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Psychology

Contacts

Office: Jordan Hall, Building 420
Mail Code: 94305-2130
Phone: (650) 725-2400
Web Site: http://psychology.stanford.edu

Courses offered by the Department of Psychology are listed under the subject code PSYCH on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

The department, housed in Jordan Hall, maintains many computer-equipped laboratories and the Stanford Center for Cognitive and Neurobiological Imaging (CNI). Bing Nursery School, located on campus at 850 Escondido Road, provides a laboratory for child observation, training in nursery school teaching, and research. It was constructed with funding from the National Science Foundation and a special grant from Mrs. Anna Bing Arnold and Dr. Peter Bing.

The department provides

  • courses designed for the general student
  • a major program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, including options for honors and a specialization in one of four content area tracks
  • an undergraduate minor program
  • a coterminal master's degree program leading to the degree of Master of Arts
  • programs of graduate study and research leading to the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
  • a Ph.D. minor

Applications are not accepted for the master's degree except as noted below.

Mission of the Undergraduate Program in Psychology

The mission of the undergraduate program in Psychology is to introduce students to the theories and empirical studies of human behavior. This includes the study of aging, achievement, child development, cognitive processes, conflict, culture, decision making, emotion, group behavior, health, identity, infancy, language, learning and memory, morality, motivation, personality, psychopathology, race, self, social perception, visual perception, and other related topics. The major provides students with knowledge and skills relevant to professional careers in technology, business, counseling, education, public policy, law, and medicine, as well as graduate studies in Psychology.

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduate)

The department expects undergraduate majors in the program to be able to demonstrate the following learning outcomes. These learning outcomes are used in evaluating students and the department's undergraduate program. Students are expected to demonstrate:

  1. an understanding of core knowledge within the discipline of psychology including relevant theory and research.
  2. the ability to analyze a problem correctly using discipline specific methodology. 
  3. the ability to draw sound inferences and conclusions from data.
  4. the ability to write and communicate ideas clearly.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The purpose of the master's program is to further develop knowledge and skills in Psychology and to prepare students for a professional career or doctoral studies. This is achieved through completion of courses, in the primary field as well as related areas, and experience with independent work and specialization.

The Ph.D. is conferred upon candidates who have demonstrated substantial scholarship and the ability to conduct independent research and analysis in Psychology. Through completion of advanced course work and rigorous skills training, the doctoral program prepares students to make original contributions to the knowledge of Psychology and to disseminate this knowledge.

Bachelor of Arts in Psychology

Major Requirements

Students declaring a major in Psychology must complete a minimum of 70 units of course work in Psychology, 60 of which must be taken in the Psychology department. The remaining 10 units can be taken outside of the Psychology department but must be pre-approved by the student services office or faculty adviser. These courses should represent a coherent thematic focus. One way to achieve this focus is through a field of study. Courses taken to satisfy the 70-unit requirement must be taken for a grade of C- or better (except for courses offered only on a satisfactory/no credit basis). Majors must take PSYCH 1 Introduction to Psychology, and PSYCH 10 Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus. Advanced placement (AP) credit may no longer be used toward the Psychology major requirements. Beyond these two required courses, students must complete at least five of the following eleven core Psychology courses, with a minimum of two from each area A and B:

Units
Area A (21)
BIO 20Introduction to Brain and Behavior3
PSYCH 30Introduction to Perception3
PSYCH 35Introduction to Cognitive and Information Sciences4
PSYCH 45Introduction to Learning and Memory3
PSYCH 50Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience4
PSYCH 55Introduction to Cognition and the Brain4
Area B (21)
PSYCH 60Introduction to Developmental Psychology3
PSYCH 70Introduction to Social Psychology4
PSYCH 75Introduction to Cultural Psychology5
PSYCH 80Introduction to Personality and Affective Science3
PSYCH 90Introduction to Clinical Psychology3
PSYCH 95Introduction to Abnormal Psychology3

Students must take one Writing in the Major (WIM) course in Psychology, and should check the Stanford Bulletin yearly as these courses may change. The department also strongly recommends that all majors take at least one advanced seminar.

Students may count up to 10 units of research, independent study, and practica (including but not limited to PSYCH 194 Reading and Special Work, PSYCH 195 Special Laboratory Projects, PSYCH 281 Practicum in Teaching) toward the Psychology major. Students who are teaching assistants for a Psychology course or are enrolled in the senior honors program are allowed up to 15 units in independent study and research. Any units beyond the limit of 10 or 15 may be counted toward the 180 units required for graduation.

Students who are double majoring or completing a minor degree in another department may not overlap (double-count) courses, unless the overlapping courses constitute introductory skill requirements, such as PSYCH 10 Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus. In this instance, while the course requirement would be satisfied, the units for the course can only be applied to one program of study, not both. Consult the student services office for further clarification.

Summer Quarter Psychology courses are not equivalent to courses given during the regular academic year and, while applicable toward the 70 units needed for the major, may not be used to fulfill core course requirements. Additionally, a course taken during the Summer Quarter cannot be used to replace the grade of a non-Summer Quarter course, even if the title and units of the two courses are the same.

Beyond the Minimal Requirements

The following recommendations may be helpful to students who wish to plan a program that goes beyond the minimal requirements listed above:

  1. Within the general major, the student may take advanced undergraduate or graduate courses (although some require the consent of the instructor), including seminars. The student may also take advantage of widespread opportunities for directed research, working closely with individual faculty and graduate students.
  2. The student may apply to the senior honors program, described below.
  3. The student may elect to pursue one of four specialization tracks of study: Cognitive Sciences; Health and Development; Mind, Culture, and Society; or Neuroscience, described below.

The training obtained from the pursuit of any of these options is valuable not only for students considering graduate work in Psychology, but also for those thinking of professional careers outside of Psychology in fields such as technology, business, counseling, education, law, public policy or medicine.

Credit from Outside the Department

Psychology majors must complete at least 60 units of course work toward their major at Stanford within the Psychology department. Psychology minors may count no more than a total of 10 units credit from outside the department toward the minor. Both majors and minors, under extenuating circumstances, may use one course from outside the department to fulfill core course requirements. Additional courses may be used to fulfill the 70-unit major requirement, but may not be counted as core courses. Please see the student services office for further clarification.

Petition for transfer of credit is rarely granted. In cases where petitioning is necessary, there are two types of credit from outside the department: external transfer credit for courses taken at institutions other than Stanford and credit for courses in other Stanford departments. A student must have already declared Psychology as a major or minor in order to submit a petition for transfer credit. Stanford credit for courses completed at other institutions must have been granted by the External Credit Evaluation section of the Registrar's Office; those units may be applied toward the 180 units required for graduation. To have credit from outside the department evaluated to fulfill requirements toward the Psychology major or minor, students must complete an Undergraduate Petition form, available from the student services office, and submit it with a course syllabus. Students requesting external transfer credit must also submit a copy of the signed transcript from the External Credit Evaluation section of the Registrar's Office showing the number of Stanford units granted for the course. The Psychology department then evaluates external credit courses and courses from other Stanford departments to determine if they can be applied toward Psychology major or minor requirements.

Specialization Tracks

Students in the major program, including those in the senior honors program, may elect to specialize in one of four specialization tracks:

  • Cognitive Sciences
  • Health and Development
  • Mind, Culture, and Society
  • Neuroscience

These tracks consist of a coherent set of courses leading to advanced undergraduate or even graduate-level courses in an area. In the ideal case, the student who specializes would acquire an understanding of a range of psychological processes, as well as an appreciation of the significance of these processes in the chosen area of application. Specialization in one of the tracks can facilitate preparation for a professional career as well as for graduate work in Psychology.

Participation in a specialization track is optional, although students who do not wish to complete all the requirements for a track may still want to use the track as a guideline for an integrated program in Psychology. Students who choose to complete a specialization track must meet the requirements for the major plus the additional requirements designated for the track. Typically, the courses required for a track include one or two required courses, four to six recommended courses in Psychology, one or two advanced seminars, and three or four courses in related disciplines. Psychology courses completed for the track count toward satisfying the major requirements. Courses from other departments listed for the track may count toward the 10 outside units for the major requirement, but must be pre-approved by the student services office or faculty adviser.

These specialization tracks are declared on Axess upon approval of faculty adviser. They appear on the transcript but not on the diploma.

Honors Program

The senior honors program is designed for exceptionally able Psychology majors who wish to pursue a year of intensive supervised independent research. Admission to the program is made at the end of the student's junior year on the basis of:

  • excellent academic performance
  • previous research experience
  • two letters of recommendation by faculty and/or graduate students

Applications are available in April and are to be submitted to the department's student services office with a current transcript and recommendations prior to the student's senior year.

Students interested in the program should involve themselves in research as early as possible and should acquire a broad general background in Psychology, including statistics, and a deep background in their chosen area. Typically, students work in their honor thesis adviser's lab for at least one quarter. The honors program is particularly appropriate for students planning to go to graduate school in Psychology or in other social sciences, as well as in computer science, business, counseling education, law, public policy and medicine.

During Autumn Quarter of their senior year, honors program students participate in a weekly seminar and meet with their advisers to develop their experimental program and begin data collection. Winter and Spring Quarters are devoted to completing the research, analyzing the data, and writing the thesis, which is submitted mid-May. Students give oral presentations of their projects at the annual Honors Convention. This convention is attended by undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty.

Minor in Psychology

Declaration

Students who wish to declare a minor field of concentration in Psychology must do so no later than the deadline for their application to graduate.

Degree Requirements

Completion of a minimum of 35 units in Psychology is required for the minor, including PSYCH 1 Introduction to Psychology  and PSYCH 10 Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus, or a comparable statistics course. Advanced placement (AP) credit may no longer be used towards the Psychology minor.

The minor must include three of eleven core courses with a minimum of one from each of two areas and elective Psychology courses of at least three units each, totaling 35 units:

Units
Area A
Select a minumum of one of the following:
Introduction to Brain and Behavior
Introduction to Perception
Introduction to Cognitive and Information Sciences
Introduction to Learning and Memory
Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience
Introduction to Cognition and the Brain
Area B
Select a minimum of one of the following:
Introduction to Developmental Psychology
Introduction to Social Psychology
Introduction to Cultural Psychology
Introduction to Personality and Affective Science
Introduction to Clinical Psychology
Introduction to Abnormal Psychology
Elective Psychology Courses

Students who declared a Psychology minor prior to the 2002-03 academic year may choose any three of the eleven core courses.

Students who declared a Psychology minor prior to the 2005-06 academic year may choose to complete seven total courses:

Units
PSYCH 1Introduction to Psychology5
PSYCH 10Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus5
Three core courses
Two elective courses

Independent study, research, and practica cannot be counted toward the minor. Summer Quarter Psychology courses are not applicable toward the 35 units needed for the minor.

All courses used to fulfill the requirements of the minor must be passed with a grade of C- or better, except for courses offered only on a satisfactory/no credit basis. No more than 10 units of transfer credit may be counted toward the Psychology minor.

 

Master of Arts in Psychology

The Department of Psychology offers a Master of Arts degree only to students concurrently enrolled in other Stanford programs.

A Master of Arts degree is available to students enrolled in the Department's Ph.D. program . For such students, the requirements of the M.A. degree are listed in the "Doctoral" tab of this section.

