements for one of the following fields of study. These fields of study are declared on Axess; they appear on the transcript but not on the diploma. The fields of study are:

  • Classical Studies
  • Ancient History
  • Greek
  • Latin
  • Greek and Latin

The Philosophy and Literature focus described below may be added to some of the major plans. This focus is not declared on Axess and does not appear on the transcript or diploma.

A. Classical Studies

This major is recommended for students who wish to study classical civilizations in depth but do not wish to study the languages to the extent required by the Greek, Latin or Greek and Latin options described below. It is not suitable for students who wish to do graduate work in Classics or to teach Latin or Greek in high school, as the language work is insufficient for these purposes.

Units
Students must complete at least 60 units of approved courses including: +
CLASSICS 150Majors Seminar5
at least two courses in Latin or Greek at the intermediate-level or higher 110
Intermediate Latin: Introduction to Literature
Intermediate Latin: Martial & Pliny
Intermediate Latin: Vergil's Aeneid
Advanced Latin: Lucretius
Advanced Latin: Elegy
Advanced Latin: Livy
Intermediate Greek: Prose
Intermediate Greek: Herodotus
Intermediate Greek: Homer's Iliad
Advanced Greek: Greek Erotic Poetry and Prose
Advanced Greek: Plato's Phaedo
Advanced Greek: Sophocles
or one course in one of the languages at the intermediate-level or higher, plus the beginning series of the other language 120
Beginning Latin
Beginning Latin
Beginning Latin
Beginning Greek
Beginning Greek
Beginning Greek
remaining units from your choice of CLASSICS courses 235-45
Total Units60

B. Ancient History:

Units
Students must complete at least 60 units of approved courses and must satisfy the following requirements: +
CLASSICS 150Majors Seminar5
Core Requirement6-10
Complete any two survey courses in ancient history:
Ancient Empires: Near East
The Egyptians
The Greeks
The Romans
Depth Requirement33
Complete at least 33 units of ancient history and civilization courses, drawn typically from CLASSICS 31-99 and CLASSICS 110-197. 1,2
Breadth Requirements
Complete at least 4 units in each of the following three areas 3
1. Archaeology and art; suggested courses include:4-5
Egypt in the Age of Heresy
Introduction to Greek Art I: The Archaic Period
Introduction to Greek Art II: The Classical Period
Artists, Athletes, Courtesans and Crooks
Belief in Ruins: The Archaeology of Ritual and Religion
Engineering the Roman Empire
2. Comparative ancient civilizations: complete a course on the ancient world outside the Mediterranean and western Asia. Suggested courses include:4-5
Incas and their Ancestors: Peruvian Archaeology
Peoples and Cultures of Ancient Mesoamerica
3. Historical and social theory. Suggested courses include:4-5
Introduction to Cultural and Social Anthropology
Theory of Cultural and Social Anthropology
Introduction to Sociology at Stanford
Introduction to Social Stratification
Sociology of Gender
Classics of Modern Social Theory
Culture, Evolution, and Society
Total Units60

C. Greek

Units
Students must complete at least 60 units of approved courses including: +
CLASSICS 150Majors Seminar5
At least 31 units of Ancient Greek courses at the intermediate-level or higher. It is recommended that these include CLASSICS 105A/B, though this series should not be taken until students have completed three years of Greek. 131
Intermediate Greek: Prose
Intermediate Greek: Herodotus
Intermediate Greek: Homer's Iliad
Advanced Greek: Greek Erotic Poetry and Prose
Advanced Greek: Plato's Phaedo
Advanced Greek: Sophocles
At least three additional CLASSICS courses from CLASSICS 31-99 or 110-197 29-15
Remaining units from your choice of CLASSICS courses (Latin, Biblical Greek, Sanskrit or ancient history recommended).9-15
Total Units60

D. Latin

Units
Students must complete at least 60 units of approved courses including: +
CLASSICS 150Majors Seminar5
At least 31 units of Latin courses at the intermediate-level or higher. It is recommended that this include CLASSICS 104A/B, though this series should not be taken until students have completed three years of Latin. 131
Intermediate Latin: Introduction to Literature
Intermediate Latin: Martial & Pliny
Intermediate Latin: Vergil's Aeneid
Advanced Latin: Lucretius
Advanced Latin: Elegy
Advanced Latin: Livy
At least three additional CLASSICS courses from CLASSICS 31-99 or 110-197 29-15
Remaining units from your choice of CLASSICS courses (Ancient Greek, Biblical Greek or ancient history recommended) 9-15
Total Units:60

E. Greek and Latin

Units
Students must complete at least 65 units of approved courses including: +
CLASSICS 150Majors Seminar5
At least 30 units of Latin courses at the intermediate-level and higher. 1, 230
OR at least 30 units of Latin at the beginning-level and higher, as long as Greek is at the intermediate-level and higher
Beginning Latin
Beginning Latin
Beginning Latin
Intermediate Latin: Introduction to Literature
Intermediate Latin: Martial & Pliny
Intermediate Latin: Vergil's Aeneid
Advanced Latin: Lucretius
Advanced Latin: Elegy
Advanced Latin: Livy
Latin Syntax
Latin Syntax
At least 30 units of Ancient Greek courses at the intermediate-level or higher. 1, 230
OR at least 30 units of Greek at the beginning-level and higher, as long as Latin is at the intermediate-level and higher
Beginning Greek
Beginning Greek
Beginning Greek
Intermediate Greek: Prose
Intermediate Greek: Herodotus
Intermediate Greek: Homer's Iliad
Advanced Greek: Greek Erotic Poetry and Prose
Advanced Greek: Plato's Phaedo
Advanced Greek: Sophocles
Greek Syntax: Prose Composition
Greek Syntax: Prose Composition
Recommended additional course work in Biblical Greek, Sanskrit or ancient history 3
Total Units:65

F. Philosophy and Literature Focus:

Students may apply a focus in Classics and Philosophy to the Classical Studies, Latin, or Greek major tracks. A focus is not reflected in the transcript or diploma, but provides a guided curriculum for those interested in this interdisciplinary study. Students who choose this focus must still complete the Majors' Seminar and language courses required by their chosen track. In addition, all students must take a set of core requirements and breadth requirements as described below.

Core Requirements for all Philosophy and Literature Focuses
Units
PHIL 81Philosophy and Literature5
PHIL 80Mind, Matter, and Meaning5
one course in each of the following areas:
1. aesthetics, ethics, and social and political philosophy3-5
Ethical Theory
Trust and Trustworthiness
2. philosophy of language, mind, metaphysics, and epistemology3-5
Metaphysics
Realism, Anti-Realism, Irrealism, Quasi-Realism
3. history of philosophy (course with subject code PHIL at the 100-level or above)3-5
Two related courses in Classics or Philosophy. Discuss your course selection in advance with the Director of Undergraduate Studies.6-10
One capstone seminar. Discuss your course selection in advance with the Director of Undergraduate Studies.3-5
Breadth Requirements for Classical Studies: Philosophy and Literature Focus
Units
one CLASSICS course in ancient history3-5
one CLASSICS course in art and archaeology3-5
one CLASSICS course in literature in translation
one CLASSICS course in philosophy and history of science3-5
one CLASSICS course in religion/mythology3-5
Breadth Requirements for Greek: Philosophy and Literature Focus
Units
one CLASSICS course in ancient history or archaeology3-5
one CLASSICS course in religion, philosophy, or ancient science3-5
one CLASSICS course in literature in translation3-5
Breadth Requirements for Latin: Philosophy and Literature Focus
Units
one CLASSICS course in ancient history or archaeology3-5
one CLASSICS course in literature in translation3-5
one CLASSICS course in religion, philosophy, or ancient science3-5

Honors Program

A minimum grade point average (GPA) of 3.6 within the major is required for students to enroll in the honors program. To be considered for honors in Classics, the student must select a professor who can supervise his or her honors thesis. A preliminary proposal, approved by the supervisor, is due April 15 of the junior year, and a final version is due at the beginning of the senior year. The proposal must outline the project in detail, list relevant courses that have been taken, and name the supervisor. The department gives approval only if a suitable faculty supervisor is available and if it is satisfied that the student has a sufficient basis of knowledge derived from department course work in the general areas the thesis covers, such as art, Greek, Latin, history, literature, or philosophy. If the proposal is approved, the student may sign up for CLASSICS 199 Undergraduate Thesis: Senior Research, during the senior year for a maximum of 6 units per term, up to an overall total of 10 units. These units may be counted towards fulfillment of the student’s major requirements if relevant. Honors are awarded only if the essay receives a grade of ‘B+’ or higher from the supervisor and a second reader, who is chosen by the department. In addition, students must graduate with a GPA of 3.6 or higher within the major to receive honors.

Study Abroad

Classics students may travel for several reasons: to complete accredited course work (typically language courses or history surveys) for transfer towards the degree, to participate in archaeological digs of ancient sites, and to perform independent travel-research related to an honors project or independent study.  Students considering academic programs sponsored by other institutions are encouraged to review Stanford's policies on transfer credit and to discuss possible programs with the Director of Undergraduate Studies before applying.  Students seeking archaeological dig experience should inquire for opportunities through the Classics Department and through the Stanford Archaeology Center (http://archaeology.stanford.edu).  Students who would like to construct an independent travel-research project should discuss their goals and itinerary with the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

While Classics-specific course work is not always available through the Bing Overseas Program, students sometimes find Classics faculty at Bing campuses who are willing to provide independent instruction for credit.  Pre-approval of courses and independent study syllabi by the Director of Undergraduate Studies is required for credit towards the major or minor.

Some departmental funding is available for summer language programs in the United States, and departmental funds are also available for travel and study in the Mediterranean.  Students are encouraged to seek out multiple sources of funding, including offerings from UAR, to supplement their departmental applications. After discussing their plans with the Director of Undergraduate Studies, applicants submit a departmental research grant application that includes expenses, a statement of purpose, and an endorsement by the student's faculty adviser. Food expenses are not normally reimbursed. Limited funding is available each year; preference is shown to majors and students with strong records.

Joint Major Program: Classics and Computer Science

The joint major program (JMP), authorized by the Academic Senate for a pilot period of six years beginning in 2014-15, permits students to major in both Computer Science and one of ten Humanities majors. See the "Joint Major Program" section of this bulletin for a description of University requirements for the JMP. See also the Undergraduate Advising and Research JMP web site and its associated FAQs.

Students completing the JMP receive a B.A.S. (Bachelor of Arts and Science).

Because the JMP is new and experimental, changes to procedures may occur; students are advised to check the relevant section of the bulletin periodically.

Classics Major Requirements in the Joint Major Program

See the "Computer Science Joint Major Program" section of this bulletin for details on Computer Science requirements.

Students majoring in the joint major program in Classics and Computer Science complete the degree requirements for Classics with the following changes:

  1. Completion of 5 less overall units than a usual Classics major. The + footnote on each track describes where the unit relief may be taken. 
  2. ePortfolio course (2 units): The ePortfolio is preparation for the capstone project, and as such, must be taken by Spring quarter of the Junior year. The ePortfolio will reflect on the intersections (and possible disjunctions) between Computer Science and Classics. This may be an independent study or group seminar class. Topics might center on critical review of existing projects that join Computer Science and Classics, including analyses and reflections on two-to-three different digital humanities projects in the field of Classics. It might also include a commentary from a Classicist perspective on work in foundational Computer Science courses, an analysis of the implications of computational technology for historical or literary study in Classics, or the application of Classicists' methodologies to technological problems or issues. 
  3. Senior capstone project (5 units): The capstone project will be an original and integrative research project, guided by advisers in both departments, drawing on knowledge and skills in both areas, and counting towards the joint major on the Classics side. This will likely be independent study with Classics faculty or a course with a required project. It is also possible for honors thesis work in Classics to count towards this requirement, if the thesis project has a significant computational component. Projects might include analysis of archaeological or historical data, digital editions of texts, analyses of ancient corpora, digital representations and engagements with historical problems in the study of the ancient world, study of natural language processing as applied to literary analysis of ancient texts. 
All ePortfolio and senior capstone projects must be approved by the Director of Undergraduate Studies. 

Declaring a Joint Major Program

To declare the joint major, students must first declare each major through Axess, and then submit the Declaration or Change of Undergraduate Major, Minor, Honors, or Degree Program. The Major-Minor and Multiple Major Course Approval Form is required for graduation for students with a joint major.

Dropping a Joint Major Program

To drop the joint major, students must submit the Declaration or Change of Undergraduate Major, Minor, Honors, or Degree Program. Students may also consult the Student Services Center with questions concerning dropping the joint major.

Transcript and Diploma

Students completing a joint major graduate with a B.A.S. degree. The two majors are identified on one diploma separated by a hyphen. There will be a notation indicating that the student has completed a "Joint Major."  The two majors are identified on the transcript with a notation indicating that the student has completed a "Joint Major."

Minor in Classics

The Director of Undergraduate Studies meets with each student who opts for the minor to discuss curriculum choices and assigns the student an adviser in the relevant field. Students are required to work closely with their advisers to create a cohesive curriculum within each area. Students who minor in Classics are required to take CLASSICS 150 Majors Seminar, which is writing intensive. Completion of the minor requires a minimum of 20 units.

Students may choose among four fields of study for the minor in Classics:

  • Classical Languages
  • Ancient History
  • Literature and Philosophy
  • Classical Studies

These fields of study are declared on Axess; they do not appear on the transcript or the diploma.

I. Classical Languages

Students are required to take a minimum of five courses in Greek or in Latin. In addition to the five required courses, students must take CLASSICS 150 Majors Seminar. Students wishing to combine Greek and Latin may only do so if courses for one of the two languages are all intermediate level or above. Choose from the following courses this year:

Units
CLASSICS 1LBeginning Latin5
CLASSICS 2LBeginning Latin5
CLASSICS 3LBeginning Latin5
CLASSICS 11LIntermediate Latin: Introduction to Literature5
CLASSICS 12LIntermediate Latin: Martial & Pliny5
CLASSICS 13LIntermediate Latin: Vergil's Aeneid5
CLASSICS 101LAdvanced Latin: Lucretius3-5
CLASSICS 102LAdvanced Latin: Elegy4-5
CLASSICS 103LAdvanced Latin: Livy3-5
CLASSICS 1GBeginning Greek5
CLASSICS 2GBeginning Greek5
CLASSICS 3GBeginning Greek5
CLASSICS 11GIntermediate Greek: Prose5
CLASSICS 12GIntermediate Greek: Herodotus5
CLASSICS 13GIntermediate Greek: Homer's Iliad5
CLASSICS 101GAdvanced Greek: Greek Erotic Poetry and Prose3-5
CLASSICS 102GAdvanced Greek: Plato's Phaedo3-5
CLASSICS 103GAdvanced Greek: Sophocles3-5

II. Ancient History

Students are required to take a minimum of five courses in history, art history, and archaeology (any course within CLASSICS 51-99 or CLASSICS 151-197). Courses taken outside of the department may be substituted for one or more of these courses with prior, written approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies. In addition to the five required courses, students must take CLASSICS 150 Majors Seminar. Courses offered in Latin and Greek that focus on historical topics or authors may count toward this minor with prior, written approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies. Students may count up to 4 units from fall quarter of SIMILE towards the breadth requirement. Choose from the following courses:

Units
CLASSICS 52Introduction to Roman Archaeology3-5
CLASSICS 54Introduction to World Architecture5
CLASSICS 56Introduction to the Visual Arts: Prehistoric through Medieval5
CLASSICS 58Egypt in the Age of Heresy3-5
CLASSICS 81Ancient Empires: Near East4-5
CLASSICS 82The Egyptians3-5
CLASSICS 83The Greeks4-5
CLASSICS 84The Romans3-5
CLASSICS 156Design of Cities3-5
CLASSICS 158Iconoclasm5
CLASSICS 164Roman Gladiators3-5
CLASSICS 161Introduction to Greek Art I: The Archaic Period4
CLASSICS 162Introduction to Greek Art II: The Classical Period4
CLASSICS 163Artists, Athletes, Courtesans and Crooks5
CLASSICS 165Belief in Ruins: The Archaeology of Ritual and Religion3-5
CLASSICS 168Engineering the Roman Empire4-5

III. Literature and Philosophy

Students are required to take a minimum of five courses in classical literature or philosophy, including classical science. Courses taken outside of the department (for instance, from the Philosophy department) may be substituted for one or more of these courses with prior, written approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies. In addition to the five required courses, students must take CLASSICS 150 Majors Seminar. Courses offered in Latin and Greek that focus on philosophical or literary topics or authors may count toward the minor. Choose from the following courses this year:

Units
CLASSICS 16NSappho: Erotic Poetess of Lesbos3
CLASSICS 14NEcology in Philosophy and Literature3-5
CLASSICS 35The Good Life: An Introduction to Ancient Greek Ethical Philosophy3-5
CLASSICS 42Philosophy and Literature5
CLASSICS 136The Greek Invention of Mathematics3-5
CLASSICS 181Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought4-5

IV. Classical Studies

Students are required to take a minimum of five courses in Classics (any course with subject code CLASSICS) plus CLASSICS 150 Majors Seminar. Students may count up to 4 units of SLE or fall quarter of SIMILE towards the breadth requirement.

