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INTNLREL 101Z. Introduction to International Relations. 4 Units.

Approaches to the study of conflict and cooperation in world affairs. Applications to war, terrorism, trade policy, the environment, and world poverty. Debates about the ethics of war and the global distribution of wealth.
Same as: POLISCI 101Z

INTNLREL 102. History of the International System since 1914. 5 Units.

After defining the characteristics of the international system at the beginning of the twentieth century, this course reviews the primary developments in its functioning in the century that followed. Topics include the major wars and peace settlements; the emergence of Nazism and Communism; the Cold War; decolonization; and globalization. The role of international institutions and international society will also be a focus as will the challenges of climate change, inequality, migration, and terrorism.
Same as: HISTORY 102

INTNLREL 103F. The Changing Face of War: Introduction to Military History. 3-5 Units.

Introduces students to the rich history of military affairs and, at the same time, examines the ways in which we think of change and continuity in military history. How did war evolve from ancient times, both in styles of warfare and perceptions of war? What is the nature of the relationship between war and society? Is there such a thing as a Western way of war? What role does technology play in transforming military affairs? What is a military revolution and can it be manufactured or induced? Chronologically following the evolution of warfare from Ancient Greece to present day so-called new wars, we will continuously investigate how the interdependencies between technological advances, social change, philosophical debates and economic pressures both shaped and were influenced by war. Students satisfying the WiM requirement for the major in International Relations, must enroll in INTNLREL 103F course listing.

INTNLREL 105C. Human Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 5C. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 105C.) Interdisciplinary approach to understanding the extent and complexity of the global phenomenon of human trafficking, especially for forced prostitution, labor exploitation, and organ trade, focusing on human rights violations and remedies. Provides a historical context for the development and spread of human trafficking. Analyzes the current international and domestic legal and policy frameworks to combat trafficking and evaluates their practical implementation. Examines the medical, psychological, and public health issues involved. Uses problem-based learning. Students interested in service learning should consult with the instructor and will enroll in an additional course.
Same as: CSRE 105C, EMED 105C, FEMGEN 105C, HISTORY 105C, HUMRTS 112

INTNLREL 110C. America and the World Economy. 5 Units.

Examination of contemporary US foreign economic policy. Areas studied: the changing role of the dollar; mechanism of international monetary management; recent crises in world markets including those in Europe and Asia; role of IMF, World Bank and WTO in stabilizing world economy; trade politics and policies; the effects of the globalization of business on future US prosperity. Political Science majors taking this course for WIM credit should enroll in POLISCI 110C.
Same as: POLISCI 110C, POLISCI 110X

INTNLREL 110D. War and Peace in American Foreign Policy. 3-5 Units.

The causes of war in American foreign policy. Issues: international and domestic sources of war and peace; war and the American political system; war, intervention, and peace making in the post-Cold War period. Political Science majors taking this course to fulfill the WIM requirement should enroll in POLISCI 110D for 5 units. International Relations majors taking this course should enroll in INTNLREL 110D for 5 units. SCPD students should enroll for 3 units.
Same as: AMSTUD 110D, POLISCI 110D, POLISCI 110Y

INTNLREL 114D. Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law. 3-5 Units.

This course explores the different dimensions of development - economic, social, and political - as well as the way that modern institutions (the state, market systems, the rule of law, and democratic accountability) developed and interacted with other factors across different societies around the world. The class will feature additional special guest lectures by Francis Fukuyama, Larry Diamond, Michael McFaul, Anna Grzymala-Busse, and other faculty and researchers affiliated with the Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law. Undergraduate students should enroll in this course for 5 units. Graduate students should enroll for 3.
Same as: INTLPOL 230, POLISCI 114D, POLISCI 314D

INTNLREL 118S. Political Economy of International Trade and Investment. 5 Units.

