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Office: S.G. Mudd Bldg., Room 121, 333 Campus Drive
Mail Code: 94305-4401
Phone: (650) 723-2501
Web Site: http://chemistry.stanford.edu/

Courses offered by the Department are listed under the subject code CHEM on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

For further information about the Department of Chemistry, see the department's web site.

Chemistry is about the nature of matter, how to make it, how to measure it, how to model it. In that sense chemistry really matters; it is essential to explaining all the real world. It holds the key to making new drugs, creating new materials, and understanding and controlling material properties of all sorts.  It is no wonder then that chemistry is called the "Central Science." Traditionally, it is divided into subdisciplines, such as organic, inorganic, physical, biological, theoretical, and analytical, but these distinctions blur as it is increasingly appreciated how all of science, let alone chemistry, is interconnected. 

A deeper understanding of chemistry enables students to participate in research and studies involving biotechnology, nanotechnology, catalysis, human health, materials, earth and environmental sciences, and more. Together, faculty, postdoctoral scholars, graduate and undergraduate students actively work side by side developing new probes of biological molecules, modeling protein folding and reactivity, manipulating carbon nanotubes, developing new oxidation and polymerization catalysts, and synthesizing organic molecules to probe ion-channels. The overarching theme of these pursuits is a focus at the atomic and molecular levels, whether this concerns probing the electronic structure and reactivity of molecules as small as dihydrogen or synthesizing large polymer assemblies. The ability to synthesize new molecules and materials and to modify existing biological structures allows the properties of complex systems to be analyzed and harnessed with huge benefit to both the scientific community and society at large.

Undergraduate Program

Mission

The mission of the undergraduate program in Chemistry is to provide students with foundational knowledge in the subdisciplines of chemistry as well as depth in one or more advanced areas, including cutting-edge research. Introductory course work allows students to gain hands-on experience with chemical phenomena, gather data, and propose models and explanations for their observations, thus participating in the scientific process from the start. In advanced labs and lectures, students build an in-depth knowledge of the molecular principles of chemistry empowering them to become molecular engineers comfortable with the methodologies necessary to solve complex problems and effectively articulate their ideas to the scientific community.  Ultimately the analytical thinking and problem solving skills developed within the chemistry major make students successful candidates for a wide range of careers in chemistry and beyond, including engineering, teaching, consulting, medicine, law, science writing, and science policy. 

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduate)

The department expects undergraduate majors in the program to be able to demonstrate the following learning outcomes. These learning outcomes are used in evaluating students and the department's undergraduate program. Students are expected to:

  1. demonstrate the knowledge and skills required to solve problems in the synthesis, measurement, and modeling of chemical systems.
  2. apply this set of chemical knowledge and skills to analyze scientific data, evaluate and interpret its significance, and articulate conclusions supportable by the data.
  3. be able to construct a scientific hypothesis and devise appropriate experiments to test and evaluate this hypothesis.
  4. communicate scientific research effectively in written and spoken form.

Graduate Program

The University's basic requirements for the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees are discussed in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

GRE Admissions Requirement

The general GRE and subject test in Chemistry is required as part of the admissions application for the Ph.D. in Chemistry.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The purpose of the master's program is to further develop knowledge and skills in Chemistry and to prepare students for a professional career or doctoral studies. This is achieved through completion of courses, in the primary field as well as related areas, and experience with independent work and specialization.

The Ph.D. is conferred upon candidates who have demonstrated substantial scholarship and the ability to conduct independent research and analysis in the field of chemistry. Through completion of advanced course work and rigorous skills training, the doctoral program prepares students to make original contributions to the knowledge of chemistry and to interpret and present the results of such research.

Fellowships and Scholarships

In addition to University and school fellowships and scholarships open to properly qualified students, there are several department fellowships in chemistry awarded based on merit. Teaching assistantships and research assistantships are provided to eligible graduate students. Teaching assistantships beyond the required quarters are available for those interested. Graduate fellowships, scholarships, and teaching assistantships are administered through the Department of Chemistry student services office.

Teaching Credentials

The requirements for certification to teach chemistry in the secondary schools of California may be ascertained by consulting the section on credentials under the "Graduate School of Education, Masters, Stanford Teacher Education Program (STEP)" section of this bulletin and the credential administrator of the School of Education.

Chemical Physics

Students with an exceptionally strong background in physics and mathematics may, with special arrangement, pursue a program of studies in chemical physics.

Bachelor of Science in Chemistry

Entrance Preparation

Entrance credit in the preparatory subjects of chemistry, physics, and especially mathematics provides flexibility in creating a four-year schedule for students intending to major in Chemistry.

Degree Requirements

Additional information on the undergraduate program can be found on the Department of Chemistry website under Academics beginning with the section on the major for the B.S. Degree.

All degree courses must be taken for a letter grade. Students entering (i.e., matriculating) Stanford in Autumn 2019 and later are required to complete CS 106A Programming Methodology prior to CHEM 134 and CHEM 171. MATH 53 is not a requirement for students who entered Stanford in Autumn 2019 and later. 

Lab Courses

For those entering the program above CHEM 33, the short course CHEM 100 Chemical Laboratory and Safety Skills is required; this course is only offered the second week of Autumn Quarter. 

Lab courses have a mandatory, non-refundable fee. Students must obtain a department-approved lab coat and safety glasses. The department makes these available for purchase at the lowest possible price during the first few days of each quarter.

Traditional Chemistry Concentration

Requirements for students who entered Stanford in Autumn 2019 and later. For more senior students, consult the Bulletin matching the year of matriculation (i.e., starting at) Stanford.

Units
Select one of the following:5-10
Chemical Principles I
and Chemical Principles II (5 units each)
CHEM 31MChemical Principles: From Molecules to Solids (5 units)5
Required Chemistry Courses
CHEM 33Structure and Reactivity of Organic Molecules5
CHEM 121Organic Chemistry of Bioactive Molecules5
CHEM 123Organic Polyfunctional Compounds3
CHEM 124Organic Chemistry Laboratory3
CHEM 126Synthesis Laboratory3
CHEM 134Instrumental Analysis Principles and Practice5
CHEM 151Inorganic Chemistry I4
CHEM 153Inorganic Chemistry II3
CHEM 171Physical Chemistry I4
CHEM 173Physical Chemistry II3
CHEM 174Electrochemical Measurements Lab3
CHEM 175Physical Chemistry III3
CHEM 176Spectroscopy Laboratory3
Mathematics and Programming
CS 106AProgramming Methodology3-5
MATH 19Calculus3
MATH 20Calculus3
MATH 21Calculus4
MATH 51Linear Algebra, Multivariable Calculus, and Modern Applications5
Physics Required Courses
PHYSICS 41Mechanics4
PHYSICS 42Classical Mechanics Laboratory1
PHYSICS 43Electricity and Magnetism4
PHYSICS 44Electricity and Magnetism Lab1
Total Units85-92

Biological Chemistry Concentration

Requirements for students entering Stanford Autumn 2019 and later. For more senior students, consult the Bulletin matching the year of matriculation (i.e., starting at) Stanford.

Units
Select one of the following:5-10
Chemical Principles I
and Chemical Principles II (5 units each)
Chemical Principles: From Molecules to Solids (5 units)
Required Chemistry and Biology courses
CHEM 33Structure and Reactivity of Organic Molecules5
CHEM 121Organic Chemistry of Bioactive Molecules5
CHEM 123Organic Polyfunctional Compounds3
CHEM 124Organic Chemistry Laboratory3
CHEM 126Synthesis Laboratory3
CHEM 134Instrumental Analysis Principles and Practice5
CHEM 151Inorganic Chemistry I4
CHEM 171Physical Chemistry I4
CHEM 173Physical Chemistry II3
CHEM 176Spectroscopy Laboratory3
CHEM 181Biochemistry I4
CHEM 183Biochemistry II3
CHEM 184Biological Chemistry Laboratory3
CHEM 185Biophysical Chemistry3
Select one of the following BIO courses:4
Genetics (4 units)
Physiology (4 units)
Cell Biology (4 units)
Mathematics and Programming
CS 106AProgramming Methodology3-5
MATH 19Calculus3
MATH 20Calculus3
MATH 21Calculus4
MATH 51Linear Algebra, Multivariable Calculus, and Modern Applications5
Required Physics Courses
PHYSICS 41Mechanics4
PHYSICS 42Classical Mechanics Laboratory1
PHYSICS 43Electricity and Magnetism4
PHYSICS 44Electricity and Magnetism Lab1
Elective3-4
Select one graduate-level elective course related to your biochemical interests.
Advanced Organic Chemistry I
Advanced Organic Chemistry II
Advanced Organic Chemistry III
Advanced Inorganic Chemistry
Design and Synthesis of Polymers
Advanced Physical Chemistry
Materials Chemistry and Physics
Therapeutic Science at the Chemistry - Biology Interface
Synthesis and Analysis at the Chemistry-Biology Interface
Advanced Cell Biology
Molecular and Cellular Immunology
Advanced Imaging Lab in Biophysics
Biological Macromolecules
Representations and Algorithms for Computational Molecular Biology
Probes and Applications for Multi-modality Molecular Imaging of Living Subjects
Molecular and Cellular Bioengineering
Molecular Motors I
Advanced Imaging Lab in Biophysics
Computational Biology: Structure and Organization of Biomolecules and Cells
Chemistry of Biological Processes
Concepts and Applications in Chemical Biology
Total Units91-99

Chemistry Major Schedule

Below are possible schedules for students entering Stanford in Autumn 2019 and later wanting to complete the traditional concentration and the biological chemistry concentration, each followed by an accelerated schedule.