Master of Arts in Classics

University requirements for the master’s degree are described in the “Graduate Degrees” section of this bulletin.

I. Language and Literature, II. Philosophy Fields of Study

Students who have completed an undergraduate major in Classics (Greek, Latin, or Greek and Latin fields of study) or equivalent may be accepted as candidates for the M.A. degree in Classics and may expect to complete the program in twelve months (usually three quarters of course work plus three months study for the thesis or examination). Students with an undergraduate major in Classics (Ancient History or Classical Studies fields of study) or without an undergraduate major in Classics may also be accepted as candidates, though they may require a longer period of study before completing the requirements for the degree. These requirements are:

  1. A minimum of 25 of the 45 units must be graduate-level courses (generally 200-level or higher, but not always). The remaining units must be at the 100-level or higher.
  2. Completion of one Greek language course at the 100 level (if the undergraduate major field of study was Latin) or one Latin language course at the 100 level (if the undergraduate major field of study was Greek). This requirement is waived for students with an undergraduate major in Classics with a field of study in Greek and Latin.
  3. Passing a Greek or Latin language examination testing the candidate’s ability to translate into English from a selected list of Greek or Latin authors. This exam is a minimum of two hours, requiring a grade of "B" or higher to pass.
  4. Completion of the syntax sequence in at least one language. For Latin, this is CLASSICS 204A Latin Syntax and CLASSICS 204B Latin Syntax.  For Greek, this is CLASSICS 205A Greek Syntax: Prose Composition and CLASSICS 205B Greek Syntax: Prose Composition.
  5. Writing a thesis, or passing of an examination on a particular author or topic, or having written work accepted by the graduate committee as an equivalent. Three completed and satisfactory seminar papers are normally an acceptable equivalent, provided each paper has earned the grade of B+ or higher.
  6. Students must pass a modern language reading exam in one of the following languages: German, French or Italian. In exceptional circumstances, the Graduate Studies Committee may permit a different language, e.g., Modern Greek or Russian, to be substituted in keeping with research plans. Students are allowed to use paper and online dictionaries. Exams are offered once a quarter (Autumn, Winter, Spring). Incoming graduates may choose to be tested as early as the Autumn Quarter. The department strongly encourages students to take modern language exams as early as possible in the program. If the first attempt to pass the exam is unsuccessful, the student is allowed to retake the test only once. Failing the second examination means automatic dismissal from the program. A grade of 'B-' or higher is required to pass.
  7. Completion and approval of a Program Proposal for a Master’s Degree form during the first quarter of enrollment, at least five days prior to the Final Study List deadline.

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics may also, on the recommendation of the department, become candidates for the M.A. degree. In this case, requirement 5 above is waived provided that the student has completed some work beyond the course requirements listed under requirements 1 and 2 above. Current Stanford graduate students in other degree programs may be considered for the M.A. degree, but must be admitted into the program and must complete all requirements listed above.

III. Classical Archaeology

Students who have completed an undergraduate major in Classics with a Classical Archaeology field of study, or in a closely related field, may be accepted as candidates for the M.A. degree in Classics with a Classical Archaeology field of study, and may expect to complete the program in twelve months (usually three quarters of course work plus three months study for the thesis or examination). Students without an undergraduate major in Classics with a Classical Archaeology field of study may also be accepted as candidates, though they may require a longer period of study before completing the requirements for the degree. These requirements are:

  1. A minimum of 25 of the 45 units must be graduate-level courses (generally 200-level or higher, but not always). The remaining units must be at the 100-level or higher.
  2. Completion with a grade of ‘B’ or higher of at least 15 units of graduate-level courses in classical archaeology, in addition to CLASSICS 331 Words and Things in the History of Classical Scholarship. (see 4).
  3. Passing a Greek or Latin language examination testing the candidate's ability to translate into English from a selected list of Greek or Latin authors. This exam is a minimum of two hours, requiring a grade of "B" or higher to pass.
  4. Completion with a grade of ‘B’ or higher of CLASSICS 331 Words and Things in the History of Classical Scholarship, or an equivalent course on the history of thought in classical archaeology approved by the Graduate Studies Committee.
  5. Writing a thesis, or passing an exam on a particular topic, or having written work accepted by the graduate committee as an equivalent. Three completed and satisfactory seminar papers are normally an acceptable equivalent, provided each paper has earned the grade of B+ or higher.
  6. Students must pass a modern language reading exam in one of the following languages: German, French or Italian. In exceptional circumstances, the Graduate Studies Committee may permit a different language, e.g., Modern Greek or Russian, to be substituted in keeping with research plans. Students are allowed to use paper and online dictionaries. Exams are offered once a quarter (Autumn, Winter, Spring). Incoming graduates may choose to be tested as early as the Autumn Quarter. The department strongly encourages students to take modern language exams as early as possible in the program. If the first attempt to pass the exam is unsuccessful, the student is allowed to retake the test only once. Failing the second examination means automatic dismissal from the program. A grade of 'B-' or higher is required to pass.
  7. Completion and approval of a Program Proposal for a Master’s Degree form during the first quarter of enrollment, at least five days prior to the Final Study List deadline.

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree may also, on the recommendation of the department, become candidates for the M.A. degree. In their case, requirement 5 above is waived provided that the student has completed some work beyond the course requirements listed under requirements 1 and 2 above. Current Stanford graduate students in other degree programs may be considered for the M.A. degree, but must be admitted into the program and must complete all requirements listed above.

IV. Ancient History

Students who have completed an undergraduate major in Classics with an Ancient History field of study, or in a closely related field may be accepted as candidates for the M.A. degree in Classics with an Ancient History field of study, and may expect to complete the program in twelve months (usually three quarters of course work plus three months study for the thesis or examination). Students without an undergraduate major in Classics with an Ancient History field of study may also be accepted as candidates, though they may require a longer period of study before completing the requirements for the degree. These requirements are:

  1. A minimum of 30 of the 45 units must be graduate-level courses (generally 20-level or higher, but not always) and the remaining 15 units of work must be at the 100-level or higher.
  2. Satisfactory completion of 20 units of graduate-level courses in Classics and of 10 units of graduate-level courses in other programs.
  3. Satisfactory completion of 15 additional units of courses in either ancient Greek or Latin at the 100-level or higher.
  4. Writing a thesis, or passing an exam on a particular topic, or having written work accepted by the Graduate Committee as an equivalent. Three completed and satisfactory seminar papers are normally an acceptable equivalent, provided each paper has earned the grade of B+ or higher.
  5. Students must pass a modern language reading exam in one of the following languages: German, French or Italian. In exceptional circumstances, the Graduate Studies Committee may permit a different language, e.g., Modern Greek or Russian, to be substituted in keeping with research plans. Students are allowed to use paper and online dictionaries. Exams are offered once a quarter (Autumn, Winter, Spring). Incoming graduates may choose to be tested as early as the Autumn Quarter. The department strongly encourages students to take modern language exams as early as possible in the program. If the first attempt to pass the exam is unsuccessful, the student is allowed to retake the test only once. Failing the second examination means automatic dismissal from the program. A grade of 'B-' or higher is required to pass.
  6. Completion and approval of a Program Proposal for a Master’s Degree form during the first quarter of enrollment, at least five days prior to the Final Study List deadline.

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree may also (on the recommendation of the department) become candidates for the M.A. degree. In their case, requirement 4 above is waived provided that they have completed some work beyond the course requirements listed under requirements 1 and 2 above. Current Stanford graduate students in other degree programs may be considered for the M.A. degree, but must be admitted into the program and must complete all requirements listed above.

Coterminal Master's Degree in Classics

Stanford students in any undergraduate major who wish to pursue graduate work in Classics may apply for Stanford's coterminal master's program. Students considering a coterm are encouraged to consult with the Director of Undergraduate Studies and the department's student services officer about their plans before filing an application. Applicants must have a minimum GPA of 3.7 in the major, and no Incomplete grades on record. Undergraduate course work in Greek and Latin and one of the required modern languages is normally a prerequisite for graduate-level work.

To apply, students must complete the Coterminal Online Application, submit two letters of recommendation from Classics faculty, an unofficial copy of their undergraduate transcript, a 1-3 page statement of purpose and a 10-15 page writing sample. GRE scores are not required. Applications are due in early January of the intended graduation year for the undergraduate degree; please see the departmental website for the specific deadline.

University Coterminal Requirements

Coterminal master’s degree candidates are expected to complete all master’s degree requirements as described in this bulletin. University requirements for the coterminal master’s degree are described in the “Coterminal Master’s Program” section. University requirements for the master’s degree are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

After accepting admission to this coterminal master’s degree program, students may request transfer of courses from the undergraduate to the graduate career to satisfy requirements for the master’s degree. Transfer of courses to the graduate career requires review and approval of both the undergraduate and graduate programs on a case by case basis.

In this master’s program, courses taken during or after the first quarter of the sophomore year are eligible for consideration for transfer to the graduate career; the timing of the first graduate quarter is not a factor. No courses taken prior to the first quarter of the sophomore year may be used to meet master’s degree requirements.

Course transfers are not possible after the bachelor’s degree has been conferred.

The University requires that the graduate adviser be assigned in the student’s first graduate quarter even though the undergraduate career may still be open. The University also requires that the Master’s Degree Program Proposal be completed by the student and approved by the department by the end of the student’s first graduate quarter.

Doctor of Philosophy in Classics

University requirements for the Ph.D. are described in the “Graduate Degrees” section of this bulletin. There are four specializations within the Classics Ph.D. program: language and literature; classical archaeology; ancient history; and the joint program in ancient philosophy. These specializations appear on the transcript and the diploma.

I. Language and Literature

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics with specialization in language and literature must fulfill the following requirements:

  1. Complete 135 units of academic credit or equivalent in study beyond the bachelor’s degree no later than the end of the fourth year. These must include the following courses:
    Units
    CLASSICS 201LSurvey of Latin Literature: Literature of the Roman Republic3-5
    CLASSICS 202LSurvey of Latin Literature: Augustan Age Latin3-5
    CLASSICS 203LSurvey of Latin Literature: Imperial Latin3-5
    CLASSICS 201GSurvey of Greek Literature: Archaic Greek3-5
    CLASSICS 202GSurvey of Greek Literature: Classical Greek3-5
    CLASSICS 203GSurvey of Greek Literature: Hellenistic and Late Greek3-5
    CLASSICS 204ALatin Syntax4
    CLASSICS 204BLatin Syntax2
    CLASSICS 205AGreek Syntax: Prose Composition2
    CLASSICS 205BGreek Syntax: Prose Composition4
    CLASSICS 206AThe Semantics of Grammar2
    CLASSICS 206BThe Semantics of Grammar2
    Plus twelve graduate seminars, nine of which must be Classics seminars, and one of the remaining three of which must be outside the department. The other two seminars may be in Classics, from other departments (with the graduate director’s approval), and/or directed readings. 1,2
     
  2. Maintain satisfactory progress throughout the degree program. The Classics department sets a higher standard for satisfactory progress than the University minimum requirements. To maintain that standard, students are expected to:
    • Maintain good grades (within the Classics department, this normally means grades in the A range; an accumulation of grades of B+ or lower may indicate problems).
    • pass all required exams by the required deadlines
    • write a minimum of three seminar papers per year in the first three years
    • demonstrate high-quality research and writing
    • take no more than one incomplete grade at a time (unless given special permission by the Director of Graduate Studies)
    • take incomplete grades only occasionally and finish any incompletes in a timely manner
    • demonstrate effective teaching when serving as a Teaching Assistant or Teaching Fellow
    Students who fail to maintain satisfactory progress have travel and discretionary funds withheld until the situation is redressed.
  3. Students must apply and be approved to advance to candidacy by the end of Summer Quarter of their second year.
  4. Examinations:
    • As soon as students arrive, they must take diagnostic exams in Greek and Latin. Depending on performance, students may be required to enroll in undergraduate language classes in that language to improve their skills to the level required for graduate work.
    • Students must take Greek and Latin translation exams at the end of each survey sequence (Spring Quarter of the first and second years). Students are exempted from the final exam in Spring Quarter Survey in order to prepare for these translations exams. These exams are based on the Greek and Latin reading lists available on the Classics Department website. Greek and Latin survey courses cover less than half of the material on which the translation exams test, and students need to prepare much of the work on their own. It is possible to take both exams in the first year if the student chooses. However, the student cannot choose to delay the first year exam to take both in the second year. The exam consists of translating four passages from a selection of six to eight passages, and students are allowed three hours. A grade of ‘B-’ or higher, on every passage, is required to pass. If a student does not attain a ‘B-’, the exam must be retaken and passed later in the summer before registering for the Autumn Quarter, in order to continue in the program. The exam can only be retaken once.
    • Students must pass two modern language translation exams: (1) German and (2) French or Italian. In exceptional circumstances, the Graduate Studies Committee may permit a different language, e.g., Modern Greek or Russian, to be substituted for (2), in keeping with dissertation research plans. Students are allowed to use paper and online dictionaries. Exams are offered once per quarter. Incoming graduates may choose to be tested as early as Autumn Quarter of their first year. The department strongly encourages students to take modern language exams as early as possible in the program (at least one modern language by the end of the first year), and certainly after any summer language courses they may have taken. Students have two opportunities to the pass the modern language examinations. Failing the second opportunity means automatic dismissal from the program. Students are required to pass the first modern language exam by the end of the second year, and the second modern language exam by the end of the third year, in order to maintain satisfactory progress. A grade of 'B-' or higher is required to pass.
    • Students must take general examinations in Greek literature and Latin literature, and choose two more exams from the following fields: Ancient philosophy, Greek history, Roman history, Greek archaeology and Roman archaeology. The first exam is administered in Autumn Quarter of the second year, while the remaining three exams are administered in Autumn Quarter of the third year. Moving the timing of any of the exams, or increasing the number of exams requires prior consultation and approval by the Director of Graduate Studies. All exam choices must be approved by the Director of Graduate Studies in the Spring Quarter prior to the examination. To prepare for the exams, students must take at least one course in each of their chosen exam fields (in the case of ancient philosophy, a seminar or its equivalent) and may also consult with the faculty examiner. Reading lists for each of the exams are posted on the Classics website.
    • The University Oral Examination is the defense of the candidate’s dissertation. In order to take this exam, a significant portion of the dissertation must be completed and approved by the dissertation adviser(s), the exam committee must have been established and approved by the Chair, and a date and time must have been arranged with the department. The exam consists of a public presentation with question and answer period (no longer than an hour), followed by a private examination between the student and the exam committee (also no longer than an hour).
  5. During the third year, the candidate, in consultation with the dissertation proposal adviser (often the same as the dissertation adviser) writes a dissertation proposal, which is evaluated by a committee of faculty (dissertation proposal committee). The dissertation proposal defense should take place by the end of Autumn Quarter of the fourth year. If the proposal does not pass, the defense is repeated in the following quarter and must be passed. Failure to pass on the second attempt results in dismissal of the student from the program.
  6.  Students are required to teach four one-quarter courses under department supervision. This teaching requirement is normally completed during the second and third years of study. Under certain circumstances, summer teaching may satisfy this requirement.