How domestic and international politics influence the economic relations between countries. Why do governments promote or oppose globalization? Why do countries cooperate economically in some situations but not others? Why do countries adopt bad economic policies? Focus on the politics of international trade and investment. Course approaches each topic by examining alternative theoretical approaches and evaluate these theories using historical and contemporary evidence from many geographical regions around the world. Prerequisites: ECON 1A, ECON 1B, and a statistics course.
Same as: POLISCI 218S

INTNLREL 122. Introduction to European Studies. 5 Units.

This course offers an introduction to major topics in the study of historical and contemporary Europe. We focus on European politics, economics and culture. First, we study what makes Europe special, and how its distinct identity has been influenced by its history. Next, we analyze Europe's politics. We study parliamentary government and proportional representation electoral systems, and how they affect policy. Subsequently, we examine the challenges the European economy faces. We further study the European Union and transatlantic relations.
Same as: POLISCI 213E

INTNLREL 123. The Future of the European Union: Challenges and Opportunities. 5 Units.

First, this course analyzes the EU's greatest challenge, preserving the monetary union, and discusses the political and economic reforms needed to achieve that goal. In this context the course also studies the fiscal and budgetary polices of the EU. Second, the course discusses the EU's role in global politics, its desire to play a more prominent role, and the ways to reach that objective. Third, the course analyzes the EU's institutional challenges in its efforts to enhance its democratic character.

INTNLREL 124. Immigration Issues in Europe. 4-5 Units.

This course will consider responses to mass migration in Europe and its contribution to a radicalized political landscape. Sampling immigrant integration policies from Germany, Sweden, Denmark, France, Britain, Hungary, Poland, and Italy will help us examine public discourse on cultural and civic assimilation of mostly Muslim immigrants. Issues such as security and counterterrorism, as well as obstacles to cooperation with countries outside the EU (Turkey, Libya), will be included.

INTNLREL 135A. International Environmental Law and Policy: Oceans and Climate Change. 4-5 Units.

This seminar offers an introduction to International Environmental Law, with a strong emphasis on oceans and climate change, its underlying principles, how it is developed and implemented, and the challenges of enforcing it. We will focus on oceans and climate change, exploring the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention (UNCLOS) and the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC). We will explain why these agreements are described as ¿umbrella conventions¿ and how new conventions like the Paris Agreement fit within them. There will be guest speakers, a negotiation simulation, and a legal design sprint focused on re-imagining International Environmental Law.

INTNLREL 136R. Introduction to Global Justice. 4 Units.

This course explores the normative demands and definitions of justice that transcend the nation-state and its borders, through the lenses of political justice, economic justice, and human rights. What are our duties (if any) towards those who live in other countries? Should we be held morally responsible for their suffering? What if we have contributed to it? Should we be asked to remedy it? At what cost? These are some of the questions driving the course. Although rooted in political theory and philosophy, the course will examine contemporary problems that have been addressed by other scholarly disciplines, public debates, and popular media, such as immigration and open borders, climate change refugees, and the morality of global capitalism (from exploitative labor to blood diamonds). As such, readings will combine canonical pieces of political theory and philosophy with readings from other scholarly disciplines, newspaper articles, and popular media.
Same as: ETHICSOC 136R, PHIL 76, POLISCI 136R, POLISCI 336

INTNLREL 140A. International Law and International Relations. 5 Units.

What is the character of international legal rules? Do they matter in international politics, and if so, to what degree? How effective can they really be? What should we expect from international law in shaping international relations? This seminar will provide introductory knowledge of the foundational principles and sources of public international law and a brief review of the most prominent IR-theories. Besides exploring how these theories address the role of IL in international politics, we will also consider a set of practical problems, where IL and IR intersect most dramatically, such as intervention by force, human rights, and enforcement of criminal law. Course satisfies the WiM requirement for International Relations majors.

INTNLREL 140C. The U.S., U.N. Peacekeeping, and Humanitarian War. 4-5 Units.

