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Music

Contacts

Office: Braun Music Center, Room 101
Mail Code: 94305-3076
Phone: (650) 723-3811
Email: musicinfo@stanford.edu
Web Site: http://music.stanford.edu

Courses offered by the Department of Music are listed under the subject code MUSIC on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

Mission of the Department of Music

The Department of Music promotes the practice, understanding and enjoyment of music in the university, offering a broad array of educational opportunities with specialization in composition, performance, musicology, ethnomusicology, and music technology.

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduate)

Students majoring in music pursue foundational theoretical and historical coursework before moving on to this in-depth, writing intensive musical analysis course. This course provides the requisite skills needed to continue in advanced work for the major. Students must demonstrate an understanding of tonal music and facility in discussing it.

  1. the ability to select and outline an appropriate topic area and select appropriate methodologies for tonal music analysis.
  2. an appropriate mastery of the principles underpinning tonal music analysis, referencing appropriate authors and analytical tools and methodologies.
  3. appropriate mastery of the use of primary source materials in written and oral presentations.
  4. appropriate mastery of the use of secondary source materials in written and oral presentations.
  5. the analytical writing skills necessary for the execution of the course papers.
  6. the skills necessary to present a musical analysis to an audience in a coherent manner.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The purpose of the master's program is to further develop knowledge and skills in Music, including concentration in the fields of Composition, Music History, Computer-Based Music Theory and Acoustics, or Music, Science, and Technology, and to prepare students for a professional career or doctoral studies. This is achieved through completion of courses, in the primary field as well as related areas, and experience with independent work and specialization.

Through completion of advanced course work and rigorous skills training, the doctoral program prepares students to make original contributions to the knowledge and practice of Music and to interpret and present the results of such work in appropriate venues and publications.

The Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) is conferred upon candidates who have demonstrated substantial scholarship and the ability to conduct independent research and analysis in either Musicology or Computer-Based Music Theory and Acoustics, based at the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA). 

The Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) in Composition is conferred upon candidates who have demonstrated substantial abilities in creating new musical works as demonstrated by their completed works under the supervision of composition faculty.

Bachelor of Arts in Music

The undergraduate major in Music is built around a series of foundational courses in theory, musicianship, and music history, in addition to performance and the proficiency requirements outlined below. Majors must complete a minimum of 62 units within the department to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree. All required courses for the B.A. in any concentration must be taken for a letter grade. Electives may be taken credit/no credit, but any courses taken toward concentration requirements must carry a letter grade.

Suggested Preparation for the Major

Students should allow more than two years for completion of the major, in part because of sequence courses with prerequisite requirements. Early planning is especially important for students wishing to double-major, for those contemplating overseas study, and for those wishing to pursue a concentration within the Music major. Music majors should attempt to complete MUSIC 21 Elements of Music I, MUSIC 22 Elements of Music II, and MUSIC 23 Elements of Music III in the freshman year; the series should be completed no later than Autumn Quarter of the junior year. It is recommended that majors complete MUSIC 40 Music History to 1600MUSIC 41 Music History 1600-1830, MUSIC 42 Music History Since 1830 in the sophomore year; the series should be completed by the end of the junior year.

Units
Suggested Preparatory Course:
MUSIC 19AIntroduction to Music Theory3
MUSIC 19BIntermediate Music Theory3

Fields of Study or Degree Options

Concentrations

Areas of concentration (subplans) are offered in: performance; conducting; composition; history and theory; and music, science, and technology. Subplans are printed on the transcript and diploma and are elected in Axess. Guidelines and further information are available from the Department of Music office. In order to complete requirements in a timely manner, students are urged to select this option no later than the end of the junior year for single-area concentrators and the middle of the sophomore year for multiple-area concentrators. Students pursuing multiple concentrations must fulfill all the requirements of each.

Departmental Honors

Honors in Music are awarded by the faculty to Majors who have produced an independent project of exceptional quality through the Concentration program. Students who wish to pursue Honors must declare their Concentration(s) by May 31 of the Junior year (see the undergraduate student services officer for concentration-specific requirements). To receive Honors students must also have earned an overall GPA of 3.60 or higher and a GPA of 3.70 or higher in courses required for the Music Major. Honors are conferred solely through faculty adjudication. For students concentrating in multiple areas, a single jury will be convened.

Degree Requirements 

Prospective majors are required to choose a faculty advisor and submit a courseplan (Course plans and advisor agreement forms are available from the undergraduate student services officer.) It is recommended that students schedule a consultation meeting with the undergraduate student services officer as early as possible to plan a program of study.

Required Courses

The following courses are required of all majors.

1. Theory
Units
MUSIC 21Elements of Music I3
MUSIC 22Elements of Music II3
MUSIC 23Elements of Music III3
2. History
Units
MUSIC 40Music History to 16004
MUSIC 41Music History 1600-18304
MUSIC 42Music History Since 18304
3. Analysis
Units
MUSIC 122ACounterpoint4
MUSIC 122BAnalysis of Tonal Music4
MUSIC 122CIntroduction to 20th-Century Composition4
4. Writing in the Major (WIM)
Units
Select three, at least two at the 4-unit level numbered 140-149, except MUSIC 140G or 251. Offerings for 2013-2014 include:11-12
MUSIC 144Studies in Romantic Music4
MUSIC 146Music and Urban Film4
MUSIC 147AListening to the Local: Music Ethnography of the Bay Area4
MUSIC 147CLatin American Music and Globalization4
MUSIC 149Reactions to the Record: Early Recordings, Lost Styles, and Music's Future4
MUSIC 251Psychophysics and Music Cognition4
5. Applied
  • A minimum of five quarters totaling 15 units of private instruction in instrumental and/or vocal performance (MUSIC 172/272-177/277); students who do not qualify for private instruction at the intermediate or advanced level, but who wish to pursue the major may take introductory voice (MUSIC 65A Voice Class I and MUSIC 73 Intermediate Voice Class), piano (MUSIC 12A Introductory Piano Class and MUSIC 72A Intermediate Piano Class), or guitar (MUSIC 74C Classical Guitar Class) to reach the minimum proficiency levels required to be accepted into a private studio and then complete their 5 quarters. Requirements for the minimum levels of proficiency in each instrument for private instruction are posted at: http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/Auditions.html.
  • A minimum of five quarters totaling at least 5 units of work in one or more of the department's organizations or chamber groups. To fulfill the ensemble requirement, Music majors need at least three quarters of participation in the department's traditional large ensembles (MUSIC 159–167), with the exception of students whose primary instrument is harp, keyboard, or guitar, who need to participate at least one quarter in the ensembles above, but who may fulfill the rest of the requirement with chamber music (MUSIC 171 Chamber Music). MUSIC 156 "sic": Improvisation Collective may count for up to two of the ensemble-unit requirements for the Music major.

NoteThe following courses do not satisfy this requirement:

Units
MUSIC 128Stanford Laptop Orchestra: Composition, Coding, and Performance1-5
MUSIC 160AStanford Philharmonia Orchestra1
MUSIC 160BStanford New Ensemble1
MUSIC 161CRed Vest Band1
MUSIC 161DStanford Brass Ensemble1
6. Additional requirements
  • Majors are required to pass a Piano Proficiency examination as part of the music theory core (MUSIC 21 Elements of Music I, MUSIC 22 Elements of Music II, MUSIC 23 Elements of Music III). The examination is given in the first two weeks of MUSIC 21. Students who do not pass the Piano Proficiency examination are required to enroll in either MUSIC 12A Introductory Piano ClassMUSIC 12B Introductory Piano Class, or MUSIC 12C Introductory Piano Class concurrently with the music theory core until they are able to pass the examination. The examination consists of scales and arpeggios, performance of a simple tune to be set by the examiner, sight-reading, and the performance of prepared pieces. Download additional nformation regarding the proficiency examination.
  • Majors must successfully pass four courses in musicianship (MUSIC 24A Ear Training I, MUSIC 24B Ear Training II, MUSIC 24C Ear Training III, and an approved elective) in conjunction with the Music Theory series, and pass an aural skills proficiency examination at the end of the junior year. This examination tests the ability to accurately transcribe, represent, and reproduce music vocally and at the keyboard.

Concentration Requirements

1. Concentration in Performance

In addition to degree requirements required of majors listed above, students in the Performance concentration must:

  1. Complete at least 6 additional, graded course units in one area of performance. Acceptable courses are described under "Applied" in the section describing private instruction and ensemble course work above. Additional courses might include, but are not limited to:
    Units
    MUSIC 126Introduction to Thoroughbass1-3
    MUSIC 154History of Electronic Music1-5
    MUSIC 182Diction for Singers1
    MUSIC 269Research in Performance Practices1-5
    MUSIC 183AGerman Art Song Interpretation1
    MUSIC 183BFrench Art Song Interpretation1
    MUSIC 184AEditing and Performing Early Music1-3
    MUSIC 184BTopics in Opera Stagecraft1-3
  2. Register for an independent project (MUSIC 198 Concentrations Project, 4 units) in the senior year under faculty supervision, leading to a senior recital. 
2. Concentration in Conducting

In addition to degree requirements required of majors listed above, students in the Conducting concentration must:

  1. Complete at least 6 additional, graded elective course units in conducting. Additional courses might include, but are not limited to:
  2. Units
    MUSIC 127Instrumentation and Orchestration3
    MUSIC 130AIntroduction to Conducting3
    MUSIC 130BElementary Orchestral Conducting3
    MUSIC 130CElementary Choral Conducting3
    MUSIC 230Advanced Orchestral Conducting2-4
    MUSIC 231Advanced Choral Conducting2-4
  3. Register for an independent project (MUSIC 198 Concentrations Project, 4 units) in the senior year under faculty supervision, leading to a senior conducting project.
3. Concentration in Composition

In addition to degree requirements required of majors listed above, students in the Composition concentration must:

  1. Complete MUSIC 127 Instrumentation and Orchestration
  2. Complete at least 3 additional, graded elective course units in composition. Additional courses might include, but are not limited to:
  3. Units
    MUSIC 123Undergraduate Seminar in Composition3
    MUSIC 125Individual Undergraduate Projects in Composition1-3
    MUSIC 127Instrumentation and Orchestration3
    MUSIC 150Musical Acoustics3
    MUSIC 154History of Electronic Music1-5
    Select one of the following Series:
    Series A (6-12)
    MUSIC 220AFundamentals of Computer-Generated Sound2-4
    MUSIC 220BCompositional Algorithms, Psychoacoustics, and Computational Music2-4
    MUSIC 220CResearch Seminar in Computer-Generated Music2-4
    Series B (0)
    Any of the series in computer-generated sound, music, and composition
  4. Register for an independent project (MUSIC 198 Concentrations Project, 4 units) in the senior year under faculty supervision, leading to a composition.
4. Concentration in History and Theory

In addition to degree requirements required of majors listed above, students in the History and Theory concentration must:

  1. Complete at least 6 additional, graded course units in history and theory. Additional courses might include, but are not limited to:
  2. Units
    Select any course not taken in fulfillment of the major requirement:
    MUSIC 140Studies in Medieval Music3-4
    MUSIC 140GIdentity and Popular Music3-5
    MUSIC 141Studies in Renaissance Music3-4
    MUSIC 143Studies in Classic Music3-4
    MUSIC 144Studies in Romantic Music3-4
    MUSIC 146Music and Urban Film3-4
    MUSIC 147AListening to the Local: Music Ethnography of the Bay Area3-5
    MUSIC 147CLatin American Music and Globalization3-4
    MUSIC 149Reactions to the Record: Early Recordings, Lost Styles, and Music's Future3-4
    MUSIC 221Topics in the History of Theory3-5
  3. Register for an independent project (MUSIC 198 Concentrations Project 4 units) in the senior year under faculty supervision, leading to a senior research paper.
5. Concentration in Music, Science, and Technology

Requires completion of 62 units of course work that differs from that of the major and is delineated below. This field of study is designed for those students interested in the musical ramifications of rapidly evolving computer technology and digital audio, and in the acoustic and psychoacoustic foundations of music. This program can serve as a complementary major to students in the sciences and engineering. Students in the program are required to include the following courses in their studies:

  1. Theory and Analysis

    Units
    MUSIC 21Elements of Music I3
    MUSIC 24AEar Training I1
    MUSIC 22Elements of Music II3
    MUSIC 24BEar Training II1
    MUSIC 23Elements of Music III (includes passing the piano and ear-training proficiency examinations, as described for the major)3
    MUSIC 24CEar Training III1
    MUSIC 150Musical Acoustics3
    MUSIC 122BAnalysis of Tonal Music4
    MUSIC 251Psychophysics and Music Cognition4
    MUSIC 220AFundamentals of Computer-Generated Sound4
    MUSIC 220BCompositional Algorithms, Psychoacoustics, and Computational Music4
    MUSIC 220CResearch Seminar in Computer-Generated Music4
    MUSIC 220DResearch in Computer-Generated Music4
    MUSIC 250APhysical Interaction Design for Music4
  2. Majors are required to pass a Piano Proficiency examination as part of the music theory core as described above in the "Degree Requirements" section, item 6. Additional Requirements. Download additional information regarding the proficiency examination.
  3. In addition to the three ear training courses above, MST students are required to take an elective course in ear training, and pass an aural skills proficiency examination at the end of the junior year. This examination tests the ability to accurately transcribe, represent, and reproduce music vocally and at the keyboard.
  4. Applied          

  • Individual studies in performance, MUSIC 172/272-177/277 (6 units) or the sequence below:Course List
      Units
    MUSIC 192A Foundations of Sound-Recording Technology 3
    MUSIC 192B Advanced Sound Recording Technology 3
  • A minimum of five quarters totaling at least 5 units of work in one or more of the department's organizations or chamber groups, or 5 units of MUSIC 192C Session Recording . To fulfill the ensemble requirement, Music majors need at least three quarters of participation in the department's traditional large ensembles (MUSIC 159–167), with the exception of students whose primary instrument is harp, keyboard, or guitar, who need to participate at least one quarter in the ensembles above, but who may fulfill the rest of the requirement with chamber music (MUSIC 192C Session Recording). MUSIC 156 "sic": Improvisation Collective may count for up to two of the ensemble-unit requirements for the Music major.

    3. History

    Units
    Select two of the following:8
    MUSIC 40Music History to 16004
    MUSIC 41Music History 1600-18304
    MUSIC 42Music History Since 18304

    4.  Research Project

    Units
    The program requires a senior research project (4 units) completed under faculty guidance. May be completed in conjunction with enrollment in any of the following:
    MUSIC 220DResearch in Computer-Generated Music4
    MUSIC 199Independent Study4
    MUSIC 198Concentrations Project4

Overseas Study or Study Abroad

Courses in Music are often available at Stanford overseas programs, especially in Berlin, Paris, Florence, and Oxford. See the "Overseas Studies Program" section of this bulletin for this year's listings. Music majors and minors should talk to the Department of Music undergraduate administrator prior to going overseas.

Minor in Music

The Music minor provides students with a core of essential Music courses in the disciplines that establish both a foundation for informed appreciation of music and a basis for more advanced study, should the student wish to pursue it.

Degree Requirements

Total of 36 units required course work as delineated below, plus passage of the piano proficiency examination.  Minors must also pass three courses in ear training in conjunction with the Music Theory series, and pass an ear training proficiency examination at the end of the junior year.

Required Courses: General Music

1. Theory
Units
MUSIC 21Elements of Music I3
MUSIC 22Elements of Music II3
MUSIC 23Elements of Music III3
2. History
Units
MUSIC 40Music History to 16004
MUSIC 41Music History 1600-18304
MUSIC 42Music History Since 18304
3. Applied: Ensemble

Two quarters, 2 units total.

Units
MUSIC 159Early Music Singers1
MUSIC 160Stanford Symphony Orchestra1
MUSIC 160CStanford Baroque Soloists1
MUSIC 160DStanford Chinese Music Ensemble1
MUSIC 160SSummer Orchestra1
MUSIC 161AStanford Wind Ensemble1
MUSIC 161BJazz Orchestra1
MUSIC 162Symphonic Chorus1
MUSIC 163Memorial Church Choir1
MUSIC 165Chamber Chorale1
MUSIC 167University Singers1
MUSIC 167SSummer Chorus1
4.  Applied: Individual

Two quarters at 3 units per quarter, 6 units total.

Units
MUSIC 159Early Music Singers1
MUSIC 160Stanford Symphony Orchestra1
MUSIC 160CStanford Baroque Soloists1
MUSIC 160DStanford Chinese Music Ensemble1
MUSIC 160SSummer Orchestra1
MUSIC 161AStanford Wind Ensemble1
MUSIC 161BJazz Orchestra1
MUSIC 162Symphonic Chorus1
MUSIC 163Memorial Church Choir1
MUSIC 165Chamber Chorale1
MUSIC 167University Singers1
MUSIC 167SSummer Chorus1
 4. WIM, 4 units
Units
4 units in any course numbered MUSIC 140-149, except MUSIC 140G, or MUSIC 251. Offerings in 2013-2014 include:
MUSIC 144Studies in Romantic Music4
MUSIC 146Music and Urban Film4
MUSIC 147AListening to the Local: Music Ethnography of the Bay Area4
MUSIC 147CLatin American Music and Globalization3-4
MUSIC 149Reactions to the Record: Early Recordings, Lost Styles, and Music's Future4
MUSIC 251Psychophysics and Music Cognition4

Required Courses: Music, Science and Technology

1. Theory
Units
MUSIC 21Elements of Music I3
MUSIC 22Elements of Music II3
MUSIC 23Elements of Music III3
MUSIC 150Musical Acoustics3
MUSIC 220AFundamentals of Computer-Generated Sound2-4
MUSIC 220BCompositional Algorithms, Psychoacoustics, and Computational Music2-4
2. Applied
Units
MUSIC 192AFoundations of Sound-Recording Technology3
MUSIC 192BAdvanced Sound Recording Technology3
MUSIC 192CSession Recording (two quarters, 3 units total)1-2
3.  WIM, 4 units
Units
MUSIC 251Psychophysics and Music Cognition4

Performance Certificate Program for Non Music Majors 

As a locus of great academic and artistic depth and diversity, the Department of Music’s performance programs have long engaged students who, even though they are not music majors, are serious and dedicated to furthering their skills in music performance. The Certificate in Music Performance program provides a select cohort of these students the opportunity for further recognition of their artistic achievement. 

This program is open by audition to undergraduate students who already demonstrate a high degree of accomplishment in their area of music performance, study privately with one of the Department of Music's faculty, and who wish to bolster their performance studies with coursework that may be drawn from the Department of Music’s other areas of academic focus: history, theory, computer music, and composition. The Certificate in Music Performance is issued by the Department of Music and will not appear on any University record, including the student’s transcript.

Admission 

Students are admitted to the Certificate in Music Performance program based on an audition adjudicated by Department of Music faculty at the beginning of spring quarter. To request an audition, the student should speak with the private lesson instructor and the Department of Music’s undergraduate student services officer. Email ugmusicinquiries@stanford.edu for additional information. At the time of the audition, students must have already declared a major outside of music.