II. Classical Archaeology

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics with a specialization in classical archaeology must fulfill the requirements following below.

Students are encouraged to enroll in or audit other undergraduate courses that may fill gaps in their undergraduate training. All students are expected to take part in archaeological fieldwork in the classical world areas. At least three consecutive quarters of coursework must be taken at Stanford.

  1. Complete 135 units of academic credit or equivalent in study beyond the bachelor’s degree at the end of the candidate’s fourth year, including:
    Units
    Words and Things in the History of Classical Scholarship 1
    At least three graduate (200 or 300) level courses in Latin or Greek literature 39-15
    Survey of Latin Literature: Literature of the Roman Republic
    Survey of Latin Literature: Augustan Age Latin
    Survey of Latin Literature: Imperial Latin
    Survey of Greek Literature: Archaic Greek
    Survey of Greek Literature: Classical Greek
    Survey of Greek Literature: Hellenistic and Late Greek
    The interdepartmental graduate core sequence in archaeology. The Archaeology Center announces the courses which fulfill this requirement. The core sequence currently comprises a seminar in archaeology theory and a course on archaeological methods.
    Introduction to Archaeological Theory
    Archaeological Methods
    At least one further course outside the Classics department. 23-5
    At least five graduate seminars in classical archaeology. Suggested courses: 215-25
    Ancient Mediterranean Ports
    Topics in Roman Art and Visual Culture
    An Archaeology of Ephesos
    At least three graduate seminars in ancient history. Suggested courses: 29-15
    Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought
    High-Stakes Politics: Case Studies in Political Philosophy, Institutions, and Interests
    Ancient inequalities
  2. Maintain satisfactory progress throughout the degree program. The Classics department sets a higher standard for satisfactory progress than the University minimum requirements. To maintain that standard, students are expected to:
    • Maintain good grades (within the Classics department, this normally means grades in the A range; an accumulation of grades of B+ or lower may indicate problems).
    • pass all required exams by the required deadlines
    • write a minimum of three seminar papers per year in the first three years
    • demonstrate high-quality research and writing
    • take no more than one incomplete grade at a time (unless given special permission by the Director of Graduate Studies)
    • take incomplete grades only occasionally and finish any incompletes in a timely manner
    • demonstrate effective teaching when serving as a Teaching Assistant or Teaching Fellow
    Students who fail to maintain satisfactory progress have travel and discretionary funds withheld until the situation is redressed.
  3. Students must apply and be approved to advance to candidacy by the end of Summer Quarter of their second year.
  4. Examinations:
    • As soon as students arrive, they must take diagnostic exams in Greek and Latin. Depending on performance, students may be required to enroll in undergraduate language classes in that language to improve their skills to the level required for graduate work.
    • Students must pass two modern language translation exams: (1) German and (2) French or Italian. In exceptional circumstances, the Graduate Studies Committee may permit a different language, e.g., Modern Greek or Russian, to be substituted for (2), in keeping with dissertation research plans. Students are allowed to use paper and online dictionaries. Exams are offered once per quarter. Incoming graduates may choose to be tested as early as Autumn Quarter of their first year. The department strongly encourages students to take modern language exams as early as possible in the program (at least one modern language by the end of the first year), and certainly after any summer language courses they may have taken. Students have two opportunities to the pass the modern language examinations. Failing the second opportunity means automatic dismissal from the program. Students are required to pass the first modern language exam by the end of the second year, and the second modern language exam by the end of the third year, in order to maintain satisfactory progress. A grade of 'B-' or higher is required to pass.
    • Students must demonstrate graduate-level competency with an ancient language in one of two ways:
      1. Option 1: Greek or Latin translation exam. This examination must be taken Spring Quarter of the first year or Spring Quarter of the second year. A grade of ‘B-’ or higher on every passage is required to pass. If a student does not meet that standard, the exam must be retaken and passed later in the summer before registering for Autumn Quarter, in order to continue in the program. The exam can only be retaken once.
      2. Option 2: Students must complete the course and take the final offered at the end of each quarter of Greek or Latin Survey. Students must earn a 'B-' or higher on each final to pass.
    • Students must take general examinations in Greek archaeology and Roman archaeology, and choose two more exams from the following fields: Ancient philosophy, Greek history, Roman history, Greek literature and Latin literature. The first exam is administered in Autumn Quarter of the second year, while the remaining three exams are administered in Autumn Quarter of the third year. Moving the timing of any of the exams, or increasing the number of exams requires prior consultation and approval by the Director of Graduate Studies. All exam choices must be approved by the Director of Graduate Studies in the Spring Quarter prior to the examination. To prepare for the exams, students must take at least one course in each of their chosen exam fields (in the case of ancient philosophy, a seminar or its equivalent) and may also consult with the faculty examiner. Reading lists for each of the exams are posted on the Classics website.
    • The University oral examination is the defense of the candidate’s dissertation. In order to take this exam, a significant portion of the dissertation must be completed and approved by the dissertation adviser(s), the exam committee must have been established and approved by the Chair, and a date and time must have been arranged with the department.  The exam consists of a public presentation with question and answer period (no longer than an hour), followed by a private examination between the student and the exam committee (also no longer than an hour).
  5. During the third year, the candidate, in consultation with the dissertation proposal adviser (often the same as the dissertation adviser) writes a dissertation proposal, which is evaluated by a committee of faculty (dissertation proposal committee). The dissertation proposal defense should take place by the end of Autumn Quarter of the fourth year. If the proposal does not pass, the defense is repeated in the following quarter and must be passed. Failure to pass on the second attempt results in dismissal of the student from the program.
  6. Students are required to teach four one-quarter courses under department supervision. This teaching requirement is normally completed during the second and third years of study. Under certain circumstances, summer teaching may satisfy this requirement.

III. Ancient History

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics with specialization in ancient history must fulfill the following requirements:

  1. Complete 135 units of academic credit or equivalent in study beyond the bachelor’s degree at the end of the fourth year. These must include:
    Approaches to History
    Two proseminars. These introduce students to primary sources of evidence for ancient history that require special training: papyrology, epigraphy, paleography, numismatics, and archaeology. 1,28-10
    CLASSICS 211
    Proseminar: Documentary Papyrology
    Proseminar: Ancient Numismatics
    Paleography of Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts
    Advanced Paleography
    Three skills courses relevant to the individual student's chosen research approach. For example, a student could take classes in economics, demography, legal history, or anthropology. Courses can also be used to learn other ancient or modern languages, either by course work or directed reading. 19-15
    Ten graduate seminars (200-level or above). At least five of these seminars must be taken in the department. 2,330-50
    ANCIENT LANGUAGE COURSEWORK
    Option 1: Students focus more on one ancient language by taking 15 units of one survey series (CLASSICS 201L/202L/203L or CLASSICS 201G/202G/203G) and 5 units of the alternate series, plus the following courses: 430
    The Semantics of Grammar
    The Semantics of Grammar
    Latin Syntax
    Latin Syntax
    Greek Syntax: Prose Composition
    Greek Syntax: Prose Composition
    Option 2: Student emphasize broader linguistic skills. This requires students to take both ancient language surveys.30
    Survey of Latin Literature: Literature of the Roman Republic
    Survey of Latin Literature: Augustan Age Latin
    Survey of Latin Literature: Imperial Latin
    Survey of Greek Literature: Archaic Greek
    Survey of Greek Literature: Classical Greek
    Survey of Greek Literature: Hellenistic and Late Greek
  2. Maintain satisfactory progress throughout the degree program. The Classics department sets a higher standard for satisfactory progress than the University minimum requirements. To maintain that standard, students are expected to: Students who fail to maintain satisfactory progress have travel and discretionary funds withheld until the situation is redressed.
    • Maintain good grades (within the Classics department, this normally means grades in the A range; an accumulation of grades of B+ or lower may indicate problems).
    • pass all required exams by the required deadlines
    • write a minimum of three seminar papers per year in the first three years
    • demonstrate high-quality research and writing
    • take no more than one incomplete grade at a time (unless given special permission by the Director of Graduate Studies)
    • take incomplete grades only occasionally and finish any incompletes in a timely manner
    • demonstrate effective teaching when serving as a Teaching Assistant or Teaching Fellow
    Students who fail to maintain satisfactory progress have travel and discretionary funds withheld until the situation is redressed.
  3. Students must apply and be approved to advance to candidacy by the end of Summer Quarter of their second year.
  4. Examinations:
    • As soon as students arrive, they must take diagnostic exams in Greek and Latin, as well as Greek and Roman history. Depending on performance, students may be required to enroll in undergraduate language classes in that language to improve their skills to the level required for graduate work. The history exams are mainly on narrative history, especially important names, dates, and events. Depending on performance, students may be asked to sit in on the undergraduate history courses and take a directed reading or a graduate survey if offered.
    • Students must take the final offered at the end of each quarter of Greek or Latin survey (for Option 1 above) or both Greek and Latin surveys (for Option 2 above). Students must earn a ‘B-’ or higher on each final to pass.
    • Students must pass two modern language translation exams: (1) German and (2) French or Italian. In exceptional circumstances, the Graduate Studies Committee may permit a different language, e.g., Modern Greek or Russian, to be substituted for (2), in keeping with dissertation research plans. Students are allowed to use paper and online dictionaries. Exams are offered once per quarter. Incoming graduates may choose to be tested as early as Autumn Quarter of their first year. The department strongly encourages students to take modern language exams as early as possible in the program (at least one modern language by the end of the first year), and certainly after any summer language courses they may have taken. Students have two opportunities to the pass the modern language examinations. Failing the second opportunity means automatic dismissal from the program. Students are required to pass the first modern language exam by the end of the second year, and the second modern language exam by the end of the third year, in order to maintain satisfactory progress. A grade of 'B-' or higher is required to pass.
    • Students must take general examinations in Greek history and Roman history, and choose two more exams from the following fields: Ancient philosophy, Greek archaeology, Roman archaeology, Greek literature and Latin literature. The first exam is administered in Fall Quarter of the second year, while the remaining three exams are administered in Fall Quarter of the third year. Moving the timing of any of the exams, or increasing the number of exams requires prior consultation and approval by the Director of Graduate Studies. All exam choices must be approved by the Director of Graduate Studies in the Spring Quarter prior to the examination. To prepare for the exams, students must take at least one course in each of their chosen exam fields (in the case of ancient philosophy, a seminar or its equivalent) and may also consult with the faculty examiner. Reading lists for each of the exams are posted on the Classics website.
    • The University oral examination is the defense of the candidate’s dissertation. In order to take this exam, a significant portion of the dissertation must be completed and approved by the dissertation adviser(s), the exam committee must have been established and approved by the Chair, and a date and time must have been arranged with the department.  The exam consists of a public presentation with question and answer period (no longer than an hour), followed by a private examination between the student and the exam committee (also no longer than an hour).
  5. During the third year, the candidate, in consultation with the dissertation proposal adviser (often the same as the dissertation adviser) writes a dissertation proposal, which is evaluated by a committee of faculty (dissertation proposal committee). The dissertation proposal defense should take place by the end of Autumn Quarter of the fourth year. If the proposal does not pass, the defense is repeated in the following quarter and must be passed. Failure to pass on the second attempt results in dismissal of the student from the program.
  6. Students are required to reach four one-quarter courses under department supervision. This teaching requirement is normally completed during the second and third years of study. Under certain circumstances, summer teaching may satisfy this requirement.

IV. Joint Program in Ancient Philosophy

This specialization is jointly administered by the departments of Classics and Philosophy and is overseen by a joint committee composed of members of both departments. It provides students with the training, specialist skills, and knowledge needed for research and teaching in ancient philosophy while producing scholars who are fully trained as either philosophers or classicists.

Graduate students admitted by the Classics department receive their Ph.D. from the Classics department. This specialization includes training in ancient and modern philosophy. Each student in the program is advised by a committee consisting of one professor from each department.

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics with specialization in ancient philosophy must fulfill the following requirements:

Units
Students must take three courses in the Philosophy department 19-15
One course in logic which can be fulfilled at the 100-level or higher
One course in aesthetics, ethics, or political philosophy (200-level or higher)
One course in metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, or philosophy of science.
At least three courses in ancient philosophy at the 200 level or above, one of which must be in the Philosophy department. 19-15
  1. Complete 135 units of academic credit or equivalent in study beyond the bachelor’s degree at the end of the fourth year. This includes all the requirements listed for the language and literature specialization in the graduate program in Classics (see above).  Students must also take the below courses focusing on philosophy.
  2. Examinations: The requirements are the same as those listed in the language and literature specialization, except that one of the four areas of general examination must be taken in ancient philosophy in addition to the exams in Greek literature and Latin literature.
  3. Dissertation Proposal: The requirements are the same as those listed in the language and literature specialization.
  4. Teaching: The requirements are the same as those listed in the language and literature specialization.

Classics and a Minor Field

The Ph.D. in Classics may be combined with a minor in another field, such as anthropology, history, humanities, or classical linguistics. Requirements for the minor field vary but can include about six graduate-level courses in the field and one written examination, plus a portion of the University oral exam (dissertation defense). Students must consult with the department in which the minor is offered for exact requirements. Students who pursue this are expected to take five years. The department encourages such programs for especially able and well-prepared students. The following timetable would be typical for a five-year program:

  • First Year: coursework, almost entirely in Classics. One translation exam taken in June. One or both modern language exams taken.
  • Second Year: coursework, both in Classics and the minor field. Second translation exam completed. French and German exams completed.
  • Third Year: coursework, both in Classics and the minor field. General examinations in Classics.
  • Fourth Year: remaining coursework, both in Classics and the minor field. General examination in the minor field. Preparation for dissertation.
  • Fifth Year: dissertation, University oral examination.

Ph.D. Minor in Classics

For a graduate minor, the department recommends at least 20 units in Latin or Greek at the intermediate-level or above, and at least one course at the graduate (200) level or above. Students interested in this minor must discuss their proposed course plan with the Director of Graduate Studies as well as their Ph.D. department before obtaining Classics department approval.

Graduate Advising Expectations

The Department of Classics is committed to providing academic advising in support of graduate student scholarly and professional development. When most effective, this advising relationship entails collaborative and sustained engagement by both the
adviser and the advisee. As a best practice, advising expectations should be periodically discussed and reviewed to ensure mutual understanding. Both the adviser and the advisee are expected to maintain professionalism and integrity.