A separate program called the Coterminal Master's Program (described below) is available to Stanford undergraduates.

In exceptional cases, students concurrently enrolled in another doctoral or professional program at Stanford may also apply for the M.A. degree. In such cases, the applicable admissions and degree requirements are determined on a case by case basis. Such applicants should consult with the student services office in the Department of Psychology.

All applicants must satisfy University residency requirements for the degree and are responsible for consulting with their primary departments or the Financial Aid Office about the effects of the proposed program on their current funding. General University requirements for the master's degree are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

Coterminal Master's Program

Stanford undergraduates who would like advanced training in Psychology may apply for a coterminal M.A. degree in Psychology. To do so, students should consult with the student services office. Along with a coterminal program application, applicants must submit:

  1. a statement of purpose
  2. a preliminary program plan specifying the courses in which they intend to enroll to fulfill degree requirements
  3. at least two letters of recommendation from Stanford faculty members familiar with their academic work
  4. a current Stanford undergraduate transcript
  5. a written nomination by a member of the Psychology faculty who has agreed to serve as the student's master's degree adviser

This program is limited in size and admission is selective. Applicants must have earned a minimum of 120 units towards graduation as shown on the undergraduate transcript. The department's deadline for the submission of an application to the coterminal program is January 31, 2014.

Admission to the coterminal program may not be deferred. Students must start in the quarter (usually Autumn Quarter) for which they are admitted.

University requirements for the coterminal M.A. are described in the "Coterminal Bachelor's and Master's Degrees" section of this bulletin. For University coterminal degree program rules and University application forms, see the Stanford Undergrad Coterm Guide.

Students in the Coterminal program may be terminated if they no longer have an adviser, or if they are not making satisfactory progress in course work or research.

Degree Requirements for a Coterminal Master's Degree

Course work: For the coterminal master's degree, students must complete at least 45 units of Psychology courses, none of which may duplicate courses taken for the undergraduate degree, and none of which may be courses taken in the Summer Quarter.  Courses to be counted toward the master's degree must be passed with a grade of B- or better, unless the course is offered only on a satisfactory/no credit basis.

Of these 45 required units, at least 27 must be in Psychology courses numbered 200 or above. Units from research, teaching, practica, independent study, and lab courses may not be counted toward these 27 units, but may be counted as part of the remaining 18 required units. Examples of such course that may not be counted toward these 27 units include:

Units
PSYCH 246Cognitive and Neuroscience Friday Seminar1
PSYCH 258Graduate Seminar in Social Psychology Research1-3
PSYCH 269Graduate Seminar in Affective Science1
PSYCH 275Graduate Research1-15
PSYCH 281Practicum in Teaching1-5
PSYCH 282Practicum in Teaching PSYCH 11-2
PSYCH 297Seminar for Coterminal Master of Arts1-2

Included in the 27 units of graduate-level courses must be at least one 3-unit course from each of Area A (cognitive science and neuroscience) and Area B (affective, developmental, and social psychology), and at least one upper division statistics course that has been approved by the student's adviser. Further, all coterminal students are encouraged to enroll in PSYCH 196 Contemporary Psychology: Overview of Theory, Research, Applications. The specific courses in Area A and Area B available to coterminal master students vary from year to year, and prospective students should consult with the department's Student Services Office for up-to-date information on courses available and their assignment to Area A and Area B.

Research: Demonstration of competence in the design and execution of psychological research is also required for receipt of the master's degree. This demonstration entails completion of a master's thesis containing original research. If the student is currently writing a senior honors thesis, this honors thesis may be accepted as proof of research competence provided the honors thesis is judged to be master's level research by the student's adviser and the department's graduate program committee. If the student has completed an honors thesis in Psychology in the prior year, the student would be expected to continue independent research during the coterminal year and to submit this research in a written report that, together with the completed honors thesis, would constitute the master's thesis. All students are required to make an oral presentation of their research during the Spring Quarter, and to present their thesis or written report at the end of that Quarter.

Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology

There are no specific course requirements for admission to the doctoral program. However, an applicant should have research experience as an undergraduate, as well as the equivalent of an undergraduate major in Psychology. The major focus of the doctoral program is on research training, and admission is highly selective.

Applicants for admission must submit their scores on the general Graduate Record Examination as part of the application. GRE subject scores are recommended.

General University requirements for the Ph.D. are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

In addition to fulfilling Stanford University requirements for the degree, the following departmental requirements are stipulated.

First-Year Course Requirements

During the first year of graduate study, the student must take PSYCH 207 Professional Seminar for First-Year Ph.D. Graduate Students, at least one approved graduate statistics course, and at least two core courses from the following list:

Units
PSYCH 202Cognitive Neuroscience3
PSYCH 205Foundations of Cognition1-3
PSYCH 211Developmental Psychology1-3
PSYCH 212Social Psychology1-3
or PSYCH 215 Mind, Culture, and Society
PSYCH 213Affective Science3

Students in each area may be required to take up to two additional non-core graduate courses in their area of specialization.

The student is expected to spend at least half of the time in research from the beginning of the first year of graduate study to the completion of the Ph.D., taking no more than 10 units of course work each quarter. At the end of the first year of graduate study, the student must file with the department a written report of the first-year research activities.

Second-Year Course Requirements

By the end of the second year of graduate study, the student should complete the core courses listed above and take a second approved graduate course in statistics.

Optional Application for Conferral of the M. A. Degree: Graduate students, who have complete (a) the first-year and second-year course requirements, and (b) at least 45 units of Psychology courses, may apply for conferral of the M.A. degree. This application should be discussed with the Student Services office in the Department of Psychology.

Third-Year and Beyond

Students are expected to form a research committee, which must include the dissertation reading committee, before the initiation of the dissertation research. The research committee includes the dissertation adviser and consists of at least three faculty members, at least two of whom should have primary appointments in the Psychology department. For University guidelines for the composition of the dissertation reading committee, see the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

The research committee should meet no later than the last day of classes of Spring Quarter of the third year, and determines the timeline for further development of the dissertation research project. Subsequent meetings are triggered by the completion of one of two documents: a dissertation proposal (DP) or a conceptual analysis of the dissertation area (CADA). The timing and sequencing of the DP and CADA are developed by the student in consultation with the committee. As a general guide, one of the two preliminary elements (CADA or DP) should be completed by the end of the third Summer Quarter and the second should be completed by the end of the fourth Spring Quarter. Students are free to alter the membership of the committee at any time during the process, subject to consultation with the adviser.

The DP should be a description of the proposed research. The CADA provides a framework for the research topic of the dissertation, addresses the central issues within the specialty area, and reviews the pertinent literature.

Advanced Course or Minor Requirements

The candidate must complete 12 units of advanced graduate course work or a Ph.D. minor in another department. If a student waives the minor requirement in favor of the 12 advanced units, the student must fulfill the advanced course requirement by taking (a) non-core graduate courses required by a particular area, or (b) graduate-level courses in other departments comparable in quality to Psychology's graduate courses. If there is any question about comparability, the student should consult the adviser, student services, and, in some cases, the graduate program committee chair before taking the course.

Orals

The candidate must pass the University oral examination, which also serves as a dissertation defense. A committee is formed to review the oral examination, including the dissertation reading committee, an additional faculty member, and one oral examination committee chair from outside the Psychology department. The oral examination consists of a 40-45-minute presentation to the department of the completed dissertation research. Parents and friends are welcome to attend. Following the presentation, the student and the committee convene for a discussion of the dissertation and the presentation.

Dissertation Requirements

The candidate must complete a dissertation satisfactory to the dissertation reading committee prior to the oral examination. Minor revisions to formatting may be made after the oral examination.

Ph.D. candidacy expires five years after admission to candidacy at the end of the second year of study. Reapplication requires department reexamination.

Student Evaluations

First-Year Evaluation: It is the department's policy to evaluate the progress of each graduate student at the end of the first year of graduate study. As part of the procedure, each student is required to file with the department a report of the first-year research activities.

Students should discuss this report and the evaluation procedures with their adviser as early as possible in their first year. If the student fulfills the academic promise displayed upon entrance, he or she is invited to continue working towards the doctorate.

The first-year evaluation is primarily based on three factors:

  1. quality of research carried out in the first year
  2. performance in courses (especially required courses)
  3. recommendations of the adviser (including a commitment on the part of that adviser to continue in that role).

Second-Year and Beyond Evaluation: A similar evaluation is conducted at the end of each year of graduate training involving the same criteria as the first year; however, the student is not required to submit a paper. Students who are not making satisfactory progress may be dropped from the program.

The Doctoral Training Program

As indicated by the requirements described above, a student concentrates in any one of several areas within Psychology. Regardless of area, however, the training program places emphasis on the development of research competence, and students are encouraged to develop those skills and attitudes that are appropriate to a career of continuing research productivity.

Two kinds of experience are necessary for this purpose. One is the learning of substantial amounts of technical information. A number of courses and seminars are provided to assist in this learning, and a student is expected to work out a program, with his or her adviser, to attain this knowledge in the most stimulating and economical fashion.

A second aspect of training is one that cannot be gained from the courses or seminars. This is firsthand knowledge of, and practical experience with, the methods of psychological investigation and study. These methods include ways of behaving with the subjects being studied. Students are provided with whatever opportunities they need to reach those levels of competence representative of doctoral standing. Continuing research programs, sponsored by members of the faculty, offer direct opportunities for experience in fields represented by the faculty's many research interests.

Each student achieves competence in unique ways and at different rates. Each student and adviser share in planning a program leading to the objectives discussed. The student is expected to spend half of his or her time on research and takes no more than 10 units of course work per quarter. For further information please contact the student services office and the department graduate guide.

Teaching Requirement

The department views experience in supervised teaching as an integral part of its graduate program. Regardless of the source of financial support, all students serve as teaching assistants for at least five Psychology courses during their graduate study. Of these five teaching occasions, two must involve PSYCH 1, or a Statistics course (i.e., PSYCH 10, PSYCH 252, PSYCH 253, and PSYCH 254).

Units
PSYCH 1Introduction to Psychology5
or PSYCH 10 Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus
PSYCH 252Statistical Methods for Behavioral and Social Sciences1-6
or PSYCH 253 Statistical Theory, Models, and Methodology
Lab in Experimental Methods

Students are discouraged from participating in teaching during the first year of graduate study. Students typically progress from closely supervised teaching to more independent work. Some students may be invited to offer a supervised, but essentially independent, seminar during their final year of graduate study.

Psychology Colloquium

The Psychology Colloquium meets on most Wednesday afternoons at 3:45 p.m. Speakers from Stanford and other institutions present topics of current interest. Graduate students are expected to attend. Additional announcements may be found at the Colloquium Schedule web site.

Ph.D. Minor in Psychology

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in other departments may elect a minor in Psychology. To obtain a minor, the student must complete 20 units of course work at the graduate level in the Department of Psychology, excluding PSYCH 275 Graduate Research. Crosslisted graduate courses can be used to satisfy this requirement. All courses counting toward the Ph.D. minor must be passed with a grade of 'B-' or better, unless the course is offered only on a credit/no credit basis.