Schedule for Traditional Chemistry Concentration

First YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Chemical Principles I (CHEM 31A)5    
Calculus (MATH 19)3    
Chemical Principles II (CHEM 31B)  5  
Calculus (MATH 20)  3  
Programming Methodology (CS 106A)  3-5  
Structure and Reactivity of Organic Molecules (CHEM 33)    5
Calculus (MATH 21)    4
Year Total: 8 11-13 9
 
Second YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Organic Chemistry of Bioactive Molecules (CHEM 121)5    
Linear Algebra, Multivariable Calculus, and Modern Applications (MATH 51)5    
Inorganic Chemistry I (CHEM 151)  4  
Mechanics (PHYSICS 41)  4  
Classical Mechanics Laboratory (PHYSICS 42)  1  
Instrumental Analysis Principles and Practice (CHEM 134)    5
Physical Chemistry I (CHEM 171)    4
Year Total: 10 9 9
 
Third YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Organic Polyfunctional Compounds (CHEM 123)3    
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (CHEM 124)3    
Synthesis Laboratory (CHEM 126)  3  
Electricity and Magnetism (PHYSICS 43)    4
Electricity and Magnetism Lab (PHYSICS 44)    1
Year Total: 6 3 5
 
Fourth YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Physical Chemistry II (CHEM 173)3    
Electrochemical Measurements Lab (CHEM 174)3    
Physical Chemistry III (CHEM 175)  3  
Spectroscopy Laboratory (CHEM 176)  3  
Inorganic Chemistry II (CHEM 153)    3
Year Total: 6 6 3
 
Total Units in Sequence: 85-87

Accelerated Schedule for the Traditional Chemistry Concentration

First YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Chemical Principles: From Molecules to Solids (CHEM 31M)5    
Linear Algebra, Multivariable Calculus, and Modern Applications (MATH 51)5    
Structure and Reactivity of Organic Molecules (CHEM 33)  5  
Mechanics (PHYSICS 41)  4  
Classical Mechanics Laboratory (PHYSICS 42)  1  
Organic Chemistry of Bioactive Molecules (CHEM 121)    5
Electricity and Magnetism (PHYSICS 43)    4
Electricity and Magnetism Lab (PHYSICS 44)    1
Year Total: 10 10 10
 
Second YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Organic Polyfunctional Compounds (CHEM 123)3    
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (CHEM 124)3    
Programming Methodology (CS 106A)3-5    
Synthesis Laboratory (CHEM 126)  3  
Inorganic Chemistry I (CHEM 151)  4  
Instrumental Analysis Principles and Practice (CHEM 134)    5
Physical Chemistry I (CHEM 171)    4
Year Total: 9-11 7 9
 
Third YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Physical Chemistry II (CHEM 173)3    
Electrochemical Measurements Lab (CHEM 174)3    
Physical Chemistry III (CHEM 175)  3  
Spectroscopy Laboratory (CHEM 176)  3  
Inorganic Chemistry II (CHEM 153)    3
Year Total: 6 6 3
 
Total Units in Sequence: 70-72

Schedule for Biological Chemistry Concentration

First YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Chemical Principles I (CHEM 31A)5    
Calculus (MATH 19)3    
Chemical Principles II (CHEM 31B)  5  
Calculus (MATH 20)  3  
Programming Methodology (CS 106A)  3-5  
Structure and Reactivity of Organic Molecules (CHEM 33)    5
Calculus (MATH 21)    4
Year Total: 8 11-13 9
 
Second YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Organic Chemistry of Bioactive Molecules (CHEM 121)5    
Linear Algebra, Multivariable Calculus, and Modern Applications (MATH 51)5    
Inorganic Chemistry I (CHEM 151)  4  
Mechanics (PHYSICS 41)  4  
Classical Mechanics Laboratory (PHYSICS 42)  1  
Instrumental Analysis Principles and Practice (CHEM 134)    5
Physical Chemistry I (CHEM 171)    4
Year Total: 10 9 9
 
Third YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Biochemistry I (CHEM 181)4    
Organic Polyfunctional Compounds (CHEM 123)3    
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (CHEM 124)3    
Synthesis Laboratory (CHEM 126)  3  
Biochemistry II (CHEM 183)  3  
Physiology (BIO 84)  4  
Biological Chemistry Laboratory (CHEM 184)    3
Electricity and Magnetism (PHYSICS 43)    4
Electricity and Magnetism Lab (PHYSICS 44)    1
Year Total: 10 10 8
 
Fourth YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Physical Chemistry II (CHEM 173)3    
Spectroscopy Laboratory (CHEM 176)  3  
Therapeutic Science at the Chemistry - Biology Interface (CHEM 281)  3  
Biophysical Chemistry (CHEM 185)    3
Year Total: 3 6 3
 
Total Units in Sequence: 96-98

Accelerated Schedule for the Biological Chemistry Concentration

First YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Chemical Principles: From Molecules to Solids (CHEM 31M)5    
Linear Algebra, Multivariable Calculus, and Modern Applications (MATH 51)5    
Structure and Reactivity of Organic Molecules (CHEM 33)  5  
Mechanics (PHYSICS 41)  4  
Classical Mechanics Laboratory (PHYSICS 42)  1  
Organic Chemistry of Bioactive Molecules (CHEM 121)    5
Electricity and Magnetism (PHYSICS 43)    4
Electricity and Magnetism Lab (PHYSICS 44)    1
Year Total: 10 10 10
 
Second YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Organic Polyfunctional Compounds (CHEM 123)3    
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (CHEM 124)3    
Programming Methodology (CS 106A)3-5    
Inorganic Chemistry I (CHEM 151)  4  
Synthesis Laboratory (CHEM 126)  3  
Physiology (BIO 84)  4  
Instrumental Analysis Principles and Practice (CHEM 134)    5
Physical Chemistry I (CHEM 171)    4
Year Total: 9-11 11 9
 
Third YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Physical Chemistry II (CHEM 173)3    
Biochemistry I (CHEM 181)4    
Spectroscopy Laboratory (CHEM 176)  3  
Biochemistry II (CHEM 183)  3  
Therapeutic Science at the Chemistry - Biology Interface (CHEM 281)  3  
Biological Chemistry Laboratory (CHEM 184)    3
Biophysical Chemistry (CHEM 185)    3
Year Total: 7 9 6
 
Total Units in Sequence: 81-83

Related Courses

Courses offered by other departments that may be of interest to Chemistry majors include:

Units
BIO 82Genetics4
BIO 84Physiology4
BIO 86Cell Biology4
CHEMENG 20Introduction to Chemical Engineering4
CHEMENG 120AFluid Mechanics4
CHEMENG 120BEnergy and Mass Transport4
CHEMENG 1303
CS 106BProgramming Abstractions (recommended for students planning graduate study)3-5
ENGR 50Introduction to Materials Science, Nanotechnology Emphasis4
MATH 106Functions of a Complex Variable3
MATH 109Applied Group Theory3
MATH 113Linear Algebra and Matrix Theory3
MATH 131PPartial Differential Equations3
MATSCI 151Microstructure and Mechanical Properties4
PHYSICS 110Advanced Mechanics4
STATS 110Statistical Methods in Engineering and the Physical Sciences5
STATS 116Theory of Probability4

Honors Program

A bachelor's degree in Chemistry with honors is available to those students interested in chemical research. Admission to the honors program requires a grade point average (GPA) of 3.3 in science courses and an overall GPA of 3.0 in all University courses. Beyond the standard B.S. course requirements for each track, 9 units of research credit and 9 units of course work need to be completed during the junior and senior academic years. A thesis, approved by the honors adviser, must be completed during the senior year. The theses must be submitted to the research adviser, at least one week before the end of regular classes in Spring Quarter, and must be completed by May 15 to be considered for the Firestone award. The use of a single course for multiple requirements for honors, major, minor, or coterminal requirements is not allowed. Students who wish to be admitted to the honors program should register with the student services manager in the Mudd Chemistry Building in Spring Quarter of their junior year.