Faculty advisers guide students in key areas such as selecting courses, designing and conducting research, developing of teaching pedagogy, navigating policies and degree requirements, and exploring academic opportunities and professional pathways.

Graduate students are active contributors to the advising relationship, proactively seeking academic and professional guidance and taking responsibility for informing themselves of policies and degree requirements for their graduate program.

For a statement of University policy on graduate advising, see the "Graduate Advising" section of this bulletin.

Emeriti: (Professors) Mark W. Edwards, Marsh H. McCall, Jr.*, Susan Treggiari

Chair: Walter Scheidel

Director of Graduate Studies: Susan Stephens

Director of Undergraduate Studies and Joint Major Advisor: John Klopacz

Professors: Andrew M. Devine, Richard P. Martin, Ian Morris, Reviel Netz (on leave), Andrea Nightingale, Josiah Ober (Classics, Political Science), Anastasia-Erasmia Peponi, M. Rush Rehm (Classics, TAPS), Richard Saller (Classics, History; on leave Spring Quarter), Walter Scheidel (Classics, History), Michael Shanks (on leave, Autumn Quarter), Susan A. Stephens

Associate Professors: Giovanna Ceserani, Christopher B. Krebs, Jody Maxmin (Art and Art History, Classics), Grant Parker (on leave), Jennifer Trimble (on leave)

Assistant Professor: Justin Leidwanger (on leave, Autumn Quarter), Hans Bork

Courtesy Professors: Fabio Barry (Art and Art History), Chris Bobonich (Philosophy), Alan Code (Philosophy), Charlotte Fonrobert (Religious Studies), Ian Hodder (Anthropology), Bissera Pentcheva (Art and Art History),  Caroline Winterer (History), Yiqun Zhou (East Asian Languages and Cultures)

Visiting Professors: Stephen Harrison, Sabine Ladstaetter

Lecturers: John Klopacz, Tom Recht

Adjunct Lecturers: Maud Gleason

* Recalled to active duty.

Courses

CLASSICS 1G. Beginning Greek. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 1.) No knowledge of Greek is assumed. Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language.

CLASSICS 1L. Beginning Latin. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 1.) Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. No previous knowledge of Latin is assumed.

CLASSICS 2G. Beginning Greek. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 2.) Continuation of CLASSICS 1G. Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language.

CLASSICS 2L. Beginning Latin. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 2.) Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. Prerequisite: CLASSICS 1L or equivalent placement.

CLASSICS 3G. Beginning Greek. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 3.) Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. Prerequisite: CLASSICS 2G or equivalent placement. CLASSICS 3G fulfills University language requirement.

CLASSICS 3L. Beginning Latin. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 3.) Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. Prerequisite: CLASSICS 2L or equivalent placement. CLASSICS 3L fulfills the University language requirement.

CLASSICS 4L. Intensive Beginning Latin. 12 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 10/210) Equivalent to a year of beginning Latin (three quarters; CLASSICS 1L, 2: and 3L), this course is designed to teach the fundamentals of the Latin language in eight weeks. We will focus primarily on acquiring the basics of Latin grammar, morphology, and vocabulary and developing basic reading skills. At the end of the course, students should be able to read easy Latin prose and poetry. We will be using Wheelock's Latin textbook and meeting three hours a day, four days a week. Grades will depend on class participation and on performance in weekly quizzes and in a final written exam. Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade. CLASSICS 4L fulfills the University language requirement.

CLASSICS 6G. Biblical Greek. 3-5 Units.

This is a one term intensive class in Biblical Greek. After quickly learning the basics of the language, we will then dive right into readings from the New Testament and the Septuagint, which is the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. No previous knowledge of Greek required. If demand is high for a second term, an additional quarter will be offered in the Spring.
Same as: JEWISHST 5, RELIGST 171A

CLASSICS 6L. Latin 400-1700 CE. 1-2 Unit.

Readings in later Latin, drawing on the vast bodies of texts from the late antique, medieval and early modern periods. Each week students will prepare selections in advance of class meetings; class time will be devoted to translation and discussion. Students taking this course will gain exposure to a wide range of later Latin texts; hone translation skills; and develop an awareness of the grammatical and stylistic features of post-classical Latin. The course is aimed both at classical Latinists seeking to broaden their reading experience and at medievalists and early modernists seeking to consolidate their Latin language skills. May be repeat for credit.nnPrior experience in Latin is required, preferably CLASSICS 11L. Equivalent accepted. Anyone unsure whether to take this course is encouraged to contact the instructor in advance.
Same as: CLASSICS 208L, RELIGST 173X

CLASSICS 7G. Biblical Greek. 3-5 Units.

This is a continuation of the Winter Quarter Biblical Greek Course. Pre-requisite: CLASSICS 6G or a similar introductory course in Ancient Greek.
Same as: JEWISHST 5B

CLASSICS 9N. What Didn't Make it into the Bible. 3 Units.

Over two billion people alive today consider the Bible to be sacred scripture. But how did the books that made it into the bible get there in the first place? Who decided what was to be part of the bible and what wasn't? How would history look differently if a given book didn't make the final cut and another one did? Hundreds of ancient Jewish and Christian texts are not included in the Bible. ¿What Didn't Make It in the Bible¿ focuses on these excluded writings. We will explore the Dead Sea Scrolls, Gnostic gospels, hear of a five-year-old Jesus throwing temper tantrums while killing (and later resurrecting) his classmates, peruse ancient romance novels, explore the adventures of fallen angels who sired giants (and taught humans about cosmetics), tour heaven and hell, encounter the garden of Eden story told from the perspective of the snake, and learn how the world will end. The seminar assumes no prior knowledge of Judaism, Christianity, the bible, or ancient history. It is designed for students who are part of faith traditions that consider the bible to be sacred, as well as those who are not. The only prerequisite is an interest in exploring books, groups, and ideas that eventually lost the battles of history and to keep asking the question "why." In critically examining these ancient narratives and the communities that wrote them, you will learn about the content and history of the Bible, better appreciate the diversity of early Judaism and Christianity, understand the historical context of these religions, and explore the politics behind what did and did not make it into the bible.
Same as: JEWISHST 9N, RELIGST 9N

CLASSICS 11G. Intermediate Greek: Prose. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 101.) Transition to reading narrative Grammar review and vocabulary-building.

CLASSICS 11L. Intermediate Latin: Introduction to Literature. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 101.) Phonology, morphology, semantics, and syntax. Readings in prose and poetry. Analysis of literary language, including rhythm, meter, word order, narrative, and figures of speech.May be repeat for credit.

CLASSICS 12G. Intermediate Greek: Herodotus. 5 Units.

Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade. Classics majors and minors may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 12L. Intermediate Latin: Martial & Pliny. 5 Units.

In this class you will practice with and reinforce the advanced vocabulary, forms, and syntax of classical Latin you have previously acquired. The primary emphasis of this course is on developing fluency in reading Latin. You will have opportunities to discuss topics and issues raised by the readings.Classics majors and minors may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 12N. Income and wealth inequality from the Stone Age to the present. 4 Units.

Rising inequality is a defining feature of our time. How long has economic inequality existed, and when, how and why has the gap between haves and have-nots widened or narrowed over the course of history? This seminar takes a very long-term view of these questions. It is designed to help you appreciate dynamics and complexities that are often obscured by partisan controversies and short-term perspectives, and to provide solid historical background for a better understanding of a growing societal concern.
Same as: HISTORY 12N

CLASSICS 13G. Intermediate Greek: Homer's Iliad. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 103.) Classics majors and minors may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 13L. Intermediate Latin: Vergil's Aeneid. 5 Units.

Vocabulary, forms and syntax. Classics majors and minors may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 14. Greek and Latin Roots of English. 3 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 9) Goal is to improve vocabulary, comprehension of written English, and standardized test scores through learning the Greek and Latin components of English. Focus is on patterns and processes in the formation of the lexicon. Terminology used in medicine, business, education, law, and humanities; introduction to principles of language history and etymology. Greek or Latin not required.

CLASSICS 14N. Ecology in Philosophy and Literature. 3-5 Units.

What can we do to help the environment? How do our conceptions of the environment affect our actions? In this class, we examine the basic principles of ecological thinking in Western culture. We explore the ways that different writers represent and conceive of the natural world. We also analyze different environmental philosophies. We will address the following questions: What is nature? Who decides what is "natural"? How do humans differ from other animals? Do these differences make us superior beings? How do our eating habits affect the earth? What are the philosophical arguments for vegetarianism and veganism? How have the technologies of television, cell phones, and computers affected our relationship to the natural world? To what extent do we dwell in cyberspace? How does this affect our habitation on earth? How does modern technology inform the way that we think and act in the world? To help us answer these questions, we read nature writers (Edward Abbey, Annie Dillard), philosophers (Descartes, Heidegger), short stories (Kafka, Ursula le Guin), novelists (Conrad, Tournier) and contemporary writers (Peter Singer, Michael Pollan, Elizabeth Kolbert).

CLASSICS 16N. Sappho: Erotic Poetess of Lesbos. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Sappho's surviving fragments in English; traditions referring to or fantasizing about her disputed life. How her poetry and legend inspired women authors and male poets such as Swinburne, Baudelaire, and Pound. Paintings inspired by Sappho in ancient and modern times, and composers who put her poetry to music.
Same as: FEMGEN 24N

CLASSICS 17N. To Die For: Antigone and Political Dissent. 3 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 6N.) Preference to freshmen. Tensions inherent in the democracy of ancient Athens; how the character of Antigone emerges in later drama, film, and political thought as a figure of resistance against illegitimate authority; and her relevance to contemporary struggles for women's and workers' rights and national liberation. Readings and screenings include versions of Antigone by Sophocles, Anouilh, Brecht, Fugard/Kani/Ntshona, Paulin, Glowacki, Gurney, and von Trotta.
Same as: TAPS 12N

CLASSICS 18N. The Artist in Ancient Greek Society. 3 Units.

Given the importance of art to all aspects of their lives, the Greeks had reason to respect their artists. Yet potters, painters and even sculptors possessed little social standing. n nWhy did the Greeks value the work of craftsmen but not the men themselves? Why did Herodotus dismiss those who worked with their hands as "mechanics?" What prompted Homer to claim that "there is no greater glory for a man¿ than what he achieves with his own hands," provided that he was throwing a discus and not a vase on a wheel?n nPainted pottery was essential to the religious and secular lives of the Greeks. Libations to the gods and to the dead required vases from which to pour them. Economic prosperity depended on the export of wine and oil in durable clay containers. At home, depictions of gods and heroes on vases reinforced Greek values and helped parents to educate their children. Ceramic sets with scenes of Dionysian excess were reserved for elite symposia from which those who potted and painted them were excluded.n nSculptors were less lowly but even those who carved the Parthenon were still regarded as "mechanics," with soft bodies and soft minds (Xenophon) "indifferent to higher things" (Plutarch).n nThe seminar addresses these issues. Students will read and discuss texts, write response papers and present slide lectures and gallery talks on aspects of the artist's profession.
Same as: ARTHIST 100N

CLASSICS 19N. Eloquence Personified: How To Speak Like Cicero. 3 Units.

This course is an introduction to Roman rhetoric, Cicero's Rome, and the active practice of speaking well. Participants read a short rhetorical treatise by Cicero, analyze one of his speeches as well as more recent ones by, e.g., Kennedy, Martin Luther King Jr., and Obama, and watch their oratorical performances. During the remainder of the term they practice rhetoric, prepare and deliver in class two (short) speeches, and write an essay.

CLASSICS 21Q. Eight Great Archaeological Sites in Europe. 3-5 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Focus is on excavation, features and finds, arguments over interpretation, and the place of each site in understanding the archaeological history of Europe. Goal is to introduce the latest archaeological and anthropological thought, and raise key questions about ancient society. The archaeological perspective foregrounds interdisciplinary study: geophysics articulated with art history, source criticism with analytic modeling, statistics interpretation. A web site with resources about each site, including plans, photographs, video, and publications, is the basis for exploring.
Same as: ARCHLGY 21Q

CLASSICS 26N. The Roman Empire: Its Grandeur and Fall. 4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Explore themes on the Roman Empire and its decline from the 1st through the 5th centuries C.E.. What was the political and military glue that held this diverse, multi-ethnic empire together? What were the bases of wealth and how was it distributed? What were the possibilities and limits of economic growth? How integrated was it in culture and religion? What were the causes and consequences of the conversion to Christianity? Why did the Empire fall in the West? How suitable is the analogy of the U.S. in the 21st century?.
Same as: HISTORY 11N

CLASSICS 28N. Inequality: the Last 100,000 Years. 3 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 13N.) This seminar traces the evolution of resource inequality from the Stone Age to the present. Only this long-term perspective reveals the forces that drive inequality and allows us to address two key questions: what causes inequality, and what factors have been capable of reducing it, at least for a while? We are going to confront challenging arguments: that inequality has been closely tied up with overall economic and human development, and that over the long course of history, war, revolution and pestilence were the most effective equalizers of income and wealth. This class will help you appreciate contexts and complexities that are usually obscured by partisan polemics and short-term thinking. Seminar participants will be directly involved in the instructor's current research project on the history of inequality.
Same as: HISTORY 15N

CLASSICS 29N. Ancient Myth in Modern Poetry. 3 Units.

For millennia, the myths of ancient Greece and Rome have been objects of fascination and tools for exploring humanity's most abiding concerns: self, society, birth, death and the afterlife, the cosmos and the divine. In the 20th and 21st centuries, the power and beauty of these archaic narratives have inspired scores of poets, including such well-known figures as Yeats, Heaney, Eliot, Pound, H.D., Seferis, Rilke, Auden, Mandelshtam and Tsvetaeva. We will delve into this rich poetic heritage, savoring the full range of modern responses, while paying attention to the many meanings of the old stories that they echo or challenge. All readings in English; no prior experience of any sort assumed. Aspiring writers and lovers of mythology welcomed.

CLASSICS 29Q. Questioning the Gods: Religious Thought and Literature in Classical Antiquity. 3 Units.

Ancient Greek and Roman literature and philosophy dealing with theology and ethics. What is a god, and why should gods care about you or me? Do you have a soul, and if so what might happen to it when you die? Should you try to be a good person, and if so, how? Learn viewing fundamental questions like these through the eyes of ancient Greek and Roman thinkers. We will read tragedies and epic poetry, wrestle with the philosophical arguments, and apply forms scientific reasoning developed more than 2,000 years ago. This course offers highly sophisticated perspectives on religious and ethical issues that are still vitally important today, as well as a firm grasp of the culture of classical antiquity and the means it offers of understanding the world and our place in it.

CLASSICS 31. Greek Mythology. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 18.) The heroic and divine in the literature, mythology, and culture of archaic Greece. Interdisciplinary approach to the study of individuals and society. Illustrated lectures. Readings in translation of Homer, Hesiod, Herodotus, and the poets of lyric and tragedy. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required during regular academic quarters (Aut, Win, Spr).

CLASSICS 34. Ancient Athletics. 3-4 Units.

How the Olympic Games developed and how they were organized. Many other Greek festivals featured sport and dance competitions, including some for women, and showcased the citizen athlete as a civic ideal. Roman athletics in contrast saw the growth of large-scale spectator sports and professional athletes. Some toured like media stars; others regularly risked death in gladiatorial contests and chariot-racing. We will also explore how large-scale games were funded and how they fostered the development of sports medicine. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required; enroll in sections on coursework.

CLASSICS 35. The Good Life: An Introduction to Ancient Greek Ethical Philosophy. 3-5 Units.

