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POLISCI 1. The Science of Politics. 5 Units.

Why do countries go to war? How can we explain problems such as poverty, inequality, and pollution? What can be done to improve political representation in the United States and other countries? We will use scientific methods to answer these and other fundamental questions about politics.

POLISCI 101. Introduction to International Relations. 5 Units.

The course provides an introduction to major factors shaping contemporary international politics, including the distribution of power among states, ideas, and domestic regimes. The course will explore the causes of the First and Second World Wars, the Cold War, the impact of nuclear weapons, the rise of China, and external state building.

POLISCI 101Z. Introduction to International Relations. 4 Units.

Approaches to the study of conflict and cooperation in world affairs. Applications to war, terrorism, trade policy, the environment, and world poverty. Debates about the ethics of war and the global distribution of wealth.
Same as: INTNLREL 101Z

POLISCI 102. Introduction to American Politics and Policy: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly. 4-5 Units.

This is a course about American politics, which means this is a course about individuals, identities, and institutions. How do Americans come to think andnreason about politics? What is the role that identities play in affecting the political judgments that individuals make? How do our political institutionsnrespond to the demands of a diverse public that disagrees about issues related to race and justice, income and wealth inequality, climate change, gunncontrol, reproductive rights, the power of the executive, and the role that government ought to play in the lives of the governed? And how do we makensense of this seemingly peculiar contemporary moment in American politics? These are not easy questions, but they are ones for which political sciencenprovides a useful foundation to guide our inquiry. The objective of this course is to introduce students to various concepts and theoretical frameworks thatnhelp us understand the messiness and complexity of American politics. In addition to classroom lectures and discussion sections, students will benrequired to apply concepts and theoretical frameworks to contemporary issues in American politics. Undergraduate Public Policy students are required to enroll in this class for 5 units.
Same as: AMSTUD 123X, PUBLPOL 101, PUBLPOL 201

POLISCI 103. Justice. 4-5 Units.

In this course, we explore three sets of questions relating to justice and the meaning of a just society: (1) Liberty: What is liberty, and why is it important? Which liberties must a just society protect? (2) Equality: What is equality, and why is it important? What sorts of equality should a just society ensure? (3) Reconciliation: Are liberty and equality in conflict? If so, how should we respond to the conflict between them? We approach these topics by examining competing theories of justice including utilitarianism, libertarianism/classical liberalism, and egalitarian liberalism. The class also serves as an introduction to how to do political philosophy, and students approaching these topics for the first time are welcome. Political Science majors taking this course to fulfill the WIM requirement should enroll in POLISCI 103.
Same as: ETHICSOC 171, PHIL 171, POLISCI 336S, PUBLPOL 103C, PUBLPOL 307

POLISCI 104. Introduction to Comparative Politics. 5 Units.

Why are some countries prone to civil war and violence, while others remain peaceful? Why do some countries maintain democratic systems, while others do not? Why are some countries more prosperous than others? This course will provide an overview of the most basic questions in the comparative study of political systems, and will introduce the analytical tools that can help us answer them.

POLISCI 109Z. Research in Political Science and International Relations. 6 Units.

Students will assist faculty with research projects. They will also attend workshops/seminars and complete written assignments that demonstrate their knowledge of research design, data analysis, and software. Students must apply through Summer Session and may not enroll without permission of the instructors.

POLISCI 10N. International Organizations and the World Order. 3 Units.

Since the end of World War II, there has been an explosion in the number, scope, and complexity of international organizations. International organizations such as the United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and World Bank now play critical roles across a wide range of policy issues. Why have international organizations proliferated and expanded since the mid-20th century? How do these organizations shape the international system? Why do states sometimes conduct foreign policy through international organizations, while other times preferring traditional means? Why do some international organizations evolve over time, while others resist change? What are some of the pathologies and problems of contemporary international organizations? We will explore these questions by carefully examining the functions and operations of major international organizations. You will also complete a research project examining an international organization of your choice and present your findings in class.

POLISCI 110C. America and the World Economy. 5 Units.

Examination of contemporary US foreign economic policy. Areas studied: the changing role of the dollar; mechanism of international monetary management; recent crises in world markets including those in Europe and Asia; role of IMF, World Bank and WTO in stabilizing world economy; trade politics and policies; the effects of the globalization of business on future US prosperity. Political Science majors taking this course for WIM credit should enroll in POLISCI 110C.
Same as: INTNLREL 110C, POLISCI 110X

POLISCI 110D. War and Peace in American Foreign Policy. 3-5 Units.

The causes of war in American foreign policy. Issues: international and domestic sources of war and peace; war and the American political system; war, intervention, and peace making in the post-Cold War period. Political Science majors taking this course to fulfill the WIM requirement should enroll in POLISCI 110D for 5 units. International Relations majors taking this course should enroll in INTNLREL 110D for 5 units. SCPD students should enroll for 3 units.
Same as: AMSTUD 110D, INTNLREL 110D, POLISCI 110Y

POLISCI 110G. Governing the Global Economy. 5 Units.

Who governs the world economy? Why do countries succeed or fail to cooperate in setting their economic policies? When and how do international institutions help countries cooperate? When and why do countries adopt good and bad economic policies? How does the international economy affect domestic politics? This course examines how domestic and international politics determine how the global economy is governed. We will study the politics of monetary, trade, international investment, energy, environmental, and foreign aid policies to answer these questions. The course will approach each topic by examining alternative theoretical approaches and evaluate these theories using historical and contemporary evidence. There will be an emphasis on applying concepts through the analysis of case studies.

POLISCI 110X. America and the World Economy. 5 Units.

Examination of contemporary US foreign economic policy. Areas studied: the changing role of the dollar; mechanism of international monetary management; recent crises in world markets including those in Europe and Asia; role of IMF, World Bank and WTO in stabilizing world economy; trade politics and policies; the effects of the globalization of business on future US prosperity. Political Science majors taking this course for WIM credit should enroll in POLISCI 110C.
Same as: INTNLREL 110C, POLISCI 110C

POLISCI 110Y. War and Peace in American Foreign Policy. 3-5 Units.

The causes of war in American foreign policy. Issues: international and domestic sources of war and peace; war and the American political system; war, intervention, and peace making in the post-Cold War period. Political Science majors taking this course to fulfill the WIM requirement should enroll in POLISCI 110D for 5 units. International Relations majors taking this course should enroll in INTNLREL 110D for 5 units. SCPD students should enroll for 3 units.
Same as: AMSTUD 110D, INTNLREL 110D, POLISCI 110D

POLISCI 114D. Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law. 3-5 Units.

This course explores the different dimensions of development - economic, social, and political - as well as the way that modern institutions (the state, market systems, the rule of law, and democratic accountability) developed and interacted with other factors across different societies around the world. The class will feature additional special guest lectures by Francis Fukuyama, Larry Diamond, Michael McFaul, Anna Grzymala-Busse, and other faculty and researchers affiliated with the Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law. Undergraduate students should enroll in this course for 5 units. Graduate students should enroll for 3.
Same as: INTLPOL 230, INTNLREL 114D, POLISCI 314D

POLISCI 114S. International Security in a Changing World. 5 Units.

This class examines the most pressing international security problems facing the world today: nuclear crises, non-proliferation, insurgencies and civil wars, terrorism, and climate change. Alternative perspectives - from political science, history, and STS (Science, Technology, and Society) studies - are used to analyze these problems. The class includes an award-winning two-day international negotiation simulation. All undergraduates should enroll in the POLISCI 114S listing of this course. The INTLPOL 241 listing is open to students enrolled via the Stanford Center for Professional Development only. All other Stanford graduate students should enroll in the separate course, INTLPOL240, instead.
Same as: INTLPOL 241

POLISCI 118P. U.S. Relations with Iran. 5 Units.

The evolution of relations between the U.S. and Iran. The years after WW II when the U.S. became more involved in Iran. Relations after the victory of the Islamic republic. The current state of affairs and the prospects for the future. Emphasis is on original documents of U.S. diplomacy (White House, State Department, and the U.S. Embassy in Iran). Research paper.

POLISCI 11N. The Rwandan Genocide. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. In 1994, more than 800,000 Tutsi and moderate Hutu Rwandans were killed in the most rapid genocide in history. What could bring humans to carry out such violence? Could it have been prevented? Why did no major power intervene to stop the killing? Should the U.N. be held accountable? What were the consequences for Central Africa? How have international actors respond to the challenges of reconstructing Rwanda? What happened to the perpetrators? Sources include scholarly and journalistic accounts.

POLISCI 120B. Campaigns, Voting, Media, and Elections. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the theory and practice of American campaigns and elections. First, we will attempt to explain the behavior of the key players -- candidates, parties, journalists, and voters -- in terms of the institutional arrangements and political incentives that confront them. Second, we will use current and recent election campaigns as "laboratories" for testing generalizations about campaign strategy and voter behavior. Third, we examine selections from the academic literature dealing with the origins of partisan identity, electoral design, and the immediate effects of campaigns on public opinion, voter turnout, and voter choice. As well, we'll explore issues of electoral reform and their more long-term consequences for governance and the political process.
Same as: COMM 162, COMM 262

POLISCI 120C. American Political Institutions in Uncertain Times. 5 Units.

This course examines how the rules that govern elections and the policy process determine political outcomes. It explores the historical forces that have shaped American political institutions, contemporary challenges to governing, and prospects for change. Topics covered include partisan polarization and legislative gridlock, the politicization of the courts, electoral institutions and voting rights, the expansion of presidential power, campaign finance and lobbying, representational biases among elected officials, and the role of political institutions in maintaining the rule of law. Throughout, emphasis will be placed on the strategic interactions between Congress, the presidency, and the courts and the importance of informal norms and political culture. Political Science majors taking this course to fulfill the WIM requirement should enroll in POLISCI 120C.
Same as: PUBLPOL 124

POLISCI 120Z. What's Wrong with American Government? An Institutional Approach. 4 Units.

How politicians, once elected, work together to govern America. The roles of the President, Congress, and Courts in making and enforcing laws. Focus is on the impact of constitutional rules on the incentives of each branch, and on how they influence law.

POLISCI 121. Political Power in American Cities. 5 Units.

The major actors, institutions, processes, and policies of sub-state government in the U.S., emphasizing city general-purpose governments through a comparative examination of historical and contemporary politics. Issues related to federalism, representation, voting, race, poverty, housing, and finances. Political Science majors taking this course to fulfill the WIM requirement should enroll in POLISCI 121.
Same as: AMSTUD 121Z, PUBLPOL 133, URBANST 111

POLISCI 121L. Racial-Ethnic Politics in US. 5 Units.

Why is contemporary American politics so sharply divided along racial and party lines? Are undocumented immigrants really more likely to commit crimes than U.S. citizens? What makes a political ad "racist?" The U.S. population will be majority-minority by 2050; what does this mean for future electoral outcomes? We will tackle such questions in this course, which examines various issues surrounding the development of political solidarity within racial groups; the politics of immigration, acculturation, and identification; and the influence of race on public opinion, political behavior, the media, and in the criminal justice system. Prior coursework in Economics or Statistics strongly recommended.
Same as: CSRE 121L, PUBLPOL 121L

POLISCI 121Z. Political Power in American Cities. 4 Units.

The major actors, institutions, processes, and policies of sub-state government in the U.S., emphasizing city general-purpose governments through a comparative examination of historical and contemporary politics. Issues related to federalism, representation, voting, race, poverty, housing, and finances.

POLISCI 122. Introduction to American Law. 3-5 Units.

For undergraduates. The structure of the American legal system including the courts; American legal culture; the legal profession and its social role; the scope and reach of the legal system; the background and impact of legal regulation; criminal justice; civil rights and civil liberties; and the relationship between the American legal system and American society in general.
Same as: AMSTUD 179, PUBLPOL 302A

POLISCI 124A. The American West. 5 Units.

The American West is characterized by frontier mythology, vast distances, marked aridity, and unique political and economic characteristics. This course integrates several disciplinary perspectives into a comprehensive examination of Western North America: its history, physical geography, climate, literature, art, film, institutions, politics, demography, economy, and continuing policy challenges. Students examine themes fundamental to understanding the region: time, space, water, peoples, and boom and bust cycles.
Same as: AMSTUD 124A, ARTHIST 152, ENGLISH 124, HISTORY 151

POLISCI 124L. The Psychology of Communication About Politics in America. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on how politicians and government learn what Americans want and how the public's preferences shape government action; how surveys measure beliefs, preferences, and experiences; how poll results are criticized and interpreted; how conflict between polls is viewed by the public; how accurate surveys are and when they are accurate; how to conduct survey research to produce accurate measurements; designing questionnaires that people can understand and use comfortably; how question wording can manipulate poll results; corruption in survey research.
Same as: COMM 164, COMM 264, POLISCI 324L, PSYCH 170

POLISCI 124R. The Federal System: Judicial Politics and Constitutional Law. 5 Units.

Does the constitution matter? And if so, how exactly does it shape our daily lives? In this course, we will examine the impact of structural features, such as the separation of powers and federalism. While these features often seem boring and unimportant, they are not. As we will see, arguments over structure were at the heart of the debates over slavery, the incarceration of the Japanese during WWII, the drug war and gay marriage. Prerequisites: 2 or equivalent, and sophomore standing. Fulfills Writing in the Major requirement for PoliSci majors.

POLISCI 124S. Civil Liberties: Judicial Politics and Constitutional Law. 5 Units.

The role and participation of courts, primarily the U.S. Supreme Court, in public policy making and the political system. Judicial activity in civil liberty areas (religious liberty, free expression, race and sex discrimination, political participation, and rights of persons accused of crime). Prerequisites: 2 or equivalent, and sophomore standing.

POLISCI 125M. Latino Social Movements. 5 Units.

Social movements are cooperative attempts to change the world. This course reviews historically significant and contemporary political and social movements in Latino communities in the U.S., including the movements of the 1960s and events of the modern era such as the Spring 2006 marches and student walkouts, the 2010 resistance to Arizona¿s SB1070, and ongoing efforts in 2017 related to detention and deportation policies.
Same as: CHILATST 181

POLISCI 125P. The First Amendment: Freedom of Speech and Press. 4-5 Units.

The First Amendment: Freedom of Speech and Press (7084): Introduction to the constitutional protections for freedom of speech, press, and expressive association. All the major Supreme Court cases dealing with issues such as incitement, libel, hate speech, obscenity, commercial speech, and campaign finance. There are no prerequisites, but a basic understanding of American government would be useful. This course is crosslisted in the university and undergraduates are eligible to take it. Elements used in grading: Law students will be evaluated based on class participation and a final exam. Non-law students will be evaluated on class participation, a midterm and final exam, and nonlaw students will participate in a moot court on a hypothetical case. Non-law students will also have an additional one hour discussion section each week led by a teaching assistant. Cross-listed with Communication (COMM 151, COMM 251) and Political Science (POLISCI 125P). nnnClass time will be 11:10-12:40 on Mondays and Wednesdays.
Same as: COMM 151, COMM 251, ETHICSOC 151

POLISCI 125S. Chicano/Latino Politics. 5 Units.

The political position of Latinos and Latinas in the U.S.. Focus is on Mexican Americans, with attention to Cuban Americans, Puerto Ricans, and other groups. The history of each group in the American polity; their political circumstances with respect to the electoral process, the policy process, and government; the extent to which the demographic category Latino is meaningful; and group identity and solidarity among Americans of Latin American ancestry. Topics include immigration, education, affirmative action, language policy, and environmental justice.
Same as: CHILATST 125S

POLISCI 126P. Constitutional Law. 3 Units.

This course covers Supreme Court case law concerning governmental powers, equal protection, and certain fundamental rights. The course investigates the constitutional foundation for democratic participation in the United States, covering topics such as the Fourteenth Amendment's protections against discrimination on grounds of race, gender, and other classifications, as well as the individual rights to voting and intimate association, and an introduction to First Amendment rights of free speech and press. Students will be evaluated on class participation, a midterm moot court with both a written and oral component, and a take-home final exam. Lectures will be twice per week and a discussion section once per week.
Same as: COMM 152, COMM 252

POLISCI 127A. Finance and Society for non-MBAs. 4 Units.

This interdisciplinary course explores the economic, political, and cultural forces that shape the financial system and, through this system, have major effects on the economy and on society. You will gain an understanding of how the interactions between individuals, corporations, governments, and the media can help the financial system and the economy work better or in turn allow those with better information and control to harm others unnecessarily. Topics include the basic principles of investment and funding, corporations and their governance, financial markets and institutions, and political and ethical issues. We will discuss recent and ongoing news events and analyses immediately relevant to the material. The approach will be rigorous and analytical but not overly mathematical. A few visitors will further enrich the discussion. Prerequisite: ECON 1 or equivalent.
Same as: ECON 143, INTLPOL 227, PUBLPOL 143

POLISCI 127P. Economic Inequality and Political Dysfunction. 5 Units.

This course will examine how two of the defining features of contemporary U.S. politics, economic inequality and political polarization, relate to each other and to Congressional gridlock. The reading list will focus on several books recently authored by preeminent political scientists on this important topic. The course will cover a range of topics, including the disparity in political representation of the preferences of the affluent over those of the poor, the origins of Congressional polarization, the influence of money in politics, budgetary politics, immigration policy, and electoral and institutional barriers to reform.

POLISCI 130. 20th Century Political Theory: Liberalism and its Critics. 5 Units.

In this course, students learn and engage with the debates that have animated political theory since the early 20th century. What is the proper relationship between the individual, the community, and the state? Are liberty and equality in conflict, and, if so, which should take priority? What does justice mean in a large and diverse modern society? The subtitle of the course, borrowed from a book by Michael Sandel, is "Liberalism and its Critics" because the questions we discuss in this class center on the meaning of, and alternatives to, the liberal idea that the basic goal of society should be the protection of individual rights. Readings include selections from works by John Rawls, Hannah Arendt, Robert Nozick, Michael Sandel, Iris Marion Young, and Martha Nussbaum. No prior experience with political theory is necessary.
Same as: ETHICSOC 130, PHIL 171P

POLISCI 131L. Modern Political Thought: Machiavelli to Marx and Mill. 5 Units.

This course offers an introduction to the history of Western political thought from the late fifteenth through the nineteenth centuries. We will consider the development of ideas like individual rights, government by consent, and the protection of private property. We will also explore the ways in which these ideas continue to animate contemporary political debates. Thinkers covered will include: Niccolò Machiavelli, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Edmund Burke, John Stuart Mill, and Karl Marx.
Same as: ETHICSOC 131S

POLISCI 132A. The Ethics of Elections. 5 Units.