The involvement of U.S. and the UN in major wars and international interventions since the 1991 Gulf War. The UN Charter's provisions on the use of force, the origins and evolution of peacekeeping, the reasons for the breakthrough to peacemaking and peace enforcement in the 90s, and the ongoing debates over the legality and wisdom of humanitarian intervention. Case studies include Croatia and Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda, Kosovo, East Timor, and Afghanistan. *International Relations majors taking this course to fulfill the WiM requirement should enroll in INTNLREL 140C for 5 units.
Same as: HISTORY 201C, INTNLREL 140X

INTNLREL 140X. The U.S., U.N. Peacekeeping, and Humanitarian War. 4-5 Units.

The involvement of U.S. and the UN in major wars and international interventions since the 1991 Gulf War. The UN Charter's provisions on the use of force, the origins and evolution of peacekeeping, the reasons for the breakthrough to peacemaking and peace enforcement in the 90s, and the ongoing debates over the legality and wisdom of humanitarian intervention. Case studies include Croatia and Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda, Kosovo, East Timor, and Afghanistan. *International Relations majors taking this course to fulfill the WiM requirement should enroll in INTNLREL 140C for 5 units.
Same as: HISTORY 201C, INTNLREL 140C

INTNLREL 141A. Camera as Witness: International Human Rights Documentaries. 5 Units.

Rarely screened documentary films, focusing on global problems, human rights issues, and aesthetic challenges in making documentaries on international topics. Meetings with filmmakers.

INTNLREL 142. Challenging the Status Quo: Social Entrepreneurs Advancing Democracy, Development and Justice. 3-5 Units.

This seminar is part of a broader program on Social Entrepreneurship at CDDRL in partnership with the Haas Center for Public Service. It will use practice to better inform theory. Working with three visiting social entrepreneurs from developing and developed country contexts students will use case studies of successful and failed social change strategies to explore relationships between social entrepreneurship, gender, democracy, development and justice. It interrogates current definitions of democracy and development and explores how they can become more inclusive of marginalized populations. This is a service learning class in which students will learn by working on projects that support the social entrepreneurs' efforts to promote social change. Students should register for either 3 OR 5 units only. Students enrolled in the full 5 units will have a service-learning component along with the course. Students enrolled for 3 units will not complete the service-learning component. Limited enrollment. Attendance at the first class is mandatory in order to participate in service learning.
Same as: AFRICAST 142, AFRICAST 242

INTNLREL 143. State and Society in Korea. 4 Units.

20th-century Korea from a comparative historical perspective. Colonialism, nationalism, development, state-society relations, democratization, and globalization with reference to the Korean experience.
Same as: SOC 111, SOC 211

INTNLREL 145. Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention. 4 Units.

The course, traces the history of genocide in the 20th century and the question of humanitarian intervention to stop it, a topic that has been especially controversial since the end of the Cold War. The pre-1990s discussion begins with the Armenian genocide during the First World War and includes the Holocaust and Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s. Coverage of genocide and humanitarian intervention since the 1990s includes the wars in Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo, the Congo, and Sudan. The final session of the course will be devoted to a discussion of the International Criminal Court and the separate criminal tribunals that have been tasked with investigating and punishing the perpetrators of genocide.

INTNLREL 147. Political Economy of the Southern Cone Countries of South America. 5 Units.

This seminar examines the economic and political development of the five countries that make up South America's Southern Cone (i.e., Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay) as well as Bolivia (which was historically part of the sub-region and with which today it has close commercial ties). In particular, the course focuses on the era of Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI), explores the reasons why that model of economic development eventually collapsed and how this contributed to the rise of military dictatorships, looks at the return to democratic rule and the adoption of market-oriented economic policies, and concludes with a discussion of the contemporary situation.

INTNLREL 154. The Cold War: An International History. 5 Units.