Emeriti: (Professors) Albert Bandura, Gordon H. Bower, John H. Flavell, Leonard M. Horowitz, Roger N. Shepard, Claude Steele, Barbara Tversky, Philip G. Zimbardo

Chair: Ian Gotlib

Professors: Nalini Ambady, Laura L. Carstensen, Herbert H. Clark, Geoffrey Cohen, Carol Dweck, Ian H. Gotlib, James J. Gross, Stephen Kosslyn, John D. Krumboltz, Mark R. Lepper, Ellen M. Markman, Hazel R. Markus, James L. McClelland, Dale Miller, Benoit Monin, Lee D. Ross, Ewart A. C. Thomas, Anthony Wagner, Brian Wandell, Jeffrey J. Wine

Professor (Research): Anthony Norcia

Associate Professors: Jennifer L. Eberhardt, Anne Fernald, Kalanit Grill-Spector, Brian Knutson, Jeanne L. Tsai

Associate Professor (Teaching): Catherine Heaney

Assistant Professors: Michael C. Frank, Noah Goodman, Samuel M. McClure, Gregory M. Walton, Jamil Zaki

Assistant Professor (Research): Lera Boroditsky

Lecturers: Amie Haas, Beverley Hartman, Jennifer Winters

Courtesy Professors: William C. Dement, Gary H. Glover, Jon Krosnick, Tanya Luhrmann, William T. Newsome, Anne C. Petersen

 

Courses

PSYCH 1. Introduction to Psychology. 5 Units.

Human behavior and mental processes including the nervous system, consciousness, learning, memory, development, emotion, psychopathology, interpersonal process, society, and culture. Current research.

PSYCH 7Q. Language Understanding by Children and Adults. 3 Units.

How do we first learn to find meaning in strings of speech sounds? Understanding spoken language requires the rapid integration of acoustic information with linguistic knowledge and with conceptual knowledge based on experience with how things happen in the world. Topics include research on early development of language understanding and laboratory methods of how young children make sense of speech. Observations of preschool children and visits to Stanford laboratories. Might be repeatable for credit.

PSYCH 8N. The New Longevity. 3 Units.

Adult development from the perspective of life-span theory -- a conceptual framework that views development as a series of adaptations to physical, societal and individual resources and constraints. Students will learn about demographic and medical changes, ways that individuals typically change socially, emotionally and cognitively as they move through adulthood. An understanding of the conceptual foundations of the life-span approach and place aging of young people today in historical context.

PSYCH 10. Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus. 5 Units.

Techniques for organizing data, computing, and interpreting measures of central tendency, variability, and association. Estimation, confidence intervals, tests of hypotheses, t-tests, correlation, and regression. Possible topics: analysis of variance and chi-square tests, computer statistical packages.
Same as: STATS 60, STATS 160.

PSYCH 11N. Origin of Mental Life. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Mental life in infancy; how thinking originates. How do babies construe the objects, events, people, and language that surround them? Recent advances in psychological theory, hypotheses, and evidence about how the infant human mind develops.

PSYCH 12N. Self Theories. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. The impact of people's belief in a growing versus fixed self on their motivation and performance in school, business, sports, and relationships. How such theories develop and can be changed.

PSYCH 13N. Emotion Regulation. 3 Units.

This seminar provides a selective overview of the scientific study of emotion regulation. Topics include: theoretical foundations, cognitive consequences, developmental approaches, personality processes and individual differences, and clinical and treatment implications. Our focus is on interesting, experimentally tractable ideas. Meetings will be discussion based.

PSYCH 13S. Dynamical models of mental processes: Development, analysis, and simulation. 2 Units.

Mathematical modeling has been a critical component in modern psychological and cognitive neuroscience research on the dynamics of mental processes. This course is designed to equip the new generation of such scientists with tailored mathematical knowledge to develop models of their own. I will use classical models and my own experience in modeling decision making as examples to demonstrate the process from vague ideas to the development, refinement, analysis and simulation of dynamical models. Along the way, systematic knowledge in differential equations, numerical methods, principle component analysis etc will be provided to facilitate the general ground for future models of students¿ choosing. Open to graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

PSYCH 15N. Interpersonal Influence. 3 Units.

This course will examine how individuals influence each other, both intentionally as well as nonconsciously. The focus will be on individuals in dyads rather than in groups. We will examine a) subtle interpersonal influence processes such as nonverbal communication, b) structural sources of interpersonal influence such as gender, race, social class, and culture, and c) interpersonal influence within different relationships such as organizational and romantic relationships. Familiarity with technology and video editing is useful. Students will have the opportunity to make brief podcasts and iMovie videos, as weekly responses to readings, as well as for the final class project.

PSYCH 16N. Amines and Affect. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. How serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine influence people's emotional lives. This course is ideal for students that would like to get deeper exposure to cutting edge concepts and methods at the intersection of psychology and biology, and who plan to apply their knowledge to future research.

PSYCH 17N. Language and Society: How Languages Shape Lives. 3 Units.

Do people who speak different languages think differently? What role does language play in politics, law, and religion? The role of language in individual cognition and in society. Breaking news about language and society; the scientific basis for thinking about these broad issues.

PSYCH 25N. Psychology, Inequality, and the American Dream. 3 Units.

Despite legal prohibitions against discrimination and the fact that many people endorse egalitarian values, inequality persists in America. What role do psychological factors play in perpetuating inequality? How can psychologically "wise" reforms promote equal opportunity? Topics include prejudice and discrimination, school achievement, social class, and race/ethnicity.

PSYCH 26N. Language Acquisition: Exploring the Minds of Children. 3 Units.

Language is an extraordinary competence distinguishing humans from other species, yet there is debate about the role of biology in guiding language acquisition. Does language development follow an innate ¿bioprogram¿ or does it build on more general cognitive abilities, influenced by early experience? Topics include biological and experiential influences on the emergence of linguistic ability as children learn a first language. Discussions of theory and research, visits to Stanford laboratories and observations of very young language learners.

PSYCH 27N. The Psychology of Prejudice. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Social psychological theories and research on stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and racism. Psychological perspectives include those emphasizing personologic, cognitive, motivational, and sociocultural contributions to prejudice. Emphasis is on applying each approach to understanding real-world contexts such as educational and occupational contexts, and to the implications of this research for efforts to reduce prejudice and discrimination.

PSYCH 29N. Growing Up in America. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. To what extent is it possible to describe an "American" experience? How are different people included in or excluded from the imagined community that is America? How do a person's race, class, gender and sexuality affect his or her experience of belonging to this country? These are just some of the questions we will consider as we familiarize ourselves with the great diversity of childhood and young adult experiences of people who have grown up in America. We will read and discuss narratives written by men and women, by urban, suburban, and rural Americans, and by Asian Americans, African Americans, Native Americans, Latina/os, and European Americans.
Same as: ENGLISH 64N.

PSYCH 30. Introduction to Perception. 3 Units.

Behavioral and neural aspects of perception focusing on visual and auditory perception. Topics include: scientific methods for studying perception, anatomy and physiology of the visual and auditiory systems, color vision, depth perception, motion perception, stereopsis, visual recognition, pitch and loudness perception, speech perception, and reorganization of the visual system in the blind. nEnrollment open to incoming freshman.

PSYCH 35. Introduction to Cognitive and Information Sciences. 4 Units.

The history, foundations, and accomplishments of the cognitive sciences, including presentations by leading Stanford researchers in artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, and psychology. Overview of the issues addressed in the Symbolic Systems major.
Same as: LINGUIST 144, PHIL 190, SYMSYS 100.

PSYCH 45. Introduction to Learning and Memory. 3 Units.

The literature on learning and memory including cognitive and neural organization of memory, mechanisms of remembering and forgetting, and why people sometimes falsely remember events that never happened. Cognitive theory and behavioral evidence integrated with data from patient studies and functional brain imaging. Recommended: 1.

PSYCH 50. Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience. 4 Units.

Survey of topics relating brain activity to cognitive processes and behavior. The course begins with an overview of neurophysiology and techniques to measure brain activity. We then discuss perceptual and motor processes before investigating neural responses related to attention, memory, and cognitive control. The course concludes with a discussion of brain processes related to reward, decision making, and social cognition.

PSYCH 55. Introduction to Cognition and the Brain. 4 Units.

Major topics in cognitive psychology and neuroscience, including empirical approaches to perception, language, learning, memory, knowledge representation, problem solving, and reasoning.

PSYCH 60. Introduction to Developmental Psychology. 3 Units.

Psychological development from birth to adulthood, emphasizing infancy and the early and middle childhood years. The nature of change during childhood and theories of development. Recommended: 1.

PSYCH 60A. Introduction to Developmental Psychology Section. 2 Units.

Guided observation of children age 2-5 at Bing Nursery School. Corequisite: 60.

PSYCH 70. Introduction to Social Psychology. 4 Units.

Topics related to the influence of other people on individuals' thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Factors that affect the way that we perceive ourselves and others; how people influence others; how persuasion happens; what causes us to like, love, help, or hurt others; and how social psychology helps to understand quesions about law, business, and health. Fulfills WIM requirement.

PSYCH 75. Introduction to Cultural Psychology. 5 Units.

The cultural sources of diversity in thinking, emotion, motivation, self, personality, morality, development, and psychopathology.

PSYCH 80. Introduction to Personality and Affective Science. 3 Units.

How do we measure personality and emotion? What parts of your personality and emotions are set at birth? What parts of your personality and emotions are shaped by your sociocultural context? Can your personality and emotions make you sick? Can you change yours personality and emotions? There are questions we begin to address in this introductory course on personality and emotion. Prerequisite: PSYCH 1.

PSYCH 90. Introduction to Clinical Psychology. 3 Units.

History of clinical psychology, models and assessment of personality, behavior, cognition, psychopathology, and approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior. Emphasis is on current theory, research, issues in, and the role of clinical psychology in contemporary society. Recommended: 1.

PSYCH 95. Introduction to Abnormal Psychology. 3 Units.

Theories of and approaches to understanding the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of psychological disorders among adults and children. Research findings and diagnostic issues. Recommended: PSYCH 1.

PSYCH 101. Community Health Psychology. 4 Units.

Social ecological perspective on health emphasizing how individual health behavior is shaped by social forces. Topics include: biobehavioral factors in health; health behavior change; community health promotion; and psychological aspects of illness, patient care, and chronic disease management. Prerequisites: HUMBIO 3B or PSYCH 1, or equivalent.
Same as: HUMBIO 128.

PSYCH 102. Longevity. 4 Units.

Interdisciplinary. Challenges to and solutions for the young from increased human life expectancy: health care, financial markets, families, work, and politics. Guest lectures from engineers, economists, geneticists, and physiologists.
Same as: HUMBIO 149L, NENS 202.

PSYCH 104. Uniquely Human. 3 Units.

Are humans the only species that displays altruism, experiences uncertainty, and is capable of language and deception? Sources include empirical and theoretical papers in comparative psychology. Prerequisite: 1.

PSYCH 104S. Affective Science. 3 Units.

This course will provide an introduction to a growing field known as affective science, which focuses on the study of emotion and other related phenomena (i.e., motivation, pain, etc.). We will explore core questions in affective science, including: 1) What is emotion and why is it useful? 2) How do emotions influence the way we perceive, attend to, and understand the world? 3) How do emotions become dysfunctional, and how can individuals control them? We will attempt to approach these questions from multiple perspectives, including i) neurobiological ii) behavioral, and iii) sociocultural perspectives.