Requirements

Once admitted into the program, students must complete a course plan to be approved by Department faculty based on the requirements below 

1. Performance

  • A minimum of 6 quarters of individual lessons of private instruction and/or vocal performance (MUSIC 172/272-177/277).  Any quarters of instruction taken prior to admission into the program may also count towards these requirements.  Requirements for the minimum levels of proficiency in each instrument for private instruction are posted on the Music Department's web site. All 6 quarters of lesson study must be in the same instrument area.
  • A minimum of 6 quarters of ensemble experience in the Department of Music’s ensembles and chamber groups.  For students whose primary instrument area is guitar, keyboard or harp, at least one quarter of ensemble experience must be in one of the department's traditional large ensembles (MUSIC 159-167, or MUSIC 184).  The remaining ensemble requirements may be filled with chamber music (MUSIC 171).  Keyboard students may also take MUSIC 171 Chamber Music, MUSIC 171 Chamber Music, and MUSIC 171 Chamber Music to fulfill this requirement.  All non-keyboard, guitar or harp students must successfully complete 3 quarters in the department's traditional ensembles (MUSIC 159-167 and MUSIC 184), and 3 quarters in conductor-less, small ensembles such as chamber music or jazz combos MUSIC 171 Chamber MusicMUSIC 156 "sic": Improvisation Collective may count for up to two of the ensemble unit requirements.  Any quarters of ensemble taken prior to admission into the program may also count towards these requirements.

2. Music Theory 

Students are required to complete one course in Music Theory (MUSIC 21 Elements of Music I, MUSIC 22 Elements of Music II, or MUSIC 23 Elements of Music III).  For the purposes of the Performance Certificate, the student may elect to take these courses on a Credit/No Credit grading basis.  However, students must also pass the associated Piano Proficiency Exam and take one course in Ear Training.

3. Elective Courses 

6 or more total course units in Music, dependent upon course-plan document submitted following acceptance into the program. 

4. Final Project

To complete the Performance Certificate, students must enroll in a 4 unit MUSIC 199 Independent Study and complete a final, capstone performance-based project. Students must pass faculty adjudication, and, in addition, complete a writing project (essay or program notes) pre-approved by the lesson instructor.

Master of Arts in Music

University requirements for the M.A. are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

None of Stanford's required undergraduate courses may be credited toward an advanced degree unless specifically required for both degrees. Only work that receives a grade of 'A,' 'B,' or 'Satisfactory' (a passing grade in an instructor-mandated credit/no credit course) in Music courses numbered 100 or higher taken as a graduate student is recognized as fulfilling the advanced-degree requirements. Students may need to devote more than the minimum time in residence if preparation for graduate study is inadequate.

Admission

Applicants are required to submit evidence of accomplishment (scores, recordings, and/or research papers) when they complete the application form. Applicants should arrange to take the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) well in advance of the December 11 application deadline. All components of the application are due by December 11. International students whose first language is not English are also required to take the TOEFL exam (with certain exceptions: see the Office of Graduate Admissions web site.

Degree Options

All of the following fields of study are declarable as subplans in Axess via the "Declaration or Change to a Field of Student"  form; they appear on the transcript and the diploma:

  • Master of Arts degree (M.A.)—in Composition.
  • Master of Arts degree (M.A.)—in Music History.
  • Master of Arts degree (M.A.)—in Computer-Based Music Theory and Acoustics.
  • Master of Arts degree (M.A.)—in Music, Science, and Technology (M.A./M.S.T.)
    • Note: The M.A./M.S.T. program is the only terminal master's degree; it is two years in duration.

Degree Requirements

A minimum of 45 academic units is required for the master's degree in Music. The Department of Music does not accept students for study only towards the M.A. degree except in the Music, Science, and Technology program, described below.

Required Courses

  1. Composition

    Students are not admitted into the M.A. as a terminal degree for composition: rather, students in the D.M.A. program in composition who enter directly from the bachelor's level may, upon completing 45 graduate-level units and advancing to candidacy by passing the qualifying examination, be recommended for the M.A. degree in composition.
  2. Music History

    Students are not admitted into the M.A. as a terminal degree for music history: rather, students in the Ph.D. program in musicology who enter directly from the bachelor's level may, upon completing 45 graduate-level units and advancing to candidacy by passing the qualifying examination, be recommended for the M.A. degree in music history.

  3. Computer-Based Music Theory and Acoustics

    Students are not admitted into the M.A. as a terminal degree for computer-based music theory and acoustics: rather, students in the Ph.D. program in computer-based music theory and acoustics who enter directly from the bachelor's level may, upon completing 45 graduate-level units and advancing to candidacy by passing the qualifying examination, be recommended for the M.A. degree in computer-based music theory and acoustics.
  4. Music, Science, and Technology (M.S.T.)

    The M.A. in music, science, and technology is the department's only terminal master's degree. This is a two-year program of 45 graduate-level units focusing on the integration of music perception, music-related signal processing and controllers, synthesis, performance, and composition. The program is designed for students who have an undergraduate music, engineering, or science degree. Required course work is listed below. A complete program with an individually-tailored list of electives will be formed in consultation with the student's adviser.
  1. Required:
  2. Units
    MUSIC 201CCRMA Colloquium1
    MUSIC 220AFundamentals of Computer-Generated Sound2-4
    MUSIC 251Psychophysics and Music Cognition1-5
    MUSIC 255Intermedia Workshop3-4
    MUSIC 256AMusic, Computing, and Design I: Software Paradigms for Computer Music1-4
    MUSIC 320Introduction to Digital Audio Signal Processing3-4
  3. Electives: students are required to complete an additional 24 units of graduate level work determined in consultation with the student's adviser and will include CCRMA electives, and may include courses taken outside the department.

 

Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Music

University requirements for the D.M.A and Ph.D. are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin. The following statements apply to all the graduate degrees described below, unless otherwise indicated.

Admission

Applicants are required to submit evidence of accomplishment (scores, recordings, and/or research papers, according to the proposed field of concentration) when they complete the application form. Applicants should arrange to take the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) well in advance of the December 12 application deadline. All components of the application are due by December 12. International students whose first language is not English are also required to take the TOEFL exam (with certain exceptions: see the Office of Graduate Admissions web site.

Department Examinations

All entering doctoral graduate students are required to take:

  1. a diagnostic examination testing the student in theory (counterpoint, harmony, and analysis), a proficiency examination in sight-singing; and,
  2. for musicologists and composers only,  a proficiency examination in piano sight-reading; and
  3. for musicologists only, the history of Western art music.

These exams are given at the beginning of study in the department (usually the week before school begins). Teaching Assistant assignments and the funding associated with this portion of a graduate student's financial aid package are determined based upon successful completion of these exams.

Graduate Credit

None of Stanford's required undergraduate courses may be credited toward an advanced degree unless specifically required for both degrees. Only work that receives a grade of 'A,' 'B,' or 'Satisfactory' (a passing grade in an instructor-mandated credit/no credit course) in music courses numbered 100 or higher taken as a graduate student is recognized as fulfilling the advanced-degree requirements. Students may need to devote more than the minimum time in residence if preparation for graduate study is inadequate.

The following may be taken as electives for graduate credit:

  1. any course in another department numbered 100 or over (with adviser's consent)
  2. any course in the Music department numbered 100 or over except those required for the B.A. degree. A letter grade of 'A', 'B,' or 'S' (in an instructor-mandated pass/fail course) is required.
  3. Music department group instruction (enroll in MUSIC 199 Independent Study after speaking with instructor):
Units
MUSIC 72AIntermediate Piano Class1
MUSIC 72CHarpsichord Class1
MUSIC 72DJazz Piano Class1
MUSIC 73Intermediate Voice Class1
MUSIC 74CClassical Guitar Class1
MUSIC 74DHarp Class1
MUSIC 75BRenaissance Wind Instruments Class1
MUSIC 76Brass Instruments Class1
MUSIC 77Percussion Class1

Degree Options

All of the following fields of study are declarable as subplans in Axess via the "Declaration or Change to a Field of Student"  form; they appear on the transcript and the diploma:

  • Doctor of Musical Arts degree (D.M.A.) in Composition

    The D.M.A. is offered to a limited number of students who demonstrate substantial training in the field and high promise of attainment as composers. Students may work in acoustic and/or electronic forms. Breadth is given through studies in other branches of music and in relevant fields outside music, as desirable. The final project for this degree is a large-scale composition.
  • Doctor of Philosophy degree (Ph.D.) in Musicology

  • Doctor of Philosophy degree (Ph.D.) in Computer-Based Music Theory and Acoustics

    The Ph.D. is offered in areas of the research of Stanford's graduate faculty: Musicology, and Computer-Based Music Theory and Acoustics (CBMTA) at the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA). The department seeks students who demonstrate substantial scholarship, high promise of attainment, and the ability to do independent investigation and present the results of such research in a dissertation.

Degree Requirements

Residence

The candidate must complete a minimum of 135 academic units (see Residency under the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin). Doctoral candidates working on Ph.D. dissertations or Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) final projects that require consultation with faculty members continue enrollment in the University under Terminal Graduate Registration (TGR), after they have reached the required 135 academic units and have completed their Special Area examinations.

Qualifying Examination

A written and oral examination for admission to candidacy is given just prior to the fourth quarter of residence for D.M.A. students and Ph.D. students in the Computer-Based Music Theory and Acoustics programs; for Ph.D. students in Musicology, the exams are given just prior to the eighth quarter of residence. This exam tests knowledge of history, theory, repertory, and analysis. For D.M.A. students a Special Area Examination topic proposal is due at the time of the Qualifying Examination.

Teaching

All students in the Ph.D. or D.M.A. degree programs, regardless of sources of financial support, are required to complete six quarters of supervised teaching (Teaching Assistantship) at half time. Music 280 (given in Spring Quarter and taken at the end of the first year) is a required course for Teaching Assistants. Additional quarters of teaching may be offered by the department.

