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Office: Braun Hall, Building 320
Mail Code: 94305-2115
Phone: (650) 723-0848
Web Site: http://earth.stanford.edu/gs

Courses offered by the Department of Geological Sciences (formerly the Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences) are listed under the subject code GEOLSCI on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

The geological sciences are naturally interdisciplinary, and include: the study of earth materials, earth processes, and how they have changed over Earth's 4.56 billion year history. More specifically, courses and research within the department address: the chemical and physical makeup and properties of minerals, rocks, soils, sediments, and water; the formation and evolution of Earth and other planets; the processes that deform Earth's crust and shape Earth's surface; the stratigraphic, paleobiological, and geochemical records of Earth history including changes in climate, oceans, and atmosphere; present-day, historical, and long-term feedbacks between the geosphere and biosphere, and the origin and occurrence of our natural resources.

The department's research is critical to the study of natural hazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and floods), environmental and geological engineering, surface and groundwater management, the assessment, exploration, and extraction of energy, mineral and water resources, ecology and conservation biology, remediation of contaminated water and soil, geological mapping and land use planning, and human health and the environment.

A broad range of instrumentation for elemental and radiogenic/stable isotope analysis is available, including ion microprobe, electron microprobe, thermal and gas source mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The Center for Materials Research and facilities at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL), and the U.S. Geological Survey in nearby Menlo Park are also available for the department's research. Branner Library, devoted exclusively to the Earth Sciences, represents one of the department's most important resources. The department also maintains rock preparation (crushing, cutting, polishing), mineral separation, and microscopy facilities.

Mission of the Undergraduate Program in Geological Sciences

The purpose of the undergraduate program in Geological Sciences is to provide students with a broad background in the fundamentals of the Earth sciences and the quantitative, analytical, and communications skills necessary to conduct research and think critically about questions involving the Earth. The major provides excellent preparation for graduate school and careers in geological and environmental consulting, land use planning, law, teaching, and other professions in which an understanding of the Earth and a background in science are important.

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduate)

The department expects undergraduate majors in the program to be able to demonstrate the following learning outcomes. These learning outcomes are used in evaluating students and the department's undergraduate program. Students are expected to develop and demonstrate:

  1. an understanding of fundamental concepts in Earth science.
  2. the ability to collect, analyze, and interpret geological and environmental data using a variety of techniques to test hypotheses.
  3. the ability to address real geological and/or environmental problems in the field.
  4. the ability to communicate scientific knowledge orally, visually, and in writing.

Graduate Programs in Geological Sciences

Graduate Studies in the Department of Geological Sciences involve academic course work and independent research. Students are prepared for careers as professional scientists in research, education, or the application of the earth sciences to mineral, energy, and water resources. Programs lead to the M.S., Engineer, and Ph.D. degrees. Course programs in the areas of faculty interest are tailored to the student's needs and interests with the aid of his or her research adviser. Students are encouraged to include in their program courses offered in other departments in the School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences as well as in other departments in the University. Diplomas designate degrees in Geological and Environmental Sciences or Geological Sciences and may also indicate the following specialized fields of study: Geostatistics and Hydrogeology.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The purpose of the master's program in Geological Sciences is to continue a student's training in one of a broad range of earth science disciplines and to prepare students for either a professional career or doctoral studies.

The Ph.D. is conferred upon candidates who have demonstrated substantial scholarship, high attainment in a particular field of knowledge, and the ability to conduct independent research. To this end, the objectives of the doctoral program are to enable students to develop the skills needed to conduct original investigations in a particular discipline or set of disciplines in the earth sciences, to interpret the results, and to present the data and conclusions in a publishable manner.

On April 16, 2015, the Senate of the Academic Council approved the Bachelor of Science in Geological Sciences. Students who declared the Bachelor of Science in Geological and Environmental Sciences have the option of changing the name of their degree to Geological Sciences. Degree requirements remain the same.

Bachelor of Science in Geological Sciences

The major consists of five interrelated components:

  1. Earth Sciences Fundamentals—Students must complete a set of core courses that introduce the properties of Earth materials, the processes that change the Earth, and the timescales over which those processes act. These courses provide a broad foundational knowledge that can lead to specialization in many different disciplines of the geological and environmental sciences.
  2. Quantitative and Analytical Skills—Students must complete adequate course work in mathematics, chemistry, and physics or biology. In addition, they learn analytical techniques specific to the Earth sciences through the laboratory component of courses.
  3. Advanced Course Work and Research—Students gain breadth and depth in upper-level electives and are encouraged to apply these skills and knowledge to problems in the Earth sciences through directed research.
  4. Field Research Skills—Most GS courses include field trips and/or field-based projects. In addition, students must complete at least six weeks of field research through departmental offerings (Introduction to Field Methods (GEOLSCI 105) and GEOLSCI 190 Research in the Field), in which they learn and apply field techniques, field mapping, and the prepare a written report.
  5. Communication Skills—To fulfill the Writing in the Major requirement, students take a writing-intensive senior seminar (GEOLSCI 150 Senior Seminar: Issues in Earth Sciences), in which they give both oral and written presentations that address current research in the earth sciences.

The major requires at least 93 units; letter grades are required in all courses if available. Students interested in the GS major should consult with the undergraduate program coordinator for information about options within the curriculum.

Course Sequence (103-121 units total)

Core Requirement

Students are required to take all of the following:

Units
GEOLSCI 1Introduction to Geology5
GEOLSCI 4Coevolution of Earth and Life4
GEOLSCI 90Introduction to Geochemistry3-4
GEOLSCI 102Earth Materials: Introduction to Mineralogy4
GEOLSCI 103Earth Materials: Rocks in Thin Section3
GEOLSCI 104Introduction to Petrology3-4
GEOLSCI 105Introduction to Field Methods3
GEOLSCI 106Sedimentary Geology and Depositional Systems4
GEOLSCI 110Rock Deformation and Tectonics5
GEOLSCI 150Senior Seminar: Issues in Earth Sciences3
GEOLSCI 190Research in the Field3-6
Total Units40-45

Breadth in the Discipline Requirement

To gain understanding of the breadth of subject areas within the geological  sciences, students are required to take one course from each of the following five groups (15-23 units).

Surface and Hydrologic Processes
Units
GEOLSCI 118XSustainable Urban Systems Fundamentals3-5
or GEOLSCI 121 What Makes a Habitable Planet?
or ESS 117 Earth Sciences of the Hawaiian Islands
or ESS 155 Science of Soils
or ESS 220 Physical Hydrogeology
or ESS 256 Soil and Water Chemistry
or GEOPHYS 120 Ice, Water, Fire
or GEOPHYS 190 Near-Surface Geophysics
Biogeosciences
Units
GEOLSCI 123Evolution of Marine Ecosystems3-4
or GEOLSCI 128 Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems
or GEOLSCI 233A Microbial Physiology
or ESS 158 Geomicrobiology
Earth Materials and Geochemistry
Units
GEOLSCI 135Sedimentary Geochemistry and Analysis3-4
or GEOLSCI 163 Introduction to Isotope Geochemistry
or GEOLSCI 180 Igneous Processes
or CEE 177 Aquatic Chemistry and Biology
or ESS 152 Marine Chemistry
Tectonics and Geophysics
Units
GEOPHYS 120Ice, Water, Fire3-5
or GEOPHYS 110 Introduction to the foundations of contemporary geophysics
or GEOPHYS 130 Introductory Seismology
or GEOLSCI 122 Planetary Systems: Dynamics and Origins
or GEOPHYS 150 Geodynamics: Our Dynamic Earth
or GEOPHYS 182 Reflection Seismology
Geospatial Statistics and Computer Science
Units
CS 106AProgramming Methodology3-5
or ENERGY 160 Uncertainty Quantification in Data-Centric Simulations
or ESS 164 Fundamentals of Geographic Information Science (GIS)
or GEOPHYS 112 Exploring Geosciences with MATLAB

Additional Field Opportunities (optional)

GEOLSCI 5Living on the Edge1
GEOLSCI 135ASedimentary Geochemistry Field Trip1
OSPAUSTL 10Coral Reef Ecosystems3
OSPAUSTL 25Freshwater Systems3
OSPAUSTL 30Coastal Forest Ecosystems3

Depth in the Discipline Requirement (10 Units)

To allow students to go into greater depth in the major, students must complete at least 10 units of electives drawn primarily from the list above and other upper-level courses in GS (including graduate-level courses). Additional courses in Geophysics, ESS, and ERE may be counted towards the elective units if they allow a student to pursue a topic in depth; these options should be discussed with an adviser. A maximum of 3 elective units may be fulfilled by:

Units
GEOLSCI 192Undergraduate Research in Geological Sciences1-10
GEOLSCI 197Senior Thesis3-5
GEOLSCI 198Special Problems in Geological Sciences1-10
Advanced Seminars

Honors research (GEOLSCI 199 Honors Program) may fulfill up to 4 elective units.

Required Supporting Mathematics (20 Units)

Choose one of the following equivalent series:

Units
MATH 19
MATH 20
MATH 21
Calculus
and Calculus
and Calculus
10
or a score of 4-5 on the Calculus BC exam
And at least TWO of the following:
CME 100Vector Calculus for Engineers5
or MATH 51 Linear Algebra, Multivariable Calculus, and Modern Applications
CME 102Ordinary Differential Equations for Engineers5
or MATH 52 Integral Calculus of Several Variables
CME 104Linear Algebra and Partial Differential Equations for Engineers5
or MATH 53 Ordinary Differential Equations with Linear Algebra

Required Supporting Sciences (16-23 Units)

Advanced placement credit may be accepted for these courses as determined by the relevant departments.

Units
Chemistry
CHEM 31A
CHEM 31B
Chemical Principles I
and Chemical Principles II
5-10
or CHEM 31X Chemical Principles Accelerated
or a score of 4-5 on the Chemistry AP exam
And one of the following:
MATSCI 194Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria3-4
or CHEM 171 Physical Chemistry I
In addition to chemistry, students may choose between introductory sequences in biology and physics. This choice should be made after discussion with an adviser and based on a student's interests.
Biology
BIO 82Genetics4
or BIO 83 Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
or BIO 84 Physiology
or BIO 86 Cell Biology
And one of the following:
BIO 81Introduction to Ecology4
or BIO 85 Evolution
or ESS 151 Biological Oceanography
or BIO 116 Ecology of the Hawaiian Islands
Or
Physics
Select one of the following Series:9-10
Series A
PHYSICS 21
PHYSICS 22
PHYSICS 23
PHYSICS 24
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat
and Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat Laboratory
and Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics
and Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics Laboratory
10
Series B
PHYSICS 41
PHYSICS 43
PHYSICS 44
Mechanics
and Electricity and Magnetism
and Electricity and Magnetism Lab
9
Series C
PHYSICS 41
PHYSICS 45
PHYSICS 46
Mechanics
and Light and Heat
and Light and Heat Laboratory
9

Field Research

Field research skills are a critical component of the undergraduate curriculum in GS. The conventional and most straightforward way for undergraduates to meet the field requirement is to take the GS courses (GEOLSCI 105 Introduction to Field Methods and GEOLSCI 190 Research in the Field):

  • GEOLSCI 105 Introduction to Field Methods, is a two-week introduction to field techniques and geologic mapping that is taught every year in the White Mountains of eastern California prior to the start of Autumn Quarter in September. This course gives students the tools to undertake geologic research in the field. GEOLSCI 105 is required of all GS majors and is the framework upon which all subsequent undergraduate field-related instruction is based.
  • GEOLSCI 190 Research in the Field, gives GS undergraduates additional training in field research. This course provides undergraduates with a team-based experience of collecting data to answer research questions and is directed by faculty and graduate students. Offered in June and/or September.