CHEM 190 Advanced Undergraduate Research research units towards honors may be completed, after being accepted into the program, in any laboratory within Chemistry or with courtesy faculty in Chemistry. Other chemical research can be approved through a formal petitioning of the Undergraduate Studies Committee. At least 3 units must be completed during the senior year. Participation in a summer research program in an academic setting between junior and senior years may be used in lieu of 3 units of CHEM 190 Advanced Undergraduate Research. For each quarter, a progress report reflecting the units undertaken is required. This report must be signed by the honors adviser, and filed in the department student services office before the last day of finals in the quarter during which the research is performed.

The 9 units of course work for honors must be completed from courses approved by the Undergraduate Studies Committee and taken for a letter grade. At least six of these units need to be taken from the following CHEM courses:

Units
CHEM 153Inorganic Chemistry II3
CHEM 174Electrochemical Measurements Lab3
CHEM 175Physical Chemistry III3
CHEM 181Biochemistry I4
CHEM 183Biochemistry II3
CHEM 184Biological Chemistry Laboratory3
CHEM 185Biophysical Chemistry3
CHEM 221Advanced Organic Chemistry I3
CHEM 223Advanced Organic Chemistry II3
CHEM 225Advanced Organic Chemistry III3
CHEM 232Applications of NMR Spectroscopy3
CHEM 251Advanced Inorganic Chemistry3
CHEM 255Advanced Inorganic Chemistry3
CHEM 261Computational Chemistry3
CHEM 271Advanced Physical Chemistry3
CHEM 273Advanced Physical Chemistry3
CHEM 257Bio-Inorganic Chemistry3
CHEM 275Advanced Physical Chemistry - Single Molecules and Light3
CHEM 277Materials Chemistry and Physics3
CHEM 281Therapeutic Science at the Chemistry - Biology Interface3
CHEM 283Synthesis and Analysis at the Chemistry-Biology Interface3

Minor in Chemistry

Courses required for a minor must be taken for a letter grade and all courses below are required:

Units
CHEM 33Structure and Reactivity of Organic Molecules5
CHEM 121Organic Chemistry of Bioactive Molecules5
CHEM 123Organic Polyfunctional Compounds3
CHEM 124Organic Chemistry Laboratory3
CHEM 134Instrumental Analysis Principles and Practice5
CHEM 151Inorganic Chemistry I4
CHEM 171Physical Chemistry I4
Total Units29

Master of Science in Chemistry

The Master of Science is available only to current Ph.D. students or as part of a coterminal program. Applicants for the M.S. degree in Chemistry are required to complete, in addition to the requirements for the bachelor's degree, a minimum of 45 graduate-level units and a M.S. thesis. Of the 45 units, approximately two-thirds must be in the department and must include at least 12 units of graduate level lecture courses exclusive of the thesis.

University Coterminal Requirements

Coterminal master’s degree candidates are expected to complete all master’s degree requirements as described in this bulletin. University requirements for the coterminal master’s degree are described in the “Coterminal Master’s Program” section. University requirements for the master’s degree are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

After accepting admission to this coterminal master’s degree program, students may request transfer of courses from the undergraduate to the graduate career to satisfy requirements for the master’s degree. Transfer of courses to the graduate career requires review and approval of both the undergraduate and graduate programs on a case by case basis.

In this master’s program, courses taken three quarters prior to the first graduate quarter, or later, are eligible for consideration for transfer to the graduate career. No courses taken prior to the first quarter of the sophomore year may be used to meet master’s degree requirements.

Course transfers are not possible after the bachelor’s degree has been conferred.

The University requires that the graduate adviser be assigned in the student’s first graduate quarter even though the undergraduate career may still be open. The University also requires that the Master’s Degree Program Proposal be completed by the student and approved by the department by the end of the student’s first graduate quarter.

Units
Of the 12 units, at least 6 units must be from:
CHEM 221Advanced Organic Chemistry I3
CHEM 223Advanced Organic Chemistry II3
CHEM 225Advanced Organic Chemistry III3
CHEM 232Applications of NMR Spectroscopy3
CHEM 251Advanced Inorganic Chemistry3
CHEM 253Fundamentals of Inorganic Chemistry3
CHEM 255Advanced Inorganic Chemistry3
CHEM 257Bio-Inorganic Chemistry3
CHEM 261Computational Chemistry3
CHEM 271Advanced Physical Chemistry3
CHEM 273Advanced Physical Chemistry3
CHEM 275Advanced Physical Chemistry - Single Molecules and Light3
CHEM 277Materials Chemistry and Physics3
CHEM 281Therapeutic Science at the Chemistry - Biology Interface3
CHEM 283Synthesis and Analysis at the Chemistry-Biology Interface3
CHEM 285Biophysical Chemistry3

Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry

Process to Candidacy

Graduate students are eligible to become formal candidates for the Ph.D. degree after taking the department placement examinations, satisfactory completion of most of the formal lecture course requirements, and satisfactory progress on a dissertation research project determined by passing a progress report with one's thesis committee. There is no foreign language requirement for the Ph.D. degree. Admission to candidacy for the Ph.D. degree must be done before July of the second year of graduate registration.

Placement Examinations

Each new graduate student must take placement examinations upon entrance. These consist of three written examinations of two hours each in the fields of inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry, and cover such material as ordinarily is given in a rigorous one-year undergraduate course in each of these subjects. Students concentrating in biophysical chemistry or chemical physics must take examinations in biophysical or chemical physics, physical chemistry, and organic or inorganic chemistry. Students concentrating in chemical biology must take examinations in biophysical, organic chemistry, and physical chemistry or inorganic chemistry. All placement examinations are given the week before instruction begins in Autumn Quarter, and must be taken at that time. Each new graduate student meets with a member of the graduate study committee to define a program of courses based on results of the placement examinations.

General Requirements

After taking the departmental placement examinations, students select a research adviser by interviewing members of the Chemistry faculty. An Application to Start Research form is submitted to the Department as research begins under the supervision of the adviser. All students in good standing are required to start research by the end of February, during Winter Quarter of the first year of graduate registration.

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree are required to participate continually in the department colloquium (CHEM 300 Department Colloquium) and in the division seminar of the major subject (CHEM 329 Organic Chemistry Seminar, CHEM 359 Inorganic Chemistry Seminar, or CHEM 379 Physical Chemistry Seminar).

Candidates for advanced degrees must have a minimum grade point average (GPA) of 3.0 for all Chemistry lecture courses as well as for all courses taken during graduate study. Required courses must be taken for a letter grade. Most course work ends in the second year of studies, and students will then focus on full-time dissertation research.

Students may major in organic, chemical biology, physical, biophysical, chemical physics, or inorganic chemistry. All graduate students are required to take six graduate-level lecture courses (course numbers greater than 199) of at least 3 units each in chemistry or related disciplines (e.g., biochemistry, electrical engineering, mathematics, chemical engineering, chemical and systems biology, physics, materials science), to be selected in consultation with their research adviser and the Graduate Study Committee. All six courses must be taken for a letter grade. At least three of the six courses must be taken within the Chemistry Department. A minimum of four courses should be completed by the end of the first year.

Course Requirements for entering classes beginning with 2018-19

Units
All students must complete:
CHEM 211AResearch Progress in Chemistry (in the second year)1
CHEM 211BChemistry Research Seminar Presentation (in the third year)1
CHEM 211CChemistry Research Proposal (in the fourth year)1
Students majoring in physical or biophysical chemistry or chemical physics must also complete:
CHEM 271Advanced Physical Chemistry (in the first year)3
CHEM 273Advanced Physical Chemistry (in the first year)3

Course Requirements for entering classes prior to 2018-19

Units
Students majoring in organic chemistry or chemical biology must complete:
CHEM 231 (Autumn, Winter, and Spring of the second year)1
CHEM 233CCreativity in Organic Chemistry (Research Progress)1
Students majoring in physical or biophysical chemistry or chemical physics must complete:
CHEM 271Advanced Physical Chemistry (in the first year)3
CHEM 273Advanced Physical Chemistry (in the first year)3
CHEM 275Advanced Physical Chemistry - Single Molecules and Light (in the first year)3
CHEM 278BResearch Progress in Physical Chemistry1
Students majoring in inorganic chemistry must complete:
CHEM 258BResearch Progress in Inorganic Chemistry (Seminar Presentation)1
CHEM 258CResearch Progress in Inorganic Chemistry (Research Proposal)1

Continuous enrollment in CHEM 301 Research in Chemistry is expected after the student has chosen a research supervisor.