PSYCH 105. Social Neuroscience. 3 Units.

Over the last 20 years, neuroscientists have become increasingly interested in studying topics that were previously the purview of social psychologists. In this seminar, we will survey neuroimaging research on topics such as self perception, person perception, empathy, and social influence. More broadly, we will consider the contributions that neuroscience can (and cannot) make to social psychological theory. Students will be responsible for leading discussions and producing one in-depth review or research paper at the end of the quarter.

PSYCH 105S. General Psychology. 3 Units.

In what ways does the scientific study of psychology increase our understanding of the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors we observe and experience in everyday life? What are the main areas of psychology and the different questions they seek to answer? This course will give you an introduction to the field of psychology and its many different areas. You will learn about the central methods, findings, and unanswered questions of these areas, as well as how to interpret and critically evaluate research findings.

PSYCH 106. Seminar on Visual Development. 3 Units.

Describe basic development of visual system, introduce research methods/experimental designs, and present pathologies of visual development.

PSYCH 107. Visual Processing of Faces. 2-3 Units.

How do we perceive a face, recognize its identity or judge its subtle communicative cues (e.g. emotion or intention)? How does our ability to visually process faces develop with age and change though out our life span? What is the role of nature vs. nurture in this development? How do social attitudes, culture and face perception interact? In addressing these questions, we will learn about behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging approaches to understanding face processing and critically examine the theories and original research that have defined the field. The course is designed to give you an in depth understanding of face processing while exposing you to methods and ideas that are useful in evaluating a wide range of cognitive neuroscience research.

PSYCH 107S. Introduction to Social Psychology. 3 Units.

A comprehensive overview of social psychology with in-depth lectures exploring the history of the field, reviewing major findings and highlighting areas of current research. Focus is on classic studies that have profoundly changed our understanding of human nature and social interaction, and, in turn, have triggered significant paradigm shifts within the field. Topics include: individuals and groups, conformity and obedience, attraction, intergroup relations, and judgment and decision-making.

PSYCH 108S. Introduction to Social Psychology. 3 Units.

This course aims to blend a comprehensive overview of social psychology with in-depth lectures exploring the history of the field, reviewing major findings and highlighting areas of current research. The course will focus on classic studies that have profoundly changed our understanding of human nature and social interaction, and, in turn, have triggered significant paradigm shifts within the field. Some of the topics covered in this class will include: individuals and groups, conformity and obedience, attraction, intergroup relations, and judgment and decision-making. The course, overall, will attempt to foster interest in social psychology as well as scientific curiosity in a fun, supportive and intellectually stimulating environment.

PSYCH 109S. Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience. 3 Units.

3)Introduction of the neurobiology of behavior including the biology of nervous system, the neural basis for perception, learning, memory, decision making and neurological disorders. Introduction to different research techniques that are prevalent in current neuroscience studies including fMRI, EEG, TMS and single unit recording.

PSYCH 110. Research Methods and Experimental Design. 5 Units.

Structured research exercises and design of an individual research project. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

PSYCH 111S. Abnormal Psychology. 3 Units.

This course will provide an introduction to abnormal psychology. It will be targeted towards students who have had little or no exposure to coursework on mental disorders. The course will have three core aims: 1) Explore the nature of mental disorders, including the phenomenology, signs/symptoms, and causal factors underlying various forms of mental illness, 2) Explore conventional and novel treatments for various mental disorders, 3) Develop critical thinking skills in the theory and empirical research into mental disorders. The course will explore a wide range of mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, addiction, eating disorders, and personality disorders.

PSYCH 113S. Developmental Psychology. 3 Units.

This class will introduce students to the basic principles of developmental psychology. As well as providing a more classic general overview, we will also look towards current methods and findings. Students will gain an appreciation of how developmental psychology as a science can be applied to their general understanding of children and the complicated process of growing into adults.

PSYCH 115S. Personality Psychology. 3 Units.

This course will focus on current empirical and theoretical approaches to personality. Lectures will be organized around the following questions central to personality research: How and why do people differ? How do we measure individual differences? Does personality change over time? How does personality interact with sociocultural factors to influence behavior? What makes people happy? What are the physical, mental, and social consequences of personalities?.

PSYCH 118F. Literature and the Brain. 5 Units.

Recent developments in and neuroscience and experimental psychology have transformed the way we think about the operations of the brain. What can we learn from this about the nature and function of literary texts? Can innovative ways of speaking affect ways of thinking? Do creative metaphors draw on embodied cognition? Can fictions strengthen our "theory of mind" capabilities? What role does mental imagery play in the appreciation of descriptions? Does (weak) modularity help explain the mechanism and purpose of self-reflexivity? Can the distinctions among types of memory shed light on what narrative works have to offer?
Same as: ENGLISH 118, FRENCH 118, FRENCH 318.

PSYCH 119. Psychology and Public Policy. 5 Units.

Applications of psychology to public and social policy. Factors that affect the influence of psychological research and individual psychology on the creation of policy, and the influence of policy on attitudes and behavior at the personal and societal levels. Topics include education, health care, and criminal justice.

PSYCH 119S. The Psychology of Stigma. 3 Units.

What obese people, African Americans, people with physical disabilities, lesbians, and Muslims have in common: social stigma. The social and psychological experiences of individuals living with social stigmas. Classic and current theory and research. Topics include: function, nature, and types of stigma; how stigmatized individuals view their identities and cope; mental and cognitive consequences; and interactions between stigmatized and non-stigmatized. Literature employing research methods including neuroimaging and social interaction studies.

PSYCH 120. Cellular Neuroscience: Cell Signaling and Behavior. 4 Units.

Neural interactions underlying behavior. Prerequisites: PSYCH 1 or basic biology.
Same as: BIO 153.

PSYCH 121. Ion Transport and Intracellular Messengers. 1-3 Unit.

(Graduate students register for 228.) Ion channels, carriers, ion pumps, and their regulation by intracellular messengers in a variety of cell types. Recommended: 120, introductory course in biology or human biology.
Same as: PSYCH 228.

PSYCH 124S. Applying Psychology to Modern Life. 3 Units.

A scientific examination of everyday modern life. Topics include: how research on attention and memory can be applied to improve study strategies; how advertisers persuade and how their techniques can be resisted; how interpersonal conflicts can be avoided through knowledge of common errors in judging other people; and how studies on attraction and love can improve close relationships.

PSYCH 125. Beyond Stereotype Threat: Claiming a Rightful Place in an Academic Community. 3 Units.

Stereotype threat as mitigating the quality of a student's test performance; its impact on academic success at Stanford. How to reduce the impact of stereotype threat on Stanford students.
Same as: CTL 130.

PSYCH 125S. Language andThought. 3 Units.

How are we able to produce and comprehend language in all its complexity? How does language processing interact with other parts of cognition? In this course, we will focus on several main themes: language production and comprehension, discourse, language acquisition, bilingualism, and linguistic relativity. We will explore these themes through lecture, demonstrations, analysis of empirical work, and student-led discussion. Special attention will also be given to the various experimental methods we use to conduct psycholinguistic and developmental research (e.g., self-paced reading, eye-tracking, cross-modal priming, and neural imaging).

PSYCH 129. Happiness, Well-Being, Gender. 1-3 Unit.

Exploring the meaning and attainment of psychological well-being and happiness, this course will address gender differences in well-being and approaches that can be used by all individuals to improve their state of happiness and well-being. Course literature will be drawn primarily from social, clinical, and positive psychology, but will be drawn from other disciplines as well. Students will actively engage with course material by critiquing studies, discussing research, and applying methods for improving well-being to their daily lives.
Same as: FEMGEN 156.

PSYCH 131. Language and Thought. 4 Units.

The psychology of language including: production and understanding in utterances; from speech sounds to speaker's meaning; children's acquisition of the first language; and the psychological basis for language systems. Language functions in natural contexts and their relation to the processes by which language is produced, understood, and acquired. Prerequisite: 1 or LINGUIST 1.
Same as: PSYCH 262.

PSYCH 132S. The Neglected Senses: Hearing, Touch, Smell and Taste. 3 Units.

Whereas psychology and neuroscience have made great strides in understanding how we perceive the world through all five of our senses, most undergraduate courses focus primarily on vision. The most popular undergraduate perception textbooks devote less than half of their pages to all four other senses. This course will be devoted to these neglected senses: hearing, taste, olfaction and touch. The course will provide answers for the following questions: What stimuli activate the senses of hearing, taste, olfaction and touch? How do we detect that these stimuli are there? How does the brain process information from the senses? How do the senses affect each other? And what can we learn from studying people¿s behavior alone (using psychological methods)?.

PSYCH 134. Seminar on Language and Deception. 3 Units.

Deceptive, exploitative, and other noncooperative uses of language. How is language used to deceive or exploit? Where are these techniques practiced and why? What are the personal, ethical, and social consequences of these practices? Prerequisite: 131, LINGUIST 1, or PHIL 181.

PSYCH 134S. The Art and Science of Emotional Intelligence. 3 Units.

Emotional intelligence has been promoted as essential in finding meaning and fulfillment in our work and relationships. This course is designed to provide an introduction to research and theory on emotional intelligence as a relatively new concept in psychology that has profound influence in education, health, and business. We will critically review it as a scientific concept, looking at the research and the biological bases for emotional intelligence. We will then explore its four basic areas of self understanding, self management, social understanding, and social management. For each area we will engage in self reflection and learn and practice ways of enhancing our emotional intelligence.

PSYCH 138. Wise Interventions. 4 Units.

Classic and contemporary psychological interventions; the role of psychological factors in social reforms for social problems involving healthcare, the workplace, education, intergroup, relations, and the law. Topics include theories of intervention, the role of laboratory research, evaluation, and social policy.
Same as: PSYCH 238.

PSYCH 140S. Sport Psychology. 3 Units.

Focus is on research methods and findings and how to apply these findings to students' own performance. Topics include methods of performance enhancement, psychological characteristics of top performers, group dynamics and processes, effective leadership practices, the effects of stereotyping on sport participation and performance, and debates in the field. Emphasis will be on sports, although most topics can be applied to performance in general.

PSYCH 141. Cognitive Development. 3 Units.

How children's thinking and mental abilities change from infancy on. The major theories and explanations of intellectual growth. Sources include classic findings and state-of-the-art research on cognitive development. Prerequisite: 1.

PSYCH 141S. Health Psychology. 3 Units.

Why is it so difficult for people to stick to an exercise plan? Why don¿t people take their doctor¿s advice? Why aren¿t public health announcements more effective? This course addresses these questions by providing an overview of health psychology: the scientific study of behaviors and cognitive processes related to health states. In this course, we will discuss the mind/body connection, the influence of social/cultural and physical environments on our health, cognitive processing of health information, health belief models, and the link between emotion and health. Understanding the interactions between these biological, psychological, and social influences on individuals' health states is crucial for developing effective health communication and intervention programs. We will approach all course topics from both theory-driven and applied perspectives.

PSYCH 142S. The Psychology of Social Media. 3 Units.

People interact with the world around them largely through mediated means ¿ internet, television, radio, etc. This course will survey current social media ¿ e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, etc ¿ and popular culture in order to highlight the psychological processes at play. Topics will include: social belonging, interpersonal attraction, identity, bias, and cyberbullying. Students will be expected to learn how to study social media and popular culture using psychological methods.