By taking GEOLSCI 105 and two iterations of GEOLSCI 190, GS undergraduates develop the broad experience and confidence necessary to go out and evaluate a geological or environmental geology question by collecting field-based data. The main goal is that, upon graduation, GS undergraduates will be able to plan and execute independent field research.

GEOLSCI 190 can also be satisfied by enrolling in a single four-to-six week geology field camp offered by another institution. This externally administered experience can substitute for two three-week GS 190 courses, subject to approval by the Undergraduate Curriculum Committee. 

Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology Undergraduate Specialized Curriculum

The Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology curriculum is intended for undergraduates interested in the application of geological and engineering data and principles to the study of rock, soil, and water to recognize and interpret geological and environmental factors affecting engineering structures and groundwater resources. Students learn to characterize and assess the risks associated with natural geological hazards, such as landslides and earthquakes, and with groundwater flow and contamination. The curriculum prepares students for graduate programs and professional careers in engineering, environmental geology, geology, geotechnical engineering, and hydrogeology.

GS majors who elect the Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology curriculum are expected to complete a core course sequence and a set of courses in supporting sciences and mathematics. The core courses come from Earth Sciences and Engineering. Any substitutions for core courses must be approved by the faculty adviser and through a formal petition to the undergraduate program director. In addition, four elective courses, consistent with the core curriculum and required of all majors, are to be chosen with the advice and consent of the adviser. Typically, electives are chosen from the list below. Letter grades are required if available.

Course Sequence (100-113 Units Total)

Required Geological Sciences (26-27 Units)

Units
GEOLSCI 1Introduction to Geology5
GEOLSCI 90Introduction to Geochemistry3-4
GEOLSCI 102Earth Materials: Introduction to Mineralogy4
GEOLSCI 104Introduction to Petrology3-4
or ESS 155 Science of Soils
GEOLSCI 150Senior Seminar: Issues in Earth Sciences3
ENERGY 160Uncertainty Quantification in Data-Centric Simulations3
or STATS 110 Statistical Methods in Engineering and the Physical Sciences
or CEE 203 Probabilistic Models in Civil Engineering
or CME 106 Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers
ESS 220Physical Hydrogeology4
or GEOPHYS 120 Ice, Water, Fire
Total Units25-27

Required Engineering (14-16 Units)

Units
CEE 101AMechanics of Materials4
or CEE 177 Aquatic Chemistry and Biology
CEE 101BMechanics of Fluids4
CS 106AProgramming Methodology3-5
ENGR 90Environmental Science and Technology3
Total Units14-16

Required Supporting Sciences and Mathematics (37-42 Units)

Units
MATH 19Calculus3
MATH 20Calculus3
MATH 21Calculus4
CME 100Vector Calculus for Engineers5
CME 102Ordinary Differential Equations for Engineers5
PHYSICS 41Mechanics4
CHEM 31A
CHEM 31B
Chemical Principles I
and Chemical Principles II
5-10
or CHEM 31X Chemical Principles Accelerated
BIO 82Genetics4
or BIO 83 Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
or BIO 84 Physiology
or BIO 86 Cell Biology
BIO 81Introduction to Ecology4
or BIO 85 Evolution
or ESS 151 Biological Oceanography
or BIO 116 Ecology of the Hawaiian Islands
Total Units37-42

Breadth (15-20 Units)

Select one course from each of the five topics listed below. Courses listed as options in multiple categories (either required foundations or breadth requirements) can only be used to fulfill one requirement. Students are encouraged to work with their academic advisor to develop cross-cutting themes among their breadth requirements. Examples of cross-cutting themes could include: Earth and Energy Resources, Natural Hazards, Coastal Processes, Freshwater, etc.

Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics
Units
CEE 172Air Quality Management3-4
or ESS 141 Remote Sensing of the Oceans
or EARTHSYS 146A Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: The Atmospheric Circulation
or EARTHSYS 146B Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: the Ocean Circulation
or ESS 148 Introduction to Physical Oceanography
or ESS 151 Biological Oceanography
or ESS 152 Marine Chemistry
Biogeosciences
Units
CEE 177Aquatic Chemistry and Biology3-4
or CHEMENG 174 Environmental Microbiology I
or EARTHSYS 111 Biology and Global Change
or EARTHSYS 151 Biological Oceanography
or EARTHSYS 158 Geomicrobiology
or GEOLSCI 123 Evolution of Marine Ecosystems
or GEOLSCI 128 Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems
or GEOLSCI 233A Microbial Physiology

Hydrological Processes

Units
CEE 166AWatersheds and Wetlands3-4
or CEE 166B Floods and Droughts, Dams and Aqueducts
or ENERGY 121 Fundamentals of Multiphase Flow
or ENERGY 153 Carbon Capture and Sequestration
or GEOPHYS 181 Fluids and Flow in the Earth: Computational Methods
or GEOPHYS 190 Near-Surface Geophysics

Geological and Geophysical Sciences

Units
GEOLSCI 104Introduction to Petrology3-4
or GEOLSCI 105 Introduction to Field Methods
or GEOLSCI 106 Sedimentary Geology and Depositional Systems
or GEOLSCI 110 Rock Deformation and Tectonics
or GEOLSCI 118X Sustainable Urban Systems Fundamentals
or GEOLSCI 180 Igneous Processes
or GEOPHYS 110 Introduction to the foundations of contemporary geophysics
or GEOPHYS 120 Ice, Water, Fire
or GEOPHYS 130 Introductory Seismology
or GEOPHYS 150 Geodynamics: Our Dynamic Earth
or ENERGY 120 Fundamentals of Petroleum Engineering

Surface and Environmental Processes

Units
CEE 101CGeotechnical Engineering3-4
or CEE 171 Environmental Planning Methods
or EARTHSYS 142 Remote Sensing of Land
or ESS 117 Earth Sciences of the Hawaiian Islands
or ESS 256 Soil and Water Chemistry
or ESS 164 Fundamentals of Geographic Information Science (GIS)
or GEOLSCI 170 Environmental Geochemistry
or GEOPHYS 190 Near-Surface Geophysics
Suggested Electives (up to 8 Units)

Breadth electives may be relevant courses from breadth areas listed above and not used toward the breadth or core requirements, IntroSems (List 1 below), or Overseas/Off-Campus classes (List 2 below).

Units
List 1. Relevant Introductory Seminars or courses
CEE 64Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions3
or CEE 29N Managing Natural Disaster Risk
or EARTHSYS 41N The Global Warming Paradox
or EARTHSYS 44N The Invisible Majority: The Microbial World That Sustains Our Planet
or EARTHSYS 46N Exploring the Critical Interface between the Land and Monterey Bay: Elkhorn Slough
or EARTHSYS 46Q Environmental Impact of Energy Systems: What are the Risks?
or EARTHSYS 56Q Changes in the Coastal Ocean: The View From Monterey and San Francisco Bays
or GEOPHYS 20N Predicting Volcanic Eruptions
or BIO 35N Climate change ecology: Is it too late?
List 2. Off-campus courses
EARTHSYS 117Earth Sciences of the Hawaiian Islands3-5
or ESS 101 Environmental and Geological Field Studies in the Rocky Mountains
or GEOLSCI 190 Research in the Field
or OSPMADRD 79 Earth and Water Resources' Sustainability in Spain
or OSPAUSTL 10 Coral Reef Ecosystems
or OSPAUSTL 25 Freshwater Systems
or OSPAUSTL 30 Coastal Forest Ecosystems
or BIOHOPK 163H Oceanic Biology
or BIOHOPK 172H Marine Ecology: From Organisms to Ecosystems
or BIOHOPK 182H Stanford at Sea
or OSPSANTG 58 Living Chile: A Land of Extremes

Honors Program

The honors program provides an opportunity for year-long independent study and research on a topic of special interest, culminating in a written thesis. Students select research topics in consultation with the faculty adviser of their choosing. Research undertaken for the honors program may be of a theoretical, field, or experimental nature, or a combination of these approaches. The honors program is open to students with a GPA of at least 3.5 in GS courses and 3.0 in all University course work. Modest financial support is available from several sources to help defray laboratory and field expenses incurred in conjunction with honors research. Interested students must submit an application, including a research proposal, to the department by the end of their junior year.

Upon approval of the research proposal and entrance to the program, course credit for the honors research project and thesis preparation is assigned by the student's faculty adviser within the framework of GEOLSCI 199 Honors Program; the student must complete a total of 9 units over the course of the senior year. Up to 4 units of GEOLSCI 199 may be counted towards the elective requirement, but cannot be used as a substitute for regularly required courses.

Both a written and oral presentation of research results are required. The thesis must be read, approved, and signed by the student's faculty adviser and a second member of the faculty. In addition, honors students must participate in the GS Honors Symposium in which they present their research to the broader community. Honors students in GS are also eligible for the Firestone medal, awarded by Undergraduate Advising and Research for exceptional theses.

Minor in Geological Sciences

The minor in GS consists of a small set of required courses plus 12 elective units. A wide variety of courses may be used to satisfy these elective requirements. All courses must be taken for a letter grade.

Required Courses

Units
GEOLSCI 1Introduction to Geology5
GEOLSCI 4Coevolution of Earth and Life4
GEOLSCI 102Earth Materials: Introduction to Mineralogy4
GEOLSCI 104Introduction to Petrology3-4
Total Units16-17

Electives (12 Units)

Students must take a minimum of 12 additional units drawn primarily from the Breadth in the Discipline list in the GS major; a majority of units must be from classes within the GS department. Up to 3 units of Stanford Introductory Seminars in GS may be counted.

Students pursuing a minor in GS are encouraged to participate in the senior seminar (GEOLSCI 150 Senior Seminar: Issues in Earth Sciences) and in field research (GEOLSCI 105 Introduction to Field Methods)

On April 16, 2015, the Senate of the Academic Council approved the Master of Science in Geological Sciences. Students who matriculated into the Master of Science in Geological and Environmental Sciences have the option of changing the name of their degree to Geological Sciences. Degree requirements remain the same.