Post-Candidacy

Before candidates may request scheduling of the University oral examination, clearance must be obtained from the dissertation adviser and an academic review meeting made with the Student Services Manager for the Department of Chemistry.

During the period in which a dissertation is being read by members of the faculty, candidates must be available for personal consultation until the dissertation has received final department approval.

Ph.D. Minor in Chemistry

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in other departments who wish to obtain a minor in chemistry must complete, with a GPA of 3.0 or higher, 20 graduate-level units in Chemistry including four lecture courses of at least three units each.

Graduate Advising Expectations

The Department of Chemistry is committed to providing academic advising in support of graduate student scholarly and professional development. This advising relationship entails collaborative and sustained engagement with mutual respect by both the adviser and advisee.

  1. The adviser is expected to meet at least monthly with the graduate student to discuss on-going research.
  2. There should be a yearly independent development plan (IDP) meeting between the graduate student and adviser. Topics include research progress, expectations for completion of Ph.D., areas for both the student and adviser to improve in their joint research effort.
  3. A research adviser should provide timely feedback on manuscripts and thesis chapters.
  4. Graduate students are active contributors to the advising relationship, proactively seeking academic and professional guidance and taking responsibility for informing themselves of policies and degree requirements for their graduate program.
  5. If there is a significant issue concerning the graduate student’s progress in research, the adviser must communicate this to the student and to the Graduate Studies Committee in writing. This feedback should include the issues, what needs to be done to overcome these issues, and by when.

For a statement of University policy on graduate advising, see the "Graduate Advising" section of this bulletin. Academic advising by Stanford faculty is a critical component of all graduate students' education and additional resources can be found in the Policies and Best Practices for Advising Relationships at Stanford and the Guidelines for Faculty-Student Advising at Stanford.

Emeriti: (Professors) Hans C. Andersen, John I. Brauman, James P. Collman, Wray H. Huestis, Robert Pecora

Chair: Keith O. Hodgson

Vice Chair: T. Daniel P. Stack

Director of Graduate Studies: Edward I. Solomon

Director of Undergraduate Studies: Christopher E. D. Chidsey

Professors: Steven G. Boxer, Carolyn R. Bertozzi, James K. Chen, Hongjie Dai, Michael D. Fayer, Keith O. Hodgson, Chaitan Khosla, Eric T. Kool, Todd J. Martínez, W. E. Moerner, Edward I. Solomon, Barry M. Trost, Robert M. Waymouth, Paul A. Wender, Richard N. Zare

Associate Professors: Noah Z. Burns, Lynette Cegelski, Christopher E. D. Chidsey, Bianxiao Cui, Justin Du Bois, Matthew Kanan, Thomas E. Markland, T. Daniel P. Stack

Assistant Professors: Laura Dassama, Hemamala Karunadasa, Yan Xia

Courtesy Professors: Zhenan Bao, Stacey F. Bent, James K. Chen, Yi Cui, Daniel Herschlag, Jianghong Rao, Alice Y. Ting, Thomas J. Wandless

Lecturers: Megan K. Brennan, Charles C. Cox, Jennifer Schwartz Poehlmann, Kevin Sibucao

Courses

CHEM 1. Introduction to Organic Chemistry. 4 Units.

First lecture class in summer organic intensive designed for those entering the medical field. Introduction to molecular structure and reactivity of functional groups. Explore chemical reactivity in the context of kinetics and thermodynamics. Prerequisite: College level general chemistry or an AP Chemistry score of 5.

CHEM 1L. Organic Chemistry Lab 1. 2 Units.

Hands on exploration of laboratory reactions & phenomena discussed in CHEM 1. Learn techniques for separation of compounds: distillation, extraction and chromatography (TLC, GCMS) while investigating the nature and properties of organic compounds such as boiling points, polarity, solubility and chirality. Prerequisite: CHEM 33 (or course equivalent) or CHEM 1 co-requisite.

CHEM 2. Organic Chemistry of Carbonyl Containing Molecules. 4 Units.

Second lecture class in the summer organic intensive series focusing on the synthesis and reactivity of small molecules, with particular emphasis on those that possess the carbonyl functional group. Discuss the importance of the carbonyl functional group to biochemistry. Prerequisite: CHEM 33 or CHEM 1 or equivalent.

CHEM 2L. Organic Chemistry Lab II. 2 Units.

Provides hands on experience with modern chemical methods for preparative and analytical chemistry including GCMS, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopy. Learn how chemoselectivity of reactions can be acheived, synthesize bioactive molecules such as pain relievers, and explore how sunscreens can be made more effective. Prerequisite: CHEM 1L. Co-requisite: CHEM 2.

CHEM 3. Organic Chemistry of Biomolecules. 4 Units.

Third lecture class in summer organic intensive focusing on the structure and reactivity of a class of larger molecules, the biomolecules. Topics covered of interest to biochemistry include aromatic compounds, amines and heterocycles, amino acids, proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids and polymers. Prerequisite: Chem 35 or CHEM 2 or course equivalent.

CHEM 3L. Organic Chemistry Lab III. 2 Units.

Advanced organic lab course that introduces multi-step synthesis, NMR spectroscopy, and polymer chemistry. Learn how to use modern analytical and spectroscopic techniques to determine the structure of organic compounds. Prerequisite: CHEM 2L or course equivalent.

CHEM 4. Biochemistry: Chemistry of Life. 4 Units.

A four-week intensive biochemistry course from a chemical perspective. The chemical basis of life, including the biomolecular chemistry of amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as enzyme kinetics and mechanisms, thermodynamics, and core metabolism, control, and regulation. Recitation includes group work on case studies that support the daily lecture material. Prerequisites: CHEM 33, 121, 123 or 1 year of organic chemistry; MATH 19, 20, 21 or 1 year of single variable calculus.

CHEM 10. Exploring Research and Problem Solving Across the Sciences. 1 Unit.

Development and practice of critical problem solving and study skills using a wide variety of scientific examples that illustrate the broad yet integrated nature of current research. Students will build a problem solving tool-kit and apply chemical and mathematical concepts to solve problems related to energy, climate change, water resources, medicine, and food & nutrition. Note: course offered in August prior to start of fall quarter, and only Leland Scholar Program participants will register.

CHEM 25N. Science in the News. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Possible topics include: diseases such as avian flu, HIV, and malaria; environmental issues such as climate change, atmospheric pollution, and human population; energy sources in the future; evolution; stem cell research; nanotechnology; and drug development. Focus is on the scientific basis for these topics as a basis for intelligent discussion of societal and political implications. Sources include the popular media and scientific media for the nonspecialist, especially those available on the web.

CHEM 26N. The What, Why, How and Wow's of Nanotechnology. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Introduction to nanotechnology with discussion of basic science at the nanoscale, its difference from molecular and macroscopic scales, and implications and applications. Developments in nanotechnology in the past two decades, from imaging and moving single atoms on surfaces to killing cancer cells with nanoscale tools and gadgets.

CHEM 28N. SCIENCE COMMUNICATION AND INNOVATION. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. From the unique perspective and contributions of students in the class, the course will explore evolutionary and revolutionary scientific advances, including the connections of science to society, art, biotechnology, health care, the environment, energy and the economy as well as strategies for communicating science to the public. The course content will be driven by the interests and passions of the participants who will engage academic and industrial thought leaders, providing an opportunity for students to translate their passion for science, research and journalism into articles, websites, podcasts and videos of interest to others. This fusion of journalism and science has led to a new undergraduate organization (https://fascinatepublication.org), which for some participants would be a venue for continuing involvement in science-journalism. The course is an unique opportunity to create course content, research science of interest and produce publications based on science that excites the participants and to share the fun, excitement and importance of such science to the Stanford and global community.

CHEM 29N. Chemistry in the Kitchen. 3 Units.

This course examines the chemistry relevant to food and drink preparation, both in homes and in restaurants, which makes what we consume more pleasurable. Good cooking is more often considered an art rather than a science, but a small bit of understanding goes a long way to make the preparation and consumption of food and drink more enjoyable. The intention is to have demonstrations and tastings as a part of every class meeting. We will examine some rather familiar items in this course: eggs, dairy products, meats, breads, vegetables, pastries, and carbonated beverages. We shall playfully explore the chemistry that turns food into meals. A high-school chemistry background is assumed; bring to class a good appetite and a healthy curiosity.

CHEM 31A. Chemical Principles I. 5 Units.