PSYCH 143. Developmental Anomalies. 3 Units.

For advanced students. Developmental disorders and impairments. What the sparing of mental abilities in otherwise devastating disorders (or vice versa) tells about the mind and its development in the normal case. Examples of disorders and impairments: autism, congenital blindness, deafness, mental retardation, attachment disorder, and Williams syndrome. Limited enrollment. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

PSYCH 143S. The Psychology of Mean Girls. 3 Units.

This course examines the phenomenon of relational aggression and its implications on girls' lives and relationships. Using the theoretical lenses of moral and social psychology, we will consider how girls experience relational aggression and how it affects their friendships and other social negotiations. While adolescents will be the main focus group, examples from college-age and older girls will also be considered. Classwork will include case studies, reflection papers, and a final research paper on a related topic of the students' choice.

PSYCH 145. Seminar on Infant Development. 1-2 Unit.

For students preparing honors research. Conceptual and methodological issues related to research on developmental psycholinguistics; training in experimental design; and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data.

PSYCH 146. Observation of Children. 3-5 Units.

Learning about children through guided observations at Bing Nursery School, Psychology's lab for research and training in child development. Physical, emotional, social, cognitive, and language development. Recommended: 60.

PSYCH 147. Development in Early Childhood. 3-5 Units.

Supervised experience with young children at Bing Nursery School. 3 units require 4 hours per week in Bing classrooms throughout the quarter; 4 units require 7 hours per week; 5 units require 10.5 hours per week. Seminar on developmental issues in the Bing teaching/learning environment. Recommended: 60 or 146, or consent of instructor.

PSYCH 148. Introduction to Counseling. 3 Units.

The goal of counseling is to help others to create more satisfying lives for themselves. Clients learn to create and capitalize on unexpected events to open up new opportunities. The success of counseling is judged, not by the words and actions of the counselor, but by the progress that the client makes in the real world after counseling itself is ended. Students are encouraged to exert their full efforts within reasonable time limits to improve their competence.
Same as: EDUC 130.

PSYCH 149. The Infant Mind: Cognitive Development over the First Year. 3 Units.

How do babies learn so much in so little time? Emphasis is on cognitive and perceptual development, and the relationship between brain and behavior in infancy. Prerequisite: 1. Recommended: 60 or 141.

PSYCH 150. Race and Crime. 3 Units.

The goal of this course is to examine social psychological perspectives on race, crime, and punishment in the United States. Readings will be drawn not only from psychology, but also from sociology, criminology, economics, and legal studies. We will consider the manner in which social psychological variables may operate at various points in the crimina justice system- from policing, to sentencing, to imprisonment, to re-entry. Conducted as a seminar.

PSYCH 151. Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology. 3 Units.

A broad overview of specific emotion regulation impairments in various psychopathologies and discussion of how current treatment protocols are likely to aid recovery by forming more adaptive emotion regulation ability. nTopics include: Foundations and Emotion regulation models, Emotion regulation impairments in Mood disorders (Unipolar Depression and Bipolar Disorder), Anxiety disorders (Social Phobia, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, General Anxiety Disorder), Eating disorders (Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa), and Personality Disorders (Narcissistic Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder).

PSYCH 152. Mediation for Dispute Resolution. 3 Units.

Mediation as more effective and less expensive than other forms of settling disputes such as violence, lawsuits, or arbitration. How mediation can be structured to maximize the chances for success. Simulated mediation sessions.
Same as: EDUC 131.

PSYCH 152F. Doing Race and Ethnicity: How and Why it Matters. 3 Units.

Going to school and work, renting an apartment, going to the doctor, watching television, voting, reading, and attending religious services are all activities that involve doing¿consciously or unconsciously¿race and ethnicity. In this course, we draw from history, psychology, genetics, and literary studies to understand contemporary racial formations and cultural representations. Course will include two 50-minute lectures with a required online discussion section. Enrollment capped at 20 students.

PSYCH 154. Judgment and Decision-Making. 3 Units.

Survey of research on how we make assessments and decisions particularly in situations involving uncertainty. Emphasis will be on instances where behavior deviates from optimality. Overview of recent works examining the neural basis of judgment and decision-making.

PSYCH 157. Social Foundations of Expertise and Intelligence. 3 Units.

Psychological conceptions of expertise, ability, and intelligence and the research methods used to study these attributes. Topics include: research on how expertise in a diverse set of disciplines is developed; the role of practice in nurturing expertise; whether intelligence predicts life outcomes; the genetic and environmental determinants of intelligence; whether genes or environment explain racial differences such as the Black-White performance gap and the East Asian achievement advantage; and the Flynn effect.

PSYCH 158. Emotions: History, Theories, and Research. 1-3 Unit.

Graduate students register for 259. Theoretical and empirical issues in the domain of emotions. The history of emotion theories, current approaches, and the interaction between emotion and cognition.
Same as: PSYCH 259.

PSYCH 159. Psychology of Attitude Change and Social Influence. 3 Units.

Review of classic and current research on attitudes, attitude change and persuasion. Increase appreciation for the ways that our thoughts, actions, and feelings are shaped and manipulated by social influences.

PSYCH 161. Emotion. 3 Units.

(Graduate students register for 261.) The scientific study of emotion. Topics: models of emotion, emotion antecedents, emotional responses (facial, subjective, and physiological), functions of emotion, emotion regulation, individual differences, and health implications. Focus is on experimentally tractable ideas.
Same as: PSYCH 261.

PSYCH 167. Seminar on Aggression. 3 Units.

The causes and modification of individual and collective aggression. Major issues in aggression: social labeling of injurious conduct, social determinants of aggression, effects of the mass media, institutionally sanctioned violence, terrorism, psychological mechanisms of moral disengagement, modification of aggressive styles of behavior, and legal sanctions and deterrence doctrines.

PSYCH 170. The Psychology of Communication About Politics in America. 4 Units.

Focus is on how politicians and government learn what Americans want and how the public's preferences shape government action; how surveys measure beliefs, preferences, and experiences; how poll results are criticized and interpreted; how conflict between polls is viewed by the public; how accurate surveys are and when they are accurate; how to conduct survey research to produce accurate measurements; designing questionnaires that people can understand and use comfortably; how question wording can manipulate poll results; corruption in survey research.
Same as: COMM 164, COMM 264, POLISCI 224L.

PSYCH 171. Research Seminar on Aging. 4 Units.

Two quarter practicum exposes students to multiple phases of research by participating in a laboratory focusing on social behavior in adulthood and old age. Review of current research; participation in ongoing data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Prerequisites: 1, research experience, and consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 179. The Psychology of Everyday Morality. 4 Units.

(Graduate students register for 270.) For graduate students, coterms, and senior Psychology majors. Traditional approaches focusing on how morality colors mundane human activities such as eating and on morality as defined by actors themselves rather than social scientists. Moral hypocrisy, food and disgust, taboo trade-offs, moral reproach, and prejudice with compunction. Limited enrollment. Prerequisite: 70 and consent of instructor.
Same as: PSYCH 270.

PSYCH 180. Social Psychological Perspectives on Stereotyping and Prejudice. 4 Units.

The seminar will review classic and current literature from social psychology on stereotyping and prejudice. We will cover the perceiver's persepective including the formation and maintenance of stereotypes, the functions and costs of stereotyping, and stereotype change. We will also explore how targets are affected by stereotypes and prejudice, as well as intergroup relations. Recent research concerning the role of cognitive, affective, motivational and behavioral processes will be emphasized.

PSYCH 182. Seminar in Applied Cognitive Development. 3 Units.

Much is known about how children learn. But how can this knowledge be used to create effective, age-appropriate health and educational interventions for children? This course surveys research in basic and applied cognitive development. Students will then have the opportunity to design an intervention for young children based on what they¿ve learned. Recommended: PSYCH 60 or PSYCH 141.

PSYCH 183. Mind, Culture, and Society Research Core. 2-3 Units.

Required of students in the mind, culture, and society specialization track. Research training on a variety of projects that explore how social identities such as race, class, gender, and culture affect psychological experiences across domains including education, law, business and health. Must participate for two consecutive quarters. Permission of instructor required. May be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 186. The Psychology of Everyday Morality. 3 Units.

Recent literature on morality from a social psychological perspective. Topics include moral judgment, moral intuitions, moral hypocrisy, moral identity, moralization, moral reproach, shame and guilt, temptations, and self-regulation. Contemporary psychological research emphasizing descriptive approaches (what people actually do) rather than normative ones (what one should do).
Same as: PSYCH 286.

PSYCH 189. Stanford Center on Longevity Practicum. 3 Units.

Student involvement in an interdisciplinary center aimed at changing the culture of human aging using science and technology. May be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 190. Special Research Projects. 1-6 Unit.

May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

PSYCH 192. Career and Personal Counseling. 3 Units.

Theories and methods for helping people create more satisfying lives for themselves. Simulated counseling experiences.
Same as: EDUC 134, EDUC 234.

PSYCH 193. Special Laboratory Research. 1-6 Unit.

May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: 1, 10, and consent of instructor.

PSYCH 193A. Special Laboratory Research. 1-6 Unit.

May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: 1, 10, and consent of instructor.

PSYCH 194. Reading and Special Work. 1-3 Unit.

Independent study. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

PSYCH 195. Special Laboratory Projects. 1-6 Unit.

Independent study. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: 1, 10, and consent of instructor.

PSYCH 196. Contemporary Psychology: Overview of Theory, Research, Applications. 3 Units.

Capstone experience for juniors and seniors that bridges course work with research opportunities. Lectures representing the department's areas: social, personality, developmental, neuroscience, and cognitive psychology. Faculty present current research. Discussions led by advanced graduate students in the field represented by that week's guest. Students write research proposals. Small grants available to students to conduct a pilot study of their proposed research. Limited enrollment. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

PSYCH 196A. Advanced Psychology Research Methods. 3 Units.

This course is designed for advanced psychology students familiar with basic research methods (Honors and Coterms) who wish to build on and develop more sophisticated, independent research skills. Topics will include research design and evaluation, introductory statistics and basic programming in R, logistics of running a study at Stanford (including online studies with Qualtrics and Amazon¿s Mechanical Turk), interpreting and writing up the results of statistical analyses, giving an academic presentation, and more. Students will gain hands on, pragmatic skills in each of these areas through individual and group projects and presentations, problem sets, and instructor and peer feedback. By the end of the course, students will have the knowledge and skills they need to develop and execute their own independent research project (e.g., their honors or coterm thesis project).

PSYCH 197. Advanced Research. 1-4 Unit.

Limited to students in senior honors program. Weekly research seminar, independent research project under the supervision of an appropriate faculty member. A detailed proposal is submitted at the end of Autumn Quarter. Research continues during Winter and Spring quarters as 198. A report demonstrating sufficient progress is required at the end of Winter Quarter.

PSYCH 198. Senior Honors Research. 1-4 Unit.

Limited to students in the senior honors program. Finishing the research and data analysis, written thesis, and presentation at the Senior Honors Convention. May be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 199. Temptations and Self Control. 2 Units.

(Graduate students register for 299.) Why do people do things that that they come to regret? How can people minimize behavior such as exercise avoidance, angry words, overeating, unsafe sex, and dangerous driving? Sources include classical and current research from experimental psychology, neuroscience, behavioral economics, and neuroeconomics. Real-world applications.
Same as: PSYCH 299.