Do you have a duty to vote? Should immigrants be allowed to vote? Should we make voting mandatory? How (if at all) should we regulate campaign finance? Should we even have elections at all? In this course, we will explore these and other ethical questions related to electoral participation and the design of electoral institutions. We will evaluate arguments from political philosophers, political scientists, and politicians to better understand how electoral systems promote important democratic values and how this affects citizens' and political leaders' ethical obligations. We will focus, in particular, on issues in electoral design that have been relevant in recent US elections (e.g. gerrymandering), though many of the ethical issues we will discuss in this course will be relevant in any electoral democracy.
Same as: ETHICSOC 134R

POLISCI 133. Ethics and Politics of Public Service. 3-5 Units.

Ethical and political questions in public service work, including volunteering, service learning, humanitarian assistance, and public service professions such as medicine and teaching. Motives and outcomes in service work. Connections between service work and justice. Is mandatory service an oxymoron? History of public service in the U.S. Issues in crosscultural service work. Integration with the Haas Center for Public Service to connect service activities and public service aspirations with academic experiences at Stanford.
Same as: CSRE 178, ETHICSOC 133, PHIL 175A, PHIL 275A, PUBLPOL 103D, URBANST 122

POLISCI 133Z. Ethics and Politics in Public Service. 4 Units.

This course examines ethical and political questions that arise in doing public service work, whether volunteering, service learning, humanitarian endeavors overseas, or public service professions such as medicine and teaching. What motives do people have to engage in public service work? Are self-interested motives troublesome? What is the connection between service work and justice? Should the government or schools require citizens or students to perform service work? Is mandatory service an oxymoron?.
Same as: CSRE 133P, PUBLPOL 103Z, URBANST 122Z

POLISCI 134. Ethics for Activists. 5 Units.

Activists devote sustained effort and attention toward achieving particular goals of social and political change. Do we have an ethical obligation to be activists? And how should those who do choose to be activists (for whatever reason) understand the ethics of that role? Questions discussed in this course may include: When is civil disobedience appropriate, and what does it entail? Should activists feel constrained by obligations of fairness, honesty, or civility toward those with whom we disagree? Are there special ethical considerations in activism on behalf of those who cannot advocate for themselves? What is solidarity and what does it require of us? Students in this course will develop skills in analyzing, evaluating, and constructing logical arguments about ethical concerns related to activism, but class discussions will also address the potential limitations of logical argument in ethical and political reasoning.
Same as: ETHICSOC 134

POLISCI 134E. Universal Basic Income: the philosophy behind the proposal. 3 Units.

Universal basic income (or UBI) is a regular cash allowance given to all members of a community without means test, regardless of personal desert, and with no strings attached. Once a utopian proposal, the policy is now discussed and piloted throughout the world. The growth of income and wealth inequalities, the precariousness of labor, and the persistence of abject poverty have all been important drivers of renewed interest in UBI in the United States. But it is without a doubt the fear that automation may displace workers from the labor market at unprecedented rates that explains the revival of the policy in recent years, including by many in or around Silicon Valley. Among the various objections to the proposal, one concerns its moral adequacy: Isn't it fundamentally unjust to give cash to all indiscriminately rather than to those who need it and deserve it? Over the years, a variety of scholars have defended the policy on moral grounds, arguing that UBI is a tool of equality, liberal freedom, republican freedom, gender equity, or racial equity. Many others have attacked UBI on those very same grounds, making the case that alternative policy proposals like the job guarantee, means-tested benefits, conditional benefits, or reparations should be preferred. Students will learn a great deal about political theory and ethics in general but always through the specific angle of the policy proposal, and they will become experts on the philosophy, politics and economics of UBI. The seminar is open to undergraduate and graduate students in all departments. There are no pre-requisites.
Same as: ETHICSOC 174B, ETHICSOC 274B, PHIL 174B, PHIL 274B, POLISCI 338

POLISCI 134L. Introduction to Environmental Ethics. 4-5 Units.

How should human beings relate to the natural world? Do we have moral obligations toward non-human animals and other parts of nature? And what do we owe to other human beings, including future generations, with respect to the environment? The first part of this course will examine such questions in light of some of our current ethical theories: considering what those theories suggest regarding the extent and nature of our environmental obligations; and also whether reflection on such obligations can prove informative about the adequacy of our ethical theories. In the second part of the course, we will use the tools that we have acquired to tackle various ethical questions that confront us in our dealings with the natural world, looking at subjects such as: animal rights; conservation; economic approaches to the environment; access to and control over natural resources; environmental justice and pollution; climate change; technology and the environment; and environmental activism.
Same as: ETHICSOC 178M, ETHICSOC 278M, PHIL 178M, PHIL 278M

POLISCI 134P. Contemporary Moral Problems. 4-5 Units.

This course is an introduction to contemporary ethical thought with a focus on the morality of harming others and saving others from harm. It aims to develop students' ability to think carefully and rationally about moral issues, to acquaint them with modern moral theory, and to encourage them to develop their own considered positions about important real-world issues. In the first part of the course, we will explore fundamental topics in the ethics of harm. Among other questions, we will ask: How extensive are one's moral duties to improve the lives of the less fortunate? When is it permissible to inflict harm on others for the sake of the greater good? Does the moral permissibility of a person's action depend on her intentions? Can a person be harmed by being brought into existence? In the second part of the course, we will turn to practical questions. Some of these will be familiar; for example: Is abortion morally permissible? What obligations do we have to protect the planet for the sake of future generations? Other questions we will ask are newer and less well-trodden. These will include: How does the availability of new technology, in particular artificial intelligence, change the moral landscape of the ethics of war? What moral principles should govern the programming and operation of autonomous vehicles?.
Same as: ETHICSOC 185M, PHIL 72

POLISCI 135. Citizenship. 5 Units.

This class begins from the core definition of citizenship as membership in a political community and explores the many debates about what that membership means. Who is (or ought to be) a citizen? Who gets to decide? What responsibilities come with citizenship? Is being a citizen analogous to being a friend, a family member, a business partner? How can citizenship be gained, and can it ever be lost? These debates figure in the earliest recorded political philosophy but also animate contemporary political debates. This class uses ancient, medieval, and modern texts to examine these questions and different answers given over time. We¿Äôll pay particular attention to understandings of democratic citizenship but look at non-democratic citizenship as well. Students will develop and defend their own views on these questions, using the class texts as foundations. No experience with political philosophy is required or expected, and students can expect to learn or hone the skills (writing / reading / analysis) of political philosophy.
Same as: ETHICSOC 135, PHIL 135X

POLISCI 135D. The Ethics of Democratic Citizenship. 5 Units.

We usually think about democratic citizenship in terms of rights and opportunities, but are these benefits of democracy accompanied by special obligations? Do citizens of a democracy have an obligation to take an interest in politics and to actively influence political decision making? How should citizens respond when a democracy¿s laws become especially burdensome? Do citizens of a democracy have a special obligation to obey the law? In this course, we will read classical and contemporary political philosophy including Plato's Crito and King's "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" to explore how political thinkers have understood and argued for the ethics of citizenship. Students in this course will draw on these materials to construct their own arguments, and to identify and assess implicit appeals to the ethics of citizenship in popular culture and contemporary public discourse, from The Simpsons to President Obama's speeches.
Same as: ETHICSOC 135R

POLISCI 135E. Philosophy of Public Policy. 4 Units.

From healthcare to voting reforms, social protection and educational policies, public policies are underpinned by moral values. When we debate those policies, we typically appeal to values like justice, fairness, equality, freedom, privacy, and safety. A proper understanding of those values, what they mean, how they may conflict, and how they can be weighed against each other is essential to developing a competent and critical eye on our complex political world. We will ask questions such as: Is compulsory voting justified? Should children have the right to vote? Is affirmative action just? What is wrong with racial profiling? What are the duties of citizens of affluent countries towards migrants? Do we have a right to privacy? Is giving cash to all unconditionally fair? This class will introduce students to a number of methods and frameworks coming out of ethics and political philosophy and will give students a lot of time to practice ethically informed debates on public policies. At the end of this class, students should have the skills to critically examine a wide range of diverse policy proposals from the perspective of ethics, moral and political philosophy. There are no prerequisites. Undergraduates and graduates from all departments are welcome to attend.
Same as: ETHICSOC 175X, PHIL 175B, PHIL 275B, POLISCI 235E, PUBLPOL 177

POLISCI 136R. Introduction to Global Justice. 4 Units.

This course explores the normative demands and definitions of justice that transcend the nation-state and its borders, through the lenses of political justice, economic justice, and human rights. What are our duties (if any) towards those who live in other countries? Should we be held morally responsible for their suffering? What if we have contributed to it? Should we be asked to remedy it? At what cost? These are some of the questions driving the course. Although rooted in political theory and philosophy, the course will examine contemporary problems that have been addressed by other scholarly disciplines, public debates, and popular media, such as immigration and open borders, climate change refugees, and the morality of global capitalism (from exploitative labor to blood diamonds). As such, readings will combine canonical pieces of political theory and philosophy with readings from other scholarly disciplines, newspaper articles, and popular media.
Same as: ETHICSOC 136R, INTNLREL 136R, PHIL 76, POLISCI 336

POLISCI 137A. Political Philosophy: The Social Contract Tradition. 4 Units.

(Graduate students register for 276.) Why and under what conditions do human beings need political institutions? What makes them legitimate or illegitimate? What is the nature, source, and extent of the obligation to obey the legitimate ones, and how should people alter or overthrow the others? Study of the answers given to such questions by major political theorists of the early modern period: Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Kant.
Same as: ETHICSOC 176, PHIL 176, PHIL 276, POLISCI 337A

POLISCI 138E. Egalitarianism: A course on the history and theory of egalitarianism and anti-egalitarianism. 4 Units.

Egalitarianism is a conception of justice that takes the value of equality to be of primary political and moral importance. There are many different ways to be an egalitarian - it all depends on what we take to be the currency of egalitarian justice. Are we trying to equalize basic rights and liberties, or resources, opportunities, positions, status, respect, welfare, or capabilities? Is equality really what we should try to achieve in a just society? Or should we just make sure everyone has enough? Why do egalitarians think that such society would still be unjust; and how do they proceed to argue for equality?nnThis class will introduce students to egalitarian and anti-egalitarian thought by looking both at the history of egalitarian thinking and at contemporary accounts in defense of equality. It will provide an in depth introduction to the concepts that are used when inequalities are discussed by philosophers, economists, scientists and politicians. The class will attest of the varieties of approaches and perspectives to equality. For instance, we will learn from the 19th century debate on racial inequalities to understand how anti-egalitarian discourses are constructed; we will look into Rousseau's conception of social equality in the Second Discourse and the Social Contract; and we will engage with contemporary egalitarian theories by studying Rawlsian and post-Rawlsian forms of egalitarianism.
Same as: ETHICSOC 174E, PHIL 174E, PHIL 274E

POLISCI 140P. Populism and the Erosion of Democracy. 5 Units.

What is populism, and how much of a threat to democracy is it? How different is it from fascism or other anti-liberal movements? This course explores the conditions for the rise of populism, evaluates how much of a danger it poses, and examines the different forms it takes.
Same as: GLOBAL 106, REES 240P

POLISCI 141A. Immigration and Multiculturalism. 5 Units.

What are the economic effects of immigration? Do immigrants assimilate into local culture? What drives native attitudes towards immigrants? Is diversity bad for local economies and societies and which policies work for managing diversity and multiculturalism? We will address these and similar questions by synthesizing the conclusions of a number of empirical studies on immigration and multiculturalism. The emphasis of the course is on the use of research design and statistical techniques that allow us to move beyond correlations and towards causal assessments of the effects of immigration and immigration policy.
Same as: CSRE 141S

POLISCI 143S. Comparative Corruption. 3 Units.

Causes, effects, and solutions to various forms of corruption in business and politics in both developing regions (e.g. Asia, E. Europe) and developed ones (the US and the EU).
Same as: SOC 113

POLISCI 146A. African Politics. 4-5 Units.

Africa has lagged the rest of the developing world in terms of economic development, the establishment of social order, and the consolidation of democracy. This course seeks to identify the historical and political sources accounting for this lag, and to provide extensive case study and statistical material to understand what sustains it, and how it might be overcome.
Same as: AFRICAAM 146A

POLISCI 147. Comparative Democratic Development. 5 Units.

Social, cultural, political, economic, and international factors affecting the development and consolidation of democracy in historical and comparative perspective. Individual country experiences with democracy, democratization, and regime performance. Emphasis is on global third wave of democratization beginning in the mid-1970s, the recent global recession of democracy (including the rise of illiberal populist parties and movements), and the contemporary challenges and prospects for democratic change.
Same as: SOC 112

POLISCI 147B. Gender, Identity, and Politics. 5 Units.

Identity, whether national, religious, racial, ethnic, gender, sexual, or otherwise, can importantly shape how people experience the political world. Why do some identities become politically salient and how does identity shape politics? This course takes the core questions of comparative politics - democratization, development, social movements, civil society, conflict, etc. - and examines them through the lens of identity, particularly gender identity. We will do so by drawing on evidence and cases from across the globe.

POLISCI 147P. The Politics of Inequality. 5 Units.

This course is about the distribution of power in contemporary democratic societies, and especially in the US: who governs? Is there a ``power elite,'' whose preferences dominate public policy making? Or, does policy reflect a wide range of interests? What is the relationship between income and power? What are the political consequences of increasing income inequality? How do income differences across racial and ethnic groups affect the quality of their representation? What are effective remedies for unequal influence? Finally, which institutions move democratic practice furthest towards full democratic equality? This course will address these questions, focusing first on local distributions of power, and then considering the implications of inequality in state and national politics. nStudents will have the opportunity to study income inequality using income and labor force surveys in a mid-term assignment. Then, in a final paper, students will conduct an empirical examination of the implications of income inequality for American democracy.
Same as: PUBLPOL 247, SOC 178

POLISCI 148. Chinese Politics. 3-5 Units.

China, one of the few remaining communist states in the world, has not only survived, but has become a global political actor of consequence with the fastest growing economy in the world. What explains China's authoritarian resilience? Why has the CCP thrived while other communist regimes have failed? How has the Chinese Communist Party managed to develop markets and yet keep itself in power? What avenues are there for political participation? How does censorship work in the information and 'connected' age of social media? What are the prospects for political change? How resilient is the part in the fave of technological and economic change? Materials will include readings, lectures, and selected films. This course has no prerequisites. (Graduate students register for 348.).
Same as: POLISCI 348

POLISCI 149S. Islam, Iran, and the West. 5 Units.

Changes in relative power and vitality of each side. The relationship in the Middle Ages revolved around power and domination, and since the Renaissance around modernity. Focus is on Muslims of the Middle East.

POLISCI 149T. Middle Eastern Politics. 5 Units.

Topics in contemporary Middle Eastern politics including institutional sources of underdevelopment, political Islam, electoral authoritarianism, and the political economy of oil.

POLISCI 150A. Data Science for Politics. 5 Units.

Data science is quickly changing the way we understand and and engage in the political process. In this course we will develop fundamental techniques of data science and apply them to large political datasets on elections, campaign finance, lobbying, and more. The objective is to give students the skills to carry out cutting edge quantitative political studies in both academia and the private sector. Students with technical backgrounds looking to study politics quantitatively are encouraged to enroll.
Same as: POLISCI 355A

POLISCI 150B. Machine Learning for Social Scientists. 5 Units.

Machine learning - the use of algorithms to classify, predict, sort, learn and discover from data - has exploded in use across academic fields, industry, government, and the non-profit sector. This course provides an introduction to machine learning for social scientists. We will introduce state of the art machine learning tools, show how to use those tools in the programming language R, and demonstrate why a social science focus is essential to effectively apply machine learning techniques in social, political, and policy contexts. Applications of the methods will include forecasting social phenomena, evaluating the use of algorithms in public policy, and the analysis of social media and text data. Prerequisite: POLISCI 150A/355A.
Same as: POLISCI 355B

POLISCI 150C. Causal Inference for Social Science. 5 Units.

Causal inference methods have revolutionized the way we use data, statistics, and research design to move from correlation to causation and rigorously learn about the impact of some potential cause (e.g., a new policy or intervention) on some outcome (e.g., election results, levels of violence, poverty). This course provides an introduction that teaches students the toolkit of modern causal inference methods as they are now widely used across academic fields, government, industry, and non-profits. Topics include experiments, matching, regression, sensitivity analysis, difference-in-differences, panel methods, instrumental variable estimation, and regression discontinuity designs. We will illustrate and apply the methods with examples drawn from various fields including policy evaluation, political science, public health, economics, business, and sociology. Prerequisite: POLISCI 150A.
Same as: POLISCI 355C

POLISCI 152. Introduction to Game Theoretic Methods in Political Science. 3-5 Units.

Concepts and tools of non-cooperative game theory developed using political science questions and applications. Formal treatment of Hobbes' theory of the state and major criticisms of it; examples from international politics. Primarily for graduate students; undergraduates admitted with consent of instructor.
Same as: POLISCI 352

POLISCI 153. Thinking Strategically. 5 Units.

This course provides an introduction to strategic reasoning. We discuss ideas such as the commitment problem, credibility in signaling, cheap talk, moral hazard and adverse selection. Concepts are developed through games played in class, and applied to politics, business and everyday life.
Same as: POLISCI 354

POLISCI 153Z. Thinking Strategically. 4 Units.

This course provides an introduction to strategic reasoning. We discuss ideas such as the commitment problem, credibility in signaling, cheap talk, moral hazard and adverse selection. Concepts are developed through games played in class, and applied to politics, business and everyday life.

POLISCI 182. Ethics, Public Policy, and Technological Change. 5 Units.

Examination of recent developments in computing technology and platforms through the lenses of philosophy, public policy, social science, and engineering. Course is organized around four main units: algorithmic decision-making and bias; data privacy and civil liberties; artificial intelligence and autonomous systems; and the power of private computing platforms. Each unit considers the promise, perils, rights, and responsibilities at play in technological developments. Prerequisite: CS106A.
Same as: COMM 180, CS 182, ETHICSOC 182, PHIL 82, PUBLPOL 182

POLISCI 18N. Civil War and International Politics: Syria in Context. 3 Units.

How and why do civil wars start, drag on, and end? What does focus of post-Cold War U.S. foreign policy on countries torn apart by civil war tell us about contemporary international relations? We consider these and related questions, with the conflict in Syria as our main case study.

POLISCI 209. Curricular Practical Training. 1 Unit.