Though it ended twenty years ago, we still live in a world shaped by the Cold War. Beginning with its origins in the mid-1940s, this course will trace the evolution of the global struggle, until its culmination at the end of the 1980s. Students will be asked to ponder the fundamental nature of the Cold War, what kept it alive for nearly fifty years, how it ended, and its long term legacy for the world. As distinguished from the lecture taught in previous quarters, this class will closely investigate ten major Cold War battlegrounds over the quarter. Selected case studies will include: the division of Germany, Iran in the 1950s, Cuba, Vietnam, the Six Day War, the Chilean coup, sub-Saharan Africa, Afghanistan, Central America, and the Eastern European revolutions of 1989. Students will be asked to consult a combination of original documents and recent histories.
Same as: HISTORY 166C

INTNLREL 160. United Nations Peacekeeping. 4 Units.

This seminar is devoted to an examination of United Nations peacekeeping, from its inception in 1956 in the wake of the Suez Crisis, to its increasingly important role as an enforcer of political stability in sub-Saharan Africa. We will look at the practice of "classic" peacekeeping as it developed during the Cold War, with the striking exception of the Congo Crisis of 1960; the rise and fall of so-called "second-generation peacekeeping"¿more accurately labeled "peace enforcement"¿in the early 1990s in Bosnia and Somalia; and the reemergence in recent years of a muscular form of peacekeeping in sub-Saharan Africa, most notably in Congo in 2013.nStudents will learn the basic history of the United Nations since 1945 and the fundamentals of the United Nations Charter, especially with respect to the use of force and the sovereignty of member states. While the course does not attempt to provide comprehensive coverage of the historical details of any particular peacekeeping mission, students should come away with a firm grasp of the historical trajectory of U.N. peacekeeping and the evolving arguments of its proponents and critics over the years.nEach session of the course is structured around the discussion of assigned readings. Students are expected to complete the readings before class and to come to class prepared to participate in discussions. Each student will serve as rapporteur for one of the assigned readings, providing a critical summary of the reading in question and helping to stimulate the discussion to follow. The instructor will occasionally begin a session with brief introductory remarks (no more than ten minutes) to provide historical context about one or another topic. Required coursework includes two short papers whose particular topic and guidelines will be announced in class.

INTNLREL 168. America as a World Power: U.S. Foreign Relations, 1914 to Present. 5 Units.

This course will examine the modern history of American foreign relations, from 1914 to the present. Beginning with the fateful decision to intervene in the First World War, it will examine the major crises and choices that have defined the "American Century." Our study of U.S. foreign relations will consider such key factors as geopolitics, domestic politics, bureaucracy, psychology, race, and culture. Students will be expected to undertake their own substantial examination of a critical episode in the era studied.
Same as: HISTORY 152K

INTNLREL 168A. American Interventions, 1898-Present. 5 Units.

This class seeks to examine the modern American experience with limited wars, beginning with distant and yet pertinent cases, and culminating in the war in Iraq. Although this class will examine war as a consequence of foreign policy, it will not focus primarily on presidential decision making. Rather, it will place wartime policy in a broader frame, considering it alongside popular and media perceptions of the war, the efforts of antiwar movements, civil-military relations, civil reconstruction efforts, and conditions on the battlefield. We will also examine, when possible, the postwar experience.
Same as: HISTORY 259E, HISTORY 359E

INTNLREL 173. Presidents and Foreign Policy in Modern History. 5 Units.

Nothing better illustrates the evolution of the modern presidency than the arena of foreign policy. This class will examine the changing role and choices of successive presidential administrations over the past century, examining such factors as geopolitics, domestic politics, the bureaucracy, ideology, psychology, and culture. Students will be encouraged to think historically about the institution of the presidency, while examining specific case studies, from the First World War to the conflicts of the 21st century.
Same as: HISTORY 261G

INTNLREL 174. Diplomacy on the Ground: Case Studies in the Challenges of Representing Your Country. 5 Units.