PSYCH 201. Social Psychology Lecture Series. 3 Units.

Required of social psychology graduate students. Guest lecturers from Stanford and other institutions. May be repeated for credit. (Miller).

PSYCH 202. Cognitive Neuroscience. 3 Units.

Graduate core course. The anatomy and physiology of the brain. Methods: electrical stimulation of the brain, neuroimaging, neuropsychology, psychophysics, single-cell neurophysiology, theory and computation. Neuronal pathways and mechanisms of attention, consciousness, emotion, language, memory, motor control, and vision. Prerequisite: 207 or consent of instructor.

PSYCH 203. MODELS OF LANGUAGE ACQUISITION. 3 Units.

How do children learn to understand and produce their native language? Language acquisition is a core topic in cognitive science and has been a key test case for formal approaches. Topics include: learnability theory, grammatical approaches, connectionist models, and probabilistic models.

PSYCH 204. Computation and cognition: the probabilistic approach. 3-4 Units.

This course will introduce the probabilistic approach to cognitive science, in which learning and reasoning are understood as inference in complex probabilistic models. Examples will be drawn from areas including concept learning, causal reasoning, social cognition, and language understanding. Formal modeling ideas and techniques will be discussed in concert with relevant empirical phenomena.

PSYCH 204A. Human Neuroimaging Methods. 3 Units.

This course introduces the student to human neuroimaging using magnetic resonance scanners. The course is a mixture of lectures and hands-on software tutorials. The course begins by introducing basic MR principles. Then various MR measurement modalities are described, including several types of structural and functional imaging methods. Finally algorithms for analyzing and visualizing the various types of neuroimaging data are explained, including anatomical images, functional data, diffusion imaging (e.g., DTI) and magnetization transfer. Emphasis is on explaining software methods used for interpreting these types of data.

PSYCH 204B. Computational Neuroimaging: Analysis Methods. 1-3 Unit.

Neuroimaging methods with focus on data analysis techniques. Basic MR physics and BOLD signals. Methods for neuroimaging data using real and simulated data sets. Topics include: linearity of the fmri signal; time versus space resolution tradeoffs; noise in neuroimaging; correlation analysis; visualization methods; cortical reconstruction, inflation, and flattening; reverse engineering; can cognitive states be predicted from brain activation? Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

PSYCH 205. Foundations of Cognition. 1-3 Unit.

Topics: attention, memory, language, similarity and analogy, categories and concepts, learning, reasoning, and decision making. Emphasis is on processes that underlie the capacity to think and how these are implemented in the brain and modeled computationally. The nature of mental representations, language and thought, modular versus general purpose design, learning versus nativism. Prerequisite: 207 or consent of instructor. nOpen to Psychology PhD students only.

PSYCH 206. Cortical Plasticity: Perception and Memory. 1-3 Unit.

Seminar. Topics related to cortical plasticity in perceptual and memory systems including neural bases of implicity memory, recognition memory, visual priming, and perceptual learning. Emphasis is on recent research with an interdisciplinary scope, including theory, behavioral findings, neural mechanisms, and computational models. May be repeated for credit. Recommended: 30, 45.

PSYCH 207. Professional Seminar for First-Year Ph.D. Graduate Students. 2-3 Units.

Required of and limited to first-year Ph.D. students in Psychology. Major issues in contemporary psychology with historical backgrounds.

PSYCH 207B. Professional Development Seminar in Psychology. 0-1 Units.

For graduate students who wish to gain professional development skills to pursue an academic career. May be repeated for credit. Course is intended for second year Ph.D. student in Psychology but open to all years.

PSYCH 208. Advanced Topics in Self-Defense. 1-3 Unit.

Seminar. Threat to the self and how people deal with them. Readings from social psychological areas including social comparison, self-affirmation, self-completion, self-discrepancy, shame and guilt, terror management, dimensions of self-worth, self-regulation, self-presentation, psychophysiology, and moral identity. Enrollment limited to 15.

PSYCH 209. Models of Cognitive Processes. 4 Units.

For advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Models of cognitive and developmental processes, including perception, attention, memory, decision making, acting and thinking; and on modeling cognitive development, domain learning, and skill acquisition as processes that take place over time. Models considered will include parallel distributed processing models and other types of artificial neural network models as well as process models spanning a spectrum from abstract to neurally realistic. Students learn about classic models and carry out exercises in the first six weeks and will undertake projects and learn about recent developments during the last four weeks of the quarter. Recommended: computer programming ability, familiarity with differential equations, linear algebra, and probability theory, and courses in cognitive psychology and/or cognitive/systems neuroscience.

PSYCH 211. Developmental Psychology. 1-3 Unit.

Prerequisite: 207 or consent of instructor.

PSYCH 212. Social Psychology. 1-3 Unit.

Classic studies in experimental social psychology. Group and group dynamics; compliance and social pressure; conformity, cooperation, conflict, and social dilemmas; attraction and preference; attitudes and attitude change; social comparison, emotion, and affiliation; dissonance, consistency, and self-justification; attribution and self-perception; judgment and decision making, motivation, automaticity, and culture.

PSYCH 213. Affective Science. 3 Units.

This seminar is the core graduate course on affective science. We consider definitional issues, such as differences between emotion and mood, as well as issues related to the function of affect, such as the role affect plays in daily life. We review autonomic, neural, genetic, and expressive aspects of affective responding. Later in the course we discuss the role of affect in cognitive processing, specifically how affective states direct attention and influence memory, as well as the role of affect in decision making. We will also discuss emotion regulation and the strategic control of emotion; the cultural shaping of emotional experience and regulation; disorders of emotion; and developmental trajectories of experience and control from early to very late life. Meetings are discussion based. Attendance and active participation are required. Prerequisite: 207 or consent of instructor.

PSYCH 215. Mind, Culture, and Society. 3 Units.

Social psychology from the context of society and culture. The interdependence of psychological and sociocultural processes: how sociocultural factors shape psychological processes, and how psychological systems shape sociocultural systems. Theoretical developments to understand social issues, problems, and polity. Works of Baldwin, Mead, Asch, Lewin, Burner, and contemporary theory and empirical work on the interdependence of psychology and social context as constituted by gender, ethnicity, race, religion, and region of the country and the world. Prerequisite: 207 or consent of instructor.

PSYCH 216. Public Policy and Social Psychology: Implications and Applications. 4 Units.

Theories, insights, and concerns of social psychology relevant to how people perceive issues, events, and each other, and links between beliefs and individual and collective behavior. Topics include: situationist and subjectivist traditions of applied and theoretical social psychology; social comparison, dissonance, and attribution theories; social identity, stereotyping, racism, and sources of intergroup conflict and misunderstanding; challenges to universality assumptions regarding human motivation, emotion, and perception of self and others; the problem of producing individual and collective changes in norms and behavior.
Same as: IPS 207B, PUBLPOL 305B.

PSYCH 216A. Statistics and data analysis in MATLAB. 1-3 Unit.

This course will cover basic statistical principles that are widely n useful for the analysis of neuroscience and behavioral data, such as nerror bars and confidence intervals, multivariate probability n distributions, regression and classification, linear and nonlinear n models, cross-validation, bootstrapping, and model selection. In each n class, we will cover the theory behind a statistical principle and n learn how to implement the principle efficiently in MATLAB. Example n material can be found at http://randomanalyses.blogspot.com. n Prerequisites: Familiarity with basic statistics and programming in MATLAB.

PSYCH 217. Topics and Methods Related to Culture and Emotion. 1-3 Unit.

Preference to graduate students. How cultural factors shape emotion and other feeling states. Empirical and ethnographic literature, theories, and research on culture and emotion. Applications to clinical, educational, and occupational settings. Research in psychology, anthropology, and sociology. May be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 218. Early Social Cognitive Development. 1-3 Unit.

Current literature on social and cognitive development in infancy emphasizing the interface between the two domains. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

PSYCH 220. Special Topics in Cognitive Development. 1-3 Unit.

In the last few years, research at the intersection of cognitive and social development has burgeoned, yielding unprecedented knowledge about the roots of the human (social) mind in infants and children. In this course, using an outstanding new volume edited by Susan Gelman and Mahzarin Banaji, we will discuss work that highlights the social nature of cognitive development (e.g., the degree to which social learning may account for uniquely human cognitive abilities) and that explores the early emergence of social knowledge and understanding (e.g., mental models of relationships, knowledge of good and bad, beliefs about ingroups and outgroups, and knowledge of other people's minds).nnPrerequisites: Psychology 207 or permission of instructor.

PSYCH 220S. Temptations and Self Control. 3 Units.

Why do people do things they come to regret, such as lack of exercise, angry words, overeating, unsafe sex, or dangerous driving? How can they minimize such behaviors? Sources include classical and current research from experimental psychology, neuroscience, behavioral economics, and neuroeconomics. Emphasis is on real-world applications.

PSYCH 221. Applied Vision and Image Systems. 1-3 Unit.

This course is an introduction to imaging technologies including hardware and the image processing pipeline. There is an emphasis on how these technologies accommodate the requirements of the human visual system. The course is intended for students interested in various aspects of imaging technologies, includingnn- Digital cameras and displaysnn- Image processing and compressionnn- Image quality analysisnn- Human color, pattern and motion visionnnThe course consists of lectures, tutorials and a project. Lectures cover the tools used in digital imaging and image quality measurement. Tutorials and projects include extensive software simulations of the digital imaging pipeline. Some background in mathematics (linear algebra) and programming (Matlab) is valuable.

PSYCH 223. Social Norms. 3 Units.

This course covers research and theory on the origins and function of social norms. Topics include the estimation of public opinion, the function of norms as ideals and standards of judgment, and the impact of norms on collective and individual behavior. In addition to acquainting students with the various forms and functions of social norms the course will provide students with experience in identifying and formulating tractable research questions.
Same as: OB 630.

PSYCH 224. Research Topics in Emotion Regulation. 1 Unit.

Current research findings and methods, ongoing student research, and presentations by visiting students and faculty. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instuctor.

PSYCH 225. Special Neuroscience Seminar with Dr. Shinobu Kitayama. 1-2 Unit.

How will culture influence the human mind? Is culture a superficial overlay on the basic, universal computational machine called the mind? Alternatively, is culture a crucial constitutive element of the mind? If so, what are specific mechanisms underlying this constitution process? And what theoretical framework do we need to make a visible progress on these questions? More generally, how can we start discussing meaningfully and productively about various problematic dichotomies such as mind versus body, culture versus biology, and nurture versus nature? An emerging field of cultural neuroscience has the potential of addressing these and other important questions and thus bridging natural, behavioral, and social sciences of the human mind.nnThis seminar reviews the field of cultural neuroscience. It starts with a discussion of some theoretical foundations of the field, including cultural psychology, cognitive and social neuroscience, evolutionary psychology, and population genetics (PART 1). We will then discuss several specific content domains with a focus on cross-cultural variations in brain responses (PART 2). The seminar will conclude with a discussion on gene x environment interaction in varying cultural contexts (PART 3). nnStudents can take the seminar for credit. One unit for attending all five sessions, two units for all five session and a short paper.

PSYCH 226. Models and Mechanisms of Memory. 1-3 Unit.