I. Composition

The Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) degree in Composition is given breadth through collateral studies in other branches of music and in relevant studies outside music as seems desirable. In addition to degree requirements required of all doctoral graduate students and listed above, students must complete the following required courses:

Units
Required Courses
MUSIC 280TA Training Course1
MUSIC 305CAnalysis and Repertoire: Late-Romantic to Contemporary4
MUSIC 323Doctoral Seminar in Composition (4 quarters within the first two years of study)3-4
MUSIC 324Graduate Composition Forum 11
MUSIC 325Individual Graduate Projects in Composition 21-5
One elective course from the Ph.D. CBMTA curricula chosen from the following:
Fundamentals of Computer-Generated Sound
Psychophysics and Music Cognition
Intermedia Workshop
Music, Computing, and Design I: Software Paradigms for Computer Music
Introduction to Digital Audio Signal Processing

*

The requirement is for all six quarters during years 1 & 2, and a minimum of three quarters during years 3 & 4.

Two or more quarters per year are required until advancement to candidacy; by the end of the second year the student shall have enrolled with a minimum of two different faculty members; but the end of the third year the student shall have enrolled with a minimum of three different faculty.

  1. Besides those requirements listed above, candidates are expected to produce a number of works demonstrating their ability to compose in a variety of forms and for the common media: vocal, instrumental, and electronic music. If possible, the works submitted are presented in public performance prepared by the composer. Annual progress is reviewed by the composition faculty with a major portfolio review conducted during the Fall Quarter of the third year.
  2. Foreign Language Requirement—At the time of advancement to candidacy, all D.M.A. students are required to have demonstrated a reading knowledge of one language other than English and the ability to translate it into idiomatic English.
  3. Special-Area Examination— A written examination in the candidate's field of concentration, one-hour presentation followed by questions in the Graduate Composition Forum, sample course syllabus, and final project proposal are required to be completed during the Winter Quarter of the fourth year of study, no later than the ninth week of classes.
  4. Final Project Presentation—Required during the last quarter of residence, no later than the ninth week of classes, the purpose of the presentation is to demonstrate the ability of the candidate to organize and present the topic of the final project for public review. It should be one hour in length, followed by questions, treating aspects of the final project. Details regarding the D.M.A. final project presentation may be found in the Department of Music Graduate Handbook.
  5. Final Project—Candidate's work culminates in a required Final Project. The final project in composition must be a substantial composition, the scope of which shall be agreed upon by the members of the committee. Typically, work on the final project encompasses several quarters. Usually, smaller works, for specific performances, are composed at the same time.
  6. Reading Committee—The membership of the reading committee is the principal final project adviser and a minimum of two additional members. The notice of appointment of a D.M.A. Final Project Reading Committee should be submitted to the department at the same time as the approved final project proposal and the completion of the special area exam. It is the responsibility of the student, with the advice of his or her adviser, to approach appropriate faculty members and obtain their consent to serve on the reading committee. Obtain the D.M.A. reading committee form from the department office; fill it out; obtain committee members' signatures; return to the department office.

II. Musicology

In addition to degree requirements required of all doctoral graduate students and listed above, students must complete the following required courses:

Units
Required Courses
MUSIC 200AProseminar in Musicology and Music Bibliography (required of all entering students)3-4
MUSIC 200BProseminar in Ethnomusicology3-5
MUSIC 280TA Training Course1
MUSIC 300AMedieval Notation3-4
MUSIC 300BRenaissance Notation4
MUSIC 305AAnalysis and Repertoire: Medieval and Renaissance4
MUSIC 305BAnalysis and Repertoire: Baroque to Early Romantic4
MUSIC 305CAnalysis and Repertoire: Late-Romantic to Contemporary4
MUSIC 310Research Seminar in Musicology *3-5
MUSIC 312AAesthetics and Criticism of Music, Ancients and Moderns: Plato to Nietzsche4
MUSIC 312BAesthetics and Criticism of Music, Contemporaries: Heidegger to Today4
MUSIC 330Musicology Dissertation Colloquium 1
One elective course from the D.M.A. Composition of Ph.D. CBMTA curricula chosen from the following (or other, by instructor and advisor consent):
Fundamentals of Computer-Generated Sound
Psychophysics and Music Cognition
Symbolic Musical Information
Music Query, Analysis, and Style Simulation
Doctoral Seminar in Composition
Graduate Composition Forum

*

The requirement is for eight seminars of 3-5 units each. Up to two graduate seminars in other departments may be counted toward this requirement, pending adviser's approval.

The requirement is for enrollment each Spring Quarter beginning in year four and continuing to graduation.

  1. Foreign Language Requirement—At the time of advancement to candidacy, all Ph.D. students in Musicology must have passed a Ph.D. Language examination in German and in a second language, chosen from French, Italian, or Latin (or, on a case-by-case basis, another language, if it has significant bearing on the candidate's field of study). If one of these languages is the student's native language, the student may be exempted from an examination.
  2. Special-Area Examination—A written and oral examination testing the student's knowledge of music and research in the student's field of concentration is completed during the fourth year of study, no later than the last day of classes in Autumn Quarter of that year. This includes an oral defense of the dissertation proposal. The examining committee comprises prospective readers of the dissertation.
  3. University Oral Examination—Taken once the dissertation is substantially under way; an oral presentation is a defense of dissertation research methods and results.
  4. Dissertation—After the first two years of graduate study, the student concentrates on research and writing of the dissertation. The dissertation demonstrates the student's ability to work systematically and independently to produce an essay of competent scholarship.
  5. Reading Committee—The minimum membership of the reading committee is 1) the principal dissertation adviser, 2) a second member from the department, and 3) a third member from the major department or another department. If a third member is from another institution, a fourth member must be appointed from the department. The principal dissertation adviser and all other members of the committee must belong to the Academic Council. The notice of appointment of a Reading Committee should be submitted to the department at the same time as the approved dissertation proposal and the completion of the Special-Area Exam. It is the responsibility of the student, with the advice of his or her adviser, to approach appropriate faculty members and obtain their consent to serve on the reading committee.

III. Computer-Based Music Theory and Acoustics

In addition to degree requirements required of all doctoral graduate students and listed above, students must complete the following required courses:

Required Courses
MUSIC 220AFundamentals of Computer-Generated Sound4
MUSIC 220BCompositional Algorithms, Psychoacoustics, and Computational Music4
MUSIC 220CResearch Seminar in Computer-Generated Music2-4
MUSIC 220DResearch in Computer-Generated Music *1-10
MUSIC 251Psychophysics and Music Cognition1-5
MUSIC 280TA Training Course1
MUSIC 305CAnalysis and Repertoire: Late-Romantic to Contemporary4
MUSIC 320Introduction to Digital Audio Signal Processing4

*

 The requirement is for 12 units.

  1. Foreign Language Requirement—At the time of advancement to candidacy, all Ph.D. students in computer-based music theory and acoustics are required to have demonstrated a reading knowledge of one language other than English and the ability to translate it into idiomatic English.
  2. Special-Area Examination—A written and oral examination testing the student's knowledge of music and research in the student's field of concentration is completed during the fourth year of study, no later than the last day of classes in Autumn Quarter of that year. This includes an oral defense of the dissertation proposal. The examining committee comprises prospective readers of the dissertation.
  3. University Oral Examination—Taken once the dissertation is substantially under way; an oral presentation is a defense of dissertation research methods and results.
  4. Dissertation—After the first two years of graduate study, the student concentrates on research and writing of the dissertation. The dissertation demonstrates the student's ability to work systematically and independently to produce an essay of competent scholarship.
  5. Reading Committee—The minimum membership of the reading committee is 1) the principal dissertation adviser, 2) a second member from the department, and 3) a third member from the major department or another department. If a third member is from another institution, a fourth member must be appointed from the department. The principal dissertation adviser and all other members of the committee must belong to the Academic Council. The notice of appointment of a Reading Committee should be submitted to the department at the same time as the approved dissertation proposal and the completion of the Special-Area Exam. It is the responsibility of the student, with the advice of his or her adviser, to approach appropriate faculty members and obtain their consent to serve on the reading committee.

Emeriti: (Professors) John M. Chowning, Albert Cohen, George Houle, William H. Ramsey, Leland C. Smith; (Professors, Performance) Arthur P. Barnes, Marie Gibson

Chair: Jonathan Berger

Professors: Jonathan Berger, Karol Berger, Chris Chafe, Brian Ferneyhough, Thomas Grey, Stephen Hinton, Julius O. Smith

Associate Professors: Mark Applebaum (on leave), Heather Hadlock, William P. Mahrt

Assistant Professors: Takako Fujioka, Jaroslaw Kapuscinski, Charles Kronengold, Jesse Rodin, Anna Schultz, Ge Wang

Professors (Teaching): George Barth (Piano), Stephen M. Sano (Director of Choral Studies; on leave)

Associate Professor (Performance): Jindong Cai (Director of Orchestral Studies)

Courtesy Professor: Paul DeMarinis

Senior Lecturers: Giancarlo Aquilanti (Director of Theory; Wind Ensemble), Talya Berger (Theory), Stephen Harrison (Violoncello), Thomas Schultz (Piano), Gregory A. Wait (Voice; Director of Vocal Studies), Frederick R. Weldy (Piano)

Lecturers: Kumaran Arul (Piano), Ericka Arulanantham (Theory) Fredrick Berry (Jazz Ensemble), Mark Brandenburg (Clarinet), Marie-Louise Catsalis (Voice), Marjorie Chauvel (Harp), Tony Clements (Tuba), Laura Dahl (Resident Collaborative Pianist), Anthony Doheny (Violin), John Dornenburg (Viola da Gamba), Charles A. Ferguson (Guitar), Debra Fong (Violin), Claire Giovannetti (Voice), Dawn Harms (Violin, Viola), Alexandra Hawley (Flute), David Henderson (Classical Saxophone), Wendy Hillhouse (Voice), Robert Hubbard (Oboe), Joyce Johnson-Hamilton (Trumpet), Wendy Ju (HCI theory), Jay Kadis (Audio Recording), McDowell Kenley (Trombone), Mary Linduska (Voice, Summer only), Murray Low (Jazz Piano), Janet Maestre (Flute), Anthony Martin (Baroque Violin), James Matheson (Oboe), Seward McCain (Jazz Bass), Charles McCarthy (Jazz Saxophone), Robert Huw Morgan (University Organist, Organ), Bruce Moyer (Contrabass), Herbert Myers (Early Winds), James Nadel (Jazz), Rufus Olivier (Bassoon), Larry S. Ragent (French Horn), Craig Sapp (CCARH), Melody Schaefle (Flute), Robin Sharp (Violin), Livia Sohn (Violin), Elaine Thornburgh (Harpsichord), Erik Ulman (Composition, Theory), Linda Uyechi (Taiko), Rick Vandivier (Jazz Guitar), Mark Veregge (Percussion), Sharon Wei (Viola), John Worley (Jazz Trumpet), Hui (Daisy) You (Guzheng), Timothy Zerlang (University Carillonneur, Piano)