Coterminal Master of Science Degree in Geological Sciences

The coterminal B.S./M.S. program offers students the opportunity to pursue graduate research and an M.S. degree concurrently with or subsequent to their B.S. studies. The M.S. degree can serve as an entrance to a professional degree in subdisciplines within the Earth sciences such as engineering geology and environmental geology, or to graduate course work and research as an intermediate step in pursuit of the Ph.D. Regardless of professional goals, coterminal B.S./M.S. students are treated as members of the graduate community and are expected to meet all of the standards set for regular M.S. students. Applicants must have earned no fewer than 120 units toward graduation, and must submit their application no later than the quarter prior to the expected completion of their undergraduate degree, normally the Winter Quarter prior to Spring Quarter graduation. The application includes a statement of purpose, a current Stanford transcript, official Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores, letters of recommendation from two members of the Stanford faculty (at least one of whom must be in the GS department), and a list of courses in which they intend to enroll to fulfill the M.S. degree requirements. Specific research interests should be noted in the statement of purpose and discussed with a member of the GS faculty prior to submission of the application. Coterminal students must complete a thesis describing research results.

Students must meet all requirements for both the B.S. and M.S. degrees. Students may either:

  1. complete 180 units required for the B.S. degree and then complete three full-time quarters (45 units at the 100-level or above) for the M.S. degree
  2. or. complete a total of fifteen quarters during which the requirements of the two degrees are fulfilled concurrently.

At least half of the courses used to satisfy the 45-unit requirement must be designated as being primarily for graduate students, normally at the 200-level or above. No more than 15 units of thesis research may be used to satisfy the 45-unit requirement. Further information about this program may be obtained from the GS office.

University Coterminal Requirements

Coterminal master’s degree candidates are expected to complete all master’s degree requirements as described in this bulletin. University requirements for the coterminal master’s degree are described in the “Coterminal Master’s Program” section. University requirements for the master’s degree are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

After accepting admission to this coterminal master’s degree program, students may request transfer of courses from the undergraduate to the graduate career to satisfy requirements for the master’s degree. Transfer of courses to the graduate career requires review and approval of both the undergraduate and graduate programs on a case by case basis.

In this master’s program, courses taken during or after the first quarter of the sophomore year are eligible for consideration for transfer to the graduate career; the timing of the first graduate quarter is not a factor. No courses taken prior to the first quarter of the sophomore year may be used to meet master’s degree requirements.

Course transfers are not possible after the bachelor’s degree has been conferred.

The University requires that the graduate adviser be assigned in the student’s first graduate quarter even though the undergraduate career may still be open. The University also requires that the Master’s Degree Program Proposal be completed by the student and approved by the department by the end of the student’s first graduate quarter.

Admission

For admission to graduate work in the department, the applicant must have taken the Aptitude Test (verbal, quantitative, and analytical writing assessment) of the Graduate Record Examination. In keeping with University policy, applicants whose first language is not English must submit TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) scores from a test taken within the last 18 months. Individuals who have completed a B.S. or two-year M.S. program in the U.S. or other English-speaking country are not required to submit TOEFL scores.

Master of Science in Geological Sciences

Objectives

The purpose of the master's program in Geological Sciences is to continue a student's training in one of a broad range of earth science disciplines and to prepare students for either a professional career or doctoral studies.

Procedures

In consultation with the adviser, the student plans a program of course work for the first year. The student should select a thesis adviser within the first year of residence and submit to the thesis adviser a proposal for thesis research as soon as possible. The academic adviser supervises completion of the department requirements for the M.S. program (as outlined below) until the research proposal has been accepted; responsibility then passes to the thesis adviser. The student may change either thesis or academic advisers by mutual agreement and after approval of the Director of Graduate Studies.

Requirements

The University's requirements for M.S. degrees are outlined in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin. Practical training (GEOLSCI 385 Practical Experience in the Geosciences) may be required by some programs, with adviser approval, depending on the background of the student. Additional department requirements include the following:

  1. A minimum of 45 units of course work at the 100 level or above.
    1. Half of the courses used to satisfy the 45-unit requirement must be intended as being primarily for graduate students, usually at the 200 level or above.
    2. No more than 15 units of thesis research may be used to satisfy the 45-unit requirement.
    3. Some students may be required to make up background deficiencies in addition to these basic requirements.
  2. By the end of Spring Quarter of their first year in residence, students must complete at least three graduate level courses taught by a minimum of two different GS faculty members.
  3. Each student must have a research adviser who is a faculty member in the department and is within the student's thesis topic area or specialized area of study.
  4. M.S. students must complete at least one TA appointment (25%).  Additional TA quarters may be considered and/or required in consultations with the research advisor, depending on academic goals, funding availability, or the requirements of individual graduate programs. 
  5. Each student must complete a thesis describing his or her research. Thesis research should begin during the first year of study at Stanford and should be completed before the end of the second year of residence.
  6. Early during the thesis research period, and after consultation with the student, the thesis adviser appoints a second reader for the thesis, who must be approved by the Director of Graduate Studies; the thesis adviser is the first reader. The two readers jointly determine whether the thesis is acceptable for the M.S. degree in the department.

Engineer Degree in Geological Sciences

The Engineer degree is offered as an option for students in applied disciplines who wish to obtain a graduate education extending beyond that of an M.S., yet do not have the desire to conduct the research needed to obtain a Ph.D. A minimum of two years (six quarters) of graduate study is required. The candidate must complete 90 units of course work, no more than 10 of which may be applied to overcoming deficiencies in undergraduate training. The student must prepare a substantial thesis that meets the approval of the thesis adviser and the graduate coordinator.

On April 16, 2015, the Senate of the Academic Council approved the Doctor of Philosophy in Geological Sciences. Students who matriculated into the Doctor of Philosophy in Geological and Environmental Sciences have the option of changing the name of their degree to Geological Sciences. Degree requirements remain the same.

Doctor of Philosophy in Geological Sciences

Objectives

The Ph.D. is conferred upon candidates who have demonstrated substantial scholarship, high attainment in a particular field of knowledge, and the ability to conduct independent research. To this end, the objectives of the doctoral program are to enable students to develop the skills needed to conduct original investigations in a particular discipline or set of disciplines in the earth sciences, to interpret the results, and to present the data and conclusions in a publishable manner.

Admission

For admission to graduate work in the department, the applicant must have taken the Aptitude Test (verbal, quantitative, and analytical writing assessment) of the Graduate Record Examination. In keeping with University policy, applicants whose first language is not English must submit TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) scores from a test taken within the last 18 months. Individuals who have completed a B.S. or two-year M.S. program in the U.S. or other English-speaking country are not required to submit TOEFL scores. Previously admitted students who wish to change their degree objective from M.S. to Ph.D. must petition the GS Admissions Committee.

Requirements

The University's requirements for the Ph.D. degree are outlined in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin. Practical training (GEOLSCI 385 Practical Experience in the Geosciences) may be required by some programs, with adviser approval, depending on the background of the student. A summary of additional department requirements is presented below:

  1. Ph.D. students must complete the required courses in their individual program or in their specialized area of study with a grade point average (GPA) of 3.0 (B) or higher, or demonstrate that they have completed the equivalents elsewhere. Ph.D. students must complete a minimum of four graduate level, letter-grade courses of at least 3 units each from four different faculty members on the Academic Council in the University. By the end of Spring Quarter of their first year in residence, students must complete at least three graduate level courses taught by a minimum of two different GS faculty members.
  2. Ph.D. students must complete at least one TA appointment (25%).  Additional TA quarters may be considered and/or required in consultations with the research advisor, depending on academic goals, funding availability, or the requirements of individual doctoral programs. 
  3. Each student must qualify for candidacy for the Ph.D. by the end of the sixth quarter in residence, excluding summers. Department procedures require selection of a faculty thesis adviser, preparation of a written research proposal, approval of this proposal by the thesis adviser, selection of a committee for the Ph.D. qualifying examination, and approval of the membership by the graduate coordinator and chair of the department. The research examination consists of three parts: oral presentation of a research proposal, examination on the research proposal, and examination on subject matter relevant to the proposed research. The exam should be scheduled prior to May 1, so that the outcome of the exam is known at the time of the annual spring evaluation of graduate students.
  4. Upon qualifying for Ph.D. candidacy, the student and thesis adviser, who must be a department faculty member, choose a research committee that includes a minimum of two faculty members in the University in addition to the adviser. Annually, during the Spring Quarter, the candidate must organize a meeting of the research committee to present a brief progress report covering the past year.
  5. Under the supervision of the research advisory committee, the candidate must prepare a doctoral dissertation that is a contribution to knowledge and is the result of independent research. The format of the dissertation must meet University guidelines. The student is strongly urged to prepare dissertation chapters that, in scientific content and format, are readily publishable.
  6. The doctoral dissertation is defended in the University oral examination. The research adviser and two other members of the research committee are determined to be readers of the draft dissertation. The readers are charged to read the draft and to certify in writing to the department that it is adequate to serve as a basis for the University oral examination. Upon obtaining this written certification, the student is permitted to schedule the University oral examination.

Ph.D. Minor in Geological Sciences

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in other departments who wish to obtain a minor in Geological Sciences must complete, with a GPA of 3.0 (B) or better, 20 units in the geosciences in lecture courses intended for graduate students. The selection of courses must be approved by the student's GS adviser and the department chair.

Graduate Advising Expectations

The Department of Geological Sciences is committed to providing academic advising in support of graduate student scholarly and professional development. When most effective, this advising relationship entails collaborative and sustained engagement by both the adviser and the advisee. As a best practice, advising expectations should be periodically discussed and reviewed to ensure mutual understanding. Both the adviser and the advisee are expected to maintain professionalism and integrity.

Faculty advisers guide students in key areas such as selecting courses, designing and conducting research, developing of teaching pedagogy, navigating policies and degree requirements, and exploring academic opportunities and professional pathways.

Graduate students are active contributors to the advising relationship, proactively seeking academic and professional guidance and taking responsibility for informing themselves of policies and degree requirements for their graduate program.

For a statement of University policy on graduate advising, see the "Graduate Advising" section of this bulletin.

Emeriti: (Professors) Atilla Aydin, Dennis K. Bird, Gordon E. Brown, W. Gary Ernst, James C. Ingle, Jr., Juhn G. Liou, Keith Loague, Gail A. Mahood, David D. Pollard

Chair: Jonathan Payne

Associate Chair: C. Kevin Boyce

Professors: C. Kevin Boyce, Jef Caers, Page Chamberlain, Rodney C. Ewing, Stephan A. Graham, Donald R. Lowe, Elizabeth L. Miller, Jonathan Payne, Jonathan F. Stebbins

Associate Professors: George Hilley, Wendy Mao

Assistant Professors: Erik Sperling

Professors (Research): Martin J. Grove

Courtesy Professors: Elizabeth Hadly, Simon L. Klemperer, Anders R. Nilsson, Alfred M. Spormann

Cognate Courses

Many courses offered within the School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences, as well as courses in other schools with a significant Earth sciences component, may be used in satisfaction of optional requirements for the Geological Sciences degree. Undergraduates should discuss the options available to them with the undergraduate program coordinator; graduate students should discuss options with their advisers.