The tragic death of Ambassador Chris Stevens has recently highlighted the dangers of diplomacy in the modern era. This class will look at how Americans in embassies have historically confronted questions such as authoritarian rule, human rights abuses, violent changes of government, and covert action. Case studies will include the Berlin embassy in the 1930s, Tehran in 1979, and George Kennan's experiences in Moscow, among others. Recommended for students contemplating careers in diplomatic service. *Course satisfies the WiM requirement for International Relations majors. As space is limited, first-year students must obtain the instructor's prior consent before enrolling.
Same as: HISTORY 252B

INTNLREL 175. American Empire in the Pacific. 3 Units.

This course will provide an interdisciplinary overview of the history and current state of American empire in the Pacific Islands. Through the lenses of law, history, and anthropology, the course will chart the progression of the American empire, beginning with early colonization, through World War II and the Cold War, to present day, including modern challenges facing communities affected by U.S. imperialism, decolonization movements, and the intersection of empire and climate change. Themes include cultural imperialism, militarization and experimentation, human rights and global ethics, and social and environmental justice.

INTNLREL 179. Major Themes in U.S.-Latin America Diplomatic History. 5 Units.

This seminar provides an overview of the most important events and initiatives that have characterized the relationship of the United States of America with its neighbors to the south, including Mexico, the Caribbean (especially Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic), Central America, and South America since the proclamation of the Monroe Doctrine in the early 19th century until the Obama Administration. In particular, the course examines the motivations for the Theodore Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine and the resulting period of blatant interventionism known as "Dollar Diplomacy," the Good Neighbor Policy of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the brutal Cold War period, as well as policies pursued by the Clinton, George W. Bush, and Obama administrations, such as the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) and the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA). The seminar explores not only what motivated U.S. policy makers and how their polices were implemented (and explains why they either succeeded or failed), but also discusses the impacts on individual countries and/or the region as a whole and the long-term consequences whose repercussions are still being felt today. The course also examines the major features of the inter-American system from the Pan American Union to the creation of the Organization of American States (OAS) and its continued relevancy in light of new institutional frameworks such as the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) that exclude the United States of America.

INTNLREL 180A. Transitional Justice, Human Rights, and International Criminal Tribunals. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly IPS 280) Historical backdrop of the Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals. The creation and operation of the Yugoslav and Rwanda Tribunals (ICTY and ICTR). The development of hybrid tribunals in East Timor, Sierra Leone, and Cambodia, including evaluation of their success in addressing perceived shortcomings of the ICTY and ICTR. Examination of the role of the International Criminal Court and the extent to which it will succeed in supplanting all other ad hoc international justice mechanisms and fulfill its goals. Analysis focuses on the politics of creating such courts, their interaction with the states in which the conflicts took place, the process of establishing prosecutorial priorities, the body of law they have produced, and their effectiveness in addressing the needs of victims in post-conflict societies.
Same as: ETHICSOC 280, HUMRTS 103, INTLPOL 280

INTNLREL 182. The Great War. 5 Units.

The First World War provided a prototype for a new, horrific kind of war. It catalyzed the emergence of modern means of warfare and the social mechanisms necessary to sustain the industrialized war machine. Killing millions, it became the blueprint for the total war that succeeded it. It also brought about new social and political orders, transforming the societies which it mobilized at unprecedented levels.n nThis course will examine the military, political, economic, social and cultural aspects of the conflict. We will discuss the origins and outbreak of the war, the land, sea and air campaigns, the war's economic and social consequences, the home fronts, the war's final stages in eastern and western Europe as well as non-European fronts, and finally, the war's impact on the international system and on its belligerents and participants' perceptions of the new reality it had created.

INTNLREL 183. The Modern Battle. 5 Units.