Qualified Political Science students obtain employment in a relevant research or industrial activity to enhance their professional experience consistent with their degree programs. Meets the requirements for Curricular Practical Training for students on F-1 visas. The student is responsible for arranging their own internship/employment and gaining faculty sponsorship. Prior to enrolling, students must complete a petition form available on the Political Science website (politicalscience.stanford.edu/undergraduate-program/forms). The petition is due no later the end of week one of the quarter in which the student intends to enroll. If the CPT is for Summer, the petition form is due by May 31. An offer letter will need to be submitted along with the petition. At the completion of the CPT quarter, a final report must be submitted to the faculty sponsor documenting the work done and its relevance to Political Science. This course be repeated for credit up to 3 times but will not count toward the Political Science major or minor requirements.

POLISCI 209Z. Research in Political Science and International Relations. 6 Units.

Students will assist faculty with research projects. They will also attend workshops/seminars and complete written assignments that demonstrate their knowledge of research design, data analysis, and software. Students must apply through Summer Session and may not enroll without permission of the instructors.

POLISCI 20N. The American Electorate in the Trump Era. 3 Units.

This seminar will introduce students to the methods social scientists use to analyze public opinion, voting and elections, with primary emphasis on the 2016 elections and the upcoming 2020 elections. Students will utilize major databases such as the American National Elections Studies (ANES) and the General Social Survey (GSS), as well as ongoing national panels. The seminar emphasizes analysis - not ideology, activism or personal catharsis. How are Americans in various demographic categories voting today and why? What is the relative importance of voter characteristics and identities, policy issues, the records and personal qualities of the candidates, the campaign itself, the performance of the Obama and Trump Administration, and myriad other factors?.

POLISCI 20Q. Democracy in Crisis: Learning from the Past. 3 Units.

This Sophomore Seminar will focus on U.S. democracy and will use a series of case studies of major events in our national history to explore what happened and why to American democracy at key pressure points. This historical exploration should shed light on how the current challenges facing American democracy might best be handled. (Cardinal Course certified by the Haas Center).
Same as: EDUC 122Q, HISTORY 52Q

POLISCI 211N. Nuclear Politics. 3-5 Units.

Why do states develop nuclear weapons and why do some states, that have the technological capacity to build nuclear weapons, refrain from doing so? What are the strategic consequences of new states deploying nuclear weapons? What is the relationship between the spread of nuclear energy and the spread of nuclear weapons? Have international and domestic views on nuclear weapons changed since 1945? In this course, we will first examine the political science literature on these key questions about nuclear politics. We will read and critique works using different approaches in political science including quantitative analysis, experiments, game theory, historical case studies, and mixed methods. Students will then design and execute small research projects to address questions that have been inadequately addressed in the existing literature.
Same as: POLISCI 311N

POLISCI 212C. Civil War and International Politics: Syria in Context. 5 Units.

The Syrian civil war is both a humanitarian disaster and a focal point for a set of interlocking regional and international political struggles. This course uses the Syrian case as an entry for exploring broader questions, such as why do civil wars begin, how do they end, and what are the international politics of civil war. Political Science majors taking this course to fulfill the WIM requirement should enroll in POLISCI 212C.
Same as: POLISCI 212X

POLISCI 212X. Civil War and International Politics: Syria in Context. 5 Units.

The Syrian civil war is both a humanitarian disaster and a focal point for a set of interlocking regional and international political struggles. This course uses the Syrian case as an entry for exploring broader questions, such as why do civil wars begin, how do they end, and what are the international politics of civil war. Political Science majors taking this course to fulfill the WIM requirement should enroll in POLISCI 212C.
Same as: POLISCI 212C

POLISCI 213. US-Russia Relations After the Cold War. 2 Units.

A quarter century ago, the Soviet Union collapsed and the Cold War ended. At the time, Russian leaders aspired to build democratic and market institutions at home. They also wanted to join the West. American presidents Democrat and Republican encouraged these domestic and international changes. Today, U.S.-Russia relations are once again confrontational, reminiscent of relations during the Cold War. This course seeks to analyze shifts in U.S.-Russia relations, with special attention given to the U.S.-Russia relationship during Obama¿s presidency. Readings will include academic articles and a book manuscript by Professor McFaul on Obama's reset policy. Open to students with previous coursework involving Russia.
Same as: POLISCI 313, REES 213

POLISCI 213A. Russia and the West. 5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 231A) Today, American-Russian relations, and Russia¿s relations with West more generally, are tense and confrontational. One has to look deep into the Cold War to find a similar era of confrontation and competition. Yet, relations between Russia and the West were not always this way. The end of the Cold War, for instance, ushered in a period of cooperation. Back then, many believed that Russia was going to develop democratic and market institutions and integrate into Western international institutions. This seminar will examine various explanations for these variations in Russia¿s relations with the West, starting in the 19th century, and briefly examining the Cold War period, but a real focus on the last thirty years. In evaluating competing explanations. the course will focus on balance of power theories, culture, historical legacies, institutional design, and individual actors in both the United States (and sometimes Europe) and Russia.nn** NOTE: The enrollment of the class is by application only. Please send a one page document to Anya Shkurko (ashkurko@stanford.edu) by March 23rd with the following information: full name, class year, major, contact email, which version of the course you want to enroll in (PoliSci/REES/IPS). In the document please also outline previous associated coursework and/or relevant experience and write why you want to enroll in the seminar. Application results will be announced on March 30th. Any questions related to this course can be directed to Anya Shkurko.
Same as: INTLPOL 231A, REES 213A

POLISCI 213C. Understanding Russia: Its Power and Purpose in a New Global Order. 5 Units.

Russia presents a puzzle for theories of socio-economic development and modernization and their relationship to state power in international politics. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 brought into being the new Russia (or Russian Federation) as its successor in international politics. Russia suffered one of the worst recessions and experienced 25 years of halting reform. Despite these issues, Russia is again a central player in international affairs. Course analyzes motivations behind contemporary Russian foreign policy by reviewing its domestic and economic underpinnings. Examination of concept of state power in international politics to assess Russia's capabilities to influence other states' policies, and under what conditions its leaders use these resources. Is contemporary Russia strong or weak? What are the resources and constraints its projection of power beyond its borders? What are the determinants of state power in international politics in the twenty-first century? Includes lectures, readings, class discussions, films and documentaries.
Same as: INTLPOL 231B, REES 231B

POLISCI 213E. Introduction to European Studies. 5 Units.

This course offers an introduction to major topics in the study of historical and contemporary Europe. We focus on European politics, economics and culture. First, we study what makes Europe special, and how its distinct identity has been influenced by its history. Next, we analyze Europe's politics. We study parliamentary government and proportional representation electoral systems, and how they affect policy. Subsequently, we examine the challenges the European economy faces. We further study the European Union and transatlantic relations.
Same as: INTNLREL 122

POLISCI 213R. Political Economy of Financial Crisis. 5 Units.

Political responses to domestic and international financial crises. Monetary and fiscal policy. The role of interest groups. International cooperation and the role of the IMF.
Same as: POLISCI 313R

POLISCI 214R. Challenges and Dilemmas in American Foreign Policy. 5 Units.

This seminar will examine the complexities and trade offs involved in foreign policy decision-making at the end of the twentieth century and the dawn of the post-9/11 era. Students will analyze dilemmas confronting policymakers through case studies including post-conflict reconstruction and state-building, nuclear proliferation, democratization and peace negotiation. The seminar will conclude with a 48-hour crisis simulation. For advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Application for enrollment required. Applications will be available for pick up in Political Science Department (Encina West 100) starting late-October.
Same as: POLISCI 314R

POLISCI 215. Explaining Ethnic Violence. 5 Units.

What is ethnic violence and why does it occur? Should elite machinations, the psychology of crowds, or historical hatreds be blamed? Case studies and theoretical work on the sources and nature of ethnic violence. Counts as Writing in the Major for PoliSci majors.

POLISCI 215A. Special Topics: State-Society Relations in the Contemporary Arab World-Key Concepts and Debates. 5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 215) This course looks at key concepts pertaining to state-society relations in the Arab world as they have evolved in regional intellectual and political debates since the 1990s. Citizenship, minority rights, freedom of expression, freedom of association, the rule of law, government accountability, independence of the judiciary, civil-military relations, and democratic transition will be among the concepts discussed.
Same as: INTLPOL 215

POLISCI 215F. Nuclear Weapons and International Politics. 5 Units.

Why do states develop nuclear weapons and why do some states, that have the technological capacity to build nuclear weapons, refrain from doing so? What are the strategic consequences of new states deploying nuclear weapons? What is the relationship between the spread of nuclear energy and the spread of nuclear weapons? We will study the political science and history literature on these topics. Research paper required.
Same as: POLISCI 315F

POLISCI 216. State Building. 5 Units.

How and when can external actors (others states, aid agencies, NGOs?) promote institutional change in weak and badly governed states?.

POLISCI 217A. American Foreign Policy: Interests, Values, and Process. 5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 242) This seminar will examine the tension in American foreign policy between pursuing U.S. security and economic interests and promoting American values abroad. The course will retrace the theoretical and ideological debates about values versus interests, with a particular focus on realism versus liberalism. The course will examine the evolution of these debates over time, starting with the French revolution, but with special attention given to the Cold War, American foreign policy after September 11th, and the Obama administration. The course also will examine how these contending theories and ideologies are mediated through the U.S. bureaucracy that shapes the making of foreign policy. ** NOTE: The enrollment of the class is by application only. Please provide a one page double-spaced document outlining previous associated coursework and why you want to enroll in the seminar to Anna Coll (acoll@stanford.edu) by February 22nd. Any questions related to this course can be directed to Anna Coll.
Same as: GLOBAL 220, INTLPOL 242

POLISCI 218S. Political Economy of International Trade and Investment. 5 Units.

How domestic and international politics influence the economic relations between countries. Why do governments promote or oppose globalization? Why do countries cooperate economically in some situations but not others? Why do countries adopt bad economic policies? Focus on the politics of international trade and investment. Course approaches each topic by examining alternative theoretical approaches and evaluate these theories using historical and contemporary evidence from many geographical regions around the world. Prerequisites: ECON 1A, ECON 1B, and a statistics course.
Same as: INTNLREL 118S

POLISCI 219. Directed Reading and Research in International Relations. 1-10 Unit.

For undergraduates. Directed reading in Political Science with a focus on international relations. To be considered for enrollment, interested students must complete the directed reading petition form available on the Political Science website before the end of week 1 of the quarter in which they'd like to enroll. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 220. Urban Policy Research Lab. 5 Units.

This collaborative reading and research seminar considers the numerous ways that governments conduct social policy by shaping and remaking geographic places. Representative topics include: housing aid programs, exclusionary zoning, controls on internal migration and place of residence, and cars' role in cities. Students will contribute to faculty field research on the consequences of these policies for economic, social, and political outcomes. Prerequisites: None.
Same as: PUBLPOL 225, URBANST 170

POLISCI 220C. The Politics of the Administrative State. 3-5 Units.

Most studies of democratic government are about elected leaders, campaigns and elections, legislatures, and public opinion. But these aspects of government are, in some sense, the tail that wags the dog. To understand what government actually does and with what effects, we need to understand the dog itself. The fact is, the vast bulk of government consists of the countless departments and agencies - and the unelected experts, professionals, and functionaries within them - that execute public policy, fill out its details, determine its impacts and effectiveness, and make government a (good or bad) reality for ordinary citizens. This is the dog: the "administrative state." And it is the essence of modern government. No democracy can function without it. A hundred years ago, when the American administrative state was on the rise - propelled first by Progressivism, then the New Deal - scholars argued that there should be a separation of politics and administration: elected officials would make policy in the political process, administrators would carry it out expertly and nonpolitically. But that was a pipe dream. The administrative state is thoroughly - and inevitably - bound up in democratic politics, and an integral part of it. Politicians try to control agencies for their own ends. Special interest groups try to capture them. Political appointees try to invade them. Members of Congress want money and programs for their own states and districts. And agencies are powerful actors in their own right, seeking money, autonomy, and policy impact. The US, moreover, is hardly unique. In every nation, the administrative state is a target of political pressure and influence, infused by politics, and capable of its own exertions of power. The purpose of this class is to understand the politics of the administrative state. Our focus will mainly be on the US, but we will also look at other nations for comparative perspective. In the end, students will have a far more complete understanding of democratic government than the usual focus on electoral politics can possibly provide.
Same as: POLISCI 320C

POLISCI 220R. The Presidency. 3-5 Units.

This course provides students with a comprehensive perspective on the American presidency and covers a range of topics: elections, policy making, control of the bureaucracy, unilateral action, war-making, and much more. But throughout, the goal is to understand why presidents behave as they do, and why the presidency as an institution has developed as it has, with special attention to the dynamics of the American political system and how they condition incentives, opportunities, and power.
Same as: POLISCI 320R

POLISCI 221A. American Political Development, 1865-present. 3-5 Units.

In this reading-intensive course, we will conduct a wide-ranging survey of major transformations in the American political system in the post-Civil War period. Our inquiries about these transformations will focus on the origins of the modern administrative state, the interactive role of the state and social movements, and changes in the party system. We¿ll examine these developments not only to understand institutional change, but to learn how changing institutions have shaped the behavior of the American electorate.
Same as: POLISCI 421R

POLISCI 222. The Political Psychology of Intolerance. 5 Units.

This seminar explores the political psychology of intolerance. It focuses on two problems in particular race in America and the challenge of Muslim inclusion in Western Europe. It concentrates on primary research. The readings consist of both classic and contemporary (including on-going) studies of prejudice and politics.
Same as: CSRE 222

POLISCI 223A. Public Opinion and American Democracy. 5 Units.

This course focuses on the public mood and politics in America today. It accordingly examines, among other things, the coherence (or lack of it) of public opinion; the partisan sorting of the electorate; and the ideological and affective polarization of mass politics. It also examines contemporary critiques of representation and citizenship in liberal democracies.

POLISCI 223B. Money, Power, and Politics in the New Gilded Age. 5 Units.

During the past two generations, democracy has coincided with massive increases in economic inequality in the U.S. and many other advanced democracies. The course will explore normative and practical issues concerning democracy and equality and examine why democratic institutions have failed to counteract rising inequality. Topics will include the influence of money in politics, disparity in political representation of the preferences of the affluent over those of the poor, the implications of political gridlock, and electoral and institutional barriers to reform.

POLISCI 224X. Shaping the Future of the Bay Area. 3-5 Units.

The complex urban problems affecting quality of life in the Bay Area, from housing affordability and transportation congestion to economic vitality and social justice, are already perceived by many to be intractable, and will likely be exacerbated by climate change and other emerging environmental and technological forces. Changing urban systems to improve the equity, resilience and sustainability of communities will require new collaborative methods of assessment, goal setting, and problem solving across governments, markets, and communities. It will also require academic institutions to develop new models of co-production of knowledge across research, education, and practice. This XYZ course series is designed to immerse students in co-production for social change. The course sequence covers scientific research and ethical reasoning, skillsets in data-driven and qualitative analysis, and practical experience working with local partners on urban challenges that can empower students to drive responsible systems change in their future careers. The Autumn (X) course is specifically focused on concepts and skills, and completion is a prerequisite for participation in the Winter (Y) and/or Spring (Z) practicum quarters, which engage teams in real-world projects with Bay Area local governments or community groups. X is composed of four modules: (A) participation in two weekly classes which prominently feature experts in research and practice related to urban systems; (B) reading and writing assignments designed to deepen thinking on class topics; (C) fundamental data analysis skills, particularly focused on Excel and ArcGIS, taught in lab sessions through basic exercises; (D) advanced data analysis skills, particularly focused on geocomputation in R, taught through longer and more intensive assignments. X can be taken for 3 units (ABC), 4 units (ACD), or 5 units (ABCD). Open to undergraduate and graduate students in any major. For more information, visit http://bay.stanford.edu.
Same as: CEE 118X, CEE 218X, ESS 118X, ESS 218X, GEOLSCI 118X, GEOLSCI 218X, GEOPHYS 118X, GEOPHYS 218X, PUBLPOL 118X

POLISCI 225C. Fixing US Politics: Political Reform in Principle and Practice. 5 Units.

Americans have been trying to perfect their system of government since its founding. Despite some notable achievements, there is a pervasive sense of frustration with political reform. This course will examine the goals and political consequences of American political regulation. Topics will vary by year to some degree but examples include campaign finance, lobbying, term limits, conflict of interest regulation, direct democracy, citizen commissions and assemblies, vote administration problems, transparency, and open meeting laws.

POLISCI 225L. Law and the New Political Economy. 3-5 Units.

(Same as LAW 7515) In this seminar, we consider key legal topics through the lens of political economy - that is, is the interplay among economics, law, and politics. This perspective has had a powerful and growing impact on how scholars and judges view the nature and scope of law and politics in the modern regulatory state. We look at a range of topics from this perspective, including: constitutional law, statutory interpretation, administrative law and regulation, and jurisprudence - all with an eye toward better understanding the dynamic interaction among law, politics, and social change. There are no prerequisites for this seminar. The final assignment will be a substantial research paper.
Same as: POLISCI 325L

POLISCI 226. Race and Racism in American Politics. 5 Units.

Topics include the historical conceptualization of race; whether and how racial animus reveals itself and the forms it might take; its role in the creation and maintenance of economic stratification; its effect on contemporary U.S. partisan and electoral politics; and policy making consequences.
Same as: AMSTUD 226, CSRE 226, POLISCI 326

POLISCI 226A. The Changing Face of America. 4-5 Units.

This upper-division seminar will explore some of the most significant issues related to educational access and equity facing American society in the 21st century. Designed for students with significant leadership potential who have already studied these topics in lecture format, this seminar will focus on in-depth analysis of the impact of race on educational access and a variety of educational reform initiatives. Please submit a brief statement with "EDUC 108" in the subject line that details your reasons for applying and what leadership skills, experience, and perspectives you would contribute to the course to: Ginny Smith (gsmith@law.stanford.edu) and Wilson Tong (wtong@commonsense.org). The deadline is rolling.
Same as: CSRE 108X, EDUC 108

POLISCI 226T. The Politics of Education. 3-5 Units.

America's public schools are government agencies, and virtually everything about them is subject to political authority--and thus to decision through the political process. This seminar is an effort to understand the politics of education and its impacts on the nation's schools. Our focus is on the modern era of reform, with special attention to the most prominent efforts to bring about fundamental change through accountability (including No Child Left Behind), school choice (charter schools, vouchers), pay for performance, and more and more to the politics of blocking that has made genuine reform so difficult to achieve.
Same as: POLISCI 326T

POLISCI 227B. Environmental Governance and Climate Resilience. 3 Units.