The following courses outside the School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences are particularly applicable:

Units
BIOHOPK 182HStanford at Sea16
CEE 63Weather and Storms3
CEE 64Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions3
CEE 101AMechanics of Materials4
CEE 101BMechanics of Fluids4
CEE 101CGeotechnical Engineering3-4
CEE 166AWatersheds and Wetlands4

Overseas Studies Courses in Geological Sciences

The Bing Overseas Studies Program manages Stanford study abroad programs for Stanford undergraduates. Students should consult their department or program's student services office for applicability of Overseas Studies courses to a major or minor program.

The Bing Overseas Studies course search site displays courses, locations, and quarters relevant to specific majors.

For course descriptions and additional offerings, see the listings in the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses or Bing Overseas Studies.

Units
explorecourses:OSPgs

Courses

GEOLSCI 1. Introduction to Geology. 5 Units.

Why are earthquakes, volcanoes, and natural resources located at specific spots on the Earth surface? Why are there rolling hills to the west behind Stanford, and soaring granite walls to the east in Yosemite? What was the Earth like in the past, and what will it be like in the future? Lectures, hands-on laboratories, in-class activities, and one field trip will help you see the Earth through the eyes of a geologist. Topics include plate tectonics, the cycling and formation of different types of rocks, and how geologists use rocks to understand Earth's history.
Same as: EARTHSYS 11

GEOLSCI 4. Coevolution of Earth and Life. 4 Units.

Earth is the only planet in the universe currently known to harbor life. When and how did Earth become inhabited? How have biological activities altered the planet? How have environmental changes affected the evolution of life? Are we living in a sixth mass extinction? In this course, we will develop and use the tools of geology, paleontology, geochemistry, and modeling that allow us to reconstruct Earth's 4.5 billion year history and to reconstruct the interactions between life and its host planet over the past 4 billion years. We will also ask what this long history can tell us about life's likely future on Earth. We will also use One half-day field trip.
Same as: EARTHSYS 4

GEOLSCI 5. Living on the Edge. 1 Unit.

A weekend field trip along the Pacific Coast. Tour local beaches, geology, and landforms with expert guides from the School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences. Enjoy a BBQ dinner and stay overnight in tents along the Santa Cruz coast. Get to know faculty and graduate students in Stanford Earth. Requirements: Two campus meetings and weekend field trip (Fall Quarter: section 01, October 13-14 OR section 02, November 17-18) to Pacific Coast. Enrollment limited to 25. Freshman have priority. If you are interested in signing up for the course, complete this form: https://goo.gl/forms/AJHCoqPJ1rQgJyLD2. The form will open August 1, 2018.
Same as: EARTH 15

GEOLSCI 8. Oceanography: An Introduction to the Marine Environment. 3 Units.

For non-majors and earth science and environmental majors. Topics: topography and geology of the sea floor; evolution of ocean basins; circulation of ocean and atmosphere; nature of sea water, waves, and tides; and the history of the major ocean basins. The interface between continents and ocean basins, emphasizing estuaries, beaches, and continental shelves with California margin examples. Relationships among the distribution of inorganic constituents, ocean circulation, biologic productivity, and marine environments from deep sea to the coast. One-day field trip to measure and analyze waves and currents.

GEOLSCI 14. Our National Parks. 2 Units.

Explore the history and natural science of three national parks proximal to Stanford. Under the guidance of instructors, students will work in teams to learn about chosen aspects of these parks, develop dynamic self-guided tours for public consumption, and implement (and publish) these tours using the XibitEd app for iPhones. Students will learn how to present their findings to a general, non-scientific audience, delineate physical locations at which storytelling will take place through the XibitEd system, and create and configure the content for the system. The course will culminate in the publishing of the experiential learning tours, as well as a weekend-long field trip to the Pinnacles National Park.
Same as: EARTH 14, EARTH 114A, GEOLSCI 114A

GEOLSCI 40N. Diamonds. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Topics include the history of diamonds as gemstones, prospecting and mining, and their often tragic politics. How diamond samples provide clues for geologists to understand the Earth's deep interior and the origins of the solar system. Diamond's unique materials properties and efforts in synthesizing diamonds.

GEOLSCI 42. Landscapes and Tectonics of the San Francisco Bay Area. 4 Units.

Active faulting and erosion in the Bay Area, and its effects upon landscapes. Earth science concepts and skills through investigation of the valley, mountain, and coastal areas around Stanford. Faulting associated with the San Andreas Fault, coastal processes along the San Mateo coast, uplift of the mountains by plate tectonic processes, and landsliding in urban and mountainous areas. Field excursions; student projects.
Same as: EARTH 42

GEOLSCI 46Q. Environmental Impact of Energy Systems: What are the Risks?. 3 Units.

In order to reduce CO2 emissions and meet growing energy demands during the 21st Century, the world can expect to experience major shifts in the types and proportions of energy-producing systems. These decisions will depend on considerations of cost per energy unit, resource availability, and unique national policy needs. Less often considered is the environmental impact of the different energy producing systems: fossil fuels, nuclear, wind, solar, and other alternatives. One of the challenges has been not only to evaluate the environmental impact but also to develop a systematic basis for comparison of environmental impact among the energy sources. The course will consider fossil fuels (natural gas, petroleum and coal), nuclear power, wind and solar and consider the impact of resource extraction, refining and production, transmission and utilization for each energy source.
Same as: EARTHSYS 46Q

GEOLSCI 59N. Earthquake 9.0: The Heritage of Fukushima Daiichi 6 Years Later. 3 Units.

We will consider the case for nuclear power as an energy source through the lens of the Fukushima disaster. Specific topics will include the cause of the earthquake and tsunami, the causes for the nuclear power plant failure, the mechanisms for the release of radioactivity at the time of the accident and today, and the ongoing human impact of this tragedy. In addition to the details of the accident and the release of radioactivity, class discussions and readings will explore the health and economic impacts of nuclear power and examine how the accident has affected the future prospects of nuclear power in Japan, the U.S., and around the world.

GEOLSCI 90. Introduction to Geochemistry. 3-4 Units.

The chemistry of the solid earth and its atmosphere and oceans, emphasizing the processes that control the distribution of the elements in the earth over geological time and at present, and on the conceptual and analytical tools needed to explore these questions. The basics of geochemical thermodynamics and isotope geochemistry. The formation of the elements, crust, atmosphere and oceans, global geochemical cycles, and the interaction of geochemistry, biological evolution, and climate. Recommended: introductory chemistry.
Same as: EARTHSYS 90

GEOLSCI 102. Earth Materials: Introduction to Mineralogy. 4 Units.

The minerals and materials that comprise the earth and their uses in modern society. How to identify, classify, and interpret rock-forming minerals. Emphasis is on information provided by common minerals about the nature of the Earth's interior and processes such as magmatism and metamorphism that operate there, as well as the major processes of weathering and erosion that link plate tectonics to earth cycles. Required lab section. Prerequisite: introductory geology course. Recommended: introductory chemistry.

GEOLSCI 103. Earth Materials: Rocks in Thin Section. 3 Units.

Use of petrographic microscope to identify minerals and common mineral associations in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. Crystallization histories, mineral growth and reaction relations, deformation textures in metamorphic rocks, and provenance of siliciclastic rocks. Required lab section. Prerequisite 102.
Same as: GEOLSCI 203

GEOLSCI 104. Introduction to Petrology. 3-4 Units.

The origin of igneous and metamorphic rocks as a function of geologic and plate tectonic setting. How to determine the temperature and pressure conditions of formation from mineral assemblages, textures, and compositions. Undergraduate students majoring in Geological Sciences must take the course for 4 units and complete a weekly lab section examining rocks in thin section. Prerequisite: introductory geology course, GEOLSCI102; those taking the lab must also have completed GEOLSCI103 or have equivalent experience with a petrographic microscope.
Same as: GEOLSCI 204

GEOLSCI 105. Introduction to Field Methods. 3 Units.

Two-week, field-based course in the White Mountains of eastern California. Introduction to the techniques for geologic mapping and geologic investigation in the field: systematic observations and data collection for lithologic columns and structural cross-sections. Interpretation of field relationships and data to determine the stratigraphic and deformational history of the region. Prerequisite: GEOLSCI 1, recommended: GEOLSCI 102.

GEOLSCI 106. Sedimentary Geology and Depositional Systems. 4 Units.

Topics: weathering, erosion and transportation, deposition, origins of sedimentary structures and textures, sediment composition, diagenesis, sedimentary facies, tectonics and sedimentation, and the characteristics of the major siliciclastic and carbonate depositional environments. Required Lab Section: methods of analysis of sediments in hand specimen and thin section. There is a required field problem trips to the field site(s) during the quarter, data collection and analysis, and preparation of a final written and oral report. Prerequisites: 1, 102, 103.

GEOLSCI 107. Journey to the Center of the Earth. 3 Units.

The interconnected set of dynamic systems that make up the Earth. Focus is on fundamental geophysical observations of the Earth and the laboratory experiments to understand and interpret them. What earthquakes, volcanoes, gravity, magnetic fields, and rocks reveal about the Earth's formation and evolution.
Same as: GEOLSCI 207, GEOPHYS 184, GEOPHYS 274

GEOLSCI 110. Rock Deformation and Tectonics. 5 Units.

Theory, principles, and practical techniques to measure, describe, analyze, and interpret deformation-related structures on Earth. Collection of fault and fold data in the field followed by lab and computer analysis; interpretation of geologic maps and methods of cross-section construction; structural analysis of fault zones and metamorphic rocks; measuring deformation; regional structural styles and associated landforms related to plate tectonic convergence, rifting and strike-slip faulting; the evolution of mountain belts and formation of sedimentary basins. Prerequisite: GEOLSCI 1, calculus. Recommended: 102, 105.
Same as: GEOLSCI 294

GEOLSCI 112. Geomorphology. 3 Units.

Development of earth's landscapes and landforms by processes by rock uplift, weathering, hill slopes and flowing water, wind and ice. Analysis of the imprint, role, and legacy of climate and tectonics in shaping modern landscapes. Application of earth's surface processes to the evaluation of hazards posed by these phenomena.

GEOLSCI 114A. Our National Parks. 2 Units.