Consulting Professors: Jonathan Abel (CCRMA), David Berners (CCRMA), Poppy Crum (CCRMA), Marina Bosi-Goldberg (CCRMA), Pierre Divenyi (CCRMA),  Walter Hewlett (Computer-Assisted Research in the Humanities), Eleanor Selfridge-Field (Computer-Assisted Research in the Humanities), Malcolm Slaney (CCRMA)

Visiting Professor: Thomas Rossing (CCRMA)

Artists-in-Residence (St. Lawrence String Quartet): Geoff Nuttall (Violin), Scott St. John (Violin), Lesley Robertson (Viola), Christopher Costanza (Violincello)

Courses

MUSIC 1A. Music, Mind, and Human Behavior. 3 Units.

An introductory exploration of the question of why music is a pervasive and fundamental aspect of human existence. The class will introduce aspects of music perception and cognition as well as anthropological and cultural considerations.

MUSIC 1SI. Introduction to Indian Classical Music. 1 Unit.

MUSIC 2C. An Introduction to Opera. 3 Units.

The lasting appeal of opera as a lavishly hybrid genre from the 1600s to the present. How and why does opera set its stories to music? What is operatic singing? Who is the audience? How do words, music, voices, movement, and staging collaborate in different operatic eras and cultures? Principal works by Monteverdi, Handel, Mozart, Verdi, Wagner, Strauss, Britten, and Adams. Class studies and attends two works performed by the San Francisco Opera.

MUSIC 4SI. Interactive Introduction to North American Taiko. 1 Unit.

Taught by Stanford Taiko members. Techniques and history. No experience necessary. May be repeated for credit. This course was initiated by Mitchell Fukumoto and Stanford Taiko.

MUSIC 5G. Introduction to Gu-Zheng. 1 Unit.

Introduction to Chinese music through learning how to play Gu-Zheng, a 21-stringed traditional Chinese instrument. The cultural, social, and historical significance of Gu-Zheng. 15 Gu-Zheng techniques, how to read Chinese music and Gu-Zheng notation, and two simple classic Gu-Zheng pieces. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fee and signup information.(AU).

MUSIC 6P. Art is My Occupation: Professional Development for Creatives. 1 Unit.

This course is designed to empower arts students to explore their personal and artistic identity, asking: How do I define success and fulfillment? What role will my art play in my professional and personal life? How can I shape the educational experience and career that will serve my long-term goals?nnStudents will also be exposed to various methods and skills from other fields that will be helpful tools in an arts-related career, or any other profession, ranging from branding and promotion, design thinking, and mission-vision strategy. Students will also prepare resumes and an artist biography or cover letter, and create other materials that will assist in the process of job or graduate school applications.
Same as: ARTSINST 5, ARTSTUDI 6P, TAPS 6P.

MUSIC 6SI. Professional Development for Music Students. 1 Unit.

Many people struggle to connect their authentic, heart-felt dreams with a tangible action plan, regardless of how much clarity they have on their career goals. This is especially true for college-level musicians as they decide on graduate programs and career choices, evaluating whether music will be the focus of their professional lives, a valued hobby on the side, or something in between. This course is designed to empower students to ask themselves the questions "how do I define success and fulfillment?" "what role will music play in my professional and personal life?", and "how can I shape the educational experience and career that will serve my long-term goals?" This course was initiated by student Jennifer Chernick.

MUSIC 7B. Musical Cultures of the World. 3 Units.

An overview of selected musical cultures from Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Course objectives: cultivate an appreciation for the diversity of human musical expression; discover how music is used to shape social interactions and systems of meaning; develop active listening skills that can be used when encountering any music; gain a preliminary understanding of ethnomusicological concepts and vocabulary. No musical experience is necessary. Class format: Lecture, discussion, listening, guest performances, musical participation, and a concert analysis.

MUSIC 8A. Rock, Sex, and Rebellion. 3 Units.

Development of critical listening skills and musical parameters through genres in the history of rock music. Focus is on competing aesthetic tendencies and subcultural forces that shaped the music. Rock's significance in American culture, and the minority communities that have enriched rock's legacy as an expressively diverse form. Lectures, readings, listening, and video screenings. Attendance at all lectures is required.

MUSIC 10AX. Science of Sound. 2 Units.

Science of Sound will explore sound and sound-related technology from the perspectives of mathematics, physics, and acoustics. Scientists and engineers will have a chance to apply their technical knowledge to the field of music while musicians will learn how sound behaves physically and how it can be recorded, processed, and reproduced. Using the newly opened Bing Concert Hall as a focal point, we will study the science of sound recording, room acoustics, and multi-channel mixing and playback. Students will use what they learn to create short multi-channel compositions using special techniques to place sounds spatially. These pieces will be performed during the annual outdoor Summer CCRMA Transitions concert and again during the Fall 2013 CCRMA concert at Bing Concert Hall. We will use the recently published textbook by Jay Kadis entitled Science of Sound Recording as our primary text and incorporate plenty of hands-on experience with sound equipment and electronics.

MUSIC 11AX. An Operatic Play: Mozart's 7 Deadly Sins. 2 Units.

This course is centered on the operatic repertoire of W.A. Mozart (1756-1791). Students of singing and acting will learn scenes from some of the world's most loved operas. Simultaneously they will develop their own play to be performed at the end of the course. This play will be linked to the Mozart operatic scenes studied, and the finished product will be a continuous narrative. Similarly, the instrumentalists will prepare an "overture" by Mozart appropriate to the enrolled ensemble (i.e. duo/trio/quartet etc.). They will then put their arrangement skills to the test as they adapt the music of the opera scenes to their particular ensemble.

MUSIC 11N. A View from the Podium: The Art of Conducting. 3 Units.

How a conductor interprets music, realizes a personal vision through the rehearsal process, and communicates with orchestra and audience. Conducting as based on human communication skills. How to apply these lessons to other fields of endeavor.

MUSIC 11Q. Art in the Metropolis. 3 Units.

This seminar is offered in conjunction with the annual "Arts Immersion" trip to New York that takes place over the spring break and is organized by the Stanford Arts Institute (SAI). Participation in the trip is a requirement for taking part in the seminar (and vice versa). The trip is designed to provide a group of students with the opportunity to immerse themselves in the cultural life of New York City guided by faculty and the SAI programming director. Students will experience a broad range and variety of art forms (visual arts, theater, opera, dance, etc.) and will meet with prominent arts administrators and practitioners, some of whom are Stanford alumni. For further details and updates about the trip, see http://artsinstitute.stanford.edu.
Same as: ARTSINST 11.

MUSIC 12A. Introductory Piano Class. 1 Unit.

"(A=level 1; B=level 2; C=level 3)There is a fee for this class. Please visit nhttp://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fee and signup information.Class is closed by design. Please register on the waitlist and show up on the first day of class to receive a permission number for enrollment. Preference to department majors".

MUSIC 12B. Introductory Piano Class. 1 Unit.

This class is closed by design. To enroll, please sign up on the Axess waitlist and show up on the first day to receive a permission number for re-enrollment. Your place on the waitlist will be considered a reservation. If the waitlist is closed, there are no more spaces in the class. (A=level 1; B=level 2; C=level 3) Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fee and signup information.

MUSIC 12C. Introductory Piano Class. 1 Unit.

This class is closed by design. To enroll, please sign up on the Axess waitlist and show up on the first day to receive a permission number for re-enrollment. Your place on the waitlist will be considered a reservation. If the waitlist is closed, there are no more spaces in the class. (A=level 1; B=level 2; C=level 3.) May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fee and signup information.

MUSIC 12SC. Musical Collisions and Radical Creativity. 2 Units.

The margins of musical culture; nonconformist, maverick, and eccentric creative impulses that expand the definition of art. Laboratory atmosphere and daily rehearsals in which students create collaborative works with a final public concert involving collaborations with local musicians and presentations of student-composed works created during the course.

MUSIC 13Q. Classical Music and Politics: Western Music in Modern China. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Social history, cultural studies, China studies, international relations, and music. From the Italian Jesuit, Matteo Ricci who presented a clavichord to the Chinese emperor to the emergence of a modern generation of Chinese musicians.

MUSIC 13SC. Performing America: The Broadway Musical. 2 Units.

This seminar explores how the themes, characters, stories, and, above all, the songs of the Broadway musical have played a key role in forming ideas of American identity from the early 20th century to the present. Musical theater is a perennial site for negotiating social themes of race, class, gender roles, and sexual identity. The American musical has been in constant dialogue with vernacular song and dance idioms, from ragtime and early jazz to rock, pop, disco, hip-hop, and electronic dance music. Jazz musicians have regularly looked to musical theater for their ¿standards,¿ as have talent shows from the vaudeville era to American Idol. Disney musicals, the television series Glee and Smash, and the High School Musical franchise all illustrate how ¿musicals¿ serve as a medium for negotiating personal identity from childhood through early adulthood, staging the conflicts and attachments that define our everyday lives while connecting these with the culture we live in through the collective medium of song. nWe will look at a variety of influential historical musicals (Oklahoma, Guys and Dolls, Gypsy, The Music Man, West Side Story) and a few recent shows such as Wicked, Hairspray, Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson, American Idiot, and The Book of Mormon, asking what the relation is between individual numbers and the overall themes and structures of the shows. How do lyrics and music combine in a successful song, and how does a song contribute to shape of the show? How do the dynamics of live theater relate to the presentation of musicals in the mediums of film and television? In addition to working on selected songs and scenes with the help of Stanford voice and drama faculty, students will attend, discuss, and review Bay area productions (San Jose, San Francisco), including the Broadway by the Bay (Redwood City) production of Cabaret opening on September 13, 2013. Grading will be based on class discussion, production analysis and reviews, and a choice between a final creative project and a short research paper.