31A is the first course in a two-quarter sequence designed to provide a robust foundation in key chemical principles for students with limited or no background in chemistry. The course engages students in group problem-solving activities throughout the class periods to deepen their ability to analyze and solve chemical problems. Students will also participate in one weekly laboratory activity that will immediately apply and expand upon classroom content. Labs and write-ups provide practice developing conceptual models that can explain qualitatively and quantitatively a wide range of chemical phenomena. The course will introduce a common language of dimensional analysis, stoichiometry, and molecular naming that enables students to write chemical reactions, quantify reaction yield, and calculate empirical and molecular formulas. Stoichiometry will be immediately reinforced through a specific study of gases and their properties. Students will also build a fundamental understanding of atomic and molecular structure by identifying interactions among nuclei, electrons, atoms and molecules. Through both lab and in-class exploration, students will learn to explain how these interactions determine the structures and properties of pure substances and mixtures using various bonding models including Lewis Dot, VSEPR, and Molecular Orbital Theory. Students will identify and quantitate the types and amounts of energy changes that accompany these interactions, phase changes, and chemical reactions, as they prepare to explore chemical dynamics in greater depth in 31B. Special emphasis will be placed on applying content and skills to real world applications such as estimating the carbon efficiency of fossil fuels, understanding hydrogen bonding and other interactions critical to DNA, and calculating the pressure exerted on a deep-sea diver. No prerequisites. Students without AP/IB background are given enrollment priority. This course is not intended for students with AP scores of 4-5; they should instead take CHEM 31M. Students with AP 3 or lower should take the chemistry placement exam for further recommendations.

CHEM 31AC. Problem Solving in Science. 1 Unit.

Development and practice of critical problem solving skills using chemical examples. Limited enrollment. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Corequisite: CHEM 31A.

CHEM 31B. Chemical Principles II. 5 Units.

CHEM 31B is the second course in this two-quarter sequence, therefore only students who have completed CHEM 31A may enroll in 31B. As with 31A, students will continue to engage in group problem-solving activities throughout class and participate in weekly laboratory activities. Labs and write-ups will allow students to more deeply explore and observe the different facets of chemical reactivity, including rates (kinetics), energetics (thermodynamics), and reversibility (equilibrium) of reactions. Through experimentation and discussion, students will determine what forces influence the rate of chemical reactions and learn how this can be applied to enzyme reactivity. Students will quantify chemical concentrations during a reaction, and predict the direction in which a reaction will shift in order to achieve equilibrium, including solubility equilibria. They will use these methods to estimate the possible levels of lead and other toxic metals in drinking water. Special emphasis will be placed on acid/base equilibria , allowing students to explore the role of buffers and antacids in our bodies, as well as ocean acidification and the impact on coral reefs. Students will then bring together concepts from both kinetics and equilibrium, in a deeper discussion of thermodynamics, to understand what ultimately influences the spontaneity of a reaction. Students will build a relationship between free energy, temperature, and equilibrium constants to be able to calculate the free energy of a reaction and understand how processes in our body are coupled to harness excess free energy to do useful work. Finally we will explore how we harness work from redox reactions, building both voltaic cells (i.e. batteries) and electrolytic cells in lab, and using reduction potentials to predict spontaneity and potential of a given reaction. We will look at the applications of redox chemistry in electric and fuel cell vehicles. The course's particular emphasis on understanding the driving forces of a reaction, especially the influence thermodynamics versus kinetics, will prepare students for further study of predicting organic chemical reactivity and equilibria from structure in CHEM 33. Prerequisite: CHEM 31A.

CHEM 31BC. Problem Solving in Science. 1 Unit.

Development and practice of critical problem solving skills using chemical examples. Limited enrollment and with permission of the instructor. Corequisite: CHEM 31B.

CHEM 31M. Chemical Principles: From Molecules to Solids. 5 Units.

A one-quarter course for students who have taken chemistry previously. This course will introduce the basic chemical principles that dictate how and why reactions occur and the structure and properties of important molecules and extended solids that make up our world. As the Central Science, a knowledge of chemistry provides a deep understanding of concepts in fields ranging from materials and environmental science and engineering to pharmacology and metabolism. Discussions of molecular structure will emphasize bonding models including Lewis structures, resonance, valence bond theory, and molecular orbital theory. Lectures will reveal the chemistry of materials of different dimensionality, with emphasis on symmetry, bonding, and electronic structure of molecules and solids. We will also discuss the kinetics and thermodynamics that govern reactivity and dictate solubility and acid-base equilibria. A two-hour weekly laboratory section accompanies the course to introduce laboratory techniques and reiterate lecture concepts through hands-on activities. Specific discussions and laboratories will emphasize the structure, properties, and applications of molecules used in medicine, perovskites and organic dyes used in solar cells, and the dramatically different properties of materials made with only carbon atoms: diamond, graphite, graphene. There will be three lectures, one two-hour laboratory session, an optional 80-minute problem solving session each week. The course will assume familiarity with stoichiometry, unit conversions, and gas laws. Students earning an AP chemistry score of 4 should take CHEM 31M. Students earning an AP score of 5 are welcome to take CHEM 31M, as a refresher, or will receive credit for CHEM 31M. Students who have taken AP chemistry, but scored a 3 or lower, are welcome to take the placement test to place into CHEM 31M. CHEM 31M cannot be used to replace grades earned in CHEM 31X because previously given the courses are not equivalent.

CHEM 33. Structure and Reactivity of Organic Molecules. 5 Units.

An introduction to organic chemistry, the molecular foundation to understanding of life, energy, and material science. Students will learn structural and bonding models of organic molecules that provide insights into chemical, physical, and reactivity properties, in addition to their biological activities. Combining these models with kinetic and thermodynamic analyses allows molecular interconversions to be rationalized. Translation of this knowledge to more complex systems empowers the synthesis of novel molecules or materials that can positively impact our society and environment. A two-hour weekly lab section accompanies the course to introduce the techniques of separation and identification of organic compounds. Pre-requisite: CHEM 31A and 31B, or CHEM 31M, or CHEM 31X, or AP Chemistry score of 5.

CHEM 33C. Problem Solving in Science. 1 Unit.

Development and practice of critical problem solving skills using chemical examples. Limited enrollment. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Corequisite: CHEM 33.

CHEM 90. Directed Instruction/Reading. 1-2 Unit.

(Formerly Chem 110) Undergraduates pursue a reading program under supervision of a faculty member in Chemistry; may also involve participation in lab. Prerequisites: superior work in CHEM 31A, 31B, 31M, 31X, or 33; and consent of instructor.

CHEM 91. Exploring Chemical Research at Stanford. 1 Unit.

(Formerly 111) Preference to freshmen and sophomores. Department faculty describe their cutting-edge research and its applications.

CHEM 100. Chemical Laboratory and Safety Skills. 1 Unit.

This short course is only held in the second week of Autumn quarter. It provides training in basic chemical laboratory procedures and chemical safety to fulfill the safety training requirement for CHEM 121 (formerly CHEM 35) and more advanced laboratory courses. Includes on-line and in-lab training. Successful completion of all course components required for credit. Prerequisite: introductory organic chemistry.

CHEM 121. Organic Chemistry of Bioactive Molecules. 5 Units.

(Formerly CHEM 35) Focuses on the structure and reactivity of natural and synthetic bioactive molecules. Covers fundamental concepts underlying chemical reactivity and the logic of chemical synthesis for an appreciation of the profound impact of organic chemistry on humankind in fields ranging from medicine to earth and planetary science. A three hour lab section provides hands on experience with modern chemical methods for preparative and analytical chemistry. Prerequisite CHEM 33 or corequisite CHEM 100.

CHEM 123. Organic Polyfunctional Compounds. 3 Units.

(Formerly CHEM 131.) Analysis of molecular symmetry and spectroscopy, aromaticity, aromatic reactivity, heterocyclic chemistry, chemistry of peptides and DNA. Prerequisite: CHEM 121 (formerly CHEM 35).

CHEM 124. Organic Chemistry Laboratory. 3 Units.

(Formerly Chem 130) Intermediate organic chemistry laboratory with combined synthesis and spectroscopy. Synthesis involves several reactions including Nobel prize winning reactions, such as Diels-Alder and Wittig reactions; characterization techniques include NMR, IR, and GCMS. Prerequisite: CHEM 121 (formerly Chem 35) and corequisite: CHEM 123 (formerly 131).

CHEM 126. Synthesis Laboratory. 3 Units.

(Formerly 132) This is a laboratory course that will provide a true experience of what it is like to perform research in synthetic organic chemistry. Emphasis will be on proper reaction setup, reaction monitoring, and complete characterization of final products using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Students will be utilizing modern electronic notebooks to prepare for and document their experiments. Concludes with an individual synthesis project. Prerequisites: CHEM 124 (formerly Chem 130).

CHEM 129. Design and Synthesis of Polymers. 3 Units.