Adaptation to climate change will not only require new infrastructure and policies, but it will also challenge our local, state and national governments to collaborate across jurisdictional lines in ways that include many different types of private and nonprofit organizations and individual actors. The course explores what it means for communities to be resilient and how they can reach that goal in an equitable and effective way. Using wildfires in California as a case study, the course assesses specific strategies, such as controlled burns and building codes, and a range of planning and policy measures that can be used to enhance climate resilience. In addition, it considers how climate change and development of forested exurban areas (among other factors) have influenced the size and severity of wildfires. The course also examines the obstacles communities face in selecting and implementing adaptation measures (e.g., resource constraints, incentives to develop in forested areas, inadequate policy enforcement, and weak inter-agency coordination). Officials from various Bay Area organizations contribute to aspects of the course; and students will present final papers to local government offcials. Limited enrollment. Students will be asked to prepare application essays on the first day of class. Course is intended for seniors and graduate students.
Same as: CEE 265F, PUBLPOL 265F

POLISCI 227C. Money in Politics. 5 Units.

This course will cover campaign finance, lobbying, and interest group politics.
Same as: POLISCI 427C

POLISCI 228C. Law and Politics of Bureaucracy. 3-5 Units.

Same as Law 7096. Modern government is bureaucratic government. In the words of Justice Jackson, the rise of the administrative state is likely "the most significant legal trend of the last century and perhaps more values today are affected by [agency] decisions than by those of all the courts." This seminar will survey the major ways in which law and political science have grappled with bureaucratic governance. How do we understand the rise of the administrative state? Why are bureaucracies designed the way they are? How do bureaucracies work in the face of legal and political constraints? And what avenues are there for meaningful regulatory reform? The class is cross-listed in Political Science and the Law School and course enrollment will be by consent of instructor. Students will be responsible for writing short reflection papers and a research paper.
Same as: POLISCI 428C

POLISCI 229. Directed Reading and Research in American Politics. 1-10 Unit.

For undergraduates. Directed reading in Political Science with a focus on American politics. To be considered for enrollment, interested students must complete the directed reading petition form available on the Political Science website before the end of week 1 of the quarter in which they'd like to enroll. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 22SC. The Face of Battle. 2 Units.

Our understanding of warfare often derives from the lofty perspective of political leaders and generals: what were their objectives and what strategies were developed to meet them? This top-down perspective slights the experience of the actual combatants and non-combatants caught in the crossfire. This course focuses on the complexity of the process by which strategy is translated into tactical decisions by the officers and foot soldiers and on what actually occurs on the field of battle. We will visit Washington, DC, and meet with national security officials and members of non-government organizations there. In addition, we will spend a day visiting the battlefields of Gettysburg (July 1863) in Pennsylvania, and the Little Bighorn (June 1876) in Montana. The course's battlefield tours are based on the "staff rides" developed by the Prussian Army in the mid-1800s and employed by the U.S. Army since the early 1900s. While at Stanford, students will conduct extensive research on individual participants at Gettysburg and Little Bighorn. Then, as we walk through the battlefield sites, students will brief the group on their subjects' experience of battle and on why they made the decisions they did. Why did Lt. General Longstreet oppose the Confederate attack on the Union Army at Gettysburg? What was the experience of a military surgeon on a Civil War battlefield? What role did just war principles or law play in the treatment of enemy fighters and civilians? Why did Custer divide his 7th Cavalry troops as they approached the Little Bighorn River? What was the role of Lakota Sioux women after a battle? The final part of the class covers contemporary military conflicts discussing what the US public, political leaders, and military commanders have learned (and not learned) from the past. The course is open to students from a range of disciplines; an interest in the topic is the only prerequisite.

POLISCI 22SI. Issues in American Politics and Public Policy. 1 Unit.

This course, administered in conjunction with Stanford in Government, will explore prominent contemporary issues in American politics and public policy. It will consist of eight guest lectures by Stanford professors, visiting scholars, and practitioners on salient public policy topics, and student-led discussion in non-lecture weeks. Grading will be on a satisfactory/no-credit basis, and to receive credit a student must attend at least eight of the ten total class sessions.

POLISCI 230A. Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought. 3-5 Units.

Political philosophy in classical antiquity, centered on reading canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle against other texts and against the political and historical background. Topics include: interdependence, legitimacy, justice; political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; law, civic strife, and constitutional change.
Same as: CLASSICS 181, CLASSICS 381, ETHICSOC 130A, PHIL 176A, PHIL 276A, POLISCI 330A

POLISCI 231. High-Stakes Politics: Case Studies in Political Philosophy, Institutions, and Interests. 3-5 Units.

Normative political theory combined with positive political theory to better explain how major texts may have responded to and influenced changes in formal and informal institutions. Emphasis is on historical periods in which catastrophic institutional failure was a recent memory or a realistic possibility. Case studies include Greek city-states in the classical period and the northern Atlantic community of the 17th and 18th centuries including upheavals in England and the American Revolutionary era.
Same as: CLASSICS 382, POLISCI 331

POLISCI 231Z. Topics in Democratic Theory. 5 Units.

Democratic rule is rule of the people. But what does that mean? This course explores democracy¿s roots in ancient Athens to its modern incarnation. The course aims to familiarize students with the various strands of democratic theory as well as the way democratic theory responds to hot political issues such as immigration and freedom of speech. The goal of the course is to equip students to think critically about democracy in the modern world and the different interpretation democratic rule can have. The questions we will investigate include: What does democracy require? What is the relationship between democracy and human rights or social justice? Can democracy justify border control? What restrictions, if any, does democracy place on hate speech? What is the role of courts in a democracy? The course provides tools to answer these questions by surveying different approaches to democracy in contemporary literature, as well surveying the history of democratic theory from ancient Athenian democracy to the modern age, with a look to the future of democracy in a globalized era.

POLISCI 232T. The Dialogue of Democracy. 4 Units.

All forms of democracy require some kind of communication so people can be aware of issues and make decisions. This course looks at competing visions of what democracy should be and different notions of the role of dialogue in a democracy. Is it just campaigning or does it include deliberation? Small scale discussions or sound bites on television? Or social media? What is the role of technology in changing our democratic practices, to mobilize, to persuade, to solve public problems? This course will include readings from political theory about democratic ideals - from the American founders to J.S. Mill and the Progressives to Joseph Schumpeter and modern writers skeptical of the public will. It will also include contemporary examinations of the media and the internet to see how those practices are changing and how the ideals can or cannot be realized.
Same as: AMSTUD 137, COMM 137W, COMM 237, POLISCI 332T

POLISCI 233. Justice and Cities. 5 Units.

Cities have most often been where struggles for social justice happen, where injustice is most glaring and where new visions of just communities are developed and tested. This class brings political theories of justice and democracy together with historical and contemporary empirical work on city design, planning, and policies to ask the following questions: What makes a city just or unjust? How have people tried to make cities more just? What has made these efforts succeed or fail? Each session will include a case study of a particular city, largely with a focus on the United States. Students will develop research projects examining a city of their choice through the lens of a particular aspect of justice and injustice.
Same as: URBANST 134

POLISCI 233F. Science, technology and society and the humanities in the face of the looming disaster. 3-5 Units.

How STS and the Humanities can together help think out the looming catastrophes that put the future of humankind in jeopardy.
Same as: FRENCH 228, ITALIAN 228

POLISCI 234. Democratic Theory. 5 Units.

Most people agree that democracy is a good thing, but do we agree on what democracy is? This course will examine the concept of democracy in political philosophy. We will address the following questions: What reason(s), if any, do we have for valuing democracy? What does it mean to treat people as political equals? When does a group of individuals constitute "a people," and how can a people make genuinely collective decisions? Can democracy really be compatible with social inequality? With an entrenched constitution? With representation?.
Same as: ETHICSOC 234, PHIL 176P

POLISCI 234P. Deliberative Democracy and its Critics. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the theory and practice of deliberative democracy and engages both in a dialogue with critics. Can a democracy which emphasizes people thinking and talking together on the basis of good information be made practical in the modern age? What kinds of distortions arise when people try to discuss politics or policy together? The course draws on ideas of deliberation from Madison and Mill to Rawls and Habermas as well as criticisms from the jury literature, from the psychology of group processes and from the most recent normative and empirical literature on deliberative forums. Deliberative Polling, its applications, defenders and critics, both normative and empirical, will provide a key case for discussion.
Same as: AMSTUD 135, COMM 135, COMM 235, COMM 335, ETHICSOC 135F, POLISCI 334P

POLISCI 235E. Philosophy of Public Policy. 4 Units.

From healthcare to voting reforms, social protection and educational policies, public policies are underpinned by moral values. When we debate those policies, we typically appeal to values like justice, fairness, equality, freedom, privacy, and safety. A proper understanding of those values, what they mean, how they may conflict, and how they can be weighed against each other is essential to developing a competent and critical eye on our complex political world. We will ask questions such as: Is compulsory voting justified? Should children have the right to vote? Is affirmative action just? What is wrong with racial profiling? What are the duties of citizens of affluent countries towards migrants? Do we have a right to privacy? Is giving cash to all unconditionally fair? This class will introduce students to a number of methods and frameworks coming out of ethics and political philosophy and will give students a lot of time to practice ethically informed debates on public policies. At the end of this class, students should have the skills to critically examine a wide range of diverse policy proposals from the perspective of ethics, moral and political philosophy. There are no prerequisites. Undergraduates and graduates from all departments are welcome to attend.
Same as: ETHICSOC 175X, PHIL 175B, PHIL 275B, POLISCI 135E, PUBLPOL 177

POLISCI 236. Theories and Practices of Civil Society, Philanthropy, and the Nonprofit Sector. 5 Units.

What is the basis of private action for public good? How are charitable dollars distributed and what role do nonprofit organizations and philanthropic dollars play in civil society and modern democracy? In the "Philanthropy Lab" component of this course, students will award $100,000 in grants to local nonprofits. Students will explore how nonprofit organizations operate domestically and globally as well as the historical development and modern structure of civil society and philanthropy. Readings in political philosophy, history, political sociology, and public policy. Political Science majors who are taking this course to fulfill the WIM requirement should enroll in POLISCI 236S.
Same as: ETHICSOC 232T, POLISCI 236S

POLISCI 236S. Theories and Practices of Civil Society, Philanthropy, and the Nonprofit Sector. 5 Units.

What is the basis of private action for public good? How are charitable dollars distributed and what role do nonprofit organizations and philanthropic dollars play in civil society and modern democracy? In the "Philanthropy Lab" component of this course, students will award $100,000 in grants to local nonprofits. Students will explore how nonprofit organizations operate domestically and globally as well as the historical development and modern structure of civil society and philanthropy. Readings in political philosophy, history, political sociology, and public policy. Political Science majors who are taking this course to fulfill the WIM requirement should enroll in POLISCI 236S.
Same as: ETHICSOC 232T, POLISCI 236

POLISCI 237S. Civil Society and Democracy in Comparative Perspective. 5 Units.

A cross-national approach to the study of civil societies and their role in democracy. The concept of civil society--historical, normative, and empirical. Is civil society a universal or culturally relative concept? Does civil society provide a supportive platform for democracy or defend a protected realm of private action against the state? How are the norms of individual rights, the common good, and tolerance balanced in diverse civil societies? Results of theoretical exploration applied to student-conducted empirical research projects on civil societies in eight countries. Summary comparative discussions. Prerequisite: a course on civil society or political theory. Students will conduct original research in teams of two on the selected nations. Enrollment limited to 18. Enrollment preference given to students who have taken POLISCI 236S/ETHICSOC 232T.
Same as: ETHICSOC 237

POLISCI 238C. Governing the 21st Century World. 5 Units.

How is our world governed, and by whom? How are decisions made on the most important issues of our time, including climate change, global inequality, and protection of human rights? A traditional answer to these questions is that only official governments have the power to govern -to set and enforce rules on these and other issues. In contrast, this class explores the emerging roles ofnnon-state actors, including NGOs, for-profit corporations, informal social movements, and international institutions, in governing our world and making decisions on these and other key issues. We will also study the ways that the governance by non-state actors challenges our ideas of democracy, legitimacy, and justice. The class thus seeks to bring together perspectives and tools from both empirical social science and political theory in order to better understand this important phenomenon.

POLISCI 238R. The Greeks and the Rational: Deliberation, Strategy, and Choice in Ancient Greek Political Thought. 3-5 Units.

The course explores the role of practical reasoning (instrumental rationality) in the ethical-political works of e.g. Plato and Aristotle, in the historical-political projects of e.g. Herodotus and Thucydides, and in the design of classical Greek institutions. We ask to what degree ancient Greeks shared intuitions concerning the rationality of choice with contemporary decision and game theorists. The Greek tradition recognized the limits of expected utility maximization in predicting or explaining the actual behavior of individuals, groups, and states, and sought to explain divergences from predicted rational behavior. Greek social theorists may, therefore, also have shared some of the intuitions of contemporary behavioral economists. Topics will include individual rationality, rationality of groups and states, the origins of social order, emergence and persistence of monarchical and democratic regimes, conflict and cooperation in interstate relations, competition and cooperation in exchange. Examining the Greek tradition of thought on practical reasoning has some implications for we might think about deliberation and bargaining in contemporary democratic-political, interpersonal-ethical, and interstate contexts. PREREQUISITES: Students in the course are expected to have a background in EITHER classical studies (literature, history, or philosophy), OR Greek political thought (Origins of Political Thought or equivalent) OR in formal/positive political theory. Registration for undergraduates is with permission of instructor (email jober@stanford.edu).
Same as: CLASSICS 395, POLISCI 438R

POLISCI 239. Directed Reading and Research in Political Theory. 1-10 Unit.

For undergraduates. Directed reading in Political Science with a focus on political theory. To be considered for enrollment, interested students must complete the directed reading petition form available on the Political Science website before the end of week 1 of the quarter in which they'd like to enroll. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 23Q. Analyzing the 2016 Elections. 3 Units.

the seminar will normally meet for two hours, but after three seminars there will be lab sessions to acquaint students with basic quantitative methods and major social science databases. After every election the commentariat promulgates a story line to explain the results. Typically later analysis shows the media story line to be wrong (eg. "values voters" in 2004). Participants in this seminar will analyze the results of the 2016 elections. The seminar is about ANALYSIS, not ideology. Some familiarity with quantitative methods is a prerequisite.

POLISCI 240A. Democratic Politics. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the relationship between democratic ideals and contemporary democratic politics.
Same as: POLISCI 340A

POLISCI 240T. Democracy, Promotion, and American Foreign Policy. 5 Units.

Theoretical and intellectual debates about democracy promotion with focus on realism versus liberalism. The evolution of these debates with attention to the Cold War, the 90s, and American foreign policy after 9/11. Tools for and bureaucratic struggles over how to promote democracy. Contemporary case studies.

POLISCI 241A. Political Economy of Development. 5 Units.

This course is an upper-level undergraduate seminar providing an introduction to the political economy of development. We explore many of the key academic debates surrounding how nations develop politically and economically. Course topics will include: theories of state development, the role of institutions, inequality and societal divisions, the impact of natural resources, the consequences of corruption, and the effect of globalization on the world's poor. The course emphasizes teaching students how to read the literature critically.

POLISCI 241S. Spatial Approaches to Social Science. 5 Units.

This multidisciplinary course combines different approaches to how GIS and spatial tools can be applied in social science research. We take a collaborative, project oriented approach to bring together technical expertise and substantive applications from several social science disciplines. The course aims to integrate tools, methods, and current debates in social science research and will enable students to engage in critical spatial research and a multidisciplinary dialogue around geographic space.
Same as: ANTHRO 130D, ANTHRO 230D, URBANST 124

POLISCI 241T. Political Economy of Gender. 5 Units.

This course provides an introduction to the political economy of gender. The course first explores the key areas of debate on women's representation. Why are womennunderrepresented in formal political institutions? How do political institutions affect women's representation? What are the effects of women's representation? Also, the course examines the quality of female politicians, women's voting behavior and political preferences, and public opinion on gender issues. No prior knowledge is required.

POLISCI 242. Foreign Policy Decision Making in Comparative Perspective. 3 Units.

This seminar will examine how countries and multilateral organizations make decisions about foreign and international policy. The hypothesis to be explored in the course is that individuals, bureaucracies, and interest groups shape foreign policy decisions. That hypothesis will be tested against other more structural explanations of how countries behave in the international system. After a brief review of the academic literature in the first part of the course, the seminar will focus on several cases studies of foreign policy decision-making by the United States, China, Russia, Iran, and North Korea, as well as the United Nations and NATO. This seminar is intended for masters students and fourth-year undergraduates. NOTE: The enrollment of the class is by application only. Please send a one page document to Mahlorei Bruce Apalis, mahlorei@stanford.edu by March 10th with the following information: full name, class year, major, contact email, which version of the course you want to enroll in (e.g., POLISCI or INTLPOL). In the document please also outline previous associated coursework and/or relevant experience and write why you want to enroll in the seminar. Application results will be announced on March 22nd. Any questions related to this course can be directed to Mahlorei Bruce Apalis.
Same as: INTLPOL 232, POLISCI 342

POLISCI 244. An Introduction to Political Development. 5 Units.

Political development concerns the evolution of three categories of institutions: (1) the state itself; (2) the rule of law; and (3) accountable government. Focus on many of the major theories of political development, beginning with some classic social theorists and continuing up through the present.

POLISCI 244A. Authoritarian Politics. 3-5 Units.

This course offers a thematic approach to the study of authoritarian politics. We will cover the major areas of political science research on authoritarian politics and governance while simultaneously building empirical knowledge about the politics of particular authoritarian regimes. The course will also discuss transitions to democracy as well as authoritarian political tendencies within democratic contexts.
Same as: POLISCI 444A

POLISCI 244U. Political Culture. 3-5 Units.

The implications of social norms, preferences and beliefs for political and economic behavior and societal outcomes.
Same as: POLISCI 344U

POLISCI 245R. Politics in Modern Iran. 5 Units.

Modern Iran has been a smithy for political movements, ideologies, and types of states. Movements include nationalism, constitutionalism, Marxism, Islamic fundamentalism, social democracy, Islamic liberalism, and fascism. Forms of government include Oriental despotism, authoritarianism, Islamic theocracy, and liberal democracy. These varieties have appeared in Iran in an iteration shaped by history, geography, proximity to oil and the Soviet Union, and the hegemony of Islamic culture.