The ancient Greeks longed for happiness, but life often led to suffering and anxiety. In ancient Greece, the traditional value system focused on gaining honor, wealth, power, and success¿external goods that could be taken away at any time. The Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle set forth ethical theories designed to alleviate suffering and anxiety. They rejected the traditional Greek value system, focusing on inner goodness rather than on external rewards. Developing inner goodness was the only way to live a happy and fulfilled life. In this class, we read Greek tragedies by Sophocles and Euripides that represent traditional Greek values. We examine the values, motivation, and choices of tragic characters who faced difficult ethical dilemmas¿choices that led to misery and ruin. What were their tragic flaws? Could they have avoided their fates by adopting a different value system? We also examine the ethical theories of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. We analyze their discussions of justice, courage, friendship, love, and self-knowledge. Do these philosophical theories offer a valid way to live a happy life? Can we develop these virtues? If so, how do we do this? Do we need to have these virtues to live a happy life? Do the ancient philosophers offer useful solutions to ethical questions in our own day? Can their philosophies help us to become better and happier people?.

CLASSICS 37. Humanities Core: Great Books, Big Ideas -- Europe, The Ancient World. 3 Units.

This course will journey through ancient literature from Homer to St. Augustine; it will introduce participants to some of its fascinating features and big ideas; and it will reflect on questions such as: What is a good life, a good society? Who is in and who is out and why? What is the meaning of honor, and should it be embraced or feared? Where does human subjectivity fit into a world of matter, cause and effect? When is rebellion justified? What happens when a way of life or thought is upended? Do we have any duties to the past? N.B. This is the first of three courses in the European track. These courses offer an unparalleled opportunity to study European history and culture, past and present. Take all three to experience a year-long intellectual community dedicated to exploring how ideas have shaped our world and future. Students who take HUMCORE 11 and HUMCORE 12Q will have preferential admission to HUMCORE 13Q (a WR2 seminar).
Same as: DLCL 11, HUMCORE 11

CLASSICS 39. Reinventing the Sophomore Experience. 1 Unit.

The sophomore year brings a number of choices that undergraduates have to make. This course is a chance to explore those choices thoughtfully, without resorting to negative clichés ('sophomore slump'). Students will diagnose and discuss the issues at stake, including academic plans, campus life, work-life balance, longer-term life goals. The challenges and opportunities of leadership is an important theme, both in an abstract sense and practically: students will, in the course of the autumn term, design an event which will be held in the winter or spring term. This residentially-based course is aimed at students who have preassigned to Toyon's RISE program, Reinventing the Sophomore Experience. One unit only. Letter-grade only.

CLASSICS 40. Greek Philosophy. 4 Units.

We shall cover the major developments in Greek philosophical thought, focusing on Plato, Aristotle, and the Hellenistic schools (the Epicureans, the Stoics, and the Skeptics). Topics include epistemology, metaphysics, psychology, ethics and political theory. No prereqs, not repeatable.
Same as: PHIL 100

CLASSICS 41. Herodotus. 4-5 Units.

For Ancient History field of study majors; others by consent of instructor. Close reading technique. Historical background to the Greco-Persian Wars; ancient views of empire, culture, and geography; the wars and their aftermath; ancient ethnography and historiography, including the first narrative of ancient Egypt.

CLASSICS 42. Philosophy and Literature. 3-5 Units.

What, if anything, does reading literature do for our lives? What can literature offer that other forms of writing cannot? Can fictions teach us anything? Can they make people more moral? Why do we take pleasure in tragic stories? This course introduces students to major problems at the intersection of philosophy and literature. It addresses key questions about the value of literature, philosophical puzzles about the nature of fiction and literary language, and ways that philosophy and literature interact. Readings span literature, film, and philosophical theories of art. Authors may include Sophocles, Dickinson, Toni Morrison, Proust, Woolf, Walton, Nietzsche, and Sartre. Students master close reading techniques and philosophical analysis, and write papers combining the two. This is the required gateway course for the Philosophy and Literature major tracks. Majors should register in their home department.
Same as: COMPLIT 181, ENGLISH 81, FRENCH 181, GERMAN 181, ITALIAN 181, PHIL 81, SLAVIC 181

CLASSICS 43. Exploring the New Testament. 4 Units.

To explore the historical context of the earliest Christians, students will read most of the New Testament as well as many documents that didn't make the final cut. Non-Christian texts, Roman art, and surviving archeological remains will better situate Christianity within the ancient world. Students will read from the Dead Sea Scrolls, explore Gnostic gospels, hear of a five-year-old Jesus throwing divine temper tantrums while killing (and later resurrecting) his classmates, peruse an ancient marriage guide, and engage with recent scholarship in archeology, literary criticism, and history.
Same as: JEWISHST 86, RELIGST 86

CLASSICS 44. Epic! Life, death, and glory in the Iliad and Odyssey. 4-5 Units.

The two epics attributed to the ancient Greek poet Homer enshrine a vivid world of experience centered on the deeds and misdeeds of warriors and divinities, kings and queens, in the last days and aftermath of the Trojan War. The course examines these remarkable poems in detail, with attention to their political, social, historical and artistic contexts, as well as to their reception in art, literature, film and music over the last two millennia. No prior knowledge of Homer or Greek literature necessary.

CLASSICS 52. Introduction to Roman Archaeology. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 81.) This course will introduce you to the material culture of the ancient Roman world, from spectacular imperial monuments in the city of Rome to cities and roads around the Mediterranean, from overarching environmental concerns to individual human burials, from elite houses and army forts to the the lives of slaves, freedmen and gladiators. Key themes will be change and continuity over time; the material, spatial and visual workings of power; how Roman society was materially changed by its conquests and how conquered peoples responded materially to Roman rule.
Same as: ARCHLGY 81

CLASSICS 54. Introduction to World Architecture. 5 Units.

This lecture course surveys the history of architecture and urbanism, from the first societies to the present, in Europe, West and East Asia, the Americas, and Africa. The course progresses by case studies of exemplary monuments and cities, and examines the built environment as both cultural artifact and architectural event. It considers the social and political circumstances of architectural invention as well as plumbing the depth of artistic context by which particular formal choices resonate with an established representational culture.
Same as: ARTHIST 3

CLASSICS 56. Introduction to the Visual Arts: Prehistoric through Medieval. 5 Units.

A survey of the art and architecture from the cave paintings of Lascaux to the Gothic Cathedrals of France; the material is organized both chronologically and thematically and covers a multiplicity of religions: pagan, Christian, and Islamic.
Same as: ARTHIST 1A

CLASSICS 57. Introduction to Digital Archaeology. 4 Units.

While the tools of Digital Archaeology frequently change, using digital tools has been part of the discipline for decades. These tools and approaches provide new forms of research, visualization, and outreach to archaeological investigations. This course is designed to introduce students of archaeology to the digital research methods useful to the discipline, and provide them with hands-on experience in three types of digital method: digital mapping, visualization, and 3D modeling. The goal of the course is for students to learn about the state of digital archaeology, to become familiar with common methods, and become aware of the resources available for research.
Same as: ARCHLGY 47

CLASSICS 58. Egypt in the Age of Heresy. 3-5 Units.

Perhaps the most controversial era in ancient Egyptian history, the Amarna period (c.1350-1334 BCE) was marked by great sociocultural transformation, notably the introduction of a new 'religion' (often considered the world's first form of monotheism), the construction of a new royal city, and radical departures in artistic and architectural styles. This course will introduce archaeological and textual sources of ancient Egypt, investigating topics such as theological promotion, projections of power, social structure, urban design, interregional diplomacy, and historical legacy during the inception, height, and aftermath of this highly enigmatic period. Students with or without prior background are equally encouraged.
Same as: AFRICAAM 58A, AFRICAST 58, ARCHLGY 58

CLASSICS 76. Global History: The Ancient World. 3-5 Units.

World history from the origins of humanity to the Black Death. Focuses on the evolution of complex societies, wealth, violence, and hierarchy, emphasizing the three great turning points in early history: the evolution of modern humans, the agricultural revolution, and the rise of the state.
Same as: HISTORY 1A

CLASSICS 81. Ancient Empires: Near East. 4-5 Units.

Why do imperialists conquer people? Why do some people resist while others collaborate? This course tries to answer these questions by looking at some of the world's earliest empires. The main focus is on the expansion of the Assyrian and Persian Empires between 900 and 300 BC and the consequences for the ancient Jews, Egyptians, and Greeks. The main readings come from the Bible, Herodotus, and Assyrian and Persian royal inscriptions, and the course combines historical and archaeological data with social scientific approaches. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: HISTORY 117

CLASSICS 82. The Egyptians. 3-5 Units.

Overview of ancient Egyptian pasts, from predynastic times to Greco-Roman rule, roughly 3000 BCE to 30 BCE. Attention to archaeological sites and artifacts; workings of society; and cultural productions, both artistic and literary. Participation in class is required.
Same as: AFRICAAM 30, HISTORY 48, HISTORY 148

CLASSICS 83. The Greeks. 4-5 Units.

250 years ago, for almost the first time in history, a few societies rejected kings who claimed to know what the gods wanted and began moving toward democracy. Only once before had this happened--in ancient Greece. This course asks how the Greeks did this, and what they can teach us today. It uses texts and archaeology to trace the material and military sides of the story as well as cultural developments, and looks at Greek slavery and misogyny as well as their achievements. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: HISTORY 101

CLASSICS 84. The Romans. 3-5 Units.

How did a tiny village create a huge empire and shape the world, and why did it fail? Roman history, imperialism, politics, social life, economic growth, and religious change. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required; enroll in sections on Coursework.
Same as: HISTORY 102A

CLASSICS 88. Origins of History in Greece and Rome. 4-5 Units.

The beginnings and development of historical writing in the ancient world. Emphasis on major classical historians and various models of history they invented, from local to imperial, military, cultural, biographical, world history and church history. Focus on themes of power, war, loss, growth and decline, as put by the ancients into historical narrative forms and probed by way of historical questioning and explanation. Attention to how these models resonate still today. Readings in translation: Herodotus, Thucydides, Tacitus, Livy and others.
Same as: HISTORY 114

CLASSICS 92. Introduction to Greek Art and Archaeology. 5 Units.

This course will introduce students to the art and archaeology of Greece (and the Greek world) from the Neolithic through Early Roman periods (c. 6000 ¿ 31 BCE). This course is designed to balance a core chronological narrative of the development of various aspects of material culture of Greece with thematic explorations including (but not limited to) such topics as postcolonial approaches to material culture, the archaeology of memory, and archaeology and nationalism.
Same as: ARCHLGY 92

CLASSICS 101G. Advanced Greek: Greek Erotic Poetry and Prose. 3-5 Units.

Read and compare Xenophon's and Plato's approaches to desire. Then we will move to earlier poetry and read Sappho, Anacreon, Alcman, Ibycus, and other lyric poetry on eros. Classics majors and minors may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 101L. Advanced Latin: Lucretius. 3-5 Units.

Classics majors and minors must take for a letter grade and may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 102G. Advanced Greek: Plato's Phaedo. 3-5 Units.

Classics majors and minors may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 102L. Advanced Latin: Elegy. 3-5 Units.

As needed, we will review questions of grammar and syntax, rhetorical terms, and historical context. Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade. May be repeated for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 103G. Advanced Greek: Sophocles. 3-5 Units.

Classics majors and minors must take for a letter grade and may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 103L. Advanced Latin: Livy. 3-5 Units.

Classics majors and minors must take course for a letter grade and may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 104A. Latin Syntax. 4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 175A/275A.) Intensive review of Latin syntax. Begins Autumn Quarter and continues through the fifth week of Winter Quarter. See CLASSICS 206A/B for supplemental courses. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Latin. First-year graduate students register for CLASSICS 204A.
Same as: CLASSICS 204A

CLASSICS 104B. Latin Syntax. 2 Units.

Intensive review of Latin syntax. Began with 104A/204A in Autumn Quarter and continues through the fifth week of Winter Quarter. See CLASSICS 206A/B for supplemental courses. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Latin. First-year graduate students register for CLASSICS 204B.
Same as: CLASSICS 204B

CLASSICS 105A. Greek Syntax: Prose Composition. 2 Units.

Review of Greek grammar and instruction in Greek prose composition skills. Begins sixth week of Winter Quarter and continues through Spring Quarter. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Greek. First-year graduate students register for 205A/B.
Same as: CLASSICS 205A

CLASSICS 105B. Greek Syntax: Prose Composition. 4 Units.

Review of Greek grammar and instruction in Greek prose composition skills. Begins sixth week of Winter Quarter and continues through Spring Quarter. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Greek. First-year graduate students register for 205A/B.
Same as: CLASSICS 205B

CLASSICS 112. Introduction to Greek Tragedy: Gods, Heroes, Fate, and Justice. 4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 110.) Gods and heroes, fate and free choice, gender conflict, the justice or injustice of the universe: these are just some of the fundamental human issues that we will explore in about ten of the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.
Same as: TAPS 167

CLASSICS 115. Mapping the Grand Tour: Digital Methods for Historical Data. 4-5 Units.

Classical Italy attracted thousands of travelers in the eighteenth century, who pursued intellectual passions, professional development, or pure wanderlust, while collecting ancient remains to fill museums and private houses. What can digital approaches tell us about who traveled, where and why? We will read and discuss travel accounts and experiment with parsing, curation and visualization of historical data. Final projects to form credited contributions to the Grand Tour Project, a cutting-edge digital humanities platform. No prior digital humanities experience necessary.

CLASSICS 116. Human Rights in Comparative and Historical Perspective. 3-5 Units.

This course examines core human rights issues and concepts from a comparative and historical perspective. In the beginning part of the course we will focus on current debates about the universality of human rights norms, considering the foundation of the international human rights regime and claims that it is a product of western colonialism, imperialism, or hegemony. We will then discuss a series of issues where the debates about universality are particularly acute: gender inequality and discrimination, sexual violence, child marriage and forced marriage more generally, and other related topics. We will also consider the way in which issues of gender-based violence arise in the context of internal and international conflicts.
Same as: HUMRTS 106

CLASSICS 118. Slavery, human trafficking, and the moral order: ancient and modern. 3 Units.

Slavery and trafficking in persons in the Greco-Roman world were legal and ubiquitous; today slavery is illegal in most states and regarded as a grave violation of human rights and as a crime against humanity under international law. In recent trends, human trafficking has been re-conceptualized as a form of "modern day slavery. " Despite more than a century since the success of the abolition movement, slavery and trafficking continue in the 21st century on a global scale.
Same as: CLASSICS 218, HUMRTS 109

CLASSICS 124. Ancient and Modern Medicine. 3-4 Units.

Imagine a world where the Universe has a built-in purpose and point. How would this belief impact man's place in nature? Imagine a world where natural substances have "powers." How might this impact diet and pharmacology? Magical vs. scientific healing: a clear divide? Disease and dehumanization: epilepsy, rabies. Physical and mental health: black bile and melancholy. The ethical and scientific assumptions hidden in medical language and imagery. How ancient medicine and modern medicine (especially alternative medicine) illuminate each other.

CLASSICS 136. The Greek Invention of Mathematics. 3-5 Units.

How was mathematics invented? A survey of the main creative ideas of ancient Greek mathematics. Among the issues explored are the axiomatic system of Euclid's Elements, the origins of the calculus in Greek measurements of solids and surfaces, and Archimedes' creation of mathematical physics. We will provide proofs of ancient theorems, and also learn how such theorems are even known today thanks to the recovery of ancient manuscripts.

CLASSICS 137. Ancient Dance and its Modern Legacy. 3-5 Units.