Explore the history and natural science of three national parks proximal to Stanford. Under the guidance of instructors, students will work in teams to learn about chosen aspects of these parks, develop dynamic self-guided tours for public consumption, and implement (and publish) these tours using the XibitEd app for iPhones. Students will learn how to present their findings to a general, non-scientific audience, delineate physical locations at which storytelling will take place through the XibitEd system, and create and configure the content for the system. The course will culminate in the publishing of the experiential learning tours, as well as a weekend-long field trip to the Pinnacles National Park.
Same as: EARTH 14, EARTH 114A, GEOLSCI 14

GEOLSCI 118X. Sustainable Urban Systems Fundamentals. 3-5 Units.

This course is designed to provide students with fundamental mindsets and toolsets that they can apply to real-world problem solving in the context of urban systems. It focuses on fundamental quantitative and qualitative methods for acquiring knowledge and assessing performance of urban systems. Quantitative methods covered include geographic information systems, advanced Excel methods and basic statistics, and qualitative approaches will include stakeholder engagement as well as ethical guidelines governing work with community groups. The course will also introduce four key types of systems performance: well-being, sustainability, resilience and equity. Topics covered are those students can expect to encounter as they pursue their future careers. The course is also a prerequisite for participation in the Sustainable Urban Systems Projects which take place in Winter (CEE 224Y) and Spring (CEE 224Z). Those SUS Projects are designed to immerse student teams in current planning challenges through service to local public and private sector stakeholders; they will require high levels of self-driven learning, time commitment, professionalism, and collaboration. Open to undergraduate and graduate students in any major. For more information, visit http://sus.stanford.edu/courses.
Same as: ESS 118X, ESS 218X, GEOLSCI 218X, GEOPHYS 118X, GEOPHYS 218X, POLISCI 224X, PUBLPOL 118X

GEOLSCI 121. What Makes a Habitable Planet?. 3 Units.

Physical processes affecting habitability such as large impacts and the atmospheric greenhouse effect, comets, geochemistry, the rise of oxygen, climate controls, and impact cratering. Detecting and interpreting the spectra of extrasolar terrestrial planets. Student-led discussions of readings from the scientific literature. Team taught by planetary scientists from NASA Ames Research Center.
Same as: GEOLSCI 221

GEOLSCI 122. Planetary Systems: Dynamics and Origins. 2-4 Units.

(Students with a strong background in mathematics and the physical sciences should register for 222.) Motions of planets and smaller bodies, energy transport in planetary systems, composition, structure and dynamics of planetary atmospheres, cratering on planetary surfaces, properties of meteorites, asteroids and comets, extrasolar planets, and planetary formation. Prerequisite: some background in the physical sciences, especially astronomy, geophysics, or physics. Students need instructor approval to take the course for 2 or 4 units.
Same as: GEOLSCI 222, GEOPHYS 122

GEOLSCI 123. Evolution of Marine Ecosystems. 3-4 Units.

Life originally evolved in the ocean. When, why, and how did the major transitions occur in the history of marine life? What triggered the rapid evolution and diversification of animals in the Cambrian, after more than 3.5 billion years of Earth's history? What caused Earth's major mass extinction events? How do ancient extinction events compare to current threats to marine ecosystems? How has the evolution of primary producers impacted animals, and how has animal evolution impacted primary producers? In this course, we will review the latest evidence regarding these major questions in the history of marine ecosystems. We will develop familiarity with the most common groups of marine animal fossils. We will also conduct original analyses of paleontological data, developing skills both in the framing and testing of scientific hypotheses and in data analysis and presentation.
Same as: BIO 119, EARTHSYS 122, GEOLSCI 223B

GEOLSCI 128. Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems. 4 Units.

The what, when, where, and how do we know it regarding life on land through time. Fossil plants, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates (yes, dinosaurs) are all covered, including how all of those components interact with each other and with changing climates, continental drift, atmospheric composition, and environmental perturbations like glaciation and mass extinction. The course involves both lecture and lab components. Graduate students registering at the 200-level are expected to write a term paper, but can opt out of some labs where appropriate.
Same as: EARTHSYS 128, GEOLSCI 228

GEOLSCI 132. Evolution of Earth Systems. 4 Units.

This course examines biogeochemical cycles and how they developed through the interaction between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. Emphasis is on the long-term carbon cycle and how it is connected to other biogeochemical cycles on Earth. The course consists of lectures, discussion of research papers, and quantitative modeling of biogeochemical cycles. Students produce a model on some aspect of the cycles discussed in this course. Grades based on class interaction, student presentations, and the modeling project.
Same as: EARTHSYS 132, EARTHSYS 232, ESS 132, ESS 232, GEOLSCI 232

GEOLSCI 135. Sedimentary Geochemistry and Analysis. 1-4 Unit.

Introduction to research methods in sedimentary geochemistry. Proper laboratory techniques and strategies for generating reliable data applicable to any future labwork will be emphasized. This research-based course will examine how the geochemistry of sedimentary rocks informs us about local and global environmental conditions during deposition. Students will collect geochemical data from a measured stratigraphic section in the western United States. These samples will be collected during a four-day field trip at the end of spring break (attendance encouraged but not required). In lab, students will learn low-temperature geochemical techniques focusing on the cycling of biogeochemical elements (O, C, S, and Fe) in marine sediments throughout Earth history. The focus will be on geochemistry of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks (shale) but the geochemistry of carbonates will also be explored. This is a lab-based course complemented with lectures. Students who wish to take the course for less than 4 units must receive approval from the instructor. This course must be taken for a minimum of 3 units and a letter grade to be eligible for Ways credit.
Same as: GEOLSCI 235

GEOLSCI 135A. Sedimentary Geochemistry Field Trip. 1 Unit.

Field trip to a sedimentary succession of geobiological interest. Students will measure the stratigraphic section, describe any fossils and trace fossils, and collect samples for geochemical analysis. Offered over spring break.

GEOLSCI 150. Senior Seminar: Issues in Earth Sciences. 3 Units.

Focus is on written and oral communication in a topical context. Topics from current frontiers in earth science research and issues of concern to the public. Readings, oral presentations, written work, and peer review.
Same as: GEOPHYS 199

GEOLSCI 163. Introduction to Isotope Geochemistry. 3 Units.

Isotopic variations in nature provide key insights into the age of the Earth and its rocks, as well as the evolution of Earth¿s major reservoirs, including the mantle, crust and hydrosphere. How do we know the age of the Earth? When did continents first form? How have the oceans changed through time? This course will address these and related topics by focusing on the fundamental processes that govern isotopic variations, including radioactive decay, mass dependent isotope fractionation and dynamic transfers between reservoirs.
Same as: GEOLSCI 263

GEOLSCI 163H. Big Earth Hackathon Water Challenge. 2 Units.

Participate in Stanford's inaugural Big Earth Hackathon Water Challenge by finding an innovative solution to a planetary water problem. Students are tasked to come up with a solution to a water related problem over a seven week period. Projects can be software, hardware, or policy related solutions to important water issues. Students (working individually or in teams of 2-4) are encouraged to pursue a problem of their own interest, but will be provided several opportunities to hear of projects ideas from faculty and industry leaders.
Same as: CEE 163H, EARTH 163H

GEOLSCI 167. Technology and National Security. 3 Units.

Explores the relation between technology, war, and national security policy from early history to modern day, focusing on current U.S. national security challenges and the role that technology plays in shaping our understanding and response to these challenges. Topics include the interplay between technology and modes of warfare; dominant and emerging technologies such as nuclear weapons, cyber, sensors, stealth, and biological; security challenges to the U.S.; and the U.S. response and adaptation to new technologies of military significance.
Same as: GEOLSCI 267, MS&E 193, MS&E 293

GEOLSCI 170. Environmental Geochemistry. 4 Units.

Solid, aqueous, and gaseous phases comprising the environment, their natural compositional variations, and chemical interactions. Contrast between natural sources of hazardous elements and compounds and types and sources of anthropogenic contaminants and pollutants. Chemical and physical processes of weathering and soil formation. Chemical factors that affect the stability of solids and aqueous species under earth surface conditions. The release, mobility, and fate of contaminants in natural waters and the roles that water and dissolved substances play in the physical behavior of rocks and soils. The impact of contaminants and design of remediation strategies. Case studies. Prerequisite: 90 or consent of instructor.
Same as: EARTHSYS 170, GEOLSCI 270

GEOLSCI 180. Igneous Processes. 3-4 Units.

For juniors, seniors and beginning graduate students in Earth Sciences. Structure and physical properties of magmas; use of phase equilibria and mineral barometers and thermometers to determine conditions of magmatic processes; melting and magmatic lineages as a function of tectonic setting; processes that control magma composition including fractional crystallization, partial melting, and assimilation; petrogenetic use of trace elements and isotopes. Optional labs emphasize identification of volcanic and plutonic rocks in thin section and interpretation of rock textures. Students taking the lab component should enroll in 4 units, as required for the Geological Sciences major; for the lab, GS 102, 103, or consent of instructor are prerequisites.
Same as: GEOLSCI 280

GEOLSCI 183. California Desert Geologic Field Trip. 1 Unit.

Field seminar. Three class meetings during Winter quarter followed by a 6-day field trip over Spring Break to Mojave Desert, Death Valley, and Owens Valley. See stunning desert and mountain scenery, and examine geology that includes active faults, recent volcanoes, hot springs, ore deposits, rocks that have been stretched and melted deep in the earth's crust, peaks carved by glaciers, vast ancient lakebeds that are now huge salt flats, shifting fields of sand dunes, and desert flora and fauna. Involves camping and some hiking. Enrollment limited to 25 students; preference given to freshmen and sophomores; additionally graduate students in the School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences.
Same as: EARTH 183

GEOLSCI 184. Field Trip to Volcanoes of the Eastern Sierran Volcanism. 1 Unit.

Four-day trip over Memorial Day weekend (involving light hiking and camping) to study silicic and mafic volcanism in the eastern Sierra Nevada: basaltic lavas and cinder cones erupted along normal faults bounding Owens Valley, Long Valley caldera, postcaldera rhyolite lavas, hydrothermal alteration and hot springs, Holocene rhyolite lavas of the Inyo and Mono craters, subaqueous basaltic and silicic eruptions of Mono Basin, floating pumice blocks. If snow-level permits, granites of Yosemite and/or silicic volcanism associated with the Bodie gold district. Recommended: 1 or equivalent. Limited enrollment; preference to frosh, sophs, and undergraduates and graduates majoring in SE3.

GEOLSCI 185. Volcanology. 3-4 Units.