POLISCI 246A. Paths to the Modern World: The West in Comparative Perspective. 3-5 Units.

How and why did Europe develop political institutions that encouraged economic growth and industrialization? And why have many other regions lagged in the creation of growth-promoting institutions? This course uses a comparative approach to understanding routes to the modern world - the historical experiences of Christian Europe, the Islamic world, and others. We will explore questions including: When do parliaments emerge? How do cities promote growth? What is the role of religion?.
Same as: POLISCI 446A

POLISCI 247A. Games Developing Nations Play. 3-5 Units.

If, as economists argue, development can make everyone in a society better off, why do leaders fail to pursue policies that promote development? The course uses game theoretic approaches from both economics and political science to address this question. Incentive problems are at the heart of explanations for development failure. Specifically, the course focuses on a series of questions central to the development problem: Why do developing countries have weak and often counterproductive political institutions? Why is violence (civil wars, ethnic conflict, military coups) so prevalent in the developing world, and how does it interact with development? Why do developing economies fail to generate high levels of income and wealth? We study how various kinds of development traps arise, preventing development for most countries. We also explain how some countries have overcome such traps. This approach emphasizes the importance of simultaneous economic and political development as two different facets of the same developmental process. No background in game theory is required.
Same as: ECON 162, POLISCI 347A

POLISCI 247G. Governance and Poverty. 5 Units.

Poverty relief requires active government involvement in the provision of public services such as drinking water, healthcare, sanitation, education, roads, electricity and public safety. Failure to deliver public services is a major impediment to the alleviation of poverty in the developing world. This course will use an interdisciplinary approach to examining these issues, bringing together readings from across the disciplines of political science, economics, law, medicine and education to increase understanding of the complex causal linkages between political institutions, the quality of governance, and the capacity of developing societies to meet basic human needs. Conceived in a broadly comparative international perspective, the course will examine cross-national and field-based research projects, with a particular focus on Latin America and Mexico.

POLISCI 248A. Politics and Institutions in Latin America. 3-5 Units.

The broad academic purpose of the course is to evaluate presidential democracies in Latin America and their impacts on the politics in this region. The goal is to give students an introduction to the main debates on political institutions in the Latin American region and help them identify issues for future research.
Same as: POLISCI 348A

POLISCI 248S. Latin American Politics. 3-5 Units.

Fundamental transformations in Latin America in the last two decades: why most governments are now democratic or semidemocratic; and economic transformation as countries abandoned import substitution industrialization policies led by state intervention for neoliberal economic polices. The nature of this dual transformation.
Same as: POLISCI 348S

POLISCI 249. Directed Reading and Research in Comparative Politics. 1-10 Unit.

For undergraduates. Directed reading in Political Science with a focus on comparative politics. To be considered for enrollment, interested students must complete the directed reading petition form available on the Political Science website before the end of week 1 of the quarter in which they'd like to enroll. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 24Q. Law and Order. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. The role of law in promoting social order. What is the rule of law? How does it differ from the rule of men? What institutions best support the rule of law? Is a state needed to ensure that laws are enforced? Should victims be allowed to avenge wrongs? What is the relationship between justice and mercy?.

POLISCI 24SC. Conservatism and Liberalism in American Politics and Policy. 2 Units.

What influence do political ideologies have in American politics and government? In this course, students will study liberal and conservative ideology in American politics and public policy from the mid-20th century onward. The course begins with an examination of ideology in the American public and then considers ideology among political activists and elected officials, focusing on members of Congress and the president. The course will also cover the ideological polarization of political elites and its impact on the policy-making process. In the final part of the course, through a series of policy case studies, students will also evaluate how well certain public policies have met the ideological goals of their liberal and conservative sponsors. The course will included several lunches and dinners with guest speakers.

POLISCI 251A. Introduction to Machine Learning for Social Scientists. 4 Units.

This course introduces techniques to collect, analyze, and utilize large collections of data for social science inferences. The ultimate goal of the course is to familiarize students to modern machine learning techniques and provide the skills necessary to apply these methods widely. Students will leave the course equipped with a broad understanding of machine learning and on how to continue building new skills. This is an introductory course, so most the lectures and problem sets will be focused on the intuition and the mechanics behind machine learning concepts rather than the mathematical fundamentals. There are no formal prerequisites for the course, but calculus and introductory statistics are strongly recommended. Students are not expected to have any programming knowledge, and the course will be centered around bite-size assignments that will help build R coding and statistical skills from scratch.

POLISCI 259. Directed Reading and Research in Political Methodology. 1-10 Unit.

For undergraduates. Directed reading in Political Science with a focus on political methodology. To be considered for enrollment, interested students must complete the directed reading petition form available on the Political Science website before the end of week 1 of the quarter in which they'd like to enroll. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 25N. The US Congress in Historical and Comparative Perspective. 3 Units.

This course traces the development of legislatures from their medieval European origins to the present, with primary emphasis on the case of the U.S. Congress. Students will learn about the early role played by assemblies in placing limits on royal power, especially via the power of the purse. About half the course will then turn to a more detailed consideration of the U.S. Congress's contemporary performance, analyzing how that performance is affected by procedural legacies from the past that affect most democratic legislatures worldwide.

POLISCI 27N. Thinking Like a Social Scientist. 3 Units.

Preference to freshman. This seminar will consider how politics and government can be studied systematically: the compound term Political SCIENCE is not an oxymoron. The seminar will introduce core concepts and explore a variety of methodological approaches. Problems of inference from evidence will be a major concern. Classic and contemporary research studies will be the basis of discussion throughout.

POLISCI 28N. The Changing Nature of Racial Identity in American Politics. 3 Units.

Almost one-third of Americans now identify with a racial/ethnic minority group. This seminar examines the relationship between racial identity, group consciousness, and public opinion. Topics include the role of government institutions in shaping identification, challenges in defining and measuring race, attitudes towards race-based policies, and the development of political solidarity within racial groups. Particular attention will be paid to the construction of political identities among the growing mixed-race population.

POLISCI 299A. Research Design. 5 Units.

This course is designed to teach students how to design a research project. The course emphasizes the specification of testable hypotheses, the building of data sets, and the inferences from that may be drawn from that evidence. This course fulfills the WIM requirement for Political Science Research Honors students.

POLISCI 299B. Honors Thesis Seminar. 5 Units.

Restricted to Political Science Research Honors students who have completed POLISCI 299A.

POLISCI 299C. Honors Thesis. 1-5 Unit.

Students conduct independent research work towards a senior honors thesis. Restricted to Political Science Research Honors students who have completed POLISCI 299B.

POLISCI 299D. Honors Thesis. 1-5 Unit.

Students conduct independent research work towards a senior honors thesis. Restricted to Political Science Research Honors students who have completed POLISCI 299B.

POLISCI 29N. Mixed-Race Politics and Culture. 3 Units.

Today, almost one-third of Americans identify with a racial/ethnic minority group, and more than 9 million Americans identify with multiple races. What are the implications of such diversity for American politics and culture? In this course, we approach issues of race from an interdisciplinary perspective, employing research in the social sciences and humanities to assess how race shapes perceptions of identity as well as political behavior in 21st century U.S. We will examine issues surrounding the role of multiculturalism, immigration, acculturation, racial representation and racial prejudice in American society. Topics we will explore include the political and social formation of "race"; racial representation in the media, arts, and popular culture; the rise and decline of the "one-drop rule" and its effect on political and cultural attachments; the politicization of Census categories and the rise of the Multiracial Movement.
Same as: AFRICAAM 52N, ENGLISH 52N

POLISCI 309. Curricular Practical Training for PhD Students. 1 Unit.

Qualified Political Science students obtain employment in a relevant research or industrial activity to enhance their professional experience consistent with their degree programs. Meets the requirements for Curricular Practical Training for students on F-1 visas. The student is responsible for arranging their own internship/employment and gaining faculty sponsorship. At the completion of the CPT quarter, a final report must be submitted to the faculty sponsor documenting the work done and its relevance to Political Science. This course be repeated for credit up to 3 times.

POLISCI 30SI. Digital Security and Civil Society. 2 Units.

This class will instruct students in the political economy of software and digital infrastructure as they relate to civil society in democracies. We will consider the role of privacy, anonymity, free expression and free association in democracies and examine the digital tools and practices that enable these freedoms. The class consists of three interwoven themes:n1) The role of civil society in democracies n2) The political economy of digital tools and their influence on societyn3) Individual and collective digital security.

POLISCI 311N. Nuclear Politics. 3-5 Units.

Why do states develop nuclear weapons and why do some states, that have the technological capacity to build nuclear weapons, refrain from doing so? What are the strategic consequences of new states deploying nuclear weapons? What is the relationship between the spread of nuclear energy and the spread of nuclear weapons? Have international and domestic views on nuclear weapons changed since 1945? In this course, we will first examine the political science literature on these key questions about nuclear politics. We will read and critique works using different approaches in political science including quantitative analysis, experiments, game theory, historical case studies, and mixed methods. Students will then design and execute small research projects to address questions that have been inadequately addressed in the existing literature.
Same as: POLISCI 211N

POLISCI 313. US-Russia Relations After the Cold War. 2 Units.

A quarter century ago, the Soviet Union collapsed and the Cold War ended. At the time, Russian leaders aspired to build democratic and market institutions at home. They also wanted to join the West. American presidents Democrat and Republican encouraged these domestic and international changes. Today, U.S.-Russia relations are once again confrontational, reminiscent of relations during the Cold War. This course seeks to analyze shifts in U.S.-Russia relations, with special attention given to the U.S.-Russia relationship during Obama¿s presidency. Readings will include academic articles and a book manuscript by Professor McFaul on Obama's reset policy. Open to students with previous coursework involving Russia.
Same as: POLISCI 213, REES 213

POLISCI 313R. Political Economy of Financial Crisis. 5 Units.

Political responses to domestic and international financial crises. Monetary and fiscal policy. The role of interest groups. International cooperation and the role of the IMF.
Same as: POLISCI 213R

POLISCI 314D. Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law. 3-5 Units.

This course explores the different dimensions of development - economic, social, and political - as well as the way that modern institutions (the state, market systems, the rule of law, and democratic accountability) developed and interacted with other factors across different societies around the world. The class will feature additional special guest lectures by Francis Fukuyama, Larry Diamond, Michael McFaul, Anna Grzymala-Busse, and other faculty and researchers affiliated with the Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law. Undergraduate students should enroll in this course for 5 units. Graduate students should enroll for 3.
Same as: INTLPOL 230, INTNLREL 114D, POLISCI 114D

POLISCI 314R. Challenges and Dilemmas in American Foreign Policy. 5 Units.

This seminar will examine the complexities and trade offs involved in foreign policy decision-making at the end of the twentieth century and the dawn of the post-9/11 era. Students will analyze dilemmas confronting policymakers through case studies including post-conflict reconstruction and state-building, nuclear proliferation, democratization and peace negotiation. The seminar will conclude with a 48-hour crisis simulation. For advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Application for enrollment required. Applications will be available for pick up in Political Science Department (Encina West 100) starting late-October.
Same as: POLISCI 214R

POLISCI 315F. Nuclear Weapons and International Politics. 5 Units.

Why do states develop nuclear weapons and why do some states, that have the technological capacity to build nuclear weapons, refrain from doing so? What are the strategic consequences of new states deploying nuclear weapons? What is the relationship between the spread of nuclear energy and the spread of nuclear weapons? We will study the political science and history literature on these topics. Research paper required.
Same as: POLISCI 215F

POLISCI 319. Directed Reading in International Relations. 1-10 Unit.

For PhD students. Directed reading in Political Science with a focus on international relations. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 31N. Political Freedom: Rights, Justice, and Democracy in the Western Tradition. 3 Units.

Freedom is one of our core values. Most people can agree that freedom is a good thing. Yet there is far less agreement about how to understand the concept itself and what kinds of political arrangements are best suited to protect and enhance freedom. Is freedom about being left alone? Undertaking action with others? Participating in governance? Does freedom require a limited state? An active and interventionist government? A robustly participatory political system? How is freedom connected to other political values, like justice and equality? This seminar will consider and evaluate some of the most controversial and challenging answers that have been given to these questions by canonical thinkers like John Locke, John Stuart Mill, and Karl Marx, as well as by more contemporary political and legal thinkers like Jeremy Waldron and Cass Sunstein. We will also examine how questions about the nature of freedom play out on college campuses and in the courts.

POLISCI 31Q. Justice and Cities. 3 Units.

Cities have most often been where struggles for social justice happen, where injustice is most glaring and where new or renewed visions of just communities are developed and tested. What makes a city just or unjust? How have people tried to make cities more just? Why have these efforts succeeded or failed? Each of our sessions will focus on questions like these and include a case study of a particular city, largely with a focus on the United States, including very local cases like San Francisco, Palo Alto and East Palo Alto. The central goal of this class is for you to gain an understanding of the roles of urban design and urban policies in making cities just or unjust places. You will critically engage with some of the debates on cities and justice and gain experience connecting theoretical debates about justice and democracy to empirical data and contemporary work on city design, planning, and policies through readings, our class discussions, and a sustained research project looking a particular city in depth.

POLISCI 320C. The Politics of the Administrative State. 3-5 Units.

Most studies of democratic government are about elected leaders, campaigns and elections, legislatures, and public opinion. But these aspects of government are, in some sense, the tail that wags the dog. To understand what government actually does and with what effects, we need to understand the dog itself. The fact is, the vast bulk of government consists of the countless departments and agencies - and the unelected experts, professionals, and functionaries within them - that execute public policy, fill out its details, determine its impacts and effectiveness, and make government a (good or bad) reality for ordinary citizens. This is the dog: the "administrative state." And it is the essence of modern government. No democracy can function without it. A hundred years ago, when the American administrative state was on the rise - propelled first by Progressivism, then the New Deal - scholars argued that there should be a separation of politics and administration: elected officials would make policy in the political process, administrators would carry it out expertly and nonpolitically. But that was a pipe dream. The administrative state is thoroughly - and inevitably - bound up in democratic politics, and an integral part of it. Politicians try to control agencies for their own ends. Special interest groups try to capture them. Political appointees try to invade them. Members of Congress want money and programs for their own states and districts. And agencies are powerful actors in their own right, seeking money, autonomy, and policy impact. The US, moreover, is hardly unique. In every nation, the administrative state is a target of political pressure and influence, infused by politics, and capable of its own exertions of power. The purpose of this class is to understand the politics of the administrative state. Our focus will mainly be on the US, but we will also look at other nations for comparative perspective. In the end, students will have a far more complete understanding of democratic government than the usual focus on electoral politics can possibly provide.
Same as: POLISCI 220C

POLISCI 320R. The Presidency. 3-5 Units.

This course provides students with a comprehensive perspective on the American presidency and covers a range of topics: elections, policy making, control of the bureaucracy, unilateral action, war-making, and much more. But throughout, the goal is to understand why presidents behave as they do, and why the presidency as an institution has developed as it has, with special attention to the dynamics of the American political system and how they condition incentives, opportunities, and power.
Same as: POLISCI 220R

POLISCI 322A. Advances in Political Psychology. 3-5 Units.

Among the topics: the comparative contributions of rational choice and political psychology; political information process; coordinating vs. inducing preferences; identities and values; and prejudice and politics.

POLISCI 323. Pivotal Moments in American Institutions and Public Law, 1781-Present. 5 Units.

(Same as Law 680) American lawyers and policymakers work today in a system of institutions that are strikingly unique in comparative and historical terms. With some exceptions, that system is characterized by relatively stable political and legal institutions, low levels of explicit corruption, high bureaucratic capacity in public organizations, and relatively open, impersonal access to political, policymaking, and legal institutions. Although these characteristics are now too often taken for granted, the process through which they emerged remains remarkably opaque. In the 1780s under the Articles of Confederation, the United States was a poor developing country on the fringe of the Atlantic community with limited capacity and a striking inability to provide basic public goods, such as security. One hundred years later, it well along the way to becoming the richest nation in the world. How did this transformation occur?nnnDrawing on judicial opinions, legal scholarship, political science, economics, and history, this course explores how institutions evolved to create such a system. It traces the problem of institutional development through several critical periods in the history of American public law, including the emergence of the Constitution, the events leading up to and following the Civil War, the Progressive era, World War II, 1964-75, and the emergence of the modern administrative state. Although the primarily focus is on the American experience, we place these developments in comparative context as well.

POLISCI 324L. The Psychology of Communication About Politics in America. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on how politicians and government learn what Americans want and how the public's preferences shape government action; how surveys measure beliefs, preferences, and experiences; how poll results are criticized and interpreted; how conflict between polls is viewed by the public; how accurate surveys are and when they are accurate; how to conduct survey research to produce accurate measurements; designing questionnaires that people can understand and use comfortably; how question wording can manipulate poll results; corruption in survey research.
Same as: COMM 164, COMM 264, POLISCI 124L, PSYCH 170

POLISCI 325L. Law and the New Political Economy. 3-5 Units.

(Same as LAW 7515) In this seminar, we consider key legal topics through the lens of political economy - that is, is the interplay among economics, law, and politics. This perspective has had a powerful and growing impact on how scholars and judges view the nature and scope of law and politics in the modern regulatory state. We look at a range of topics from this perspective, including: constitutional law, statutory interpretation, administrative law and regulation, and jurisprudence - all with an eye toward better understanding the dynamic interaction among law, politics, and social change. There are no prerequisites for this seminar. The final assignment will be a substantial research paper.
Same as: POLISCI 225L

POLISCI 326. Race and Racism in American Politics. 5 Units.

Topics include the historical conceptualization of race; whether and how racial animus reveals itself and the forms it might take; its role in the creation and maintenance of economic stratification; its effect on contemporary U.S. partisan and electoral politics; and policy making consequences.
Same as: AMSTUD 226, CSRE 226, POLISCI 226

POLISCI 326T. The Politics of Education. 3-5 Units.

America's public schools are government agencies, and virtually everything about them is subject to political authority--and thus to decision through the political process. This seminar is an effort to understand the politics of education and its impacts on the nation's schools. Our focus is on the modern era of reform, with special attention to the most prominent efforts to bring about fundamental change through accountability (including No Child Left Behind), school choice (charter schools, vouchers), pay for performance, and more and more to the politics of blocking that has made genuine reform so difficult to achieve.
Same as: POLISCI 226T

POLISCI 327. Minority Behavior and Representation. 5 Units.

Politics of minorities in the U.S. Topics include: historic and contemporary struggles of Latinos, African Americans, and gays and lesbians for political power and social acceptance; group-level public opinion and electoral behavior; scholarship on group influence in the policy making process and policy issues of importance; and the jurisprudence shaping minority political access and civil rights.