(Formerly CHEM 137) Polymers are ubiquitous and important for everyday life and advanced technologies for our modern society. Developments in polymer chemistry have allowed the synthesis of polymers with controlled molecular weights, architectures, tacticity, and rich functionalities. Such synthetic controls in macromolecular structures lead to diverse and tunable properties and functions of the produced materials. Therefore, this course also covers basic properties and structure-property relationships of polymers for rational design of structures and selection of chemistry. Polymer chemistry is built on our understanding on the reactivity of organic intermediates, which will be discussed throughout the course. Prerequisite: organic chemistry knowledge, CHEM 123 (formerly CHEM 131).
Same as: CHEM 229

CHEM 134. Instrumental Analysis Principles and Practice. 5 Units.

The core objectives of the course will focus upon introducing and providing hands-on practice with analytical separation, spectroscopic identification, and calibrated quantification with strong technical communication (for the Writing-in-the-Major requirement) emphasized throughout the course. Lectures will focus on theory, and laboratory activities will provide hands-on practice with the GC, LC, XPS, ICP, MS, and UV/Vis instruments. Data analysis will be emphasized throughout the course with MATLAB being the primary tool for plotting and computations. Statistical measurements will be introduced to gauge the quality and validity of data. Lectures will be three times a week with a required four-hour laboratory section. The course will conclude with a student-developed project, focusing upon separation and quantification, and a poster presentation. The course should be completed prior to CHEM courses 174,176, or 184. Prerequisite: CHEM 33 or CHEM 100.

CHEM 141. The Chemical Principles of Life I. 4 Units.

This is the first course in a two-quarter sequence (CHEM 141/143), which will examine biological science through the lens of chemistry. In this sequence students will gain a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the molecular logic of cellular processes, which include expression and transmission of the genetic code, enzyme kinetics, biosynthesis, energy storage and consumption, membrane transport, and signal transduction. Connections to foundational principles of chemistry will be made through structure-function analyses of biological molecules. Integrated lessons in structural, mechanistic, and physical chemistry will underscore how molecular science and molecular innovation have impacted biology and medicine. Prerequisites: CHEM 121 (formerly 35), MATH 21 or equivalent.

CHEM 143. The Chemical Principles of Life II. 4 Units.

This is the second course in a two-quarter sequence (CHEM 141/143), which will continue the discussion of biological science through the lens of chemistry. In this sequence students will gain a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the molecular logic of cellular processes, which include expression and transmission of the genetic code, enzyme kinetics, biosynthesis, energy storage and consumption, membrane transport, and signal transduction. Connections to foundational principles of chemistry will be made through structure-function analyses of biological molecules. Integrated lessons in structural, mechanistic, and physical chemistry will underscore how molecular science and molecular innovation have impacted biology and medicine. Prerequisite: CHEM 141.

CHEM 151. Inorganic Chemistry I. 4 Units.

Bonding, stereochemical, and symmetry properties of discrete inorganic molecules are covered along with their mechanisms of ligand and electron exchange. Density function calculations are extensively used in these analyses in computer and problem set exercises. Prerequisites: CHEM 121 (formerly CHEM 35).

CHEM 153. Inorganic Chemistry II. 3 Units.

The theoretical aspects of inorganic chemistry. Group theory; many-electron atomic theory; molecular orbital theory emphasizing general concepts and group theory; ligand field theory; application of physical methods to predict the geometry, magnetism, and electronic spectra of transition metal complexes. Prerequisites: CHEM 151, 173.

CHEM 155. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. 3 Units.

Chemical reactions of organotransition metal complexes and their role in homogeneous catalysis. Analogous patterns among reactions of transition metal complexes in lower oxidation states. Physical methods of structure determination. Prerequisite: one year of physical chemistry.
Same as: CHEM 255

CHEM 156. Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction. 3 Units.

(Formerly 150) Practical X-ray crystallography for small molecule compounds, which will emphasize crystal growth, measurement strategies, structure solution and refinement, and report generation. Example structures will include absolute configuration of organic compounds (with the heaviest atom being oxygen), metal containing complexes, disordered small molecules and twinning. Students will learn how to get from a new compound to a single crystal, and then to a cif-file ready for publication submission. They will gain knowledge of the underlying theory and concepts for each step of structure determination.
Same as: CHEM 256

CHEM 171. Physical Chemistry I. 4 Units.

Laws of thermodynamics, properties of gases, phase transitions and phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, chemical kinetics, reaction rate, thermal motion and energy barriers, kinetic molecular models. The MATLAB programming language with hands-on experiences will be introduced in discussion sections and used for simulations of chemical systems. Prerequisites: CHEM 33; PHYS 41; either MATH 51 or CME 100.

CHEM 173. Physical Chemistry II. 3 Units.

Introduction to quantum chemistry: the basic principles of wave mechanics, the harmonic oscillator, the rigid rotator, infrared and microwave spectroscopy, the hydrogen atom, atomic structure, molecular structure, valence theory. Prerequisites: CHEM 171; either MATH 53 or PHYSICS 43; CME 102 and CME 104.

CHEM 174. Electrochemical Measurements Lab. 3 Units.

Introduction to modern electrochemical measurement in a hands-on, laboratory setting. Students assemble and use electrochemical cells including indicator, reference, working and counter electrodes, with macro, micro and ultramicro geometries, salt bridges, ion-selective membranes, electrometers, potentiostats, galvanostats, and stationary and rotated disk electrodes. The later portion of the course will involve a student-generated project to experimentally characterize some electrochemical system. Prerequisites: CHEM 134 and CHEM 171, MATH 51, PHYSICS 44 or equivalent with corequisite CHEM 100.
Same as: CHEM 274

CHEM 175. Physical Chemistry III. 3 Units.

Molecular theory of kinetics and statistical mechanics: transport and reactions in gases and liquids, ensembles and the Boltzmann distribution law, partition functions, molecular simulation, structure and dynamics of liquids. Diffusion and activation limited reactions, potential energy surfaces, collision theory and transition-state theory. Prerequisites: CHEM 171, CHEM 173.

CHEM 176. Spectroscopy Laboratory. 3 Units.

Use of spectroscopic instrumentation to obtain familiarity with important types of spectrometers and spectroscopic method and to apply them to study molecular properties and physical chemical time-dependent processes. Spectrometers include electronic ultraviolet/visible absorption, fluorescence, Raman, Fourier transform infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Prerequisite: CHEM 173.

CHEM 181. Biochemistry I. 4 Units.

Structure and function of major classes of biomolecules, including proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. Mechanistic analysis of properties of proteins including catalysis, signal transduction and membrane transport. Students will also learn to critically analyze data from the primary biochemical literature. Satisfies Central Menu Area 1 for Bio majors. Prerequisites: CHEM 121 (formerly 35) and CHEM 171.
Same as: CHEMENG 181, CHEMENG 281

CHEM 183. Biochemistry II. 3 Units.

Focus on metabolic biochemistry: the study of chemical reactions that provide the cell with the energy and raw materials necessary for life. Topics include glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, photosynthesis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the metabolism of glycogen, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides as well as the macromolecular machines that synthesize RNA, DNA, and proteins. Medical relevance is emphasized throughout. Satisfies Central Menu Area 1 for Bio majors. Prerequisite: CHEM 181 or CHEM 143 or CHEMENG 181/281.
Same as: CHEMENG 183, CHEMENG 283

CHEM 184. Biological Chemistry Laboratory. 3 Units.

Modern techniques in biological chemistry including protein purification, characterization of enzyme kinetics, heterologous expression of His-tagged fluorescent proteins, site-directed mutagenesis, and a course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) module. Prerequisite: CHEM 181.

CHEM 185. Biophysical Chemistry. 3 Units.

Primary literature based seminar/discussion course covering classical and contemporary papers in biophysical chemistry. Topics include (among others): protein structure and stability, folding, single molecule fluorescence and force microscopy, simulations, ion channels, GPCRs, and ribosome structure/function. Course is restricted to undergraduates: required for majors on the Biological Chemistry track, but open to students from the regular track. Prerequisites: CHEM 171, CHEM 173 and CHEM 181.

CHEM 190. Advanced Undergraduate Research. 1-5 Unit.

Limited to undergraduates who have completed CHEM 121 (formerly 35) and/or CHEM 134, or by special arrangement with a faculty member. May be repeated 8 times for a max of 27 units. Prerequisite: CHEM 121 (formerly 35) or 134. Corequisite: CHEM 300.

CHEM 193. Interdisciplinary Approaches to Human Health Research. 1 Unit.

For undergraduate students participating in the Stanford ChEM-H Undergraduate Scholars Program. This course will expose students to interdisciplinary research questions and approaches that span chemistry, engineering, biology, and medicine. Focus is on the development and practice of scientific reading, writing, and presentation skills intended to complement hands-on laboratory research. Students will read scientific articles, write research proposals, make posters, and give presentations.
Same as: BIO 193, BIOE 193, CHEMENG 193

CHEM 196. Creating and Leading New Ventures in Engineering and Science-based Industries. 3 Units.