The purpose of this seminar is to examine the evolution of modern warfare by closely following four modern battles/campaigns. For this purpose the seminar offers four mock staff rides, facilitating highly engaged, well-researched experience for participants. In a mock staff ride, students are assigned roles; each student is playing a general or staff officer who was involved in the battle/campaign. Students will research their roles and, during the staff ride, will be required to explain "their" decisions and actions. Staff rides will not deviate from historical records, but closely examine how decisions were made, what pressures and forces were in action, battle outcomes, etc. This in-depth examination will allow students to gain a deeper understanding of how modern tactics, technology, means of communications, and the scale of warfare can decide, and indeed decided, campaigns. We will will spend two weeks preparing for and playing each staff ride. One meeting will be dedicated to discussing the forces shaping the chosen battle/campaign: the identity and goals ofnthe belligerents, the economic, technological, cultural and other factors involved, as well as the initial general plan. The second meeting will be dedicated to the battle itself. The four battles will illustrate major developments in modern warfare.
Same as: HISTORY 206C


Students obtain internship in a relevant research or industrial activity to enhance their professional experience consistent with their degree program and area of concentration. Prior to enrolling students must get internship approved by the director. At the end of the quarter, a three page final report must be supplied documenting work done and relevance to degree program. Meets the requirements for Curricular Practical Training for students on F-1 visas. Student is responsible for arranging own internship. Limited to declared International Relations students only who are non-US citizens. May be repeated for credit.

INTNLREL 197. Directed Reading in International Relations. 1-5 Unit.

Open only to declared International Relations majors.n (Staff).

INTNLREL 198. Senior Thesis. 2-10 Units.

Open only to declared International Relations majors with approved senior thesis proposals.

INTNLREL 200A. International Relations Honors Field Research. 3 Units.

For juniors planning to write an honors thesis during senior year. Initial steps to prepare for independent research. Professional tools for conceptualizing a research agenda and developing a research strategy. Preparation for field research through skills such as data management and statistics, references and library searches, and fellowship and grant writing. Creating a work schedule for the summer break and first steps in writing. Prerequisite: acceptance to IR honors program.

INTNLREL 200B. International Relations Honors Seminar. 3 Units.

Second of two-part sequence. For seniors working on their honors theses. Professional tools, analysis of research findings, and initial steps in writing of thesis. How to write a literature review, formulate a chapter structure, and set a timeline and work schedule for the senior year. Skills such as data analysis and presentation, and writing strategies. Prerequisites: acceptance to IR honors program, and 199 or 200A. * Course satisfies the WiM requirement for International Relations majors who are accepted into the IR Honors program.

INTNLREL 200C. IR Honors Thesis Writing. 1 Unit.

Mandatory seminar for International Relations Honors Students who are writing their Honors Thesis. INTNLREL 200A and 200B are prerequisites.

INTNLREL 202. Original Research in International Relations. 5 Units.

This new course offers IR majors an opportunity to conduct in-depth, original research and write an original research paper on a topic of their choosing within a single quarter. It is ideally suited for students who have a question that has intrigued them and that they would like to answer through original research. Through this course, students will narrow their interests into a clear research question, develop a research design, review relevant literature that addresses this question, conduct original empirical research and produce a final research paper. The course is designed for IR majors, and thus has an interdisciplinary focus and embraces methodological diversity. It may also be petitioned to count towards the IR major.

INTNLREL 33SI. Myths and Realities of U.S.-China Relations. 1 Unit.

This course introduces students to the U.S.-China relationship through a weekly speaker series followed by student-led discussions. Speakers from academia and industry will explore topics such as the business environment of China, the politics of the Sino-American dynamic, and technological growth in China. The purpose of the course is to tackle the myths and misconceptions surrounding U.S.-China relations, and build in students a strong foundational understanding of the multiple facets of the bilateral relationship. Students will be exposed to a variety of issues and will be able to explore a topic of interest through a capstone presentation at the end of the course.