POLISCI 327C. Law of Democracy. 3-5 Units.

Combined with LAW 7036 (formerly Law 577). This course is intended to give students a basic understanding of the themes in the legal regulation of elections and politics. We will cover all the major Supreme Court cases on topics of voting rights, reapportionment/redistricting, ballot access, regulation of political parties, campaign finance, and the 2000 presidential election controversy. The course pays particular attention to competing political philosophies and empirical assumptions that underlie the Court's reasoning while still focusing on the cases as litigation tools used to serve political ends. Elements used in grading: Class participation and one day take home final exam. (POLISCI 327C; LAW 577).
Same as: COMM 361

POLISCI 329. Directed Reading and Research in American Politics. 1-10 Unit.

For PhD students. Directed reading in Political Science with a focus on American politics. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 330A. Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought. 3-5 Units.

Political philosophy in classical antiquity, centered on reading canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle against other texts and against the political and historical background. Topics include: interdependence, legitimacy, justice; political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; law, civic strife, and constitutional change.
Same as: CLASSICS 181, CLASSICS 381, ETHICSOC 130A, PHIL 176A, PHIL 276A, POLISCI 230A

POLISCI 331. High-Stakes Politics: Case Studies in Political Philosophy, Institutions, and Interests. 3-5 Units.

Normative political theory combined with positive political theory to better explain how major texts may have responded to and influenced changes in formal and informal institutions. Emphasis is on historical periods in which catastrophic institutional failure was a recent memory or a realistic possibility. Case studies include Greek city-states in the classical period and the northern Atlantic community of the 17th and 18th centuries including upheavals in England and the American Revolutionary era.
Same as: CLASSICS 382, POLISCI 231

POLISCI 332T. The Dialogue of Democracy. 4 Units.

All forms of democracy require some kind of communication so people can be aware of issues and make decisions. This course looks at competing visions of what democracy should be and different notions of the role of dialogue in a democracy. Is it just campaigning or does it include deliberation? Small scale discussions or sound bites on television? Or social media? What is the role of technology in changing our democratic practices, to mobilize, to persuade, to solve public problems? This course will include readings from political theory about democratic ideals - from the American founders to J.S. Mill and the Progressives to Joseph Schumpeter and modern writers skeptical of the public will. It will also include contemporary examinations of the media and the internet to see how those practices are changing and how the ideals can or cannot be realized.
Same as: AMSTUD 137, COMM 137W, COMM 237, POLISCI 232T

POLISCI 333. Social Agency. 2-4 Units.

Humans are agents who live in a social world. Philosophical reflection on human agency needs to include reflection both on the agency of individual human agents and on forms of social agency that involve multiple individuals. This seminar will focus on aspects of the latter.nnWhat is it for multiple individuals to think and to act together -- to engage in shared intentional/shared cooperative activity? to deliberate together? to engage in what some have called team reasoning? What kinds of social agency are characteristic of larger social organizations or groups? What would it be for larger groups themselves to be agents, ones who have their own distinctive intentions on the basis of which they act? What is the relation between these larger forms of social agency and small-scale shared cooperative activity? In all these cases how do we best understand what we are talking about when we speak of what we intend or believe and of what we are doing? Readings to be drawn from recent work of Michael Bratman, Margaret Gilbert, Christian List, Kirk Ludwig, Philip Pettit, John Searle, Scott Shapiro, and others, as well as classic work of H.L.A. Hart.nnPrerequisite: graduate standing in Philosophy or permission of instructor. 2 unit option for PhD students only; all others must enroll for 4 units.
Same as: PHIL 377

POLISCI 333M. Research and Methods in Political Theory. 3-5 Units.

This seminar has two aims. First, we examine the methodological approaches of scholars working within political theory as well as those working at the intersection of political theory and empirical social science. Second, we discuss in an informal workshop setting the ongoing work of graduate students, considering how, if at all, the readings on methodology could inform this work.

POLISCI 333S. Marx. 2-4 Units.

This course examines the works of a thinker who radically transformed the ways that we think about modern society. Marx saw fundamental problems with capitalist societies, including: un-freedom, alienation, inequality, and bureaucratization. He developed a theory to account for these problems. Our task will be to read his works critically and to evaluate their contributions to our understanding the relationship between politics, social structure, knowledge and human agency. We will also be especially interested in comparing his view with alternative diagnoses of the problems of modern capitalist societies, especially those of Max Weber and John Rawls.
Same as: PHIL 339

POLISCI 334. Philanthropy and Civil Society. 1-3 Unit.

Cross-listed with Law (LAW 7071), Political Science (POLISCI 334) and Sociology (SOC 374). Associated with the Center for Philanthropy and Civil Society (PACS). Year-long workshop for doctoral students and advanced undergraduates writing senior theses on the nature of civil society or philanthropy. Focus is on pursuit of progressive research and writing contributing to the current scholarly knowledge of the nonprofit sector and philanthropy. Accomplished in a large part through peer review. Readings include recent scholarship in aforementioned fields. May be repeated for credit for a maximum of 3 units.
Same as: EDUC 374, SOC 374

POLISCI 334P. Deliberative Democracy and its Critics. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the theory and practice of deliberative democracy and engages both in a dialogue with critics. Can a democracy which emphasizes people thinking and talking together on the basis of good information be made practical in the modern age? What kinds of distortions arise when people try to discuss politics or policy together? The course draws on ideas of deliberation from Madison and Mill to Rawls and Habermas as well as criticisms from the jury literature, from the psychology of group processes and from the most recent normative and empirical literature on deliberative forums. Deliberative Polling, its applications, defenders and critics, both normative and empirical, will provide a key case for discussion.
Same as: AMSTUD 135, COMM 135, COMM 235, COMM 335, ETHICSOC 135F, POLISCI 234P

POLISCI 335A. Adam Smith: From Moral Philosophy to Political Economy. 3-5 Units.

This course is designed for graduate students and advanced undergraduates interested in moral philosophy or modern political economy. The course blends two approaches to Adam Smith. We use political thought and intellectual history to introduce students to the intellectual roots of ¿classical Liberalism¿; asking: What are the moral psychological foundations of justice?, Does the free market make everyone, including the least advantaged, better off? How do we sustain a good society? We use social science to study Smith¿s integrated approach to human cooperation in three realms, society, politics, and markets; asking: ¿Why isn¿t the entire world developed? How did Europe develop out of feudalism? How does a community sustain moral behavior? The two perspectives allow us to discover that Smith has ideas on these subjects that expand today¿s frontiers of both positive and normative social science.

POLISCI 336. Introduction to Global Justice. 4 Units.

This course explores the normative demands and definitions of justice that transcend the nation-state and its borders, through the lenses of political justice, economic justice, and human rights. What are our duties (if any) towards those who live in other countries? Should we be held morally responsible for their suffering? What if we have contributed to it? Should we be asked to remedy it? At what cost? These are some of the questions driving the course. Although rooted in political theory and philosophy, the course will examine contemporary problems that have been addressed by other scholarly disciplines, public debates, and popular media, such as immigration and open borders, climate change refugees, and the morality of global capitalism (from exploitative labor to blood diamonds). As such, readings will combine canonical pieces of political theory and philosophy with readings from other scholarly disciplines, newspaper articles, and popular media.
Same as: ETHICSOC 136R, INTNLREL 136R, PHIL 76, POLISCI 136R

POLISCI 336S. Justice. 4-5 Units.

In this course, we explore three sets of questions relating to justice and the meaning of a just society: (1) Liberty: What is liberty, and why is it important? Which liberties must a just society protect? (2) Equality: What is equality, and why is it important? What sorts of equality should a just society ensure? (3) Reconciliation: Are liberty and equality in conflict? If so, how should we respond to the conflict between them? We approach these topics by examining competing theories of justice including utilitarianism, libertarianism/classical liberalism, and egalitarian liberalism. The class also serves as an introduction to how to do political philosophy, and students approaching these topics for the first time are welcome. Political Science majors taking this course to fulfill the WIM requirement should enroll in POLISCI 103.
Same as: ETHICSOC 171, PHIL 171, POLISCI 103, PUBLPOL 103C, PUBLPOL 307

POLISCI 337A. Political Philosophy: The Social Contract Tradition. 4 Units.

(Graduate students register for 276.) Why and under what conditions do human beings need political institutions? What makes them legitimate or illegitimate? What is the nature, source, and extent of the obligation to obey the legitimate ones, and how should people alter or overthrow the others? Study of the answers given to such questions by major political theorists of the early modern period: Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Kant.
Same as: ETHICSOC 176, PHIL 176, PHIL 276, POLISCI 137A

POLISCI 337L. Ancient Greek Law and Justice. 3-5 Units.

The development and practice of law and legal procedure in the ancient Greek world, emphasizing the well documented case of classical Athens. Constitutional, criminal, and civil law, approached through analysis of actual laws and speeches by litigants in Athenian courtrooms. Review of a growing scholarship juxtaposing Greek law to other prominent legal traditions and exploring the role of law in Greek social relations, economics, and literature, and its relationship to Greek conceptions of justice.
Same as: CLASSICS 378

POLISCI 338. Universal Basic Income: the philosophy behind the proposal. 3 Units.

Universal basic income (or UBI) is a regular cash allowance given to all members of a community without means test, regardless of personal desert, and with no strings attached. Once a utopian proposal, the policy is now discussed and piloted throughout the world. The growth of income and wealth inequalities, the precariousness of labor, and the persistence of abject poverty have all been important drivers of renewed interest in UBI in the United States. But it is without a doubt the fear that automation may displace workers from the labor market at unprecedented rates that explains the revival of the policy in recent years, including by many in or around Silicon Valley. Among the various objections to the proposal, one concerns its moral adequacy: Isn't it fundamentally unjust to give cash to all indiscriminately rather than to those who need it and deserve it? Over the years, a variety of scholars have defended the policy on moral grounds, arguing that UBI is a tool of equality, liberal freedom, republican freedom, gender equity, or racial equity. Many others have attacked UBI on those very same grounds, making the case that alternative policy proposals like the job guarantee, means-tested benefits, conditional benefits, or reparations should be preferred. Students will learn a great deal about political theory and ethics in general but always through the specific angle of the policy proposal, and they will become experts on the philosophy, politics and economics of UBI. The seminar is open to undergraduate and graduate students in all departments. There are no pre-requisites.
Same as: ETHICSOC 174B, ETHICSOC 274B, PHIL 174B, PHIL 274B, POLISCI 134E

POLISCI 338B. Unequal Relationships. 2-4 Units.

Over the past three decades, a relational egalitarian conception of equality has emerged in political philosophy. Proponents of the view argue that the point of equality is to establish communities where people are able to stand and relate as equals. This entails building societies free from a variety of modes of relating that are thought to be detrimental to our status as moral equals. The list of those inegalitarian relationships is long and includes oppression, domination, exploitation, marginalization, objectification, demonization, infantilization, and stigmatization. The relational approach to equality departs from the more distributive conceptions of equality that were offered in the 70s and after. The theories of justice proposed in response are still comparatively underdeveloped and need further elaboration, but they all concur in rejecting both the overly distributive paradigm and the preoccupation with individual responsibility central to most other egalitarian accounts. This graduate seminar will introduce students to the rich literature on equality in contemporary political philosophy, with a special focus on identifying and scrutinizing unequal relationships. Each week will be centered on a specific type of such unequal relationship, trying to understand how it operates, what social function it serves, and what makes it specifically harmful or wrongful to groups and individuals. Although there are no formal pre-requisites, this class is primarily designed for students considering writing a thesis in political or moral theory as well as for students in other disciplines who want to advance their understanding of equality as a moral value. Seniors in philosophy and political science with a substantial training in political theory will also be considered and should email the PI to communicate their interest. 2 unit option only for Phil PhDs beyond the second year.
Same as: ETHICSOC 378B, PHIL 378B

POLISCI 339. Directed Reading and Research in Political Theory. 1-5 Unit.

For PhD students. Directed reading in Political Science with a focus on political theory. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 340A. Democratic Politics. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the relationship between democratic ideals and contemporary democratic politics.
Same as: POLISCI 240A

POLISCI 342. Foreign Policy Decision Making in Comparative Perspective. 3 Units.

This seminar will examine how countries and multilateral organizations make decisions about foreign and international policy. The hypothesis to be explored in the course is that individuals, bureaucracies, and interest groups shape foreign policy decisions. That hypothesis will be tested against other more structural explanations of how countries behave in the international system. After a brief review of the academic literature in the first part of the course, the seminar will focus on several cases studies of foreign policy decision-making by the United States, China, Russia, Iran, and North Korea, as well as the United Nations and NATO. This seminar is intended for masters students and fourth-year undergraduates. NOTE: The enrollment of the class is by application only. Please send a one page document to Mahlorei Bruce Apalis, mahlorei@stanford.edu by March 10th with the following information: full name, class year, major, contact email, which version of the course you want to enroll in (e.g., POLISCI or INTLPOL). In the document please also outline previous associated coursework and/or relevant experience and write why you want to enroll in the seminar. Application results will be announced on March 22nd. Any questions related to this course can be directed to Mahlorei Bruce Apalis.
Same as: INTLPOL 232, POLISCI 242

POLISCI 343A. Field Methods. 3-5 Units.

Familiarizes students with a variety of field methods potentially applicable to ongoing research projects and dissertations. Topics include case selection, process tracing, participant observation, interviewing, archival research, survey design, labnexperiments, field experiments, and ethical concerns in the field. Students develop a field research strategy as a final project. Prerequisites: 440A,B,C.

POLISCI 344. Politics and Geography. 3-5 Units.

The role of geography in topics in political economy, including development, political representation, voting, redistribution, regional autonomy movements, fiscal competition, and federalism.

POLISCI 344U. Political Culture. 3-5 Units.

The implications of social norms, preferences and beliefs for political and economic behavior and societal outcomes.
Same as: POLISCI 244U

POLISCI 347A. Games Developing Nations Play. 3-5 Units.

If, as economists argue, development can make everyone in a society better off, why do leaders fail to pursue policies that promote development? The course uses game theoretic approaches from both economics and political science to address this question. Incentive problems are at the heart of explanations for development failure. Specifically, the course focuses on a series of questions central to the development problem: Why do developing countries have weak and often counterproductive political institutions? Why is violence (civil wars, ethnic conflict, military coups) so prevalent in the developing world, and how does it interact with development? Why do developing economies fail to generate high levels of income and wealth? We study how various kinds of development traps arise, preventing development for most countries. We also explain how some countries have overcome such traps. This approach emphasizes the importance of simultaneous economic and political development as two different facets of the same developmental process. No background in game theory is required.
Same as: ECON 162, POLISCI 247A

POLISCI 347G. Governance and Poverty. 3-5 Units.

Poverty relief requires active government involvement in the provision of public services such as drinking water, healthcare, sanitation, education, roads, electricity and public safety. Failure to deliver public services is a major impediment to the alleviation of poverty in the developing world. This course will use an interdisciplinary approach to examining these issues, bringing together readings from across the disciplines of political science, economics, law, medicine and education to increase understanding of the complex causal linkages between political institutions, the quality of governance, and the capacity of developing societies to meet basic human needs. Conceived in a broadly comparative international perspective, the course will examine cross-national and field-based research projects, with a particular focus on Latin America and Mexico.

POLISCI 348. Chinese Politics. 3-5 Units.

China, one of the few remaining communist states in the world, has not only survived, but has become a global political actor of consequence with the fastest growing economy in the world. What explains China's authoritarian resilience? Why has the CCP thrived while other communist regimes have failed? How has the Chinese Communist Party managed to develop markets and yet keep itself in power? What avenues are there for political participation? How does censorship work in the information and 'connected' age of social media? What are the prospects for political change? How resilient is the part in the fave of technological and economic change? Materials will include readings, lectures, and selected films. This course has no prerequisites. (Graduate students register for 348.).
Same as: POLISCI 148

POLISCI 348A. Politics and Institutions in Latin America. 3-5 Units.

The broad academic purpose of the course is to evaluate presidential democracies in Latin America and their impacts on the politics in this region. The goal is to give students an introduction to the main debates on political institutions in the Latin American region and help them identify issues for future research.
Same as: POLISCI 248A

POLISCI 348S. Latin American Politics. 3-5 Units.

Fundamental transformations in Latin America in the last two decades: why most governments are now democratic or semidemocratic; and economic transformation as countries abandoned import substitution industrialization policies led by state intervention for neoliberal economic polices. The nature of this dual transformation.
Same as: POLISCI 248S

POLISCI 349. Directed Reading and Research in Comparative Politics. 1-10 Unit.

For PhD students. Directed reading in Political Science with a focus on comparative politics. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 351A. Foundations of Political Economy. 3 Units.

Introduction to political economy with an emphasis on formal models of collective choice, public institutions, and political competition. Topics include voting theory, social choice, institutional equilibria, agenda setting, interest group politics, bureaucratic behavior, and electoral competition.

POLISCI 351B. Economic Analysis of Political Institutions. 4 Units.

Applying techniques such as information economics, games of incomplete information, sequential bargaining theory, repeated games, and rational expectations of microeconomic analysis and game theory to political behavior and institutions. Applicatoins include agenda formation in legislatures, government formation in parliamentary systems, the implications of legislative structure, elections and information aggregation, lobbying, electoral competition and interest groups, the control of bureaucracies, interest group competition, and collective choice rules.

POLISCI 351C. Institutions and Bridge-Building in Political Economy. 4 Units.

This course critically surveys empirical applications of formal models of collective-choice institutions. It is explicitly grounded in philosophy of science (e.g., Popperian positivism and Kuhn's notions of paradigms and normal science). Initial sessions address the meanings and roles of the concept of institutions in social-science research. Historically important works of political science and/or economics are then considered within a framework called Components of Institutional Analysis (or CIA), which provides a fully general way of evaluating research that is jointly empirical and formal theoretical. The course concludes with contemporary instances of such bridge-building. The over-arching objectives are to elevate the explicitness and salience of desirable properties of research and to illustrate the inescapable tradeoffs among the stipulated criteria. nAlthough this is a core course in the GSB Political Economy PhD curriculum, its substantive foci may differ across years depending on the instructor. For Professor Krehbiel's sessions, the emphasis is on legislative behavior, organization, and lawmaking, and on inter-institutional strategic interaction (e,g, between executive, legislative, and judicial branches in various combinations). nStudents should have taken POLECON 680 and POLECON 681. Also listed as Political Science 351C.

POLISCI 352. Introduction to Game Theoretic Methods in Political Science. 3-5 Units.