Descriptions of dance in the Greek and Greco-Roman world; theories about dance in antiquity; dance and the senses; modern and modernist dancers and choreographers discussing ancient dance.
Same as: CLASSICS 237, TAPS 165C, TAPS 265C

CLASSICS 145. Early Christian Gospels. 4 Units.

An exploration of Christian gospels of the first and second century. Emphasis on the variety of images and interpretations of Jesus and the good news, the broader Hellenistic and Jewish contexts of the gospels, the processes of developing and transmitting gospels, and the creation of the canon. Readings include the Gospel of John, the Gospel of Mark, the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Mary and other canonical and non-canonical gospels.
Same as: RELIGST 132D

CLASSICS 150. Majors Seminar. 5 Units.

Required of Classics majors and minors in junior or senior year; students contemplating honors should take this course in junior year. Advanced skills course involving close reading, critical thinking, editing, and writing. In-class and take-home writing and revising exercises. Final paper topic may be on any subject related to Classics. Fulfills WIM requirement for Classics.nnWinter Quarter topic: Augusten AgenOut of the ashes of the Roman Republic, Augustus crafted a new, autocratic regime that survived for centuries¿a transformative moment in European history. How did Augustus establish stability after the turmoil and bloodshed of the 1st century BCE? Why did the Augustan Age produce some of the greatest literary and artistic works in European history? This course will examine the political and social revolution engineered by Augustus and explore monumental achievements such as Virgil¿s Aeneid and the Pantheon. The course will end with an optional trip to Rome over spring break 2019.

CLASSICS 154. Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: Maritime Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 145.) Why do we care about shipwrecks? What can sunken sites and abandoned ports tell us about our past? Focusing primarily on the archaeological record of shipwrecks and harbors, along with literary evidence and contemporary theory, this course examines how and why ancient mariners ventured across the "wine-dark seas" of the Mediterranean for travel, warfare, pilgrimage, and especially commerce. We will explore interdisciplinary approaches to the development of maritime contacts and communication from the Bronze Age through the end of Roman era. At the same time, we will engage with practical techniques of maritime archaeology, which allows us to explore the material record first hand.
Same as: ARCHLGY 145

CLASSICS 156. Design of Cities. 3-5 Units.

Long-term, comparative and archaeological view of urban planning and design. Cities are the fastest changing components of the human landscape and are challenging our relationships with nature. They are the historical loci of innovation and change, are cultural hotspots, and present a tremendous challenge through growth, industrial development, the consumption of goods and materials. We will unpack such topics by tracking the genealogy of qualities of life in the ancient Near Eastern city states and those of Graeco-Roman antiquity, with reference also to prehistoric built environments and cities in the Indus Valley and through the Americas. The class takes an explicitly human-centered view of urban design and one that emphasizes long term processes.
Same as: ARCHLGY 156, CLASSICS 256

CLASSICS 157. The Archaeology of Cyprus. 3-5 Units.

This seminar course introduces students to the island of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean and its archaeology, from the origins of human occupation to the end of antiquity. Readings and discussions of material culture and texts will explore the history and practice of Cypriot archaeology in relation to those of Greece and the Near East. Key themes will include: islands and insularity, continuity vs. change, sex and identity, the rise of the state, regionalism, and imperial conquest. Suitable for both graduate and undergraduate students.
Same as: CLASSICS 257

CLASSICS 158. Iconoclasm. 5 Units.

By the seventh century three large political entities formed in the Mediterranean the Umayyads, the Carolingians, and the Byzantines each competed for legitimacy; all three emerged from the ashes of Late Antique culture, yet each tried to carve out an identity out of this common foundation. In this parting of the ways, the three empires took among others the issue of what constitutes an image and what role it plays in devotion. Eik'n, imago, ura became the basis on which to built differences and accuse the other political players of idolatry. This course explores medieval image theory, especially the phenomena of iconoclasm, iconophobia, and aniconism. The discussions focus on monuments in the Mediterranean as well as objects in the Cantor collection and facsimiles of manuscripts at the Bowes Art Library.
Same as: ARTHIST 209C, ARTHIST 409, CLASSICS 258, REES 409

CLASSICS 159. Appropriations of Greek Art. 4-5 Units.

Upper division seminar. The history of the appropriation of Greek art by Rome, the Renaissance, Lord Elgin, and Manet. Enrollment limited to 6. Prerequisite: ARTHIST 102 or consent of instructor.

CLASSICS 160. Design Thinking for the Creative Humanities. 3-5 Units.

This class introduces Design Thinking to students in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Under a growth mindset of creative exploration and experiment, we will share a tool kit drawn from design thinking and the arts to develop our imaginative capacity to innovate. The standpoint is that creative imagination is not a property of the artistic or design genius but comprises skills and competencies that can be easily learned and adapted to all sorts of circumstances ¿ personal, organizational, business, community.
Same as: CLASSICS 260

CLASSICS 161. Introduction to Greek Art I: The Archaic Period. 4 Units.

This lecture course explores Greek art and culture from 1000-480. In the beginning archaic art forms are more abstract than life-like, closer to Calder than Michelangelo. While Homer describes the rippling muscles (and egos) of his heroes, vase-painters and sculptors prefer abstraction. This changes in the 7th C. as a result of commerce with the Near East and Egypt. Imported Near Eastern bronzes and ivories awaken the Greeks to a wider range of subjects, techniques and ambitions. Later in the century, Greeks in Egypt learn to carve hard stone from Egyptian masters. Throughout the 6th C. Greek artists assimilate what they had borrowed, compete with one another, defy their teachers, test the tolerance of the gods and eventually produce works of art that speak with a Greek accent. When the Persians invade the Acropolis in 480, they find artifacts with little trace of alien influence or imprint - omens of the defiant Greek military that would prevail at Salamis and Plataea.
Same as: ARTHIST 101

CLASSICS 162. Introduction to Greek Art II: The Classical Period. 4 Units.

The class begins with the art, architecture and political ideals of Periclean Athens, from the emergence of the city as the political and cultural center of Greece in 450 to its defeat in the Peloponnesian War in 404. It then considers how Athens and the rest of Greece proceed in the fourth century to rebuild their lives and the monuments that define them. Earlier artistic traditions endure, with subtle changes, in the work of sculptors such as Kephisodotos. Less subtle are the outlook and output of his son Praxiteles. In collaboration with Phryne, his muse and mistress, Praxiteles challenged the canons and constraints of the past with the first female nude in the history of Greek sculpture. His gender-bending depictions of gods and men were equally audacious, their shiny surfaces reflecting Plato¿s discussion of Eros and androgyny. Scopas was also a man of his time but pursued different interests. Drawn to the inner lives of men and woman, his tormented Trojan War heroes and victims are still scarred by memories of the Peloponnesian War, and a world away from the serene faces of the Parthenon. His famous Maenad, a devotee of Dionysos who has left this world for another, belongs to the same years as Euripides' Bacchae and, at the same time, anticipates the torsion and turbulence of Bernini and the Italian Baroque. In the work of these and other fourth century personalities, the stage is set for Alexander the Great and his conquest of a kingdom extending from Greece to the Indus River. (Formerly CLASSART 102).
Same as: ARTHIST 102

CLASSICS 163. Artists, Athletes, Courtesans and Crooks. 5 Units.

The seminar covers a range of topics devoted to the makers of Greek art and artifacts, the ancient Greeks who used them in life and the afterlife, and the miscreants - from Lord Elgin to contemporary tomb-looters and dealers- whose deeds have damaged, deracinated and desecrated temples, sculptures and grave goods. Readings include ancient texts in translation, books and articles by eloquent experts, legal texts and lively page-turners. Classes meet in the seminar room and the Cantor Center.
Same as: ARTHIST 203

CLASSICS 164. Roman Gladiators. 3-5 Units.

In modern America, gladiators are powerful representatives of ancient Rome (Spartacus, Gladiator). In the Roman world, gladiators were mostly slaves and reviled, barred from certain positions in society and doomed to short and dangerous lives. A first goal of this course is to analyze Roman society not from the top down, from the perspective of politicians, generals and the literary elite, but from the bottom up, from the perspective of gladiators and the ordinary people in the stands. A second goal is to learn how work with very different kinds of evidence: bone injuries, ancient weapons, gladiator burials, laws, graffiti written by gladiators or their fans, visual images of gladiatorial combats, and the intricate architecture and social control of the amphitheater. A final goal is to think critically about modern ideas of Roman ¿bloodthirst.¿ Are these ideas justified, given the ancient evidence?.
Same as: ARCHLGY 165

CLASSICS 165. Belief in Ruins: The Archaeology of Ritual and Religion. 3-5 Units.

This course will introduce the most significant themes, methods, and theoretical approaches that archaeologists use to understand and explain religion over the last 150 years. We will focus on the everyday social, ritual, material, and symbolic aspects of religion by examining important and diverse historical case studies from across the ancient Mediterranean and Asia. The course will also examine the role of archaeological heritage in religious conflicts and the ethical dilemmas of archaeology today.
Same as: ARCHLGY 109

CLASSICS 166. The Body in Roman Art. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 105.) Ancient and modern ideas about the body as ideal and site of lived experience. Themes include representation, portrayal, power, metamorphosis, and replication. Works that exemplify Roman ideas of heroism and power versus works portraying nude women, erotic youth, preserved corpses, and suffering enemies. Recommended: background in ancient Mediterranean art, archaeology, history, or literature. May be repeated for credit.
Same as: ARCHLGY 166

CLASSICS 167. Archaeology of Roman Slavery. 4-5 Units.

The archaeology of Roman slavery embodies a paradox: slavery was ubiquitous in Roman society but did not leave distinct material traces that archaeologists can easily identify. Explore that paradox by examining ancient writings on Roman slavery in conjunction with built spaces, visual images, and artifacts. Discuss more recent slave societies for purposes of comparison and contrast. Learn to analyze different kinds of historical and archaeological evidence, how to reconstruct social and spatial dynamics, and how ancient Roman slavery and society worked.

CLASSICS 168. Engineering the Roman Empire. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 117.) Enter the mind, the drafting room, and the building site of the Roman architects and engineers whose monumental projects impressed ancient and modern spectators alike. This class explores the interrelated aesthetics and mechanics of construction that led to one of the most extensive building programs undertaken by a pre-modern state. Through case studies ranging from columns, domes and obelisks to road networks, machines and landscape modification, we investigate the materials, methods, and knowledge behind Roman innovation, and the role of designed space in communicating imperial identity.
Same as: ARCHLGY 118

CLASSICS 169. Archaeology of Britannia. 3-4 Units.

Life in the Roman Empire: this course is a broad introduction to the archaeology of one of the best known provinces of the empire.
Same as: ARCHLGY 169

CLASSICS 171. Byzantine Art and Architecture, 300-1453 C.E.. 4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 106/206.) This course explores the art and architecture of the Eastern Mediterranean: Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, Damascus, Thessaloniki, and Palermo, 4th-15th centuries. Applying an innovative approach, we will probe questions of phenomenology and aesthetics, focusing our discussion on the performance and appearance of spaces and objects in the changing diurnal light, in the glitter of mosaics and in the mirror reflection and translucency of marble.
Same as: ARTHIST 106, ARTHIST 306

CLASSICS 172. Art & Architecture in the Medieval Mediterranean. 4 Units.

Chronological survey of Byzantine, Islamic, and Western Medieval art and architecture from the early Christian period to the Gothic age. Broad art-historical developments and more detailed examinations of individual monuments and works of art. Topics include devotional art, court and monastic culture, relics and the cult of saints, pilgrimage and crusades, and the rise of cities and cathedrals.
Same as: ARTHIST 105, ARTHIST 305

CLASSICS 173. Hagia Sophia. 5 Units.

By employing a methodology based in psychoacoustics, semiotics, and phenomenology, this course explores the relationship among sound, water, marble, meaning, and religious experience in the sixth-century church of HagianSophia built by emperor Justinian in Constantinople. We will read medieval sources describing the interior and ritual, make short movies exploring the shimmer of marble in buildings on campus, and study the acoustics of domed buildings through computer auralization done at Stanford's CCRMA (Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics).
Same as: ARTHIST 208, ARTHIST 408, CLASSICS 273

CLASSICS 174. Art and Religious Experience in Byzantium and Islam. 5 Units.

This course presents a comparative study of Christian and Islamic paradigms (sixth to the thirteenth centuries) in the construction of religious experience through the material fabric of the building, the interior decor, objects, and rituals. We will read medieval ekphrastic texts and poetry, which stirred the viewer/participant to experience the building/object as animate. Among the sites we will study are: Hagia Sophia, the Ka'ba, the Dome of teh Rock, the Mosque at Damascus and at Cordoba. We will read Byzantine and Arabic writers such as Paul the Silentiary, Patriarch Germanos, Maximus Confessor, Shahrawardi, and Ibn Arabi.
Same as: ARTHIST 209, ARTHIST 309

CLASSICS 175. Architecture, Acoustics and Ritual in Byzantium. 1-3 Unit.

Onassis Seminar "Icons of Sound: Architecture, Acoustics and Ritual in Byzantium". This year-long seminar explores the creation and operations of sacred space in Byzantium by focusing on the intersection of architecture, acoustics, music, and ritual. Through the support of the Onassis Foundation (USA), nine leading scholars in the field share their research and conduct the discussion of their pre-circulated papers. The goal is to develop a new interpretive framework for the study of religious experience and assemble the research tools needed for work in this interdisciplinary field.
Same as: ARTHIST 208C, ARTHIST 408C, REES 208C, REES 408C

CLASSICS 177. Describing and Identifying Ancient Coins. 3-5 Units.

In numismatics, as in all other disciplines dealing with documentary sources of the ancient world (like epigraphy and papyrology), it is essential to work hands-on with the primary material. This course, an optional accompaniment to the graduate seminar in ancient numismatics, will focus on practical work with ancient coins from the collection at the Cantor Arts Center: students will learn how to describe and identify ancient coins and how to properly catalogue and classify them. A special focus will be on the identification of fakes. Participants will be trained to use the main reference works on ancient coinages in the Frank L. Kovacs library, recently donated to Stanford University.
Same as: CLASSICS 277

CLASSICS 178. Ancient Greek Political Thought. 3-5 Units.

This class traces some of the intellectual roots of modern political thought to authors of classical antiquity, such as Herodotus, Thucydides, Plato, Xenophon, and Aristotle. We will read portions of their work, in translation, as well as discuss the historical background. Topics will include: political duty, citizenship, and leadership; the origins and rise of Athenian direct democracy; the development of Greek law, constitutional change, and responses to civic strife and civil war.

CLASSICS 181. Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 133/333.) Political philosophy in classical antiquity, focusing on canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. Historical background. Topics include: political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; and law, civic strife, and constitutional change.
Same as: CLASSICS 381, ETHICSOC 130A, PHIL 176A, PHIL 276A, POLISCI 230A, POLISCI 330A

CLASSICS 184. Ancient and Modern Slavery. 3-5 Units.

The ancient Greeks and Roman created the largest and most durable slave system in world history. It formed one of the foundations of classical civilization. While cruelty and exploitation were ever-present features, ancient slavery was not race-based and many slaves came to be freed and fully integrated into society. We will investigate this complex institution from a comparative perspective and in the context of the experience of modern colonial slavery.

CLASSICS 198. Directed Readings. 1-15 Unit.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 160.) May be repeated for credit.
Same as: Undergraduate

CLASSICS 199. Undergraduate Thesis: Senior Research. 1-10 Unit.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 199.) May be repeated for credit.

CLASSICS 201G. Survey of Greek Literature: Archaic Greek. 3-5 Units.

Required two-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years.