MUSIC 14N. Women Making Music. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Women's musical activities across times and cultures; how ideas about gender influence the creation, performance, and perception of music.

MUSIC 15N. The Aesthetics of Data. 3 Units.

Focus on visual and auditory display of data, specifically, the importance of aesthetic principles in effective data display, and the creative potential of scientific, biological, environmental and other data as inspiration for artistic expression.

MUSIC 17N. The Operas of Mozart. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Four of Mozart's mature operas, the earliest works in the operatic repertoire never to go out of fashion. What accounts for this extraordinary staying power? Focus on the history of their composition, performance, and reception, and their changing significance from Mozart's time to the present.

MUSIC 17Q. Perspectives in North American Taiko. 4 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Taiko, or Japanese drum, is a newcomer to the American music scene. Emergence of the first N. American taiko groups coincided with increased Japanese American activism, and to some it is symbolic of Japanese American identity. N. American taiko is associated with Japanese American Buddhism. Musical, cultural, historical, and political perspectives of taiko. Hands-on drumming. Japanese music and Japanese American history, and relations among performance, cultural expression, community, and identity.

MUSIC 18A. Jazz History: Ragtime to Bebop, 1900-1940. 3 Units.

From the beginning of jazz to the war years.
Same as: AFRICAAM 18A.

MUSIC 18B. Jazz History: Bebop to Present, 1940-Present. 3 Units.

Modern jazz styles from Bebop to the current scene. Emphasis is on the significant artists of each style.
Same as: AFRICAAM 18B.

MUSIC 19A. Introduction to Music Theory. 3 Units.

For non-music majors and Music majors or minors unable to pass the proficiency test for entry to MUSIC 21. The fundamentals of music theory and notation, basic sight reading, sight singing, ear training, keyboard harmony; melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic dictation. Skill oriented, using piano and voice as basic tools to develop listening and reading skills.

MUSIC 19B. Intermediate Music Theory. 3 Units.

This course is an introduction to music theory geared toward students who have basic literacy skills (i.e. fundamental notation, identifying major and minor scales, keys, etc). Using musical materials from repertoire selected from campus and area concerts, and incorporating the opportunity to attend these concerts, the course will introduce elements of harmony, melody, form, orchestration and arrangement. The course is an appropriate successor to MUSIC 19A. Students who successfully complete MUSIC 19B can go on directly to MUSIC 21.

MUSIC 20A. Jazz Theory. 3 Units.

Introduces the language and sounds of jazz through listening, analysis, and compositional exercises. Students apply the fundamentals of music theory to the study of jazz. Prerequisite: 19 or consent of instructor.

MUSIC 20B. Advanced Jazz Theory. 3 Units.

Approaches to improvisation through listening and transcribing, and developing familiarity with important contributors to this music. Topics: scale theory, altered dominants, and substitute harmony. Prerequisite: 20A or consent of instructor.

MUSIC 20C. Jazz Arranging and Composition. 3 Units.

Jazz arranging and composition for small ensembles. Foundation for writing for big band. Prerequisite: 20A or consent of instructor.

MUSIC 21. Elements of Music I. 3 Units.

Preference to majors. Introduction to tonal theory. Practice and analysis. Diatonic harmony focusing on melodic and harmonic organization, functional relationships, voice-leading, and tonal structures. Students must concurrently enroll in an Ear-training and musicianship lab (MUSIC 24A, 24b, or 24c as appropriate). Music majors must take 4 courses in ear training, and pass an ear training exit exam in their Junior year. Enrollment limited to 40. Prerequisites: (1) Piano Proficiency Exam (must be passed within the first two weeks of the term) or MUSIC 12A (may be taken concurrently); (2) Passing grade on a basic musical skills proficiency examination on the first day of class or MUSIC 19.

MUSIC 22. Elements of Music II. 3 Units.

Preference to majors. Introduction to chromatic harmony focusing on secondary functions, modulations, harmonic sequences, mode mixture, and the Neapolitan, and augmented sixth chords. Analysis of musical forms and harmonizations complemented by harmonic and melodic dictation, sight singing, and other practical skills. Students must concurrently enroll in an Ear-training and musicianship lab (MUSIC 24A, 24b, or 24c as appropriate). Music majors must take 4 courses in ear training, and pass an ear training exit exam in their Junior year. Prerequisites: (1) MUSIC 21; (2) Piano Proficiency Exam or MUSIC 12B (may be taken concurrently).

MUSIC 23. Elements of Music III. 3 Units.

Preference to majors. Continuation of chromatic harmony and complex forms of late Romantic period. Satisfactory passage of ear-training proficiency exam, part of the course's final, is a requirement for course completion and for continuation in the major sequence. Students must concurrently enroll in an Ear-training and musicianship lab (MUSIC 24A, 24b, or 24c as appropriate). Music majors must take 4 courses in ear training, and pass an ear training exit exam in their Junior year. Prerequisites: (1) MUSIC 22; (2) Piano Proficiency Exam or MUSIC 12C (may be taken concurrently).

MUSIC 24A. Ear Training I. 1 Unit.

MUSIC 24B. Ear Training II. 1 Unit.

MUSIC 24C. Ear Training III. 1 Unit.

MUSIC 30N. A Stranger in a Strange Land: Jewish Musics in Translation. 3 Units.

What does it mean to be a stranger in a strange land? For centuries Jewish people have struggled to shape their identities in unfamiliar surroundings, using music to remember the past and generate new, hybrid identities. In this class we adopt the metaphor of translation to think about how minority Jewish communities bridge distinct languages, musical idioms, and cultural practices. Our theme will take us on a journey across time and space¿from Italy to India, New York, Syria, Russia, and Israel. We consider the case of Salamone Rossi, a 17th-century Italian Jewish composer who moved uneasily between dual careers in the synagogue and a secular/Christian court. We also explore a group of Indian Jews (Bene Israel) who combine idioms learned from Jewish and Christian missionaries with local Hindu musical traditions. In all our examples musicians translate languages, musical styles, and cultures to unite memories of a Jewish past with the realities of minority status in the present. The class format includes listening, discussion, some singing, student presentations, and guest lectures.

MUSIC 32N. Sculpting with Sounds, Images, and Words. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Contemporary culture abounds in multimedia forms, in which sounds, images and words are interwoven in unique ways. What are their individual and combined powers? How would you harness them? Participants face these questions in creative projects as well as through in-class viewing, analysis and debates, readings, guest lectures and student presentations. The seminar is taught at the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics where students have access to new media technologies.

MUSIC 34N. Performing America: The Broadway Musical. 3 Units.

Musical theater as a site for the construction of American identity in the twentieth century to the present. Issues of class, race, gender, and sexuality; intersections with jazz, rock, and pop; roles of lyricist, composer, director, choreographer, producer, performers. Individual shows (Showboat, Oklahoma, South Pacific, Guys and Dolls, West Side Story, Wicked, Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson, Book of Mormon), show tunes in jazz performance, film musicals, and television. Opportunities for performance and attendance at local productions.

MUSIC 36N. Humor in Music. 3 Units.

Through theoretical readings the course will touch on psychological and neurological bases of humor, explore contingent, tactical, modal, and ontological difficulties in the apprehension of humor, and address ethical issues surrounding humor in music. In addition to in-class listening and screening sessions, analytic discussions will be led by students who will find and present examples of humor in music. Students will also be invited to compose original humorous song lyrics and to create collaborative works of musical humor.

MUSIC 38N. Singing Early Music. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. 15th- and 16th-century musical repertories and their contexts; performance practice.

MUSIC 39A. Music, Health, and Medicine. 3 Units.

Explore how music relates to health and medicine surveying recent medical literature. Review different techniques in music therapy, music-related health problems, and issues related to educational and medical applications. Course materials are chosen to clearly identify music as a component of health related activity or occupation, to describe responses to music in our mind and body, and to think about the roles of music in our health. The seminars also discuss related basics in psychology and neurology. Students learn how to do literature search and write essays about relevant topics.

MUSIC 40. Music History to 1600. 4 Units.

Pre- or corequisite: 21.

MUSIC 41. Music History 1600-1830. 4 Units.

Pre- or corequisite: 22.

MUSIC 42. Music History Since 1830. 4 Units.

Pre- or corequisite: 23.

MUSIC 65A. Voice Class I. 1 Unit.

Group (7 students to a section) beginning voice (A = level 1; B = level 2). May be repeated for credit. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and signup information. This class is closedby design. Please register on the waitlist and show up on the first day of class to receive a permission number for enrollment.

MUSIC 65B. Voice Class II. 1 Unit.

Group (7 students to a section) beginning voice for the non-major (A = level 1; B = level 2). May be repeated for credit. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and signup information. This class is closed by design. Please register on the waitlist and show up on the first day of class to receive a permission number for enrollment.

MUSIC 72A. Intermediate Piano Class. 1 Unit.

For intermediate students. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Prerequisites: 12C or equivalent, audition. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fee and signup information. This class is closed by design. Please register on the waitlist and show up on the first day of class to receive a permission number for enrollment.

MUSIC 72C. Harpsichord Class. 1 Unit.