Current topics in memory as explored through computational models addressing experimental findings and physiological and behavioral investigations. Topics include: explicit and inplict learning; role of MTL structures in learning and memory; and single versus dual processes approaches to recognition. May be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 228. Ion Transport and Intracellular Messengers. 1-3 Unit.

(Graduate students register for 228.) Ion channels, carriers, ion pumps, and their regulation by intracellular messengers in a variety of cell types. Recommended: 120, introductory course in biology or human biology.
Same as: PSYCH 121.

PSYCH 231. Questionnaire Design for Surveys and Laboratory Experiments: Social and Cognitive Perspectives. 4 Units.

The social and psychological processes involved in asking and answering questions via questionnaires for the social sciences; optimizing questionnaire design; open versus closed questions; rating versus ranking; rating scale length and point labeling; acquiescence response bias; don't-know response options; response choice order effects; question order effects; social desirability response bias; attitude and behavior recall; and introspective accounts of the causes of thoughts and actions.
Same as: COMM 339, POLISCI 421K.

PSYCH 232. Brain and Decision Making. 3 Units.

Neuroeconomics combines experimental techniques from neuroscience, psychology, and experimental economics, such as electrophysiology, fMRI, eye tracking, and behavioral studies, and models from computational neuroscience and economics. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

PSYCH 233. MATLAB and Psychtoolbox for the Behavioral Sciences. 1-3 Unit.

Topics such as experiment design, stimulus presentation, counterbalancing, response collection, data analysis, and plotting. Programming experiments. Final project programming a complete behavioral experiment relevant to student's research.

PSYCH 234. Topics in Depression. 1-3 Unit.

Current research topics including epidemiology and phenomenology of affective disorders, psychological theories of depression, gender differences in affective disorders, cognitive and social functioning of depressed persons, psychobiology of affective disorders, depression in children, postpartum depression, suicide issues in the treatment of depression, and cultural aspects of affective disorders. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Psychology or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 235. Motivation and Emotion. 3 Units.

This graduate seminar will take a social-cognitive perspective on motivation and emotion. Meetings will be discussion oriented, and each meeting will focus on a different question of theoretical and applied significance. Prerequisite: 207 or consent of instructor.

PSYCH 236C. SEM IN SEMANTICS: Representations of meaning. 3 Units.

Representations of meaning from psychological, linguistic, and computational viewpoints. Topics include lambda calculus, probabilistic programming, and vector spaces. Special emphasis on the challenges of semantic composition. May be repeated for credit.
Same as: LINGUIST 236.

PSYCH 237. Mathematical Cognition. 2-4 Units.

The course will examine the basis of numerical and mathematical abilities, and the acquisition and learning of mathematical skills, drawing on experimental and modeling studies. Topics will include numerosity, counting, basic arithmetic, and fractions, as well as algebraic and geometric reasoning as well as insight into mathematical and scientific problems. Roles of rules, procedures and symbolic, spatial, and sensory-motor representations; relationship between skill and understanding; nature of discovery and insight in mathematical reasoning; the relationship between insight and proof. Open to PhD and Masters students and to Juniors and Seniors who have completed an introductory level course in cognitive or developmental psychology.

PSYCH 238. Wise Interventions. 4 Units.

Classic and contemporary psychological interventions; the role of psychological factors in social reforms for social problems involving healthcare, the workplace, education, intergroup, relations, and the law. Topics include theories of intervention, the role of laboratory research, evaluation, and social policy.
Same as: PSYCH 138.

PSYCH 239. Formal and Computational Approaches in Psychology and Cognitive Science. 3 Units.

Do psychology and cognitive science need formal theories and/or explicit computational models? What insights should such things provide? What is the proper relationship between different theoretical and modeling approaches? Between different levels or kinds of analysis? Where do informally stated theories fit in and what are the roles of formal and computational modeling approaches in relation to other less explicitly specified forms of theorizing? This seminar will explore these issues and compare different formal and computational model variants, especially connectionist and probabilistic models, within 3-4 different target domains. Possible target domains include categorization, property induction, causal learning, perceptual decision making, language acquisition, semantics and pragmatics, and mid-level vision.

PSYCH 241. Probabilistic Models of Social Behavior and Affect. 4 Units.

How do we reason about other people and ourselves? Is human behavior in social situations a set of ad-hoc and irrational responses--or can we understand humans as making rational inferences under uncertainty about the people they are interacting with? This project-based seminar will re-examine classic findings from social psychology and affective science through the lens of rational analysis and probabilistic models. In collaboration with instructors, students will develop projects focused on making testable theoretical models of classic tasks and literatures with the goal of creating a publishable end product. Phenomena under consideration include but are not limited to: cognitive dissonance, attribution theory, mindset theory, stereotyping, and emotion perception.

PSYCH 243. General Development Seminar. 1-2 Unit.

May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instructors. Restricted to Developmental graduate students.

PSYCH 244. Psychology of Aging. 1-3 Unit.

Theory and research in gerontology. Normal and abnormal changes that occur in biological, cognitive, and psychological aging. Emphasis is on the environmental factors that influence the aging process. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Psychology or consent of instructor.

PSYCH 245. Social Psychological Perspectives on Stereotyping and Prejudice. 3 Units.

Classic and contemporary social psychological approaches to prejudice and stereotyping. Emphasis is on how stereotypes are employed and maintained, and the influence of stereotyping and prejudice on behavior in domains including education, employment, politics, and law. Limited enrollment.

PSYCH 246. Cognitive and Neuroscience Friday Seminar. 1 Unit.

Participant presentations. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: graduate standing in psychology or neuroscience program.

PSYCH 247. Fundamentals of Neuroscience for Non-Life-Scientists. 2 Units.

Human behavior and the human brain and how it enables perception, learning, decision making, planning, and action with a focus on how neuroscience may be presented or used in law, business, or education contexts. Neurotechnology and experimental methods used to conduct research.

PSYCH 249. Human Motivation. 1-3 Unit.

Current research and theory including questions concerning the nature of human motives, intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, the roles of affect and cognition, and lifespan and cultural influences on motivation. Prerequisite: 207 or consent of instructors.

PSYCH 250. High-Level Vision: Object Representation. 3 Units.

(Formerly CS423 High-Level Vision: Behaviors, Neurons, and Computational Models) Interdisciplinary seminar focusing on understanding how computations in the brain enable rapid and efficient object perception. Covers topics from multiple perspectives drawing on recent research in Psychology, Neuroscience, Computer Science and Applied Statistics. Emphasis on discussing recent empirical findings, methods and theoretical debates in the field. Topics include: theories of object perception, neural computations underlying invariant object perception, how visual exemplars and categories are represented in the brain, what information is present in distributed activations across neural populations and how it relates to object perception, what modern statistical and analytical tools there are for multi-variate analysis of brain activations.
Same as: CS 431.

PSYCH 251. Affective Neuroscience. 3 Units.

Theory and research. Comparative and human research approaches map affective function to neuroanatomical and neurochemical substrates. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

PSYCH 252. Statistical Methods for Behavioral and Social Sciences. 1-6 Unit.

For students who seek experience and advanced training in empirical research. Analysis of data from experimental through factorial designs, randomized blocks, repeated measures; regression methods through multiple regression, model building, analysis of covariance; categorical data analysis through two-way tables. Integrated with the use of statistical computing packages. Prerequisite: 10 or equivalent.

PSYCH 253. Statistical Theory, Models, and Methodology. 3 Units.

Practical and theoretical advanced data analytic techniques such as loglinear models, signal detection, meta-analysis, logistic regression, reliability theory, and factor analysis. Prerequisite: 252 or EDUC 257.

PSYCH 254. Lab in Experimental Methods. 3 Units.

Laboratory class in experimental methods for psychology, with a focus on technical/computer-based methods. Programming experience helpful although not required. Topics include data collection on the web, data management and data analysis.

PSYCH 257. Individually Supervised Practicum. 3-5 Units.

Satisfies INS requirements for curricular practical training. Relevant experience for graduate students as part of their program of study. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: graduate standing in Psychology, consent of adviser.nn (Staff).

PSYCH 258. Graduate Seminar in Social Psychology Research. 1-3 Unit.

For students who are already or are planning to become involved in research on social construal and the role that it plays in a variety of phenomena, notably the origin and escalation of conflict.

PSYCH 259. Emotions: History, Theories, and Research. 1-3 Unit.

Graduate students register for 259. Theoretical and empirical issues in the domain of emotions. The history of emotion theories, current approaches, and the interaction between emotion and cognition.
Same as: PSYCH 158.

PSYCH 261. Emotion. 3 Units.

(Graduate students register for 261.) The scientific study of emotion. Topics: models of emotion, emotion antecedents, emotional responses (facial, subjective, and physiological), functions of emotion, emotion regulation, individual differences, and health implications. Focus is on experimentally tractable ideas.
Same as: PSYCH 161.

PSYCH 261A. Learning and Cognition in Activity. 3 Units.

Methods and results of research on learning, understanding, reasoning, problem solving, and remembering, as aspects of participation in social organized activity. Principles of coordination that support cognitive achievements and learning in activity settings in work and school environments.
Same as: EDUC 295.

PSYCH 262. Language and Thought. 4 Units.

The psychology of language including: production and understanding in utterances; from speech sounds to speaker's meaning; children's acquisition of the first language; and the psychological basis for language systems. Language functions in natural contexts and their relation to the processes by which language is produced, understood, and acquired. Prerequisite: 1 or LINGUIST 1.
Same as: PSYCH 131.

PSYCH 265. Social Psychology and Social Change. 2-3 Units.

The course is intended an exploration of the major ideas, theories, andnfindings of social psychology and their applied status. Special attention will be given to historical issues, classic experiments, and seminal theories, and their implications for topics relevant to education. Contemporary research will also be discussed. Advanced undergraduates and graduate students from other disciplines are welcome. Interested students should contact Shannon Brady (stbrady@stanford.edu).
Same as: EDUC 371X.

PSYCH 266. Current Debates in Learning and Memory. 1-3 Unit.

Memory is not a unitary faculty, but consists of multiple forms of learning and remembering. The cognitive and neural architectures of memory, focusing on the application of functional brain imaging (primarily fMRI and ERP). Recommended: 45.

PSYCH 267. Human Memory: Facts, Fallacies, and Fragile Powers. 1-3 Unit.

Seminar. Applications of memory concepts in everyday life and in social and clinical settings. Topics include personal identity, childhood amnesia, autobiographic memory, emotions and memory, memory distortions, illusions, self-serving biases, recovery of repressed memories, false memories, implicit memories, and unconscious influences on social behavior, with applications to psychopathology.

PSYCH 269. Graduate Seminar in Affective Science. 1 Unit.

May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: graduate standing in Psychology. (Gotlib).

PSYCH 270. The Psychology of Everyday Morality. 4 Units.

(Graduate students register for 270.) For graduate students, coterms, and senior Psychology majors. Traditional approaches focusing on how morality colors mundane human activities such as eating and on morality as defined by actors themselves rather than social scientists. Moral hypocrisy, food and disgust, taboo trade-offs, moral reproach, and prejudice with compunction. Limited enrollment. Prerequisite: 70 and consent of instructor.
Same as: PSYCH 179.