For juniors, seniors, and beginning graduate students. Eruptive processes that create volcanic deposits and landforms; shield, stratocone, and composite volcanoes, lava dome fields; calderas. Control of magma viscosity and water content on eruptive style. Fluid dynamic controls on the characteristics of lavas and pyroclastic flows. Submarine and subglacial eruptions and interaction of magma with groundwater. Rhyolitic supereruptions and flood basalts: effects on climate and atmospheric chemistry, relation to extinction events. Volcanic hazards and mitigating risk. Geophysical monitoring of active volcanoes. Volcanic-hosted geothermal systems and mineral resources. Those taking the class for 4 units will complete a 3-hour weekly lab that emphasizes recognizing types of lavas and products of explosive eruptions in hand specimen and thin section. Prerequisite: 1, for those taking the course for 3 units; 103 and 104 or equivalent for those taking the course for 4 units.
Same as: GEOLSCI 285A

GEOLSCI 190. Research in the Field. 3-6 Units.

Month long courses that provide students with the opportunity to collect data in the field as part of a team-based investigation of research questions or topics under the expert guidance of knowledgeable faculty and graduate students. Topics and locations vary. May be taken multiple times for credit. Prerequisites: GS 1, GS 102, GS 105.
Same as: GEOLSCI 295

GEOLSCI 191. Stanford EARTH Field Courses. 1 Unit.

Four- to seven-day field trips to locations of geologic and environmental interest. Includes trips offered during Thanksgiving and Spring breaks. May be repeated for credit. The Winter 2018 trip is March 24-29, 2018 in Owens Valley and Death Valley. If you are interested in participating in this course, complete this form: https://goo.gl/forms/1DFmnIfc7EY7bPug1.
Same as: EARTH 191

GEOLSCI 192. Undergraduate Research in Geological Sciences. 1-10 Unit.

Field-, lab-, or literature-based. Faculty supervision. Written reports. May be repeated for credit.

GEOLSCI 197. Senior Thesis. 3-5 Units.

For seniors who wish to write a thesis based on research in 192 or as a summer research fellow. May not be repeated for credit; may not be taken if enrolled in 199.

GEOLSCI 198. Special Problems in Geological Sciences. 1-10 Unit.

Reading and instruction under faculty supervision. Written reports. May be repeated for credit.

GEOLSCI 199. Honors Program. 1-10 Unit.

Research on a topic of special interest. See "Undergraduate Honors Program" above.nMay be repeated for credit.

GEOLSCI 203. Earth Materials: Rocks in Thin Section. 3 Units.

Use of petrographic microscope to identify minerals and common mineral associations in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. Crystallization histories, mineral growth and reaction relations, deformation textures in metamorphic rocks, and provenance of siliciclastic rocks. Required lab section. Prerequisite 102.
Same as: GEOLSCI 103

GEOLSCI 204. Introduction to Petrology. 3-4 Units.

The origin of igneous and metamorphic rocks as a function of geologic and plate tectonic setting. How to determine the temperature and pressure conditions of formation from mineral assemblages, textures, and compositions. Undergraduate students majoring in Geological Sciences must take the course for 4 units and complete a weekly lab section examining rocks in thin section. Prerequisite: introductory geology course, GEOLSCI102; those taking the lab must also have completed GEOLSCI103 or have equivalent experience with a petrographic microscope.
Same as: GEOLSCI 104

GEOLSCI 205. Fundamentals of Geobiology. 3 Units.

Lecture and discussion covering key topics in the history of life on Earth, as well as basic principles that apply to life in the universe. Co-evolution of Earth and life; critical intervals of environmental and biological change; geomicrobiology; paleobiology; global biogeochemical cycles; scaling of geobiological processes in space and time.
Same as: ESS 205

GEOLSCI 206. Topics in Organismal Paleobiology. 2-3 Units.

Seminar course covering an area of structural biology, physiology, or ecology relevant to understanding the fossil record, with the topic changing each time the course is offered. Examples of potential topics are biomineralization, fluid mechanics, biomechanics, taphonomy & biochemical preservation, and the functional morphology/fossil history of specific evolutionary groups such as vertebrates, insects, or plants. This year¿s topic will be the Evolution of Photosynthesis, co-taught with visiting professor Woody Fischer.

GEOLSCI 207. Journey to the Center of the Earth. 3 Units.

The interconnected set of dynamic systems that make up the Earth. Focus is on fundamental geophysical observations of the Earth and the laboratory experiments to understand and interpret them. What earthquakes, volcanoes, gravity, magnetic fields, and rocks reveal about the Earth's formation and evolution.
Same as: GEOLSCI 107, GEOPHYS 184, GEOPHYS 274

GEOLSCI 208. Topics in Geobiology. 1 Unit.

Reading course addressing current topics in geobiology. Topics will vary from year to year, but will generally cover areas of current debate in the primary literature, such as the origin of life, the origin and consequences of oxygenic photosynthesis, environmental controls on and consequences of metabolic innovations in microbes, the early evolution of animals and plants, and the causes and consequences of major extinction events. Participants will be expected to read and present on current papers in the primary literature.
Same as: ESS 208

GEOLSCI 209. Microstructures. 3-5 Units.

Microstructures in metamorphic rocks reveal temperature, pressure, and rates of deformation in the crust and variations in its thermo-mechanical behavior. Topics include the rheology of rocks and minerals, strain partitioning, shear zones and brittle-ductile transition in the crust, mechanisms of foliation and lineation development, preferred crystallographic fabrics, and geochronologic methods useful for dating deformation. Labs involve microstructure analysis of suites of rocks from classic localities. 5 units for extra project.

GEOLSCI 210. Geologic Evolution of the Western U.S. Cordillera. 1-3 Unit.

The geologic and tectonic evolution of the U.S. Cordillera based on its rock record through time. This region provides good examples of large-scale structures and magmatic activity generated during crustal shortening, extension, and strike-slip faulting and affords opportunity to study crustal-scale processes involved in mountain building in context of plate tectonic motions.

GEOLSCI 211. Topics in Regional Geology and Tectonics. 2-3 Units.

May be repeated for credit.

GEOLSCI 212. Topics in Tectonic Geomorphology. 2 Units.

For upper-division undergraduates and graduate students. Topics vary and may include coupling among erosional, tectonic, and chemical weathering processes at the scale of orogens; historical review of tectonic geomorphology; hillslope and fluvial process response to active uplift; measures of landscape form and their relationship to tectonic uplift and bedrock lithology. May be repeated for credit.

GEOLSCI 213. Topics in Sedimentary Geology. 2 Units.

For upper division undergraduates and graduate students. Topics vary each year but the focus is on current developments and problems in sedimentary geology, sedimentology, Archean geology, and basin analysis. These include issues in deep-water sediments, their origin, facies, and architecture; sedimentary systems on the early Earth; and relationships among tectonics, basin development, and basin fill. May be repeated for credit.

GEOLSCI 214. Quantitative Dynamic Stratigraphy. 1-2 Unit.

This seminar will address how numerical modeling of depositional systems can be used to test geological hypotheses and improve our understanding of subsurface reservoirs. What are some of the advantages as well as challenges of using computational models and Monte Carlo methods? Students will read key literature as well as develop an understanding of available software such as SEDSIM and others. 2 unit option will require completing a weekend workshop.

GEOLSCI 216. Chemical Kinetics and Basin Modeling. 2-3 Units.

Students will explore the structure of sedimentary organic matter and the chemical and thermodynamic requirements for generating petroleum. A wide variety of thermal maturity indicators will be explored, paying particular attention to optical indicators and predictive kinetics of Tmax and %Ro. Students will understand the advantages and pitfalls of kinetic measurements in the lab. Hands-on exercises reinforce learning targets. An optional class project allows students to take the class for 3 units instead of 2. Course readings come from the literature and Burnham's textbook.
Same as: ENERGY 282

GEOLSCI 218X. Sustainable Urban Systems Fundamentals. 3-5 Units.

This course is designed to provide students with fundamental mindsets and toolsets that they can apply to real-world problem solving in the context of urban systems. It focuses on fundamental quantitative and qualitative methods for acquiring knowledge and assessing performance of urban systems. Quantitative methods covered include geographic information systems, advanced Excel methods and basic statistics, and qualitative approaches will include stakeholder engagement as well as ethical guidelines governing work with community groups. The course will also introduce four key types of systems performance: well-being, sustainability, resilience and equity. Topics covered are those students can expect to encounter as they pursue their future careers. The course is also a prerequisite for participation in the Sustainable Urban Systems Projects which take place in Winter (CEE 224Y) and Spring (CEE 224Z). Those SUS Projects are designed to immerse student teams in current planning challenges through service to local public and private sector stakeholders; they will require high levels of self-driven learning, time commitment, professionalism, and collaboration. Open to undergraduate and graduate students in any major. For more information, visit http://sus.stanford.edu/courses.
Same as: ESS 118X, ESS 218X, GEOLSCI 118X, GEOPHYS 118X, GEOPHYS 218X, POLISCI 224X, PUBLPOL 118X

GEOLSCI 221. What Makes a Habitable Planet?. 3 Units.

Physical processes affecting habitability such as large impacts and the atmospheric greenhouse effect, comets, geochemistry, the rise of oxygen, climate controls, and impact cratering. Detecting and interpreting the spectra of extrasolar terrestrial planets. Student-led discussions of readings from the scientific literature. Team taught by planetary scientists from NASA Ames Research Center.
Same as: GEOLSCI 121

GEOLSCI 222. Planetary Systems: Dynamics and Origins. 2-4 Units.

(Students with a strong background in mathematics and the physical sciences should register for 222.) Motions of planets and smaller bodies, energy transport in planetary systems, composition, structure and dynamics of planetary atmospheres, cratering on planetary surfaces, properties of meteorites, asteroids and comets, extrasolar planets, and planetary formation. Prerequisite: some background in the physical sciences, especially astronomy, geophysics, or physics. Students need instructor approval to take the course for 2 or 4 units.
Same as: GEOLSCI 122, GEOPHYS 122

GEOLSCI 223. Reflection Seismology Interpretation. 1-4 Unit.

The structural and stratigraphic interpretation of seismic reflection data, emphasizing hydrocarbon traps in two and three dimensions on industry data, including workstation-based interpretation. Lectures only, 1 unit. Prerequisite: 222, or consent of instructor. (GEOPHYS 183 must be taken for a minimum of 3 units to be eligible for Ways credit).
Same as: GEOPHYS 183, GEOPHYS 223

GEOLSCI 223B. Evolution of Marine Ecosystems. 3-4 Units.

Life originally evolved in the ocean. When, why, and how did the major transitions occur in the history of marine life? What triggered the rapid evolution and diversification of animals in the Cambrian, after more than 3.5 billion years of Earth's history? What caused Earth's major mass extinction events? How do ancient extinction events compare to current threats to marine ecosystems? How has the evolution of primary producers impacted animals, and how has animal evolution impacted primary producers? In this course, we will review the latest evidence regarding these major questions in the history of marine ecosystems. We will develop familiarity with the most common groups of marine animal fossils. We will also conduct original analyses of paleontological data, developing skills both in the framing and testing of scientific hypotheses and in data analysis and presentation.
Same as: BIO 119, EARTHSYS 122, GEOLSCI 123

GEOLSCI 228. Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems. 4 Units.