Open to seniors and graduate students interested in the creation of new ventures and entrepreneurship in engineering and science intensive industries such as chemical, energy, materials, bioengineering, environmental, clean-tech, pharmaceuticals, medical, and biotechnology. Exploration of the dynamics, complexity, and challenges that define creating new ventures, particularly in industries that require long development times, large investments, integration across a wide range of technical and non-technical disciplines, and the creation and protection of intellectual property. Covers business basics, opportunity viability, creating start-ups, entrepreneurial leadership, and entrepreneurship as a career. Teaching methods include lectures, case studies, guest speakers, and individual and team projects.
Same as: CHEM 296, CHEMENG 196, CHEMENG 296

CHEM 200. Research and Special Advanced Work. 1-15 Unit.

Qualified graduate students undertake research or advanced lab work not covered by listed courses under the direction of a member of the teaching staff.

CHEM 211A. Research Progress in Chemistry. 1 Unit.

Required of all second year Ph.D. students. Students present their research progress and plans in brief written and oral summaries.

CHEM 211B. Chemistry Research Seminar Presentation. 1 Unit.

Required of all third year Ph.D. students. Students present their research project as a seminar.

CHEM 211C. Chemistry Research Proposal. 1 Unit.

Required of all fourth year Ph.D. students. Students formulate, write, and orally defend an original research proposal.

CHEM 221. Advanced Organic Chemistry I. 3 Units.

This is a course in modern synthetic organic chemistry with an emphasis on structure, reactivity, and stereocontrol. It will draw from underlying physical organic principles in order for students to learn how to analyze complex molecular structures, predict functional group reactivity, propose reasonable reaction mechanisms, and begin to construct multistep syntheses of organic molecules. Syntheses discussed will serve as jumping off points to cover strategy and many types of transformations. A solid foundation in organic chemistry is expected.

CHEM 223. Advanced Organic Chemistry II. 3 Units.

Physical Organic Chemistry. This course is focused on understanding the important physical principles in organic chemistry, including bonding and structural analysis; molecular interactions; thermodynamics; kinetics; methods to investigate reactive intermediates, reactivity, and elucidate reaction mechanism. Prerequisite: CHEM 123 (formerly 131).

CHEM 225. Advanced Organic Chemistry III. 3 Units.

Chemistry is driven by one's understanding of structure and mechanism and ones ability to make molecules. This course is intended to address the universal mechanistic and structural foundations of organic chemistry with an emphasis on new synthetic methods, selectivity analysis, computer-based strategies for the design and synthesis of complex molecules, concepts for innovative problems solving and, importantly, how to put these skills together in the generation of impactful ideas and proposals directed at solving problems in science as required for a career in molecular science. Prerequisite: CHEM 223 or consent of instructor.

CHEM 229. Design and Synthesis of Polymers. 3 Units.

(Formerly CHEM 137) Polymers are ubiquitous and important for everyday life and advanced technologies for our modern society. Developments in polymer chemistry have allowed the synthesis of polymers with controlled molecular weights, architectures, tacticity, and rich functionalities. Such synthetic controls in macromolecular structures lead to diverse and tunable properties and functions of the produced materials. Therefore, this course also covers basic properties and structure-property relationships of polymers for rational design of structures and selection of chemistry. Polymer chemistry is built on our understanding on the reactivity of organic intermediates, which will be discussed throughout the course. Prerequisite: organic chemistry knowledge, CHEM 123 (formerly CHEM 131).
Same as: CHEM 129

CHEM 232. Applications of NMR Spectroscopy. 3 Units.

(Formerly 235) The uses of NMR spectroscopy in chemical and biochemical sciences, emphasizing data acquisition for liquid samples and including selection, setup, and processing of standard and advanced experiments.

CHEM 233C. Creativity in Organic Chemistry. 1 Unit.

Required of second- and third-year Ph.D. candidates in organic chemistry. The art of formulating, writing, and orally defending a research progress report (A) and two research proposals (B, C). Second-year students register for A and B; third-year students register for C. A: Aut, B: Spr, C: Spr.

CHEM 251. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. 3 Units.

(Formerly CHEM 253) Electronic structure and physical properties of transition metal complexes. Ligand field and molecular orbital theories, magnetism and magnetic susceptibility, electron paramagnetic resonance including hyperfine interactions and zero field splitting and electronic absorption spectroscopy including vibrational interactions. Prerequisite: advanced undergrad-level inorganic course (equivalent to CHEM 153).

CHEM 253. Fundamentals of Inorganic Chemistry. 3 Units.

(Formerly CHEM 251) Intended for first-year graduate students and advanced undergraduate students, as a review of how basic concepts in inorganic chemistry can be applied to materials of all dimensionalities. Specific topics will include: symmetry (group theory), bonding models (crystal field theory, valence bond theory, molecular orbital theory, and the Bloch theorem) and electronic structure, and properties/reactivity of molecules and extended solids. Prerequisite: introductory undergraduate-level inorganic course (equivalent to CHEM 151).

CHEM 255. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. 3 Units.

Chemical reactions of organotransition metal complexes and their role in homogeneous catalysis. Analogous patterns among reactions of transition metal complexes in lower oxidation states. Physical methods of structure determination. Prerequisite: one year of physical chemistry.
Same as: CHEM 155

CHEM 256. Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction. 3 Units.

(Formerly 150) Practical X-ray crystallography for small molecule compounds, which will emphasize crystal growth, measurement strategies, structure solution and refinement, and report generation. Example structures will include absolute configuration of organic compounds (with the heaviest atom being oxygen), metal containing complexes, disordered small molecules and twinning. Students will learn how to get from a new compound to a single crystal, and then to a cif-file ready for publication submission. They will gain knowledge of the underlying theory and concepts for each step of structure determination.
Same as: CHEM 156

CHEM 257. Bio-Inorganic Chemistry. 3 Units.

(Formerly Chem 297) Overview of metal sites in biology. Metalloproteins as elaborated inorganic complexes, their basic coordination chemistry and bonding, unique features of the protein ligand, and the physical methods used to study active sites. Active site structures are correlated with function (election transfer; dioxygen binding, activation and reduction to water). Prerequisites: CHEM 153 and CHEM 173, or equivalents.
Same as: BIOPHYS 297

CHEM 258B. Research Progress in Inorganic Chemistry. 1 Unit.

Required of all second-, third-, and fourth-year Ph.D. candidates in inorganic chemistry. Students present their research progress in written and oral forms (A); present a seminar in the literature of the field of research (B); and formulate, write, and orally defend a research proposal (C). Second-year students register for A; third-year students register for B; fourth-year students register for C.

CHEM 258C. Research Progress in Inorganic Chemistry. 1 Unit.

Required of all second-, third-, and fourth-year Ph.D. candidates in inorganic chemistry. Students present their research progress in written and oral forms (A); present a seminar in the literature of the field of research (B); and formulate, write, and orally defend a research proposal (C). Second-year students register for A; third-year students register for B; fourth-year students register for C.

CHEM 261. Computational Chemistry. 3 Units.

Introduction to computational chemistry methods and tools that can be used to interpret and guide experimental research. Project based and hands-on experience with electronic structure calculations, obtaining minimum energy structures and reaction pathways, molecular simulation and modeling. Prerequisite: knowledge of undergraduate level quantum mechanics at the level of CHEM 173.

CHEM 271. Advanced Physical Chemistry. 3 Units.

The principles of quantum mechanics. General formulation, mathematical methods, and applications of quantum theory. Different representations of quantum theory, i. e., the Dirac, Schrödinger, matrix, and density matrix methods. Time independent exactly solvable problems and approximate methods including time independent perturbation theory and the variational method. Atomic energy calculations, angular momentum, and introduction to molecular structure methods. Time dependent methods. Time dependent perturbation theory applied to various problems such as absorption and emission of radiation. Time dependent density matrix formalism applied to coherent coupling of radiation fields to molecular systems, e.g., NMR and optical spectroscopy. Prerequisite: CHEM 175 or equivalent course.

CHEM 273. Advanced Physical Chemistry. 3 Units.

Statistical mechanics is a fundamental bridge that links microscopic world of quantum mechanics to macroscopic thermodynamic properties. We discuss the principles and methods of statistical mechanics from the ensemble point of view. Applications include statistical thermodynamics, quantum systems, heat capacities of gases and solids, chemical equilibrium, pair correlation functions in liquids, and phase transitions. Prerequisite: CHEM 271.

CHEM 274. Electrochemical Measurements Lab. 3 Units.