CLASSICS 201L. Survey of Latin Literature: Literature of the Roman Republic. 3-5 Units.

One-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years. Focus is on translation, textual criticism, genre, the role of Greece in shaping Roman literature, and oral versus written discourse.

CLASSICS 201LA. Survey of Latin Literature: Special Topics. 3-5 Units.

One-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years. Focus is on translation, textual criticism, genre, the role of Greece in shaping Roman literature, and oral versus written discourse.

CLASSICS 202G. Survey of Greek Literature: Classical Greek. 3-5 Units.

Required two-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years.

CLASSICS 202GB. Survey of Greek Literature: Special Topics. 3-5 Units.

Required two-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years.

CLASSICS 202L. Survey of Latin Literature: Augustan Age Latin. 3-5 Units.

Required two-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Texts of Augustan literature required by the graduate syllabus, emphasizing poetry and major authors.

CLASSICS 203G. Survey of Greek Literature: Hellenistic and Late Greek. 3-5 Units.

Required two-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years.

CLASSICS 203L. Survey of Latin Literature: Imperial Latin. 3-5 Units.

One-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years.

CLASSICS 204A. Latin Syntax. 4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 175A/275A.) Intensive review of Latin syntax. Begins Autumn Quarter and continues through the fifth week of Winter Quarter. See CLASSICS 206A/B for supplemental courses. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Latin. First-year graduate students register for CLASSICS 204A.
Same as: CLASSICS 104A

CLASSICS 204B. Latin Syntax. 2 Units.

Intensive review of Latin syntax. Began with 104A/204A in Autumn Quarter and continues through the fifth week of Winter Quarter. See CLASSICS 206A/B for supplemental courses. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Latin. First-year graduate students register for CLASSICS 204B.
Same as: CLASSICS 104B

CLASSICS 205A. Greek Syntax: Prose Composition. 2 Units.

Review of Greek grammar and instruction in Greek prose composition skills. Begins sixth week of Winter Quarter and continues through Spring Quarter. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Greek. First-year graduate students register for 205A/B.
Same as: CLASSICS 105A

CLASSICS 205B. Greek Syntax: Prose Composition. 4 Units.

Review of Greek grammar and instruction in Greek prose composition skills. Begins sixth week of Winter Quarter and continues through Spring Quarter. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Greek. First-year graduate students register for 205A/B.
Same as: CLASSICS 105B

CLASSICS 206A. The Semantics of Grammar. 2 Units.

Supplements CLASSICS 104A/204A. 206A: Tense, Aspect, Argument Structure, Location. 206B: Quantification, Plurality, Modification, Negation, Modality.

CLASSICS 206B. The Semantics of Grammar. 2 Units.

Supplements CLASSICS 104B/204B. 206A: Tense, Aspect, Argument Structure, Location. 206B: Quantification, Plurality, Modification, Negation, Modality.

CLASSICS 207L. The Pastoral in Post-Classical Literature. 1 Unit.

For modern readers, the words pastoral and bucolic evoke picturesque scenes of pastureland and flocks of sheep an Arcadian paradise first envisaged by the classical poets Theocritus and Virgil. This weekly reading group traces the long legacy of pastoral poetry in post-classical Latin literature, including the works of Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Sannazaro, and Milton. Through the songs of their shepherds, we will rediscover the pastoral landscape as a site of intergenerational conflict between poets from antiquity to the Renaissance. All readings will be done in the original Latin. Prerequisite: at least one full year of Latin or permission of instructor. Course may be taken independently or as an optional extra weekly session of CLASSICS 102L Advanced Latin: Virgil's Eclogues and Georgics (in the latter case, please register for CLASSICS 102L).

CLASSICS 208L. Latin 400-1700 CE. 1-2 Unit.

Readings in later Latin, drawing on the vast bodies of texts from the late antique, medieval and early modern periods. Each week students will prepare selections in advance of class meetings; class time will be devoted to translation and discussion. Students taking this course will gain exposure to a wide range of later Latin texts; hone translation skills; and develop an awareness of the grammatical and stylistic features of post-classical Latin. The course is aimed both at classical Latinists seeking to broaden their reading experience and at medievalists and early modernists seeking to consolidate their Latin language skills. May be repeat for credit.nnPrior experience in Latin is required, preferably CLASSICS 11L. Equivalent accepted. Anyone unsure whether to take this course is encouraged to contact the instructor in advance.
Same as: CLASSICS 6L, RELIGST 173X

CLASSICS 212. Introduction to Latin Epigraphy. 2-3 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 219.) How to engage with epigraphic evidence through translation and contextualization of inscriptions. The materiality of inscriptions, geographical variation, and current scholarly debates in scholarship. How to use this evidence in research.

CLASSICS 213. Proseminar: Documentary Papyrology. 3-5 Units.

The focus will be on documentary papyrology. Students will be introduced to the basics of the discipline.

CLASSICS 214. Proseminar: Ancient Numismatics. 3-5 Units.

Graduate proseminar. Introductory overview of the heterogeneous coinages of antiquity, from the earliest coins of the Mediterranean to classical and Hellenistic Greek coins, Roman Republican, Imperial and provincial coinages as well as various ancient Oriental coinages. Topics include: numismatic terminology; techniques of coin production in antiquity; numismatic methodology (die studies; hoard studies; metrological analyses); quantifying coin production and ancient financial history; coins vs. other forms of money in antiquity; the study of ancient coinages in the Early Modern world. Students are expected to prepare talks on specific topics to be agreed upon. Required for ancient history graduate students; others by consent of instructor.

CLASSICS 215. Paleography of Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts. 3-5 Units.

Introductory course in the history of writing and of the book, from the late antique period until the advent of printing. Opportunity to learn to read and interpret medieval manuscripts through hands-on examination of original materials in Special Collections of Stanford Libraries as well as through digital images. Offers critical training in the reading of manuscripts for students from departments as diverse as Classics, History, Philosophy, Religious Studies, English, and the Division of Languages Cultures and Literatures.
Same as: DLCL 209, HISTORY 309G, RELIGST 204

CLASSICS 216. Advanced Paleography. 5 Units.

This course will train students in the transcription and editing of original Medieval and Early Modern textual materials from c. 1000 to 1600, written principally in Latin and English (but other European languages are possible, too). Students will hone their archival skills, learning how to describe, read and present a range of manuscripts and single-leaf documents, before turning their hand to critical interpretation and editing. Students, who must already have experience of working with early archival materials, will focus on the full publication of one individual fragment or document as formal assessment.
Same as: HISTORY 315, RELIGST 329X

CLASSICS 218. Slavery, human trafficking, and the moral order: ancient and modern. 3 Units.

Slavery and trafficking in persons in the Greco-Roman world were legal and ubiquitous; today slavery is illegal in most states and regarded as a grave violation of human rights and as a crime against humanity under international law. In recent trends, human trafficking has been re-conceptualized as a form of "modern day slavery. " Despite more than a century since the success of the abolition movement, slavery and trafficking continue in the 21st century on a global scale.
Same as: CLASSICS 118, HUMRTS 109

CLASSICS 237. Ancient Dance and its Modern Legacy. 3-5 Units.

Descriptions of dance in the Greek and Greco-Roman world; theories about dance in antiquity; dance and the senses; modern and modernist dancers and choreographers discussing ancient dance.
Same as: CLASSICS 137, TAPS 165C, TAPS 265C

CLASSICS 244. Classical Seminar: Rethinking Classics. 4-5 Units.

Literary and philosophical texts from Antiquity (including Homer, the Greek tragedians, Plato, Aristotle, Virgil, and Augustine). In each case, we will examine the cultural contexts in which each text was composed (e.g. political regimes and ideologies; attitudes towards gender and sexuality; hierarchies of class and status; discourses on "barbarians" and resident aliens). We will study various theoretical approaches to these books in an effort to "rethink" these texts in the 21st century.
Same as: DLCL 321

CLASSICS 256. Design of Cities. 3-5 Units.

Long-term, comparative and archaeological view of urban planning and design. Cities are the fastest changing components of the human landscape and are challenging our relationships with nature. They are the historical loci of innovation and change, are cultural hotspots, and present a tremendous challenge through growth, industrial development, the consumption of goods and materials. We will unpack such topics by tracking the genealogy of qualities of life in the ancient Near Eastern city states and those of Graeco-Roman antiquity, with reference also to prehistoric built environments and cities in the Indus Valley and through the Americas. The class takes an explicitly human-centered view of urban design and one that emphasizes long term processes.
Same as: ARCHLGY 156, CLASSICS 156

CLASSICS 257. The Archaeology of Cyprus. 3-5 Units.

This seminar course introduces students to the island of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean and its archaeology, from the origins of human occupation to the end of antiquity. Readings and discussions of material culture and texts will explore the history and practice of Cypriot archaeology in relation to those of Greece and the Near East. Key themes will include: islands and insularity, continuity vs. change, sex and identity, the rise of the state, regionalism, and imperial conquest. Suitable for both graduate and undergraduate students.
Same as: CLASSICS 157

CLASSICS 258. Iconoclasm. 5 Units.

By the seventh century three large political entities formed in the Mediterranean the Umayyads, the Carolingians, and the Byzantines each competed for legitimacy; all three emerged from the ashes of Late Antique culture, yet each tried to carve out an identity out of this common foundation. In this parting of the ways, the three empires took among others the issue of what constitutes an image and what role it plays in devotion. Eik'n, imago, ura became the basis on which to built differences and accuse the other political players of idolatry. This course explores medieval image theory, especially the phenomena of iconoclasm, iconophobia, and aniconism. The discussions focus on monuments in the Mediterranean as well as objects in the Cantor collection and facsimiles of manuscripts at the Bowes Art Library.
Same as: ARTHIST 209C, ARTHIST 409, CLASSICS 158, REES 409

CLASSICS 260. Design Thinking for the Creative Humanities. 3-5 Units.

This class introduces Design Thinking to students in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Under a growth mindset of creative exploration and experiment, we will share a tool kit drawn from design thinking and the arts to develop our imaginative capacity to innovate. The standpoint is that creative imagination is not a property of the artistic or design genius but comprises skills and competencies that can be easily learned and adapted to all sorts of circumstances ¿ personal, organizational, business, community.
Same as: CLASSICS 160

CLASSICS 262. Sex and the Early Church. 4 Units.

Sex and the Early Church examines the ways first- through sixth-century Christians addressed questions regarding human sexuality. We will pay particular attention to the relationship between sexuality and issues of gender, culture, power, and resistance. We will read a Roman gynecological manual, an ancient dating guide, the world's first harlequin romance novels, ancient pornography, early Christian martyrdom accounts, stories of female and male saints, instructions for how to best battle demons, visionary accounts, and monastic rules. These will be supplemented by modern scholarship in classics, early Christian studies, gender studies, queer studies, and the history of sexuality. The purpose of our exploration is not simply to better understand ancient views of gender and sexuality. Rather, this investigation of a society whose sexual system often seems so surprising aims to denaturalize many of our own assumptions concerning gender and sexuality. In the process, we will also examine the ways these first centuries of what eventually became the world's largest religious tradition has profoundly affected the sexual norms of our own time. The seminar assumes no prior knowledge of Judaism, Christianity, the bible, or ancient history.
Same as: FEMGEN 262, RELIGST 262, RELIGST 362

CLASSICS 273. Hagia Sophia. 5 Units.

By employing a methodology based in psychoacoustics, semiotics, and phenomenology, this course explores the relationship among sound, water, marble, meaning, and religious experience in the sixth-century church of HagianSophia built by emperor Justinian in Constantinople. We will read medieval sources describing the interior and ritual, make short movies exploring the shimmer of marble in buildings on campus, and study the acoustics of domed buildings through computer auralization done at Stanford's CCRMA (Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics).
Same as: ARTHIST 208, ARTHIST 408, CLASSICS 173

CLASSICS 277. Describing and Identifying Ancient Coins. 3-5 Units.

In numismatics, as in all other disciplines dealing with documentary sources of the ancient world (like epigraphy and papyrology), it is essential to work hands-on with the primary material. This course, an optional accompaniment to the graduate seminar in ancient numismatics, will focus on practical work with ancient coins from the collection at the Cantor Arts Center: students will learn how to describe and identify ancient coins and how to properly catalogue and classify them. A special focus will be on the identification of fakes. Participants will be trained to use the main reference works on ancient coinages in the Frank L. Kovacs library, recently donated to Stanford University.
Same as: CLASSICS 177

CLASSICS 298. Directed Reading in Classics. 1-15 Unit.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 260.).
Same as: Graduate Students

CLASSICS 301. Gateways to Classics. 1 Unit.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 300A.) Focus on skills, methodologies and approaches in the study of Classics topics, with attention both to histories of the disciplines and to new developments. Required for first-year Classics graduate students.

CLASSICS 302. Workshop on Teaching in Classics. 1 Unit.

Introduction to pedagogical theories and techniques relevant to careers as Classics instructors. Classics faculty and advanced graduate students will lead sessions on language instruction, class discussions, assignments and feedback, and course design. Participants will read selections from modern scholarship on teaching and learning and engage in hands-on exercises.

CLASSICS 304. Developing a Classics Dissertation Prospectus. 1-3 Unit.

This workshop concentrates on the development process of writing a successful dissertation proposal and clarifies expectations of the defense process. Includes peer reviews of draft proposals with an aim to present provisional proposals by the end of term. Highly recommended for current third-year Classics Ph.D. students.

CLASSICS 315. Aristotle and the Object of Mathematical Reasoning. 4 Units.

The concept of definition plays a central role in Aristotle's treatment of both philosophical and scientific inquiry, as well as explanation. A definition is an account of what something is, and some definitions are used to guide causal inquiry whereas others function as explanatory starting points. In this course we will examine texts from his logic, natural science and metaphysics in order to see what the different kinds of definition are, how they obtained, and how they are capture the nature or essence of a definable object. Particular attention will be given to the role of matter in the definition of the form of a natural substance, state, process or activity. For instance, what role does a specification of physiological processes play in the definitions of emotions such as anger? No knowledge of Greek is required. May be repeat for credit.
Same as: PHIL 318

CLASSICS 318. Aristophanes: Comedy, and Democracy. 4-5 Units.

Intensive study of three plays in Greek (Knights, Peace, Ecclesiazusae) and the rest of the corpus in English, with reference to formal features and a focus on how Old Comedy related to the democratic practices of Athens.

CLASSICS 327. Petronius and Apuleius. 4-5 Units.

Petronius' Satyricon and Apuleius' Metamorphoses represent the surviving Latin novel. Differences between them. Readings include Petronius' dinner at Trimalchio's and Apuleius' love story of Cupid and Psyche. Philological analysis, history of the novel, and social history of the Roman empire. The afterlife of these texts. Recent scholarship.

CLASSICS 328. Augustine on Memory, Time, and the Self. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 336.) This course examines Augustine's "Confessions" as an autobiographical discourse. It investigates his theories of memory and of time and address different theories of the "self." How does memory and the passing of time affect the notion of the self? Does Augustine's "subjective" theory of time offer an identifiable self? Is the self constructed by narratives? We will locate these issues in their cultural context by investigating Christian and pagan discourses and practices in Late Antiquity.

CLASSICS 330. Satire. 3-5 Units.

The concept of "satire" as a social and literary force will be examined with equal attention given to examples in Greek and Latin. Texts to be analyzed include Greek iambos from the 7th century BC to early Byzantine times; selected portions of Old Comedy; Herodas; Lucian; Lucilius; Horace, Ovid, Juvenal, Persius, and Martial. Particular attention will be paid to authorial self-fashioning; limitations on verbal abuse; and ideas of propriety. All texts to be read in the original languages, with supplementary readings in English and on occasion French, German or Italian.