The what, when, where, and how do we know it regarding life on land through time. Fossil plants, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates (yes, dinosaurs) are all covered, including how all of those components interact with each other and with changing climates, continental drift, atmospheric composition, and environmental perturbations like glaciation and mass extinction. The course involves both lecture and lab components. Graduate students registering at the 200-level are expected to write a term paper, but can opt out of some labs where appropriate.
Same as: EARTHSYS 128, GEOLSCI 128

GEOLSCI 232. Evolution of Earth Systems. 4 Units.

This course examines biogeochemical cycles and how they developed through the interaction between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. Emphasis is on the long-term carbon cycle and how it is connected to other biogeochemical cycles on Earth. The course consists of lectures, discussion of research papers, and quantitative modeling of biogeochemical cycles. Students produce a model on some aspect of the cycles discussed in this course. Grades based on class interaction, student presentations, and the modeling project.
Same as: EARTHSYS 132, EARTHSYS 232, ESS 132, ESS 232, GEOLSCI 132

GEOLSCI 233A. Microbial Physiology. 3 Units.

Introduction to the physiology of microbes including cellular structure, transcription and translation, growth and metabolism, mechanisms for stress resistance and the formation of microbial communities. These topics will be covered in relation to the evolution of early life on Earth, ancient ecosystems, and the interpretation of the rock record. Recommended: introductory biology and chemistry.
Same as: BIO 180, EARTHSYS 255, ESS 255

GEOLSCI 235. Sedimentary Geochemistry and Analysis. 1-4 Unit.

Introduction to research methods in sedimentary geochemistry. Proper laboratory techniques and strategies for generating reliable data applicable to any future labwork will be emphasized. This research-based course will examine how the geochemistry of sedimentary rocks informs us about local and global environmental conditions during deposition. Students will collect geochemical data from a measured stratigraphic section in the western United States. These samples will be collected during a four-day field trip at the end of spring break (attendance encouraged but not required). In lab, students will learn low-temperature geochemical techniques focusing on the cycling of biogeochemical elements (O, C, S, and Fe) in marine sediments throughout Earth history. The focus will be on geochemistry of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks (shale) but the geochemistry of carbonates will also be explored. This is a lab-based course complemented with lectures. Students who wish to take the course for less than 4 units must receive approval from the instructor. This course must be taken for a minimum of 3 units and a letter grade to be eligible for Ways credit.
Same as: GEOLSCI 135

GEOLSCI 240. Data science for geoscience. 3 Units.

Overview of some of the most important data science methods (statistics, machine learning & computer vision) relevant for geological sciences, as well as other fields in the Earth Sciences. Areas covered are: extreme value statistics for predicting rare events; compositional data analysis for geochemistry; multivariate analysis for designing data & computer experiments; probabilistic aggregation of evidence for spatial mapping; functional data analysis for multivariate environmental datasets, spatial regression and modeling spatial uncertainty with covariate information (geostatistics). Identification & learning of geo-objects with computer vision. Focus on practicality rather than theory. Matlab exercises on realistic data problems.
Same as: ENERGY 240

GEOLSCI 246. Reservoir Characterization and Flow Modeling with Outcrop Data. 3 Units.

Course gives an overview of concepts from geology and geophysics relevant for building subsurface reservoir models. Includes a required 1-day field trip and hands-on lab exercises. Target audience: MS and 1st year PhD students in PE/ERE/GS with little or no background in geology or geophysics. Topics include: basin and petroleum systems, depositional settings, deformation and diagenesis, introduction to reflection seismic data, rock and fluid property measurements, geostatistics, and flow in porous media.
Same as: ENERGY 146, ENERGY 246

GEOLSCI 247. Architecture of Turbidite Depositional Systems. 3 Units.

This course considers the research that has led to current architectural models of turbidite deposits as we examine diverse data sets that allow us to test these models. Intense exploration and exploitation activities by the petroleum industry have significantly advanced understanding of turbidite systems. These activities stimulated research aimed at developing predictive models of the three common turbidite reservoir types: (1) confined channel systems, (2) weakly confined channel systems, and (3) unconfined lobe systems. Each of these reservoir types are examined in detail considering recognition criteria, internal structure, reservoir characteristics, and important issues related to reservoir potential and performance. Topics of discussion include controlling processes, hierarchy, variability, uncertainty and active areas of research.

GEOLSCI 248. The Petroleum System: Investigative method to explore for conventional & unconventional hydrocarbons. 1 Unit.

How the petroleum system concept can be used to more systematically investigate how hydrocarbon fluid becomes an unconventional accumulation in a pod of active source rock and how this fluid moves from this pod to a conventional pool. How to identify, map, and name a petroleum system. The conventional and unconventional accumulation as well as the use of modeling.

GEOLSCI 250. Sedimentation Mechanics. 3-4 Units.

The mechanics of sediment transport and deposition and the origins of sedimentary structures and textures as applied to interpreting modern sediments and ancient rock sequences. Dimensional analysis, fluid flow, drag, boundary layers, open channel flow, particle settling, erosion, sediment transport, sediment gravity flows, soft sediment deformation, and fluid escape. Required field trip and lab section.

GEOLSCI 251. Sedimentary Basins. 3 Units.

Analysis of the sedimentary fill and tectonic evolution of sedimentary basins. Topics: tectonic and environmental controls on depositional systems, detrital composition, burial history, and stratigraphic architecture; synthesis of basin development through time. One weekend field trip required. Prerequisites: 110, 151.

GEOLSCI 252. Sedimentary Petrography. 4 Units.

Siliciclastic sediments and sedimentary rocks. Research in modern sedimentary mineralogy and petrography and the relationship between the composition and texture of sediments and their provenance, tectonic settings, and diagenetic histories. Prerequisite: 106 or equivalent or instructor approval. Required lab section.

GEOLSCI 253. Petroleum Geology and Exploration. 3 Units.

The origin and occurrence of hydrocarbons. Topics: thermal maturation history in hydrocarbon generation, significance of sedimentary, structural and tectonic setting, trapping geometries and principles of accumulation, and exploration techniques. Prerequisites: 110, 151. Recommended: GEOPHYS 223.

GEOLSCI 254. Carbonate Sedimentology. 3-4 Units.

Processes of precipitation and sedimentation of carbonate minerals with emphasis on marine systems. Topics include: geographic and bathymetric distribution of carbonates in modern and ancient oceans; genesis and environmental significance of carbonate grains and sedimentary textures; carbonate rocks and sediments as sources of geochemical proxy data; carbonate diagenesis; changes in styles of carbonate deposition through Earth history; carbonate depositional patterns and the global carbon cycle. Lab exercises emphasize petrographic and geochemical analysis of carbonate rocks including map and outcrop scale, hand samples, polished slabs, and thin sections.

GEOLSCI 255. Basin and Petroleum System Modeling. 3-4 Units.

For advanced undergraduates or graduate students. Students use stratigraphy, subsurface maps, and basic well log, lithologic, paleontologic, and geochemical data to construct 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D models of petroleum systems that predict the extent of source-rock thermal maturity, petroleum migration paths, and the volumes and compositions of accumulations through time (4-D). Recent software such as PetroMod designed to reconstruct basin geohistory. Recommended: 251 or 253.

GEOLSCI 256. Quantitative Methods in Basin and Petroleum System Modeling. 1-3 Unit.

Examine the physical processes operating in sedimentary basins by deriving the basic equations of fundamental, coupled geologic processes such as fluid flow and heat flow, deposition, compaction, mass conservation, and chemical reactions. Through hands-on computational exercises and instructor-provided "recipes," students will deconstruct the black box of basin modeling software. Students write their own codes (Matlab) as well as gain expertise in modern finite-element modeling software (PetroMod, COMSOL).
Same as: ENERGY 275

GEOLSCI 257. Clastic Sequence Stratigraphy. 3 Units.

Sequence stratigraphy facilitates integration of all sources of geologic data, including seismic, log, core, and paleontological, into a time-stratigraphic model of sediment architecture. Tools applicable to regional and field scales. Emphasis is on practical applications and integration of seismic and well data to exploration and field reservoir problems. Examples from industry data; hands-on exercises.

GEOLSCI 258. Introduction to Depositional Systems. 3 Units.

The characteristics of the major sedimentary environments and their deposits in the geologic record, including alluvial fans, braided and meandering rivers, aeolian systems, deltas, open coasts, barred coasts, marine shelves, and deep-water systems. Emphasis is on subdivisions; morphology; the dynamics of modern systems; and the architectural organization and sedimentary structures, textures, and biological components of ancient deposits.

GEOLSCI 259. Stratigraphic Architecture. 1 Unit.

The stratigraphic architecture of deposits associated with a spectrum of depositional environments, using outcrop and subsurface data. Participants read and discuss selected literature.

GEOLSCI 260. Quantifying Uncertainty in Subsurface Systems. 3 Units.

Broad conceptual overview of the various components required to uncertainty quantification (UQ) for decision making in subsurface engineering problems such as oil/gas production, groundwater management, contaminant remediation, geothermal energy and mineral deposits. The emphasis lies on learning how to synthesize rather than the details of each individual discipline. The class will cover the basic data science for UQ: dimension reduction methods, Monte Carlo & global sensitivity analysis. Introduction to Bayesianism and how it applies to subsurface prediction problems, in particular, the formulation of geological prior models and the role of geostatistics. Strategies for integrating geological science, geophysics, data science and decision science into decision making under uncertainty. Team work on real field applications.

GEOLSCI 263. Introduction to Isotope Geochemistry. 3 Units.

Isotopic variations in nature provide key insights into the age of the Earth and its rocks, as well as the evolution of Earth¿s major reservoirs, including the mantle, crust and hydrosphere. How do we know the age of the Earth? When did continents first form? How have the oceans changed through time? This course will address these and related topics by focusing on the fundamental processes that govern isotopic variations, including radioactive decay, mass dependent isotope fractionation and dynamic transfers between reservoirs.
Same as: GEOLSCI 163

GEOLSCI 266. Managing Nuclear Waste: Technical, Political and Organizational Challenges. 3 Units.

(Formerly IPS 266) The essential technical and scientific elements of the nuclear fuel cycle, focusing on the sources, types, and characteristics of the nuclear waste generated, as well as various strategies for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel - including reprocessing, transmutation, and direct geologic disposal. Policy and organizational issues, such as: options for the characteristics and structure of a new federal nuclear waste management organization, options for a consent-based process for locating nuclear facilities, and the regulatory framework for a geologic repository. A technical background in the nuclear fuel cycle, while desirable, is not required.
Same as: INTLPOL 266

GEOLSCI 267. Technology and National Security. 3 Units.