INTNLREL 5C. Human Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 105C. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 105C.) Interdisciplinary approach to understanding the extent and complexity of the global phenomenon of human trafficking, especially for forced prostitution, labor exploitation, and organ trade, focusing on human rights violations and remedies. Provides a historical context for the development and spread of human trafficking. Analyzes the current international and domestic legal and policy frameworks to combat trafficking and evaluates their practical implementation. Examines the medical, psychological, and public health issues involved. Uses problem-based learning. Students interested in service learning should consult with the instructor and will enroll in an additional course.

INTNLREL 60Q. United Nations Peacekeeping. 3 Units.

Focus is on an examination of United Nations peacekeeping, from its inception in 1956 in the wake of the Suez Crisis, to its increasingly important role as an enforcer of political stability in sub-Saharan Africa. Examines the practice of "classic" peacekeeping as it developed during the Cold War, the rise and fall of "second-generation" peacekeeping, and the reemergence of a muscular form of peacekeeping in sub-Saharan Africa more recently. Topics include the basic history of the United Nations since 1945, he fundamentals of the United Nations Charter, and the historical trajectory of U.N. peaeckeeping and the evolving arguments of its proponents and critics over the years.
Same as: PEDS 60Q

INTNLREL 62Q. Mass Atrocities and Reconciliation. 3 Units.

This seminar considers the theory and practice of transitional justice as exemplified by diverse case studies, such as Germany, South Africa, Bosnia, and Rwanda. We will ask ourselves throughout the term whether and to what extent mass atrocities and grave human rights violations can be ameliorated and healed, and what legal, institutional, and political arrangements may be most conducive to such attempts. We will study war crimes tribunals and truth commissions, and we will ask about their effectiveness, especially in regards to their potential of fostering reconciliation in a given society. In every case we will encounter and evaluate specific shortcomings and obstacles, which will provide us with a more nuanced understanding of the complex process of coming to terms with the past.

INTNLREL 63Q. International Organizations and Accountability. 3 Units.

International organizations (IOs), like the IMF, the World Bank, the United Nations, and others, have been widely criticized as insufficiently accountable. For example, some argue that states are not able to control IOs whose bureaucracies have grown out of control and run amok, while others argue that the real problem is that communities most impacted by IO activities, such as those receiving World Bank loans or UN peacekeeping operations, are least able to influence their activities. Still others contend that the voting rules by which states control IOs are outdated and should be reformed to remedy these problems.nnThrough readings, discussions and case studies, students will learn about a range of international organizations in order to better understand what they do and how they are supposed to be controlled. In addition, we will evaluate the critiques of IO accountability that come from the right and the left, as well as the North, South, East and West, and will analyze different mechanisms of accountability, both formal and informal. Students will have the opportunity to research and present on specific international organizations and accountability mechanisms.

INTNLREL 64Q. Leadership and International Organizations. 3 Units.

What do intergovernmental organizations like the United Nations, the World Food Program, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees actually do? Do these organizations simply act on the interests of the governments that comprise them? Or do they have some autonomy to pursue their own programs, plans, and priorities? Does leadership of these organizations matter for their performance? What dilemmas do the leaders or intergovernmental organizations face as they try to satisfy governments while serving people in need all over the world? This course will get at these questions through examining the lives, careers and choices of leaders of major international organizations over the last thirty years. Reading assignments will include memoirs and biographies of leaders of international organizations, as well as analytical and empirical studies of international organizations. We plan on inviting former and current leaders of international organizations to visit the seminar.

INTNLREL 82. The Ending of World War I: Three Perspectives. 2 Units.

This course is required for those students who will be taking the BOSP Overseas Seminar, The Ending of the First World War and the Shaping of the 20th Century. Enrollment is limited to students who will be taking the overseas seminar, or are waitlisted for the seminar.nnThis course has three learning goals: 1.) to provide historical background on the war and the events and processes leading up to the ending of the war; 2.) to help students formulate possible research topics for the Overseas Seminar; and 3.) to acquaint the students with archival research in preparation for their time in London. The course will be taught from the perspectives of military history, political science, and literature. Each week we will meet to discuss the reading material.