Concepts and tools of non-cooperative game theory developed using political science questions and applications. Formal treatment of Hobbes' theory of the state and major criticisms of it; examples from international politics. Primarily for graduate students; undergraduates admitted with consent of instructor.
Same as: POLISCI 152

POLISCI 353A. Workshop in Political Methodology. 1-2 Unit.

Mathematical and statistical models and applications to political science. Guest speakers, faculty, and students present research papers. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 353B. Workshop in Political Methodology. 1-2 Unit.

Continuation of POLISCI 353A. Mathematical and statistical models and applications to political science. Guest speakers, faculty, and students present research papers. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 353C. Workshop in Political Methodology. 1-2 Unit.

Continuation of POLISCI 353B. Mathematical and statistical models and applications to political science. Guest speakers, faculty, and students present research papers. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 354. Thinking Strategically. 5 Units.

This course provides an introduction to strategic reasoning. We discuss ideas such as the commitment problem, credibility in signaling, cheap talk, moral hazard and adverse selection. Concepts are developed through games played in class, and applied to politics, business and everyday life.
Same as: POLISCI 153

POLISCI 355A. Data Science for Politics. 5 Units.

Data science is quickly changing the way we understand and and engage in the political process. In this course we will develop fundamental techniques of data science and apply them to large political datasets on elections, campaign finance, lobbying, and more. The objective is to give students the skills to carry out cutting edge quantitative political studies in both academia and the private sector. Students with technical backgrounds looking to study politics quantitatively are encouraged to enroll.
Same as: POLISCI 150A

POLISCI 355B. Machine Learning for Social Scientists. 5 Units.

Machine learning - the use of algorithms to classify, predict, sort, learn and discover from data - has exploded in use across academic fields, industry, government, and the non-profit sector. This course provides an introduction to machine learning for social scientists. We will introduce state of the art machine learning tools, show how to use those tools in the programming language R, and demonstrate why a social science focus is essential to effectively apply machine learning techniques in social, political, and policy contexts. Applications of the methods will include forecasting social phenomena, evaluating the use of algorithms in public policy, and the analysis of social media and text data. Prerequisite: POLISCI 150A/355A.
Same as: POLISCI 150B

POLISCI 355C. Causal Inference for Social Science. 5 Units.

Causal inference methods have revolutionized the way we use data, statistics, and research design to move from correlation to causation and rigorously learn about the impact of some potential cause (e.g., a new policy or intervention) on some outcome (e.g., election results, levels of violence, poverty). This course provides an introduction that teaches students the toolkit of modern causal inference methods as they are now widely used across academic fields, government, industry, and non-profits. Topics include experiments, matching, regression, sensitivity analysis, difference-in-differences, panel methods, instrumental variable estimation, and regression discontinuity designs. We will illustrate and apply the methods with examples drawn from various fields including policy evaluation, political science, public health, economics, business, and sociology. Prerequisite: POLISCI 150A.
Same as: POLISCI 150C

POLISCI 356A. Formal Theory I: Game Theory for Political Science. 3-5 Units.

An introduction to noncooperative game theory through applications in political science. Topics will include the Hotelling-Downs model, the probabilistic voting model, political bargaining models and political agency models, among others.

POLISCI 356B. Formal Theory II: Models of Politics. 3-5 Units.

A continuation of Formal Theory I covering advanced topics, including classical political economy, comparative institutions, theories of conflict and cooperation, dynamic political economy, and the new behavioral political economy.

POLISCI 357. Sampling and Surveys. 5 Units.

The importance of sample surveys as a source of social science data including public opinion, voting, welfare programs, health, employment, and consumer behavior. Survey design, sampling theory, and estimation. Nonresponse, self-selection, measurement error, and web survey methods. Prerequisite: 350B or equivalent.

POLISCI 358. Data-driven Politics. 3-5 Units.

Covers advanced computational and statistical methods for collecting and modeling large-scale data on politics. Topics will include automated and computer-assisted methods for collecting, disambiguating, and merging unstructured data (web-scraping, identity resolution, and record-linkage), database management (SQL, data architecture), data-reduction techniques for measuring the political preferences for large numbers of individuals, topic models applied to political text/speech, and social network analysis for mapping relationships and identifying influential actors.

POLISCI 359. Advanced Individual Study in Political Methodology. 1-10 Unit.

For PhD students. Directed reading in Political Science with a focus on political methodology. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 362. New Economics of Organization. 5 Units.

Survey of economic approaches to organization, emphasizing theory and application, with attention to politics.

POLISCI 400. Dissertation. 1-18 Unit.

Pre-TGR dissertation research. Open to Poli Sci PhD students who have advanced to candidacy.

POLISCI 400C. Research Design. 5 Units.

This course is a research design practicum. Students are required to propose a research question that speaks to a consequential political issue, and one which can be successfully addressed relying on disciplinary tools. Over the quarter, they will be guided through the elements of research design (narrative, theory, and statistics). The final product will be a project description of the form demanded by the National Science Foundation for its research proposals. Required of all Political Science PhD students. Those not in the Ph.D. program in political science must get consent from the instructor to enroll.

POLISCI 40SI. Rejecting Tyranny: Civil Resistance in Times of Crisis. 1 Unit.

Donald Trump's rise to power was anything but conventional. Although divisive among both Democrats and Republicans, he was still popular enough in the eyes of the electorate to become the leader of the free world. Is he a hero? Is he a dictator? Or something different altogether? As Trump often elicits comparisons to famous and infamous leaders of the past such as Hitler, Mussolini, and FDR, as well as right wing nationalists leaders in the present day such as Duterte and Le Pen, this class will examine the extent to which Trump's behavior resembles these authority figures and what our society should do to respond. Learning will be facilitated through discussion sections and guest professors from various Stanford departments including History, Political Science, and the Hoover Institution. Views from all sides of the political spectrum are welcome. Note: this class does not begin until the Tuesday of the second week of Spring quarter (Apr 11). Enrollment will be decided on the first day of class.

POLISCI 410A. International Relations Theory, Part I. 3-5 Units.

This course offers a PhD-level introductory overview of the field of international relations. The primary purpose is to understand and evaluate the main theories, arguments, claims, and conjectures made by scholars in the field so as to enable students to situate arguments in the conceptual structure and intellectual history of IR theory.

POLISCI 410B. International Relations Theory, Part II. 3-5 Units.

Second of a three-part graduate sequence. Security and armed conflict, both interstate and civil war. Nuclear weapons, terrorism, political economy of defense, and related topics. Prerequisite: POLISCI 410A.

POLISCI 410C. International Relations Theory, Part III. 3-5 Units.

Third of a three-part graduate sequence. History of international relations theory, current debates, and applications to problems of international security and political economy. Prerequisite: POLISCI 410A.

POLISCI 410D. Research in International Relations. 3-5 Units.

Part of the graduate sequence in international relations. Focus is on developing research papers and exploring active areas of research in the field. Prerequisites: POLISCI 410A and 410B. 410C should be taken before or concurrently.

POLISCI 411A. Workshop in International Relations. 1-2 Unit.

For graduate students. Contemporary work. Organized around presentation of research by students and outside scholars. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 411B. Workshop in International Relations. 1-2 Unit.

For graduate students. Contemporary work. Organized around presentation of research by students and outside scholars. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 411C. Workshop in International Relations. 1-2 Unit.

For graduate students. Contemporary work. Organized around presentation of research by students and outside scholars. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 412. The Politics and Economics of Modern Europe. 3-5 Units.

What are the implications of European integration for social and economic policy and outcomes? In this course, we will examine how EU membership has altered the democratic politics of Europe, with a special focus on policymaking during Europe's most recent financial crisis.

POLISCI 420A. American Political Institutions. 3-5 Units.

Theories of American politics, focusing on Congress, the presidency, the bureaucracy, and the courts.

POLISCI 420B. Topics in American Political Behavior. 3-5 Units.

For graduate students with background in American politics embarking on their own research. Current research in American politics, emphasizing political behavior and public opinion. Possible topics: uncertainty and ambivalence in political attitudes, heterogeneity in public opinion, the structure of American political ideology, political learning, the media as a determinant of public opinion, and links between public opinion and public policy.

POLISCI 420C. Discovery in American Politics. 5 Units.

What are the facts being generated in the study of American politics, and how are these discoveries being made? Emphasis on strengths and limitationsnof emerging methodologies and review of the substantive contributions they yield. Student-led replication of extant research and development of originalnresearch ideas a key component of the course. Prerequisites: POLISCI 420A, POLISCI 420B.

POLISCI 421K. Questionnaire Design for Surveys and Laboratory Experiments: Social and Cognitive Perspectives. 4 Units.

The social and psychological processes involved in asking and answering questions via questionnaires for the social sciences; optimizing questionnaire design; open versus closed questions; rating versus ranking; rating scale length and point labeling; acquiescence response bias; don't-know response options; response choice order effects; question order effects; social desirability response bias; attitude and behavior recall; and introspective accounts of the causes of thoughts and actions.
Same as: COMM 339, PSYCH 231

POLISCI 421R. American Political Development, 1865-present. 3-5 Units.

In this reading-intensive course, we will conduct a wide-ranging survey of major transformations in the American political system in the post-Civil War period. Our inquiries about these transformations will focus on the origins of the modern administrative state, the interactive role of the state and social movements, and changes in the party system. We¿ll examine these developments not only to understand institutional change, but to learn how changing institutions have shaped the behavior of the American electorate.
Same as: POLISCI 221A

POLISCI 422. Workshop in American Politics. 1-2 Unit.

Research seminar. Frontiers in mass political behavior. Course may be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 422F. Seminar on Electoral Change. 3-5 Units.

This seminar will examine contemporary American and European public opinion and elections using a variety of databases, several of which have become newly available to scholars this decade (eg. YouGov/Polimetrix, ongoing FSI-Hoover Comparative Surveys). Department faculty will present research and some visitors will appear. Students will be expected to complete a significant research paper.

POLISCI 423A. The Laboratory of the Study of American Values. 1-5 Unit.

Designed for graduate students who are writing dissertations about American public opinion. Students participate in all phases of the research process and include questions on nationally representative surveys. Enrollment requires permission of the instructors. See the Notes for additional information.

POLISCI 423B. The Laboratory of the Study of American Values II. 1-5 Unit.

Designed for graduate students who are writing dissertations about American public opinion. Students participate in all phases of the research process and include questions on nationally representative surveys. Enrollment is limited to members of the Laboratory for the Study of American Values.

POLISCI 423C. The Laboratory of the Study of American Values III. 1-5 Unit.

Designed for graduate students who are writing dissertations about American public opinion. Students participate in all phases of the research process and include questions on nationally representative surveys. Enrollment is limited to members of the Laboratory for the Study of American Values.

POLISCI 424A. Democratic Elections. 3-5 Units.

How do democratic elections work? Do elections make representatives accountable, and if so, under what conditions? What preferences do electorates reveal to us when they choose candidates for office, and how do candidates and representatives respond to these preferences? What external factors change the dynamics between candidates and electorates?n n In this class we will study the functioning of democratic elections, mainly in the context of legislative elections. Because this is an elections course, the unit of analysis will be the constituency or the candidate rather than the individual voter, as it might be in a behavior course. We want to understand how candidates make it to office¿i.e., the aggregated choices of many voters¿and how the prospect of reelection shapes their behavior in office.

POLISCI 425. Political Communication. 3-5 Units.

An overview of research in political communication with particular reference to work on the impact of the mass media on public opinion and voting behavior. Limited to Ph.D. students.
Same as: COMM 360G

POLISCI 425S. Topics in Political Communication: Media Bias, Selective Exposure, and Political Polarization. 1-5 Unit.

This course surveys theories of media bias, biased processing of information, and the empirical challenges facing researchers attempting to link changes in the composition of audiences to attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. (Limited to PhD students).
Same as: COMM 362

POLISCI 426. Identity Politics. 3-5 Units.

Whether one considers the partisan and electoral choices citizens make or the judgements citizens render in response to officer-involved shootings or other salient social and political events, the centrality of identity in our politics is indisputable. But what is an identity? What are the conditions under which identities become politicized? How do identities work to structure attitudes and affect behavior? This course is all about identity and its intersection with politics. Taking an interdisciplinary and cross-subfield approach, this course seeks to bring students into conversation with scholarship that demonstrates the powerful ways that identities influence all aspects of the political. Though much of our time will be spent reading about race and racial identification in the context of American politics, students will be encouraged to think critically and creatively about identity as it relates to their own intellectual interests. In addition to being active and engaged seminar participants, students will be required to submit a final research paper that uses concepts, themes, and ideas from the course to explore a research question of their choosing.

POLISCI 426S. Theories of Racism in American Politics: A Critique. 0 Units.

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POLISCI 427C. Money in Politics. 5 Units.

This course will cover campaign finance, lobbying, and interest group politics.
Same as: POLISCI 227C

POLISCI 427R. Race and Racism in American Politics. 5 Units.

Topics include the historical conceptualization of race; whether and how racial animus reveals itself and the forms it might take; its role in the creation and maintenance of economic stratification; its effect on contemporary U.S. partisan and electoral politics; and policy making consequences.

POLISCI 428. Political Economy and Political Behavior. 4 Units.

[Same as POLECON 677] This seminar will expose students to cutting-edge research in political behavior and political economy published in the leading political science (and other social science) journals. The aim is for students to learn the contemporary literature so that they can be producers of research. To that end, the required assignments in the class will be aimed at professional development: writing an original research note, writing a review, and delivering a scholarly presentation.

POLISCI 428C. Law and Politics of Bureaucracy. 3-5 Units.

Same as Law 7096. Modern government is bureaucratic government. In the words of Justice Jackson, the rise of the administrative state is likely "the most significant legal trend of the last century and perhaps more values today are affected by [agency] decisions than by those of all the courts." This seminar will survey the major ways in which law and political science have grappled with bureaucratic governance. How do we understand the rise of the administrative state? Why are bureaucracies designed the way they are? How do bureaucracies work in the face of legal and political constraints? And what avenues are there for meaningful regulatory reform? The class is cross-listed in Political Science and the Law School and course enrollment will be by consent of instructor. Students will be responsible for writing short reflection papers and a research paper.
Same as: POLISCI 228C

POLISCI 42Q. The Rwandan Genocide. 5 Units.

Between April and July of 1994 more than 800,000 Rwandans, mostly Tutsi but also moderate Hutus, were killed in the most rapid genocide the world has ever known. The percentage of Rwandans killed in a single day of the genocide was ten times greater than the percentage of Americans killed in the entire Vietnam war. What could bring humans to plan and carry out such an orgy of violence? Could it have been prevented? Why did the United States or any other major power not intervene to stop the killing? To what extent should the United Nations be held accountable for the failure to end the genocide? What were the consequences of the genocide for the region of Central Africa? How did international actors respond to the challenges of reconstructing Rwanda after the killings? What has happened to the perpetrators of the genocide? This course surveys scholarly and journalistic accounts of the genocide to seek answers to these questions.nnThis seminar will be residence based in Crothers, but will be open to Crothers residents and non-residents.

POLISCI 430. Origins of Political Thought. 3-5 Units.

Political philosophy in classical antiquity, focusing on canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. Historical background. Topics include: political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; and law, civic strife, and constitutional change. This course is open to PhD students only. Non-PhD students should enroll in POLISCI 230A/330A (also listed as CLASSICS 181/381, PHIL 176A/276A) Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought.
Same as: CLASSICS 390, PHIL 276D

POLISCI 430A. Ancient Greek Economic Development. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 330A.) Drawing on Herodotus and other literary sources, ancient historians have traditionally seen classical Greece as a very poor land. Recent research, however (much of it conducted here at Stanford), suggests that Greece in fact saw substantial economic growth and rising standards of living across the first millennium BCE. This seminar tests the poor Hellas/wealthy Hellas models against literary and archaeological data. We will develop and test hypotheses to explain the rate and pace of economic change in the Greek world.
Same as: CLASSICS 384A

POLISCI 430B. Ancient Greek Economic Development. 1-5 Unit.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 330B.) Drawing on Herodotus and other literary sources, ancient historians have traditionally seen classical Greece as a very poor land. Recent research, however (much of it conducted here at Stanford), suggests that Greece in fact saw substantial economic growth and rising standards of living across the first millennium BCE. This seminar tests the poor Hellas/wealthy Hellas models against literary and archaeological data. We will develop and test hypotheses to explain the rate and pace of economic change in the Greek world.
Same as: CLASSICS 384B

POLISCI 431L. INEQUALITY: Economic and Philosophical Perspectives. 5 Units.

The nature of and problem of inequality is central to both economics and philosophy. Economists study the causes of inequality, design tools to measure it and track it over time, and examine its consequences. Philosophers are centrally concerned with the justification of inequality and the reasons why various types of inequality are or are not objectionable.nIn this class we bring both of these approaches together. Our class explores the different meanings of and measurements for understanding inequality, our best understandings of how much inequality there is, its causes, its consequences, and whether we ought to reduce it, and if so, how. nThis is an interdisciplinary graduate seminar. We propose some familiarity with basic ideas in economics and basic ideas in contemporary political philosophy; we will explain and learn about more complex ideas as we proceed. The class will be capped at 20 students.
Same as: ETHICSOC 371R, PHIL 371D

POLISCI 432R. Selections in Modern Political Thought. 3-5 Units.

This graduate-level seminar explores selections from the canon of Western political thought from the late fifteenth through nineteenth centuries. Throughout the course, we will engage in close textual readings of individual thinkers and consider some of the larger questions raised by political modernity. This offering of the course will focus on the three modern social contract thinkers: Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Same as: ETHICSOC 432X

POLISCI 433. Workshop in Political Theory. 1-2 Unit.

For graduate students. Faculty, guest speakers, and graduate students conducting research in political theory present works-in-progress. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 434A. Ethics, Economics and the Market. 4 Units.

Economic analysis inevitably raises moral questions. Getting clear on those moral questions, and the competing answers to them, can help improve both economic analysis and our understanding of the values involved in alternative social policies. This course focuses on a central economic institution: the market. How have the benefits and costs of using markets been understood? For example, it is often claimed that markets are good for welfare, but how is welfare to be understood? What is the connection between markets and different values such as equality and autonomy? What, if anything is wrong with markets in everything? Are there moral considerations that allow us to, distinguish different markets? This course examines competing answers to these questions, drawing on historical and contemporary literature. Readings include Adam Smith, JS Mill, Karl Marx, Michael Walzer, Dan Hausman and Michael McPherson and Debra Satz among others. For graduate students only.
Same as: ETHICSOC 303R, PHIL 375

POLISCI 435R. Political Realism. 3-5 Units.