Explores the relation between technology, war, and national security policy from early history to modern day, focusing on current U.S. national security challenges and the role that technology plays in shaping our understanding and response to these challenges. Topics include the interplay between technology and modes of warfare; dominant and emerging technologies such as nuclear weapons, cyber, sensors, stealth, and biological; security challenges to the U.S.; and the U.S. response and adaptation to new technologies of military significance.
Same as: GEOLSCI 167, MS&E 193, MS&E 293

GEOLSCI 270. Environmental Geochemistry. 4 Units.

Solid, aqueous, and gaseous phases comprising the environment, their natural compositional variations, and chemical interactions. Contrast between natural sources of hazardous elements and compounds and types and sources of anthropogenic contaminants and pollutants. Chemical and physical processes of weathering and soil formation. Chemical factors that affect the stability of solids and aqueous species under earth surface conditions. The release, mobility, and fate of contaminants in natural waters and the roles that water and dissolved substances play in the physical behavior of rocks and soils. The impact of contaminants and design of remediation strategies. Case studies. Prerequisite: 90 or consent of instructor.
Same as: EARTHSYS 170, GEOLSCI 170

GEOLSCI 280. Igneous Processes. 3-4 Units.

For juniors, seniors and beginning graduate students in Earth Sciences. Structure and physical properties of magmas; use of phase equilibria and mineral barometers and thermometers to determine conditions of magmatic processes; melting and magmatic lineages as a function of tectonic setting; processes that control magma composition including fractional crystallization, partial melting, and assimilation; petrogenetic use of trace elements and isotopes. Optional labs emphasize identification of volcanic and plutonic rocks in thin section and interpretation of rock textures. Students taking the lab component should enroll in 4 units, as required for the Geological Sciences major; for the lab, GS 102, 103, or consent of instructor are prerequisites.
Same as: GEOLSCI 180

GEOLSCI 281. Principles of 40Ar/39Ar Thermochronometry. 3-4 Units.

The 40Ar/39Ar method is based upon the K-Ar decay scheme and allows high precision geochronology and thermochronology to be performed with K-bearing minerals. Provides a detailed exploration of the method including all practical considerations and laboratory procedures for standardization and instrument calibration. A laboratory component allows practical experience in making measurements and interpreting results.

GEOLSCI 282. Interpretative Methods in Detrital Geochronology. 3 Units.

Over the past decade, the number of studies that make use of isotopic provenance data has sky-rocketed. This type of data is now routinely used throughout the geosciences to solve a broad range of geologic problems. This seminar examines the state-of-the-art of existing interpretative methods for detrital geo/thermochronology data in provenance studies and critically examines their strengths and weaknesses. While this course will touch upon sampling approaches analytical aspects of data collection, focus is primarily upon data interpretation.

GEOLSCI 283. Thermochronology and Crustal Evolution. 4 Units.

Thermochronology analyzes the competition between radioactive in-growth and temperature-dependant loss of radiogenic isotopes within radioactive mineral hosts in terms of temperature-time history. Coupled with quantitative understanding of kinetic phenomena and crustal- or landscape-scale interpretational models, thermochronology provides an important source of data for the Earth Sciences, notably tectonics, geomorphology, and petrogenesis. Focus on recent developments in thermochronology, specifically analytical and interpretative innovations developed over the past decade. Integrates the latest thermochronology techniques with field work in a small-scale research project focused upon crustal evolution.

GEOLSCI 285A. Volcanology. 3-4 Units.

For juniors, seniors, and beginning graduate students. Eruptive processes that create volcanic deposits and landforms; shield, stratocone, and composite volcanoes, lava dome fields; calderas. Control of magma viscosity and water content on eruptive style. Fluid dynamic controls on the characteristics of lavas and pyroclastic flows. Submarine and subglacial eruptions and interaction of magma with groundwater. Rhyolitic supereruptions and flood basalts: effects on climate and atmospheric chemistry, relation to extinction events. Volcanic hazards and mitigating risk. Geophysical monitoring of active volcanoes. Volcanic-hosted geothermal systems and mineral resources. Those taking the class for 4 units will complete a 3-hour weekly lab that emphasizes recognizing types of lavas and products of explosive eruptions in hand specimen and thin section. Prerequisite: 1, for those taking the course for 3 units; 103 and 104 or equivalent for those taking the course for 4 units.
Same as: GEOLSCI 185

GEOLSCI 287. Fundamentals of Mass Spectrometry. 3 Units.

This course explains ion creation, mass separation, and ion detection in mass spectrometry methods commonly used in the Earth Sciences. Gas source (C-O-H-S stable isotope, 40Ar/39Ar, and (U-Th)-He), secondary ionization (SIMS), laser ablation and solution-based mass inductively coupled (ICP-MS) and thermal ionization (TIMS) mass spectrometry techniques are also explored. Additional topics include ion optics, vacuum generation, and pressure measurement, instrument calibration, data reduction, and error propagation methods.

GEOLSCI 290. Departmental Seminar in Geological Sciences. 1 Unit.

Current research topics. Presentations by guest speakers from Stanford and elsewhere. May be repeated for credit.

GEOLSCI 291. GS Field Trips. 1 Unit.

Field trips for teaching and research purposes. Trips average 5-10 days. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

GEOLSCI 292. Directed Reading with Geological Sciences Faculty. 1-10 Unit.

May be repeated for credit.

GEOLSCI 293. Advanced structural mapping in the field. 1-2 Unit.

Advanced geologic mapping techniques, approaches and methods of data collection in the field. 7-10 days in the field with lectures prior to the trip and follow up mapping and data analysis after the trip. Across the Cordillera September 2018.

GEOLSCI 293A. Geology of Oman Field Trip. 1 Unit.

Reading and discussion of papers addressing current topics related to the geology of Oman, including Neoproterozoic and Permian-Triassic environmental change. By invitation only. May be repeat for credit.

GEOLSCI 294. Rock Deformation and Tectonics. 5 Units.

Theory, principles, and practical techniques to measure, describe, analyze, and interpret deformation-related structures on Earth. Collection of fault and fold data in the field followed by lab and computer analysis; interpretation of geologic maps and methods of cross-section construction; structural analysis of fault zones and metamorphic rocks; measuring deformation; regional structural styles and associated landforms related to plate tectonic convergence, rifting and strike-slip faulting; the evolution of mountain belts and formation of sedimentary basins. Prerequisite: GEOLSCI 1, calculus. Recommended: 102, 105.
Same as: GEOLSCI 110

GEOLSCI 295. Research in the Field. 3-6 Units.

Month long courses that provide students with the opportunity to collect data in the field as part of a team-based investigation of research questions or topics under the expert guidance of knowledgeable faculty and graduate students. Topics and locations vary. May be taken multiple times for credit. Prerequisites: GS 1, GS 102, GS 105.
Same as: GEOLSCI 190

GEOLSCI 299. Field Research. 2-4 Units.

Two-three week field research projects. Written report required. May be repeated three times.

GEOLSCI 307. Research Proposal Development and Delivery. 2 Units.

In this class students will learn how to write rigorous, high yield, multidisciplinary proposals targeting major funding agencies. The skills gained in this class are essential to any professional career, particularly in research science. Students will write a National Science Foundation style proposal involving testable hypotheses, pilot data or calculations, and broader impact. Restricted to ESS and GS first-year graduate students.
Same as: ESS 307

GEOLSCI 311. Interpretation of Tectonically Active Landscapes. 3 Units.

Focuses on interpreting various topographic attributes in terms of horizontal and vertical tectonic motions. Topics include identification, mapping, and dating of geomorphic markers, deducing tectonic motions from spatial changes in landscape steepness, understanding processes that give rise to different landscape elements, interrogating the role of climate and lithology in producing these landscape elements, and understanding relationships between tectonic motions, surface topography, and the spatial distribution of erosion. Consists of two one hour lectures per week and one laboratory section that help students gain proficiency in Quaternary mapping and interpretation of topographic metrics.

GEOLSCI 312. Analysis of Landforms. 3 Units.

Quantitative methods to analyze digital topography and to interpret rates of tectonic and geomorphic processes from topographic metrics. Topics include analysis of digital topography using local and neighborhood-based methods, spectral methods, and wavelet methods. Course consists of two one hour lectures per week and one laboratory section that will help students gain proficiency in calculating topographic metrics using ArcGIS and Matlab.

GEOLSCI 313. Modeling of Landforms. 3 Units.

Geomorphic-transport-rule-based, as well as mass- and momentum-conservation based models to understand the evolution of Earth's topography. Topics include formulation of land-sculpting processes as geomorphic transport rules, coupling this mass-conservation approach with mechanical models of crustal deformation, and analysis of landscape forms in terms of events for which mass and momentum of fluid and sediment can be conserved. Both analytical, as well as numerical (finite-volume) treatments of particular problems in tectonic geomorphology will be covered. The specific problems addressed as part of the course will be tailored to those currently investigated by class participants.

GEOLSCI 325. The Evolution of Body Size. 2 Units.

Preference to graduate students and upper-division undergraduates in GS and Biology. The influence of organism size on evolutionary and ecological patterns and processes. Focus is on integration of theoretical principles, observations of living organisms, and data from the fossil record. What are the physiological and ecological correlates of body size? Is there an optimum size? Do organisms tend to evolve to larger size? Does productivity control the size distribution of consumers? Does size affect the likelihood of extinction or speciation? How does size scale from the genome to the phenotype? How is metabolic rate involved in evolution of body size? What is the influence of geographic area on maximum body size?.

GEOLSCI 328. Seminar in Paleobiology. 1 Unit.

For graduate students. Current research topics including paleobotany, vertebrate and invertebrate evolution, paleoecology, and major events in the history of life on Earth.

GEOLSCI 336. Stanford Alpine Project Seminar. 1 Unit.

Weekly student presentations on continental collision tectonics, sedimentology, petrology, geomorphology, climate, culture, and other topics of interest. Students create a guidebook of geologic stops in advance of field trip. May be repeated for credit.

GEOLSCI 385. Practical Experience in the Geosciences. 1 Unit.

On-the-job training in the geosciences. May include summer internship; emphasizes training in applied aspects of the geosciences, and technical, organizational, and communication dimensions. Meets USCIS requirements for F-1 curricular practical training.n (Staff).

GEOLSCI 398. Teaching in Geological Sciences. 1 Unit.

Practical experience in teaching by serving as a teaching assistant in a geological sciences course.

GEOLSCI 399. Advanced Projects. 1-10 Unit.

Graduate research projects that lead to reports, papers, or other products during the quarter taken. On registration, students designate faculty member and agreed-upon units.

GEOLSCI 400. Graduate Research. 1-15 Unit.

Faculty supervision. On registration, students designate faculty member and agreed-upon units.

GEOLSCI 801. TGR Project. 0 Units.

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GEOLSCI 802. TGR Dissertation. 0 Units.

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