CLASSICS 331. Words and Things in the History of Classical Scholarship. 4-5 Units.

How have scholars used ancient texts and objects since the revival of the classical tradition? How did antiquarians study and depict objects and relate them to texts and reconstructions of the past? What changed and what stayed the same as humanist scholarship gave way to professional archaeologists, historians, and philologists? Focus is on key works in the history of classics, such as Erasmus and Winckelmann, in their scholarly, cultural, and political contexts, and recent critical trends in intellectual history and the history of disciplines.
Same as: HISTORY 303F

CLASSICS 335. Ekphrasis in Antiquity. 3-5 Units.

What is "ekphrasis"? How was it theorized and practiced in antiquity? Description, interpretation, and the senses; The relationship between the verbal and the visual in antiquity from Homer to Philostratus.

CLASSICS 336. Plato on Eros and Beauty. 3-5 Units.

We read Plato's Symposium and Phaedrus; topics: love, beauty, language (oral and written). Graduate seminar, but open to seniors.
Same as: PHIL 306C

CLASSICS 337. The Second Sophistic. 3-5 Units.

The class will introduce students to the most important aspects of the Second Sophistic: linguistic and literary classicism, rhetoric and performance, typical literary forms. Particular emphasis will be on the social and political background of the movement (Greek identity, social distinction, sophists and gender). For students who wish to take the class for 4 or 5 units, part of the readings will be in the original Greek.

CLASSICS 346. Aristotle's Protrepticus and its Background. 2-4 Units.

In this seminar, we shall read Aristotle's Protrepticus. This is an early work of Aristotle that attempts to turn the reader to a philosophic life and it is by far the least read of his works on ethics. It was only recovered in the 19th century and only in the past 15 years or so do we have a reliable text. Thus studies of it are very much underdeveloped. We shall also read as background some other protreptic works by Plato and the rhetorician Isocrates. 2 unit option is only for Philosophy PhD students beyond the second year.
Same as: PHIL 315

CLASSICS 347. Greek Epigram. 4-5 Units.

Greek verse inscriptions first appeared in the 8th century BCE and have been found throughout the Greek speaking Mediterranean. Their popularity continued until the early Byzantine periods. This course will treat the unique dynamics of epigram as a form that migrated from stone to text, the variety of ways in which its narrative potential was exploited within dedicated poetry books, its reception in Roman literature, and its relationships with other genres (especially epic and elegy).

CLASSICS 348. Philodemus: An Epicurean Thinker on Poetry and Music. 3-5 Units.

We will read and discuss Philodemus¿ surviving works on poetry and music as well as the particularly stimulating debates his influential ideas have inspired in classical scholarship over the last decades. An approach to Epicurean aesthetic thought will serve as introduction and background to the seminar.

CLASSICS 349. Classical Aesthetics and the Shaping of Modern Aesthetic Thought. 3-5 Units.

We will focus on the birth of modern aesthetic thought in 18th and 19th-century Europe and how influential thinkers such as Batteux, Baumgarten, Lessing, Kant, Schiller, Schelling, Hegel, and Nietzsche used Greek and Roman literature, art, and philosophy in shaping their divergent ideas about the essence and role of the aesthetic in human perception and culture. Open to senior undergraduate students, please contact instructor.

CLASSICS 352. Doing Business in Classical Antiquity: Mediterranean Exchange. 3-5 Units.

Exchange was everywhere in the Mediterranean, from the individual household to the state. Yet the specific models by which goods changed hands were as varied as the ideas and values that moved alongside them. This seminar will explore theoretical approaches to commercial and non-commercial exchange, drawing primarily on the crucial but uneven bodies of archaeological evidence and historical sources in an effort to investigate the simple but hardly straightforward question of how business was undertaken in the Greco-Roman world.
Same as: ARCHLGY 327

CLASSICS 353. Archaeology: Post-Humanist Agendas. 3-5 Units.

How do people and their artifacts connect? Just what is the subject of archaeological history? A seminar reviewing the latest materialist approaches in archaeology and heritage studies.
Same as: ARCHLGY 353

CLASSICS 355. Landscape & Archaeology. 3-5 Units.

TBD.
Same as: ARCHLGY 355

CLASSICS 356. Mediterranean Regionalism. 3-5 Units.

The ancient world enjoys scholarly traditions of both grand pan-Mediterranean narratives and focused studies of the individual landscapes and peoples who comprise them. Within archaeology, these latter explorations generally rely on expedient geographical designations, modern political boundaries, or survey areas as focused ¿regions¿ for discussion. Defining and interrogating the regions created and experienced by ancient peoples and assembling these into a coherent larger ancient picture proves far more difficult. This seminar explores the varied forms of ancient regionalisms¿from archaeological (architecture, ceramics, coinage, sculpture, etc.) to social (language, religion, etc.)¿and tools for investigating such patterns of human interaction.
Same as: ARCHLGY 356

CLASSICS 358. The Archaeology of Ancient Mediterranean Environments. 4-5 Units.

This seminar examines the interplay between classical archaeologists¿ conceptions and analyses of ancient Mediterranean environments. These themes loom large now - during what might be called the ¿environmental turn¿ of the Anthropocene in the humanities and social sciences - and their increasing resonance provides the basis for critical reflection of the discipline¿s past and future trends. Topics will include: environmental determinism, ¿non-human¿ agency, the role of science in archaeological/historical practice, and the compartmentalization of environment/climate as analytic focus.

CLASSICS 359. An Archaeology of Ephesos. 3-5 Units.

In the seminar, the cultural landscape of Ephesos from the emergence of settlement activity up until the present should be treated under the aspects: relationship between mankind and environment, resources and infrastructure, urban and rural lifestyles, religious history, macro-developments and their influence on a micro-region.nThe current picture of Ephesos should be illuminated against the background of research history, and asked as to what extent social-political developments of the 20th century, as well as actors involved had an influential role.

CLASSICS 360. Ancient Mediterranean Ports. 3-5 Units.

As ¿nodes of density in the matrix of connectivity¿ (Horden and Purcell 2000), ports provided the fundamental infrastructure for interaction on which ancient Mediterranean societies were built. This seminar explores the interrelated cultural and environmental factors behind maritime landscape development, as well as the comparative and complementary roles played by diverse port facilities in the socioeconomic life of local Mediterranean communities, from massive built harbors to unassuming beachside anchorages.

CLASSICS 367. Mediterranean Networks. 3-5 Units.

The the ancient Mediterranean was highly interconnected is common knowledge, and the idea of integration has become a defining factory in current approaches to Greco-Roman cultural identities. Yet how connectivity functiond, and how we should effectively analyze it, are less well understood. This seminar highlights emerging network approaches--both broad theoretical network paradigms and specific network science methodologies--as conceptual tools for archaeological and historical investigations of cultural interaction (economic, religious, artistic, colonial, etc.) across the Mediterranean world.
Same as: ARCHLGY 367

CLASSICS 370. Topics in Roman Art and Visual Culture. 3-5 Units.

Ancient Roman visual culture both reflected and actively shaped political, social, cultural and economic situations. Artworks, imagery and things seen played roles in constructing experience, intervening in human relationships, representing meaning, and framing possibility in particular ways. This seminar explores some of the most exciting recent work on Roman art and visual culture. Topics may include viewing and reception, materiality and object relations, framing, and others.

CLASSICS 372. Archaeology of Roman Slavery. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 342.) The archaeological study of Roman slavery has been severely limited by a focus on identifying the traces of slaves in the material record. This seminar explores a range of newer and more broadly conceived approaches to understanding slavery and slaves' experiences, including spatial analysis, bioarchaeology, epigraphy, visual imagery, and comparative archaeologies of slavery. Students will learn about the current state of research, work with different kinds of evidence and a range of methodologies, and develop original research projects of their own.
Same as: ARCHLGY 342

CLASSICS 373. Reception and Literacy in Roman Art. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 322.) Beyond a focus on artists and patrons: how Roman art was seen and understood by its contemporary viewers. Themes include memory, performance, gender, replication, and constructions of space. Goal is to draft a differentiated model of viewing and literacy, with attention to collective experience, hierarchy, access, and subversion.
Same as: ARTHIST 422

CLASSICS 376. Art, Ekphrasis, and Music in Byzantium and Islam. 5 Units.

Focus is on the interrelation of art, architecture, verbal description, poetry, and music, including the singing of psalms and recitation of the Qur'an. How ekphrasis, the style of writing vividly intended to transform the listeners into spectators, structures the perception of and response to artistic production be it an art object, building, or a musical performance. The role of ekphrasis in animating the inanimate and the importance of breath and spirit, which become manifest in visual, acoustic, olfactory, and gustatory terms. Religious and courtly settings: Hagia Sophia, the Great Palace of Constantinople, the Dome of the Rock, the palaces of Baghdad and Samarra, the mosque at Cordoba, Medinat al-Zahra and the Alhambra. Greek and Arabic writers on ekphrasis in translation, juxtaposing the medieval material to the ancient theories of ekphrasis and modern scholarship.
Same as: ARTHIST 405

CLASSICS 377. Animation, Performance, Presence in Medieval Art. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 311.) This course will explore concepts of animacy, performance, and presence in the art of Byzantium, focusing on the concept of image understood as the living bodies of the saints, the space of Hagia Sophia and its Eucharist ritual, the polymorphism of the mixed-media icon, and the interaction with these objects in prayer and recitation of epigrams.
Same as: ARTHIST 411

CLASSICS 378. Ancient Greek Law and Justice. 3-5 Units.

The development and practice of law and legal procedure in the ancient Greek world, emphasizing the well documented case of classical Athens. Constitutional, criminal, and civil law, approached through analysis of actual laws and speeches by litigants in Athenian courtrooms. Review of a growing scholarship juxtaposing Greek law to other prominent legal traditions and exploring the role of law in Greek social relations, economics, and literature, and its relationship to Greek conceptions of justice.
Same as: POLISCI 337L

CLASSICS 380. Ancient Empires. 4-5 Units.

What is an empire? How did they begin? Why have some imperialists been successful, while others failed dismally? Why do some people collaborate with imperialism, while others resist fiercely? This seminar examines the empires of the ancient East Mediterranean between 800 and 300 BC, focusing on two great imperial powers (Assyria, Persia) and three smaller societies on the receiving end of imperial conquest (Israel, Egypt, Greece), and asking why societies that were successful in resisting imperialism often then tried to create empires themselves. The evidence used comes mainly from epigraphy, the Hebrew Bible, and Herodotus. Some background in ancient history and/or comparative politics preferred.

CLASSICS 381. Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 133/333.) Political philosophy in classical antiquity, focusing on canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. Historical background. Topics include: political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; and law, civic strife, and constitutional change.
Same as: CLASSICS 181, ETHICSOC 130A, PHIL 176A, PHIL 276A, POLISCI 230A, POLISCI 330A

CLASSICS 382. High-Stakes Politics: Case Studies in Political Philosophy, Institutions, and Interests. 3-5 Units.

Normative political theory combined with positive political theory to better explain how major texts may have responded to and influenced changes in formal and informal institutions. Emphasis is on historical periods in which catastrophic institutional failure was a recent memory or a realistic possibility. Case studies include Greek city-states in the classical period and the northern Atlantic community of the 17th and 18th centuries including upheavals in England and the American Revolutionary era.
Same as: POLISCI 231, POLISCI 331

CLASSICS 384A. Ancient Greek Economic Development. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 330A.) Drawing on Herodotus and other literary sources, ancient historians have traditionally seen classical Greece as a very poor land. Recent research, however (much of it conducted here at Stanford), suggests that Greece in fact saw substantial economic growth and rising standards of living across the first millennium BCE. This seminar tests the poor Hellas/wealthy Hellas models against literary and archaeological data. We will develop and test hypotheses to explain the rate and pace of economic change in the Greek world.
Same as: POLISCI 430A

CLASSICS 384B. Ancient Greek Economic Development. 1-5 Unit.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 330B.) Drawing on Herodotus and other literary sources, ancient historians have traditionally seen classical Greece as a very poor land. Recent research, however (much of it conducted here at Stanford), suggests that Greece in fact saw substantial economic growth and rising standards of living across the first millennium BCE. This seminar tests the poor Hellas/wealthy Hellas models against literary and archaeological data. We will develop and test hypotheses to explain the rate and pace of economic change in the Greek world.
Same as: POLISCI 430B

CLASSICS 388. Histories of Greece. 3-5 Units.

The first modern historical rewritings of ancient Greece: What made them modern? How did they shape what Greek history is today? Texts and things in the modern recovery of the Greek past; women, colonies, democracy and art as modern subjects of ancient Greek history; modern historiographical methods and theories in their social and cultural contexts; modern historicity and the Greek past. Reading includes ancient historians, Renaissance antiquarians, eighteenth-century Greek histories and Enlightenment writings on ancient Greeks, and current intellectual history scholarship.

CLASSICS 390. Origins of Political Thought. 3-5 Units.

Political philosophy in classical antiquity, focusing on canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. Historical background. Topics include: political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; and law, civic strife, and constitutional change.
Same as: PHIL 276D, POLISCI 430

CLASSICS 391. Early Empires: Han and Rome. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 344.) This course systematically compares the Han Empire and the Roman Empire in order to provide insight into the distinctive features of the empires as a political and social type. Topics examined will include geographic frames, the nature of the ruler, the role of the city, the form and function of military forces, religious aspects, legal codes, structures of kinship, and the relation of these states to the outside world.

CLASSICS 393. Ancient inequalities. 5 Units.

This seminar explores the history and archaeology of socio-economic inequality in the ancient world (broadly defined) from a comparative and transdisciplinary perspective.

CLASSICS 395. The Greeks and the Rational: Deliberation, Strategy, and Choice in Ancient Greek Political Thought. 3-5 Units.

The course explores the role of practical reasoning (instrumental rationality) in the ethical-political works of e.g. Plato and Aristotle, in the historical-political projects of e.g. Herodotus and Thucydides, and in the design of classical Greek institutions. We ask to what degree ancient Greeks shared intuitions concerning the rationality of choice with contemporary decision and game theorists. The Greek tradition recognized the limits of expected utility maximization in predicting or explaining the actual behavior of individuals, groups, and states, and sought to explain divergences from predicted rational behavior. Greek social theorists may, therefore, also have shared some of the intuitions of contemporary behavioral economists. Topics will include individual rationality, rationality of groups and states, the origins of social order, emergence and persistence of monarchical and democratic regimes, conflict and cooperation in interstate relations, competition and cooperation in exchange. Examining the Greek tradition of thought on practical reasoning has some implications for we might think about deliberation and bargaining in contemporary democratic-political, interpersonal-ethical, and interstate contexts.
Same as: POLISCI 238R, POLISCI 438R

CLASSICS 396. Humanities+Design: Visualizing the Grand Tour. 4-5 Units.

Study of the eighteenth-century Grand Tour of Italy through visualization tools of the digital age. Critical readings in both visual epistemology and current Grand Tour studies; interrogating the relationship between quantitative and qualitative approaches in digital humanities; what new insights in eighteenth-century British travel to Italy does data visualization offer us? Students will transform traditional texts and documents into digital datasets, developing individual data analysis projects using text mining, data capture and visualization techniques.
Same as: DLCL 396, HISTORY 336E

CLASSICS 399. Dissertation Research in Classics. 1-10 Unit.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 360.).

CLASSICS 801. TGR M.A. Project. 0 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 801.).

CLASSICS 802. TGR Ph.D. Dissertation. 0 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 802.).