For beginning harpsichord students who have keyboard skills. May benrepeated for credit a total of 14 times. There is a fee for this class.nPlease visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and signup information. Admission based on instructor consent. Contact instructor prior to enrolling to discuss availability. Class meets in Braun 201.

MUSIC 72D. Jazz Piano Class. 1 Unit.

By invitation only; priority to majors and jazz-ensemble participants. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and signup information.

MUSIC 73. Intermediate Voice Class. 1 Unit.

For intermediate students. Admission by audition. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and signup information. This class is closed by design. Please register on the Axess waitlist and show up on the first day of class to receive a permission number for enrollment.

MUSIC 74C. Classical Guitar Class. 1 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and signup information.

MUSIC 74D. Harp Class. 1 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and signup information.

MUSIC 75B. Renaissance Wind Instruments Class. 1 Unit.

May be repeated for credit. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu for class fees and signup information.

MUSIC 76. Brass Instruments Class. 1 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu for class fees and signup information.

MUSIC 77. Percussion Class. 1 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu for class fees and signup information.

MUSIC 112. Creative Expression: Musical Theater. 4 Units.

Students begin to create pieces that are fresh and innovative forms of musical theater that do not necessarily appeal to specifically popular audiences but perhaps to audiences more associated with high art, opera, or even contemporary independent music. Musical theater is an untapped resource of potential artistic innovation and has unfortunately become stuck in an ideal of universal accessibility. In present popular culture and the culture of contemporary art forms, musical theater almost exclusively refers to popular productions such as Phantom of the Opera, Rent, Wicked, Jesus Christ Superstar. Although excellent pieces of art in their own way, both dramaturgically and in their ability to evoke emotion through catchy melodies, for the most part each of them have their basis in popular and traditional musical idioms and theatrical forms, seldom exploring more advanced or avant-garde and experimental compositional and theatrical techniques.
Same as: TAPS 112.

MUSIC 122A. Counterpoint. 4 Units.

Analysis and composition of contrapuntal styles from the Renaissance and Baroque periods. Use of keyboard, ear training, and sight singing underlies all written work. Prerequisites: 23 and piano-proficiency examinations.

MUSIC 122B. Analysis of Tonal Music. 4 Units.

Complete movements, or entire shorter works of the 18th and 19th centuries, are analyzed in a variety of theoretical approaches. Prerequisites: 23 or consent of instructor; and pass the ear-training and piano-proficiency examinations.

MUSIC 122C. Introduction to 20th-Century Composition. 4 Units.

Contemporary works, with emphasis on music since 1945. Projects in free composition based on 20th-century models. Prerequisites: 23 or consent of instructor; and successful completion of the piano-proficiency examination.

MUSIC 123. Undergraduate Seminar in Composition. 3 Units.

Current trends in composition. May be repeated for credit a total of 7 times. Prerequisites: Music major; 23 or consent of instructor.

MUSIC 125. Individual Undergraduate Projects in Composition. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Prerequisites: music major, and one quarter of 123.

MUSIC 126. Introduction to Thoroughbass. 1-3 Unit.

The development of continuo techniques and skills for figured-bass realization. Performance and analysis of selected repertoire, using thoroughbass principles and exercises based on historical theoretical treatises. Prerequisite: 21.

MUSIC 127. Instrumentation and Orchestration. 3 Units.

Individual instruments, instrumental groups within the orchestra, and combinations of groups. Arrangements from piano to orchestral music. Score analysis with respect to orchestration. Practical exercises using chamber ensembles and school orchestra. Prerequisite: 23.

MUSIC 128. Stanford Laptop Orchestra: Composition, Coding, and Performance. 1-5 Unit.

Classroom instantiation of the Stanford Laptop Orchestra (SLOrk) which includes public performances. An ensemble of more than 20 humans, laptops, controllers, and special speaker arrays designed to provide each computer-mediated instrument with its sonic identity and presence. Topics and activities include issues of composing for laptop orchestras, instrument design, sound synthesis, programming, and live performance. May be repeated four times for credit.
Same as: CS 170.

MUSIC 130A. Introduction to Conducting. 3 Units.

Baton techniques and rehearsal procedures. The development of coordination of the members of the body involved in conducting; fluency in beat patterns and meters; dynamics, tempi, cueing, and use of the left hand in conducting. Prerequisites: 121 and diagnostic musicianship exam given first day of class; preference to students who have completed 122B.

MUSIC 130B. Elementary Orchestral Conducting. 3 Units.

Prerequisites: 127 or previous orchestral performance experience, 130A.

MUSIC 130C. Elementary Choral Conducting. 3 Units.

Techniques specific to the conducting of choral ensembles: warm-ups, breathing, balance, blend, choral tone, isolation principles, recitative conducting, preparation, and conducting of choral/orchestral works. Prerequisite: 130A.

MUSIC 132. Topics in Choral Music. 2 Units.

This course seeks to combine score analysis/interpretation with rehearsing and conducting. Preference to advanced musicians (music majors or not) interested in the Choral Process: stylistic/structural analysis; interpretation: developing the mind's ear of the score; rehearsing: how to hear & how to fix; conducting. Choral literature will be drawn from western repertoire of the Renaissance to the present. Open to students who have a background in harmony with analytical aptitudes, choral or instrumental ensemble experience; background and experience in choral or orchestral conducting preferred but not required. Private instruction sessions scheduled with instructor.

MUSIC 140. Studies in Medieval Music. 3-4 Units.

Prerequisites: MUSIC 21, MUSIC 40. (WIM at 4-unit level only.)
Same as: MUSIC 240.

MUSIC 140G. Identity and Popular Music. 3-5 Units.

Major political issues of our time are played out in popular music. How do we come to identify with it and how does it influence our sense of self? This course investigates the intersection of identifications such as gender, sexuality, nationality, race, ethnicity, age, class, and ability in a variety of popular music from mid-century to the present. No special knowledge of music is required.
Same as: CSRE 140G, FEMGEN 140G.

MUSIC 141. Studies in Renaissance Music. 2-4 Units.

Prerequisites: MUSIC 21, MUSIC 40. (WIM at 4-unit level only.)
Same as: MUSIC 241.

MUSIC 143. Studies in Classic Music. 3-4 Units.

Prerequisites: MUSIC 22, MUSIC 41. (WIM at 4-unit level only.)
Same as: MUSIC 243.

MUSIC 144. Studies in Romantic Music. 3-4 Units.

Prerequisites: MUSIC 23, MUSIC 42 (WIM at 4-unit level only.)
Same as: MUSIC 244.

MUSIC 146. Music and Urban Film. 3-4 Units.

How music and sound work in urban cinema. What happens when music's capacity to transform everyday reality combines with the realism of urban films? Provides an introduction to traditional theories of film music and film sound; considers how new technologies and practices have changed the roles of music in film. Readings discuss film music, realistic cinema, urban musical practices and urban culture. Viewing includes action/adventure, Hindi film, documentary, film noir, hip hop film, the musical, and borderline cases by Jean-Luc Godard, Spike Lee, Wong Kar-Wai and Tsai Ming-Liang. Pre- or corequisite (for music majors): MUSIC 22. (WIM at 4 unit level only.)
Same as: MUSIC 246.

MUSIC 147A. Listening to the Local: Music Ethnography of the Bay Area. 3-5 Units.

An introduction to music ethnography through student research on musical life in the Bay Area. Focus is on the intersections of music, social life, and cultural practice by engaging with people as they perform music and culture in situ. Techniques taught include participant-observation, interviewing and oral history, writing fieldnotes, recording, transcription, analysis, and ethnographic writing. Pre-/corequisite (for music majors): MUSIC 22. (WIM at 4 units only.)
Same as: MUSIC 247A.

MUSIC 147C. Latin American Music and Globalization. 3-4 Units.

Focuses on vernacular music of Latin America and the Caribbean, including Mexico, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Peru, Brazil, Colombia, and Argentina. Musical examples discussed in relation to: globalization, migration, colonialism, nationalism, diaspora, indigeneity, politics, religion, dance, ethnicity, and gender. How music reflects and shapes cultures, identities, and social structures. Genres addressed: bachata, bossa nova, cumbia, forro, ranchero, reggaeton, rock, salsa, tango, and others. Seminar, guest performances, reading, listening, and analysis. Pre-/corequisite (for music majors): MUSIC 22. (WIM at 4 units only.)
Same as: MUSIC 247C.

MUSIC 148. Musical Shakespeare: Theater, Song, Opera, and Film. 3-5 Units.

The role of music in productions, adaptations, and interpretations of Shakespeare's plays as theater, opera, and film from the Elizabethan era through the present. Emphasis is on the role of songs, stage music, and music in operatic and film adaptations. Incidental music, orchestral tone poems, and art-song settings of lyrics from the plays. Plays include Romeo and Juliet, Othello, Macbeth, Hamlet, The Tempest, Midsummer Night's Dream, and Twelfth Night. Pre-/corequisite (for music majors): MUSIC 22. (WIM at 4- or 5-unit level only.)
Same as: MUSIC 248.

MUSIC 149. Reactions to the Record: Early Recordings, Lost Styles, and Music's Future. 3-4 Units.

This is a seminar on the transformation of musical style in the era of recordings in light of their roots in cultural trends, including shifting hierarchies between composer and performer, work and notation, text and act. Early recordings will be studied as documents of musical values and conceptions different from those around us today. Methodologies of performance analysis will be explored and used to contextualize sources, which include historic recordings from Stanford's Archive of Recorded Sound, performance documents, and field research with performers, composers, critics, and listeners. Repertoire includes works for orchestra, piano, strings, chamber ensemble and voice. Outstanding contributions from seminar members may be featured in the Music Department¿s May 2014 Reactions to the Record symposium. May be repeated for credit. Pre- or corequisite (for music majors): MUSIC 22. (WIM at 4-unit level only.)
Same as: MUSIC 249.