This seminar will explore various articulations of political realism in their historical contexts. Realism is generally taken to be a pragmatic approach to a political world marked by the competition for material interests and the struggle for power. Yet beyond a shared critique of idealism and an insistence on the priority and autonomy of the political, realists tend to have very different normative visions and political projects. We will consider the works of several political realists from the history of political and international relations thought, including: Thucydides, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Carr, Niebuhr, and Morgenthau.
Same as: PHIL 372R

POLISCI 436R. Amartya Sen's capability theory. 2-4 Units.

Amartya Sen's pioneering work attempts to open up economics to missing informational and evaluative dimensions. This seminar will explore Sen's "capability approach" and its implications for the study of economics, gender, and justice. It will look at different ways that the capability approach has been developed, in particular, by Martha Nussbaum, but also by other political philosophers.
Same as: PHIL 378

POLISCI 437. Autonomy. 5 Units.

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POLISCI 437C. 20th Century and Contemporary Political Theory. 3-5 Units.

This course provides a survey of some of the major contributions to political thought in the past century. The course will place special emphasis on the development of theories of political authority and legitimacy in the context of the modern bureaucratic state, as well as the connection between authority and other key concepts in normative political authority: democracy, justice, and freedom.

POLISCI 438R. The Greeks and the Rational: Deliberation, Strategy, and Choice in Ancient Greek Political Thought. 3-5 Units.

The course explores the role of practical reasoning (instrumental rationality) in the ethical-political works of e.g. Plato and Aristotle, in the historical-political projects of e.g. Herodotus and Thucydides, and in the design of classical Greek institutions. We ask to what degree ancient Greeks shared intuitions concerning the rationality of choice with contemporary decision and game theorists. The Greek tradition recognized the limits of expected utility maximization in predicting or explaining the actual behavior of individuals, groups, and states, and sought to explain divergences from predicted rational behavior. Greek social theorists may, therefore, also have shared some of the intuitions of contemporary behavioral economists. Topics will include individual rationality, rationality of groups and states, the origins of social order, emergence and persistence of monarchical and democratic regimes, conflict and cooperation in interstate relations, competition and cooperation in exchange. Examining the Greek tradition of thought on practical reasoning has some implications for we might think about deliberation and bargaining in contemporary democratic-political, interpersonal-ethical, and interstate contexts. PREREQUISITES: Students in the course are expected to have a background in EITHER classical studies (literature, history, or philosophy), OR Greek political thought (Origins of Political Thought or equivalent) OR in formal/positive political theory. Registration for undergraduates is with permission of instructor (email jober@stanford.edu).
Same as: CLASSICS 395, POLISCI 238R

POLISCI 440A. Theories in Comparative Politics. 3-5 Units.

Theories addressing major concerns in the comparative field including identity, order, regime type, legitimacy, and governance.

POLISCI 440B. Comparative Political Economy. 3-5 Units.

Required of Political Science Ph.D. students with comparative politics as a first or second concentration; others by consent of the instructor. The origins of political and economic institutions and their impact on long run outcomes for growth and democracy. Emphasis is on the analysis of causal models, hypothesis testing, and the quality of evidence.

POLISCI 440C. Methods in Comparative Politics. 5 Units.

Current methodological standards in comparative politics. Students develop their own research design that meets these standards.

POLISCI 440D. Workshop in Comparative Politics. 1-2 Unit.

Faculty, guest speakers, and graduate students conducting research in comparative politics present work-in-progress. May be repeated for credit.

POLISCI 441L. Grad Seminar on Middle Eastern Politics. 3-5 Units.

Survey of major topics in the study of Middle Eastern politics including state formation, authoritarian resilience and political Islam.

POLISCI 443S. Political Economy of Reform in China. 3-5 Units.

Content, process, and problems of China¿s post-Mao reforms. Changes in property rights, markets, credit, and the role of the state in economic development. Comparative insights about reform in the Chinese communist system that distinguishes it from the experience of regimes in E. Europe and the former Soviet Union.

POLISCI 443T. Approaches to Chinese Politics. 3-5 Units.

Major secondary literature on Chinese politics, involving the evolution of theoretical concepts and social scientific approaches characterizing the field. Subjects include changes made to defining fundamental issues of Chinese political theory, and the implications of shifts in research methods and analytical tools. Prerequisite: basic knowledge of politics of post-1949 China.

POLISCI 444. Comparative Political Economy: Advanced Industrial Societies. 3-5 Units.

Political economy approaches to key policy outcomes including redistribution, the size of government, fiscal behavior, and pork-barrel politics. Theories related to institutions, interest groups, and geography, focusing on middle- and upper-income countries.

POLISCI 444A. Authoritarian Politics. 3-5 Units.

This course offers a thematic approach to the study of authoritarian politics. We will cover the major areas of political science research on authoritarian politics and governance while simultaneously building empirical knowledge about the politics of particular authoritarian regimes. The course will also discuss transitions to democracy as well as authoritarian political tendencies within democratic contexts.
Same as: POLISCI 244A

POLISCI 446A. Paths to the Modern World: The West in Comparative Perspective. 3-5 Units.

How and why did Europe develop political institutions that encouraged economic growth and industrialization? And why have many other regions lagged in the creation of growth-promoting institutions? This course uses a comparative approach to understanding routes to the modern world - the historical experiences of Christian Europe, the Islamic world, and others. We will explore questions including: When do parliaments emerge? How do cities promote growth? What is the role of religion?.
Same as: POLISCI 246A

POLISCI 446E. Seminar on Political Economy Experiments. 3-5 Units.

This seminar introduces recent experimental work in political economy and comparative politics. Instead of surveying research in this area broadly, we will work through a number of recent working papers. Each week we will have a guest speaker in the class whose work will be discussed by a team of students. The students will replicate, extend, and comment on the weekly paper. The first objective of the seminar is to develop an understanding of different elements of a field experiment. To this end, we will untangle project parts related to implementation, data collection, analysis, and writing. A typical weekly meeting will include the following: discussion on framing and contribution to literature, replication of the study material, and potential extensions of the analysis. We will also go through survey instruments and any other material made available by authors. A second objective is to introduce students to writing pre-analysis plans for their own research. Each student will be expected to prepare a detailed pre-analysis plan for a proposed experiment or quasi-experiment, and will have the opportunity to workshop this plan with the class towards the end of the quarter.

POLISCI 447. Gender and Development. 3-5 Units.

Gender remains an identity that defines structures of opportunity and representation in markets, society, and importantly in politics. This course studies how gender conditions experiences in political, economic, and social institutions. This seminar will pay special attention to the ways that patterns and processes of development have shaped gender inequality and will draw largely on evidence from low and middle-income countries. Specifically, we will study questions such as: Why do women in much of the world remain relatively underrepresented in formal andninformal institutions? What social, cultural, economic, and institutional factors reduce such gender inequality? How does gender inclusion shape development patterns and political outcomes?.

POLISCI 448R. Workshop: China Social Science. 1 Unit.

For Ph.D. students in the social sciences and history. Research on contemporary society and politics in the People's Republic of China. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.
Same as: SOC 368W

POLISCI 450A. Political Methodology I: Regression. 3-5 Units.

Introduction to statistical research in political science, with a focus on linear regression. Teaches students how to apply multiple regression models as used in much of political science research. Also covers elements of probability and sampling theory.

POLISCI 450B. Political Methodology II: Causal Inference. 3-5 Units.

Survey of statistical methods for causal inference in political science research. Covers a variety of causal inference designs, including experiments, matching, regression, panel methods, difference-in-differences, synthetic control methods, instrumental variables, regression discontinuity designs, quantile regression, and bounds. Prerequisite: POLISCI 450A.

POLISCI 450C. Political Methodology III: Model-Based Inference. 3-5 Units.

Provides a survey of statistical tools for model-based inference in political science. Topics include generalized linear models for various data types and their extensions, such as discrete choice models, survival outcome models, mixed effects and multilevel models. Prerequisites: POLISCI 450A and POLISCI 450B.

POLISCI 450D. Political Methodology IV: Advanced Topics. 3-5 Units.

Covers advanced statistical tools that are useful for empirical research in political science. Possible topics include missing data, survey sampling and experimental designs for field research, machine learning, text mining, clustering, Bayesian methods, spatial statistics, and web scraping. Prerequisites: POLISCI 450A, POLISCI 450B and POLISCI 450C.

POLISCI 450X. Programming for Political Scientists. 1 Unit.

This one-unit course is designed to complement our core methods sequence. In this biweekly course, students will be introduced to programming concepts, ideas, and tools that will assist them in completing homework faster and help them to produce better, more clear, and more easily replicated code.

POLISCI 451. Design and Analysis of Experiments. 3-5 Units.

Political scientists increasingly rely on experimental methods. This course covers the principles and logic of experimental design as applied to laboratory, field and survey experiments. We discuss the strengths and limitations of experiments in relation to observational methods. Design considerations include randomization, the construction of treatments, the use of deception, the ethical implications of deception, and new developments in subject recruitment. Turning to the analysis of experimental data, we describe the methods for estimating treatment effects, interactions, and more complex indirect effects stemming from either mediator or moderator variables. We also cover appropriate data analytic strategies for quasi-experimental designs including interrupted time series, matching and propensity scores.

POLISCI 452. Machine Learning with Application to Text as Data. 3-5 Units.

Machine Learning methods are increasingly useful for the social sciences. This course introduces a framework for using machine learning methods to make social science inferences, with a particular focus on text as data. The course will explain how machine learning methods can be used to facilitate discovery, measure quantities of interest, and to make causal inferences and predictions. We will introduce a variety of methods for representing texts as quantitative data and then we will introduce a wide array of commonly used methods. Prerequisites are POLISCI 450A, 450B, and 450C.

POLISCI 45N. Civil War Narratives. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Focus is on a new statistics-based theory to account for the susceptibility of countries to civil war. How to write a theory-based historical narrative. Students write and present an original historical narrative focusing on how well the theory explains a particular history and on the importance of factors that are absent from the theory in explaining civil war onsets.

POLISCI 460A. Political Economy I. 2-5 Units.

Introduction to empirical and theoretical research in political economy. This course focuses on issues in democracies, while Political Economy II focuses on issues in non-democracies. Topics may include institutional foundations, social choice, electoral competition and candidate positioning, accountability, voter behavior, polarization, media and political communication, redistribution, special interests and lobbying, collective action, immigration, and populism. Prerequisite for Econ PhD students: ECON 202 and 270 or permission of instructors. Prerequisites for Political Science PhD students: POLISCI 450A, POLISCI 450B, and POLISCI 356A.
Same as: ECON 220

POLISCI 460B. Political Economy II. 2-5 Units.

Continuation of 220. Preparation for advanced research in political economy. Studies political processes and their implications for economic policies and outcomes. This quarter will focus on the study of non-democracies and weakly institutionalized states. Possible topics include conflict and war, corruption, culture, protest movements and rebellion, state capacity and development, autocratic politics, and democratization. Focus is primarily on dynamic game-theoretic models but will also include empirical work. Prerequisite for Political Science PhDnstudents: POLISCI 356A.
Same as: ECON 221

POLISCI 462. How to Write and Publish a Quantitative Political Science Paper. 3-5 Units.

This course helps students to write a publishable research paper in political science. We will focus on how to specify an important research question, how to identify appropriate research methods to answer that question, how to present evidence effectively, and how to navigate the publication process. Students will be expected to produce a completed research paper of publishable quality by the end of the quarter.

POLISCI 46N. Contemporary African Politics. 3 Units.

Africa has lagged behind the rest of the developing world in terms of three consequential outcomes: economic development, the establishment of social order through effective governance, and the consolidation of democracy. This course seeks to identify the historical and political sources accounting for this lag, to provide extensive case study and statistical material to understand what sustains it, and to examine recent examples of success pointing to a more hopeful future. Students will be asked to develop expertise on one or two African countries and report regularly to fellow students on the progress (or lack thereof) of their countries on each outcome and the reasons for it.

POLISCI 474. Design and Analysis of Surveys. 1-5 Unit.

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POLISCI 57E. State of the Union 2014. 1 Unit.

This course will examine major themes that contribute to the health, or disease, of the US body politic. Challenges and opportunities abound: we live in an age of rising inequality, dazzling technological innovation, economic volatility, geopolitical uncertainty, and the accumulating impact of climate change. These conditions confront our political leaders and us as citizens of a democracy plagued by dysfunction. What are the implications for the body politic? Led by Rob Reich (Political Science, Stanford), David Kennedy (History, Stanford), and James Steyer (CEO, Common Sense Media), the course will bring together distinguished analysts of American politics. Together, we will examine the following topics: inequality; energy and the environment; media and technology; the economy; and the 2014 midterm elections. The course is designed for the entire Stanford community: jointly offered for undergraduate and graduate students at Stanford (through listings in Political Science and History) and for community members through the Continuing Studies Program. For students, the course is available for 1 credit. This course may not be taken for a Letter Grade.
Same as: HISTORY 57E

POLISCI 70. Dangerous Ideas. 1 Unit.

Ideas matter. Concepts such as race, progress, and equality have inspired social movements, shaped political systems, and dramatically influenced the lives of individuals. Others, like gender identity, universal basic income, and historical memory play an important role in contemporary debates in the United States. All of these ideas are contested, and they have a real power to change lives, for better and for worse. In this one-unit class we will examine these dangerous ideas. Each week, a faculty member from a different department in the humanities and arts will explore a concept that has shaped human experience across time and space. Some weeks will have short reading assignments, but you are not required to purchase any materials.
Same as: ARTHIST 36, COMPLIT 36A, EALC 36, ENGLISH 71, ETHICSOC 36X, FRENCH 36, HISTORY 3D, MUSIC 36H, PHIL 36, SLAVIC 36

POLISCI 71. Current Issues in European Security. 1 Unit.

Russia's annexation of Crimea in Spring 2014 posed not only a threat to post-World War II Europe formed around the norm of national sovereignty, but possibly also the very real threat that Russia had awakened from its 20 years of peacefulness to once again impose its will on Eastern Europe. Is Europe again under threat from the East? In Current Issues in European Security, students will attend public events organized by Stanford's Europe Center and Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies. These events -- talks by political leaders and scholars from the U.S. and Europe -- will engage and encourage students to understand the deepening crises in Ukraine, conflict in the Baltics, and European security as a whole. Students will leave the course with a better understanding of the multi-faceted dilemmas policy makers face, historical background, and possible paths forward for global decision makers. In addition to attending the events, students will write a final memo recommending a course of action for US policy makers. Events will typically be scheduled from 12 noon to 1:30 p.m. but may be held at other times. There will be approximately six events in spring quarter, and students may also be required to attend one or two separate discussion sessions.

POLISCI 72. What The 2018 Elections Told Us And How They Help Us See How Campaigns Can Win In 2020. 2 Units.

(Same as LAW 7057). The frequency of American elections means that we're never that far away from the next contest. This course is situated shortly after the conclusion of the 2018 midterm elections at the very start of the invisible primary that precedes the 2020 presidential campaign. It will provide students with a behind-the-scenes understanding of how campaigns work. Each week, we will explore a different topic related to high-profile campaigns -- policy formation, communications, grassroots strategy, digital outreach, campaign finance -- and feature prominent guest speakers who have served and will serve in senior roles on both Democratic and Republican campaigns. Our goal is to discern the lessons learned from the 2018 midterm elections, and how they will inform our understanding of what will happen in the 2020 presidential contest.
Same as: COMM 153A, COMM 253A, PUBLPOL 146, PUBLPOL 246

POLISCI 73. Energy Policy in California and the West. 1 Unit.

This seminar provides an in-depth analysis of the role of California state agencies and Western energy organizations in driving energy policy development, technology innovation, and market structures, in California, the West and internationally. The course covers three areas: 1) roles and responsibilities of key state agencies and Western energy organizations; 2) current and evolving energy and climate policies; and 3) development of the 21st century electricity system in California and the West. The seminar will also provide students a guideline of what to expect in professional working environment.
Same as: CEE 263G, PUBLPOL 73

POLISCI 75. The 2018 Midterm Election: Making Your Voice Heard. 2-3 Units.

Elections are critical to determining the direction of this country, but how do you get involved in ways beyond voting? How do campaigns work on a practical level? How can students make a difference in the upcoming midterm elections? This class offers an opportunity to gain knowledge of and firsthand experience in an American elections. Course credit is based on classroom time, reading time and time spent on volunteer work. Students in this course will be required to participate in some way in the upcoming US Midterm election. This could mean undertaking one or more activities such as training for and serving as a poll worker, working for groups that are registering voters, or volunteering for a campaign. Students are responsible for finding their election-related opportunity, but they may contact Stephanie Burbank about options and contact information. Once you determine what activity you will be volunteering for, please fill out this form: http://web.stanford.edu/~sburbank/PS75.fb. If you have any questions, please reach out to the instructor.

POLISCI 801. TGR Project. 0 Units.

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POLISCI 802. TGR Dissertation. 0 Units.

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POLISCI 96X. Mobilizing Democracy: Campaigns, Elections, and Voting. 1 Unit.

Alternative Spring Break: America is often thought of as the archetypal democracy. While most democracies have surprisingly short lifespans, America has persisted for 238 years. However, in the 21st century, we have grounds to question the quality of our democracy. Turnout of the Voting Age Population hovers around 50 percent and today, we are seeing increasing legal challenges to voting rights. In the backdrop of these statistics, there is an entire industry devoted to campaigns. In the 2012 presidential race alone, almost $2.5 billion was poured into the campaign-industrial complex. Given that this cycle is a presidential election year, those amounts are expected to be surpassed. As a consequence, many questions arise: How do politicians engage voters in elections at the various levels of government? Where do they spend their money and why? In the age of big data, how accurately can elections be predicted? How do we maximize participation in elections?.

POLISCI 97X. Bridging the Civil-Military Divide: Military Service as Public Service in the 21st Century. 1 Unit.

Alternative Spring Break: Today, fewer than 0.5 percent of Americans serve in the military, as compared to roughly 12 percent during the second World War. This has led to a widening gap in knowledge about the military, its members and the functions they perform, as well as its basic structure and tradition of service. This course is intended to introduce students to the notion of military service as public service and explore how misperceptions on both sides affect the civil-military divide. We will explore military service from the life of an enlisted soldier deployed to Afghanistan, to an officer working at the Pentagon on broad national security strategy. How does society conceive of a soldier, a sailor, an airman, a marine? How do Americans perceive military service and what role do service members play in our society?.