Introduction to modern electrochemical measurement in a hands-on, laboratory setting. Students assemble and use electrochemical cells including indicator, reference, working and counter electrodes, with macro, micro and ultramicro geometries, salt bridges, ion-selective membranes, electrometers, potentiostats, galvanostats, and stationary and rotated disk electrodes. The later portion of the course will involve a student-generated project to experimentally characterize some electrochemical system. Prerequisites: CHEM 134 and CHEM 171, MATH 51, PHYSICS 44 or equivalent with corequisite CHEM 100.
Same as: CHEM 174

CHEM 275. Advanced Physical Chemistry - Single Molecules and Light. 3 Units.

Covers optical single-molecule detection, spectroscopy, and imaging for detection of motional dynamics, super-resolution structure beyond the diffraction limit, and nanoscale interactions and orientations mostly in biological materials. Includes an in-class laboratory component. Recommended: CHEM 271 or PHYSICS 230 and CHEM 273 or equivalent.

CHEM 277. Materials Chemistry and Physics. 3 Units.

Topics: structures and symmetries and of solid state crystalline materials, chemical applications of group theory in solids, quantum mechanical electronic band structures of solids, phonons in solids, synthesis methods and characterization techniques for solids including nanostructured materials, selected applications of solid state materials and nanostructures. May be repeated for credit.

CHEM 278B. Research Progress in Physical Chemistry. 1 Unit.

Required of all second- and third-year Ph.D. candidates in physical and biophysical chemistry and chemical physics. Second-year students present their research progress and plans in brief written and oral summaries (A); third-year students prepare a written progress report (B). A: Win, B: Win.

CHEM 279. Chemophysical analyses of costs to lower atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. 3 Units.

Many methods have been proposed to reduce future concentration of CO2, CH4 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from stricter emission regulations, to lower carbon energy sources, to more distribution of existing resources over space and time, to atmospheric capture and sequestration of gases already in the atmosphere. All methods would impose costs in some form. What can chemical and physical analyses tell us about the costs of different approaches? In this graduate-level seminar, students will read primary literature examining the chemical and physical challenges and limitations of various approaches and, by rigorous assessment of the theory and data available to date, will seek to estimate a credible range of future costs for each approach. Prerequisite: Previous study of thermodynamics, kinetics and quantum mechanics at the level of Chemistry 171 and 173.

CHEM 280. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy and Imaging. 3 Units.

Theoretical and experimental techniques necessary to achieve single-molecule sensitivity in laser spectroscopy: interaction of radiation with spectroscopic transitions; systematics of signals, noise, and signal-to-noise; modulation and imaging methods; and analysis of fluctuations; applications to modern problems in biophysics, cellular imaging, physical chemistry, single-photon sources, and materials science. Prerequisites: CHEM 271, previous or concurrent enrollment in CHEM 273.

CHEM 281. Therapeutic Science at the Chemistry - Biology Interface. 3 Units.

(Formerly Chem 227) Explores the design and enablement of new medicines that were born from a convergence of concepts and techniques from chemistry and biology. Topics include an overview of the drug development process, design of of small molecule medicines with various modes of action, drug metabolism and pharmacogenomics, biologic medicines including protein- and nucleic acid-based therapeutics, glycoscience and glycomimetic drugs, and cell-based medicines derived from synthetic biology. Prerequisite: undergraduate level organic chemistry and biochemistry as well as familiarity with concepts in cell and molecular biology.

CHEM 283. Synthesis and Analysis at the Chemistry-Biology Interface. 3 Units.

(Formerly 226) Focus on the combined use of organic chemistry and molecular biology to make, manipulate and measure biomacromolecules. Synthetic methods for design and construction of peptides, proteins and nucleic acids; methods for bioconjugation and labeling; fluorescence tools; intracellular delivery strategies; combinatorial selection methods. Prerequisite: One year of undergraduate organic chemistry. Completion of a course in molecular biology is strongly recommended.

CHEM 285. Biophysical Chemistry. 3 Units.

Primary literature based seminar/discussion course covering classical and contemporary papers in biophysical chemistry. This is intended to provide an introduction to critical analysis of papers in the literature through intensive discussion and evaluation. Topics include (among others): protein structure and stability, folding, single molecule fluorescence and force microscopy, simulations, ion channels, GPCRs, and ribosome structure/function. Course is limited to 15 students and priority will be given to first year Chemistry graduate students.

CHEM 291. Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. 3 Units.

Introduction to quantum and classical descriptions of NMR; analysis of pulse sequences and nuclear spin coherences via density matrices and the product operator formalism; NMR spectrometer design; Fourier analysis of time-dependent observable magnetization; NMR relaxation in liquids and solids; NMR strategies for biological problem solving. Prerequisite: CHEM 173.

CHEM 296. Creating and Leading New Ventures in Engineering and Science-based Industries. 3 Units.

Open to seniors and graduate students interested in the creation of new ventures and entrepreneurship in engineering and science intensive industries such as chemical, energy, materials, bioengineering, environmental, clean-tech, pharmaceuticals, medical, and biotechnology. Exploration of the dynamics, complexity, and challenges that define creating new ventures, particularly in industries that require long development times, large investments, integration across a wide range of technical and non-technical disciplines, and the creation and protection of intellectual property. Covers business basics, opportunity viability, creating start-ups, entrepreneurial leadership, and entrepreneurship as a career. Teaching methods include lectures, case studies, guest speakers, and individual and team projects.
Same as: CHEM 196, CHEMENG 196, CHEMENG 296

CHEM 299. Teaching of Chemistry. 1-3 Unit.

Required of all teaching assistants in Chemistry. Techniques of teaching chemistry by means of lectures and labs.

CHEM 300. Department Colloquium. 1 Unit.

Required of graduate students. May be repeated for credit.

CHEM 301. Research in Chemistry. 2 Units.

Required of graduate students who have passed the qualifying examination. Open to qualified graduate students with the consent of the major professor. Research seminars and directed reading deal with newly developing areas in chemistry and experimental techniques. May be repeated for credit. Search for adviser name on Axess.

CHEM 329. Organic Chemistry Seminar. 1 Unit.

(Formerly 229) Required of graduate students majoring in organic chemistry. Students giving seminars register for CHEM 231.

CHEM 359. Inorganic Chemistry Seminar. 1 Unit.

(Formerly 259) Required of graduate students majoring in inorganic chemistry.

CHEM 371. Time-dependent statistical mechanics I. 3 Units.

First of a two-quarter sequence on the extension of the principles of statistical thermodynamics to systems away from equilibrium. We will explore the connection between the observable properties of such systems and the properties of their microscopic constituents. It will introduce students to many of the theoretical tools that researchers use to understand different kinds of time-dependent phenomena. The sequence will include coverage of the following topics: Phase space and the Liouville equation; equilibrium time correlation functions (TCFs); simple models of TCFs; linear response theory and transport coefficients; projection operators and generalized equations of motion; functional calculus and the Fokker-Planck, Langevin and generalized Langevin equations; chemical reaction dynamics and the Kramers equation; fluctuation theorems and non-equilibrium work relations; path integrals in the study of stochastic processes. Prerequisites: CHEM 175 or CHEM 273 or equivalent course in equilibrium statistical mechanics.

CHEM 373. Time-dependent statistical mechanics II. 3 Units.

Second of a two-quarter sequence surveying the statistical mechanical principles used in the study of time-dependent phenomena. It will continue to develop the themes introduced in CHEM 371, while illustrating their application to a variety of exactly solvable model systems, with examples drawn from the current research literature. Prerequisite: CHEM 371.

CHEM 379. Physical Chemistry Seminar. 1 Unit.

(Formerly 279) Required of graduate students majoring in physical chemistry. May be repeated for credit.

CHEM 390. Curricular Practical Training for Chemists. 1 Unit.

For Chemistry majors who need work experience as part of their program of study. Confer with Chem student services office for signup.

CHEM 459. Frontiers in Interdisciplinary Biosciences. 1 Unit.

Students register through their affiliated department; otherwise register for CHEMENG 459. For specialists and non-specialists. Sponsored by the Stanford BioX Program. Three seminars per quarter address scientific and technical themes related to interdisciplinary approaches in bioengineering, medicine, and the chemical, physical, and biological sciences. Leading investigators from Stanford and the world present breakthroughs and endeavors that cut across core disciplines. Pre-seminars introduce basic concepts and background for non-experts. Registered students attend all pre-seminars; others welcome. See http://biox.stanford.edu/courses/459.html. Recommended: basic mathematics, biology, chemistry, and physics.
Same as: BIO 459, BIOC 459, BIOE 459, CHEMENG 459, PSYCH 459

CHEM 802. TGR Dissertation. 0 Units.

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