PSYCH 272. Special Topics in Psycholinguistics. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

PSYCH 273. Graduate Seminar on Language, Cognition, and Perception. 3 Units.

Current topics and debates. Readings from psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, ethology, anthropology, and philosophy. May be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 274. Graduate Research Workshop on Psychological Interventions. 3 Units.

Psychological research has the potential to create novel interventions that promote the public good. This workshop will expose students to psychologically 'wise' intervention research and to support their efforts to conduct such interventions, especially in the context of education, broadly conceived, as well as other areas. The first part of the class will address classic interventions and important topics in intervention research, including effective delivery mechanisms, sensitive behavioral outcomes, the role of theory and psychological process, and considerations of the role of time and of mechanisms that can sustain treatment effects over time. In the second part of the class, students will present and receive feedback on their own ongoing and/or future intervention research. Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Psychology or Education, or consent of instructor.
Same as: EDUC 287X.

PSYCH 275. Graduate Research. 1-15 Unit.

Intermediate-level research undertaken with members of departmental faculty. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.nn (Staff).

PSYCH 277. Psychology of Pedagogy. 1-3 Unit.

How can methods and insights from psychology inform education practice, particularly in a higher education context? This course aims to develop your skills as critical consumers and producers of empirical findings on teaching and learning. Course involves a quarter-long project to develop a pedagogical research proposal, supplemented and informed by readings, guided discussions, and group workshops.
Same as: EDUC 248X.

PSYCH 279. Topics in Cognitive Control. 1-3 Unit.

The processes that enable flexible behavior by biasing contextually relevant perceptual, mnemonic, and response representations or processing pathways. Cognitive control is central to volitional action, allowing work with memory, task/goal states, and overriding inappropriate responses. Current models of cognitive control, functional neuroimaging, and neuropsychological evidence. Recommended: 45. May be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 281. Practicum in Teaching. 1-5 Unit.

Enrollment limited to teaching assistants in selected Psychology courses. May be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 282. Practicum in Teaching PSYCH 1. 1-2 Unit.

Logistical TA training including: preparing for sections; creating, correcting exams; grading an iterative writing assignment; office hours; review sessions; developing audiovisual expertise; communicating via coursework. Review of student evaluations with instructor to set goals and strategies. Second quarter focuses on pedagogical improvement. Limited to current PSYCH 1 TAs. May be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 283. International Conflict Resolution Colloquium. 1 Unit.

(Same as LAW 611.) Sponsored by the Stanford Center on International Conflict and Negotiation (SCICN). Conflict, negotiation, and dispute resolution with emphasis on conflicts and disputes with an international dimension, including conflicts involving states, peoples, and political factions such as the Middle East and Northern Ireland. Guest speakers. Issues including international law, psychology, and political science, economics, anthropology, and criminology.
Same as: IPS 250A.

PSYCH 284. Computational Modeling of a Range of Neural Circuits. 1-3 Unit.

Lectures, student presentations, and extensive software exercises. Focus on quantifiable models of neural signaling, starting with physical specification of input signals, sensory transductions, spiking, and mean electrical field potentials, and the inter-relation to BOLD signals (fMRI). Applications will be drawn from many examples, but a there will be a particular focus on the visual pathways and how measurements and models relate to visual perception.

PSYCH 286. The Psychology of Everyday Morality. 3 Units.

Recent literature on morality from a social psychological perspective. Topics include moral judgment, moral intuitions, moral hypocrisy, moral identity, moralization, moral reproach, shame and guilt, temptations, and self-regulation. Contemporary psychological research emphasizing descriptive approaches (what people actually do) rather than normative ones (what one should do).
Same as: PSYCH 186.

PSYCH 287. Connectomes. 1-3 Unit.

(Same as MCP 287) Neural circuitry can be measured over a huge range of spatial scales, from sub-synaptic to whole brain connectomes. The methods used to measure at these scales differ enormously, and scientists working at one scale should be able to understand and communicate with those measuring at other scales. This seminar will review methods, principal results, and ideas for integrating the findings across scales by large-scale computational modeling. nLectures, student presentations, and software exercises.

PSYCH 288. Hierarchical Linear Modeling for Psychological Sciences. 1-3 Unit.

HLM is a statistical theory and a computer program used to analyze multi-level data, such as trials within participants or students within classrooms. HLM allows researchers to analyze data at each level of analysis separately, to partition the total variance across different levels, to explain variance at each level separately using level-appropriate predictors, and to model cross-level interactions. How to use the HLM program and to model various types of multi-level data using it. May be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 289. Sensory Representations in Language and Memory. 1-3 Unit.

Is recollecting an experience similar to re-experiencing it? How closely tied is our knowledge to the perceptual representations and processes that may have given rise to it? What role do perceptuo-motor representations play in understanding language? We will review the recent literature on perceptual re-activation in episodic memory, perceptual grounding in semantic representations, and neural reuse of perceptual mechanisms for abstract thought. Emphasis will be placed on recent research with an interdisciplinary scope, including discussion of theory, behavioral findings, neural mechanisms, and computational models. Prerequisite: PSYCH 207 or consent of instructor.

PSYCH 290. Graduate Research Methods. 2 Units.

Primary tool use for psychologists: basics of experiment design; computer-based experiments; web-based experiments; data analysis packages and data presentation; exploratory statistics; eye-tracking methods; psychophysiology methods; survey construction; corpus and discourse analysis; and perhaps hypnosis. Prerequisite: Ph.D. student in Psychology.

PSYCH 291. Psychology Teaching Methods. 1-2 Unit.

Open to graduate students and advanced undergraduates. Principles of good teaching. Students practice teaching skills.

PSYCH 292. Special Topics in Emotion Regulation. 1 Unit.

This seminar will consider special topics in emotion regulation. Admission is by invitation only.

PSYCH 293. Communication, Intentionality, and the Origins of Language. 3 Units.

How did language evolve to become a ubiquitous, definitional part of human life? What relationship does children's early language have to their understanding of intentionality and other methods of non-verbal communication? This seminar will survey theoretical and experimental nwork on the foundations of human language, communication, and intentionality, with the goal of understanding what we know and what questions are still open. Areas of focus include developmental work on communication; whether early language use is referential/intentional and whether early words are general or particular; and research on language evolution and animal communication.

PSYCH 294. Human Prosociality. 3 Units.

Human beings engage in a vast amount of prosocial behaviors (including altruism and cooperation) that critically support our success as a social species. That said, the psychological underpinnings of prosociality remain surprisingly enigmatic. This seminar will survey classic and modern theories of prosocial behavior from evolutionary biology, economics, psychology, and neuroscience, with an emphasis on common ideas about the cognitive and affective mechanisms supporting such behaviors. Students will be responsible for leading discussions and producing one in-depth review or research paper at the end of the quarter.

PSYCH 295. Cognitive Modeling using Bayesian Statistics. 2-3 Units.

This course introduces the student to cognitive modeling from a Bayesian statistical approach. The goal of the course is to facilitate and promote Bayesian fitting for a large variety of latent cognitive models to data through the use of accessible computer software. Within particular cognitive models, students will learn how to first construct a basic model, and then add various effects such as individual or group differences, substantive prior information, covariates, and contaminant processes. Along the way, students will gain a better understanding of the many advantages of Bayesian statistics over frequentist-type analyses. A strong statistical or computer science background is not required.

PSYCH 297. Seminar for Coterminal Master of Arts. 1-2 Unit.

Contemporary issues and student research. Student and faculty presentations.

PSYCH 299. Temptations and Self Control. 2 Units.

(Graduate students register for 299.) Why do people do things that that they come to regret? How can people minimize behavior such as exercise avoidance, angry words, overeating, unsafe sex, and dangerous driving? Sources include classical and current research from experimental psychology, neuroscience, behavioral economics, and neuroeconomics. Real-world applications.
Same as: PSYCH 199.

PSYCH 303. Human and Machine Hearing. 3 Units.

Topics: Linear and nonlinear system theory applied to sound and hearing;nunderstanding how to model human hearing in the form of algorithms thatncan process general sounds efficiently; how to construct, display, andninterpret "auditory images"; how to extract features compatible withnmachine-learning systems; how to build systems that extract informationnfrom sound to do a job; and example applications of machine hearing tonspeech, music, security and surveillance, personal sound diaries, smartnhouse, etc. Prerequisites: basic calculus and algorithms.

PSYCH 373. Research Seminar: Mind, Brain, and Computation. 1 Unit.

Faculty and student research presentations focusing on work linking cellular, systems, cognitive, behavioral, and computational neuroscience. Limited to affiliates of the Center for Mind, Brain and Computation. May be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 380. Collaborating with the Future: Launching Large Scale Sustainable Transformations. 3-4 Units.

This project-based d.school class combines Design Thinking Processes, Behavioral Sciences, and elements of Diffusion Theory. Tools and theories introduced in class will be used to structure large-scale transformations that simultaneously create value on environmental, societal, and economic fronts. We encourage students to use this class as a launching pad for real initiatives. Primarily meant for Graduate Students. (Especially qualified/motivated Seniors will be considered). Admission to the class is through an application process which ends on March 3.nPlease find instructions and applications at https://dschool.stanford.edu/groups/largetransformations/.

PSYCH 383. International Conflict Resolution. 3 Units.

(Same as LAW 656) This seminar examines the challenges of managing and resolving violent inter-group and international conflicts. Employing an interdisciplinary approach drawing on social psychology, political science, game theory, and international law, the course identifies various tactical, psychological, and structural barriers that can impede the achievement of efficient solutions to conflicts. We will explore a conceptual framework for conflict management and resolution that draws not only on theoretical insights, but also builds on historical examples and practical experience in the realm of conflict resolution. This approach focuses on the following questions: (1) how can the parties to conflict develop a vision of a mutually bearable shared future; (2) how can parties develop trust in the enemy; (3) how can each side be persuaded, as part of a negotiated settlement, to accept losses that it will find very painful; and (4) how do we overcome the perceptions of injustice that each side are likely to have towards any compromise solution? Among the conceptual issues we will examine include the problem of spoilers who seek to sabotage agreements, the role of mediators, the role international legal rules can play in facilitating or impeding conflict resolution, and the advantages and disadvantages of unilateral versus and reciprocal measures in advancing conflict resolution efforts. Particular conflicts we will explore include the Northern Ireland conflict, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the U.S.-Soviet Cold War rivalry. Prerequisite for undergraduates: consent of instructor.
Same as: IPS 250.

PSYCH 459. Frontiers in Interdisciplinary Biosciences. 1 Unit.

Students register through their affiliated department; otherwise register for CHEMENG 459. For specialists and non-specialists. Sponsored by the Stanford BioX Program. Three seminars per quarter address scientific and technical themes related to interdisciplinary approaches in bioengineering, medicine, and the chemical, physical, and biological sciences. Leading investigators from Stanford and the world present breakthroughs and endeavors that cut across core disciplines. Pre-seminars introduce basic concepts and background for non-experts. Registered students attend all pre-seminars; others welcome. See http://biox.stanford.edu/courses/459.html. Recommended: basic mathematics, biology, chemistry, and physics.
Same as: BIO 459, BIOC 459, BIOE 459, CHEM 459, CHEMENG 459.

PSYCH 801. Master's TGR Project. 0 Units.

PSYCH 802. PhD TGR Dissertation. 0 Units.