MUSIC 150. Musical Acoustics. 3 Units.

The physics of vibrating systems, waves, and wave motion. Time- and frequency-domain analysis of sound. Room acoustics, reverberation, and spatialization. The acoustics of musical instruments: voice, strings, and winds. Emphasis is on the practical aspects of acoustics in making music. Hands-on and computer-based lab. See http://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/150/.

MUSIC 151F. Studying Popular Music. 3-5 Units.

What is "popular" music? How do the tools we use to think about the popular shape our understanding of what it contains? What can popular music tell us about a time period, a community, an artist, an industry, or a country? This course teaches the methodologies utilized in popular music studies, including analysis of sonic, visual, and social media, listener and performance ethnography, critical theory, and engagement with journalism. No musical experience required.
Same as: FEMGEN 151, FEMGEN 251, MUSIC 251F.

MUSIC 154. History of Electronic Music. 1-5 Unit.

What is electronic music? Acousmatic, computer music, algorithmic composition, tape music, glitch, electronic, musique concrète, noise, laptop music, DJ'ing, organized sound...what do these labels mean? This course will provide a brief historical survey of electroacoustic music and discuss some of the most salient questions associated with it, from both a compositional and musicological point of view. Topics to be covered include: definitions of musical sounds; Schaefferian theory and musique concrète; serialism and elektronische Musik; tape music and computer music in the USA; analysis of electroacoustic music; sampling and intellectual property; algorithmic and computer-assisted composition; live-electronics and improvisation. The course does not require previous experience in the field. Classes will be based on discussion of selected listening and reading materials, as well as hands-on digital experimentation with sounds.

MUSIC 154A. Sound Art I. 4 Units.

Acoustic, digital and analog approaches to sound art. Familiarization with techniques of listening, recording, digital processing and production. Required listening and readings in the history and contemporary practice of sound art. (lower level)
Same as: ARTSTUDI 131.

MUSIC 155. Intermedia Workshop. 3-4 Units.

Students develop and produce intermedia works. Musical and visual approaches to the conceptualisation and shaping of time-based art. Exploration of sound and image relationship. Study of a wide spectrum of audiovisual practices including experimental animation, video art, dance, performance, non-narrative forms, interactive art and installation art. Focus on works that use music/sound and image as equal partners. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: consent of instructors, and one of FILMPROD 114, ARTSTUDI 131, 138, 167, 177, 179, or MUSIC 123, or equivalent. May be repeated for credit
Same as: ARTSTUDI 239, MUSIC 255.

MUSIC 156. "sic": Improvisation Collective. 1 Unit.

Small ensemble devoted to learning trans-idiomatic improvisation techniques and composing indeterminate pieces in a workshop setting. One major concert. Prerequisite: access to an instrument. Improvisational experience and conventional instrumental virtuosity not required. May be repeated for credit for a total of 3 times.

MUSIC 159. Early Music Singers. 1 Unit.

Small choir specializing in Medieval, Renaissance, and early Baroque vocal music. One major concert per quarter. May be repeated for credit for a total of 14 times.

MUSIC 160. Stanford Symphony Orchestra. 1 Unit.

70- to 100-member ensemble performing major orchestral works; minimum one concert per quarter. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times.

MUSIC 160A. Stanford Philharmonia Orchestra. 1 Unit.

Prerequisite: audition, one year of 160, or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit.

MUSIC 160B. Stanford New Ensemble. 1 Unit.

Performing compositions of the 20th century, recent works of this century, and new works by Stanford faculty and student composers. Musicians collaborate with composers and artists visiting and performing at Stanford. One concert per quarter. May be repeated for credit.

MUSIC 160C. Stanford Baroque Soloists. 1 Unit.

Elite string group focusing on concerti by Corelli, Vivaldi and other Italians, Bach, Handel and other Germans, as well as theater music by Purcell and Lully. Each member expected to solo as well as play backup. Performances each quarter, played standing, student-led without conductor. Coaching will emphasize leadership and ensemble techniques, intonation and blend, particulars of eighteenth century notation and performance practice. Modern instruments, modern pitch, baroque bows as available. Limited to six violins, three violas, three cellos, bass, admission by audition. Contact instructor for audition and enrollment information: mailto:1martinagel@earthlink.net.

MUSIC 160D. Stanford Chinese Music Ensemble. 1 Unit.

A performing ensemble presenting traditional Chinese music on a variety of traditional Chinese instruments. Promotes awareness of Chinese culture by by introducing the greater Stanford community to a unique style of music. Anyone with an interest in learning and playing Chinese music on Chinese instruments is welcome to join .

MUSIC 160S. Summer Orchestra. 1 Unit.

50- to 100-member ensemble performing major orchestral works. May be repeated for credit.

MUSIC 161A. Stanford Wind Ensemble. 1 Unit.

40- to 50-member ensemble performing transcriptions of symphonic music, brass band music, and repertoire composed specifically for symphonic band. One concert per quarter. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times.

MUSIC 161B. Jazz Orchestra. 1 Unit.

Jazz Orchestra is an undergraduate large ensemble performance class. Admission is by audition and/or permission of instructor. The class meets three times per week and presents a minimum of one formal concert per quarter with a major jazz artist. The class endeavors to provide students with the opportunity to perform, at the highest level, jazz compositions and arrangements of a serious nature, and provide opportunities for challenging and creative improvisational situations. Emphasis is placed on the understanding of the structural, psychological, and emotional components of the materials studied and performed.

MUSIC 161C. Red Vest Band. 1 Unit.

A small ensemble of the Leland Stanford Junior University Marching Band open to members of the LSJUMB by audition and consent of instructor. Members perform at all men's and women's home basketball games and travel to some away and post-season games. Twice-weekly rehearsals focus on introduction of new student arrangements and the LSJUMB's repertoire of rock, funk, and traditional styles. May be repeated for credit a total of 7 times.

MUSIC 161D. Stanford Brass Ensemble. 1 Unit.

Performance of works for full brass choir and for smaller ensembles of brass instruments. Once weekly rehearsals. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: audition and consent of instructor.

MUSIC 162. Symphonic Chorus. 1 Unit.

180- to 200-voice choral ensemble, performing major choral masterworks with orchestra. One concert per quarter. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times.

MUSIC 163. Memorial Church Choir. 1 Unit.

Official choir of Memorial Church, furnishing music for Sunday services and special occasions in the church calendar. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times.

MUSIC 165. Chamber Chorale. 1 Unit.

Select 24-voice choral ensemble, specializing in virtuoso choral repertoire from all periods of Western art music. Annual touring commitment required. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times.

MUSIC 167. University Singers. 1 Unit.

Select, 50-voice choral ensemble, performing choral repertoire from all periods of Western art music. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times.

MUSIC 167S. Summer Chorus. 1 Unit.

80- to 100-voice non-auditioned ensemble, performing major choral masterworks and choral repertoire from all periods of Western art music.

MUSIC 169. Stanford Taiko. 1 Unit.

Select 15- to 18-member North American taiko ensemble, performing all-original repertoire for Japanese drums. Multiple performances in Winter and Spring quarters, also touring; instrument construction and maintenance. Admission by audition in Autumn Quarter only. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times.

MUSIC 170. Collaborative Piano. 1 Unit.

Performance class in a workshop setting. Techniques of collaboration with vocalists and instrumentalists in repertoire ranging from songs and arias to sonatas and concertos. Prerequisite: private-lesson proficiency level in piano, or consent of instructor.

MUSIC 171. Chamber Music. 1 Unit.

Audition required. Weekly one-hour coachings from Music department faculty. Classical string quartets and piano/string groups are supervised by the St. Lawrence String Quartet. Two masterclasses and one performance per quarter are required. May be repeated for credit.

MUSIC 172A. Piano. 1-3 Unit.

Private lessons and group master class weekly. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 172B. Organ. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 172C. Harpsichord. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 172D. Jazz Piano. 1-3 Unit.

By invitation only; priority to majors and jazz-ensemble participants. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 172E. Fortepiano. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 172F. Carillon. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times.

MUSIC 173. Voice. 1-3 Unit.

Private lessons and group master classes weekly. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 174A. Violin. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 174B. Viola. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 174C. Violoncello. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 174D. Contrabass. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 174E. Viola Da Gamba. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 174F. Classical Guitar. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 174G. Harp. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 174H. Baroque Violin. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 174I. Jazz Bass. 1-3 Unit.

Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 174J. Jazz Guitar. 1-3 Unit.

Individual lessons in jazz guitar.

MUSIC 175A. Flute. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 175B. Oboe. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 175C. Clarinet. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 175D. Bassoon. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 175E. Recorder/Early Winds. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 175F. Saxophone. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 175G. Baroque Flute. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 176A. French Horn. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 176B. Trumpet. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 176C. Trombone. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 176D. Tuba. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 177. Percussion. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 182. Diction for Singers. 1 Unit.

The international phonetic alphabet and its application to German, French, and Italian vocal literature. Open also to pianists interested in vocal coaching and choral conducting.

MUSIC 183A. German Art Song Interpretation. 1 Unit.

By audition only. For advanced singers and pianists as partners. Performance class in a workshop setting. Composers include Beethoven, Schubert, Wolf and Strauss. May be repeated for credit a total of 2 times. Enrollment limit: 20 (ten singers maximum). Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Recommended prerequisite: 170 (pianists) or 182 (singers).

MUSIC 183B. French Art Song Interpretation. 1 Unit.

By audition only. For advanced singers and pianists as partners. Performance class in a workshop setting. Composers include Fauré, Debussy, Ravel and Poulenc. May be repeated for credit a total of 2 times. Enrollment limit: 20 (ten singers maximum). Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Recommended prerequisite: 170 (pianists) or 182 (singers).

MUSIC 184A. Editing and Performing Early Music. 1-3 Unit.

This course is a practical workshop in early music vocal repertoire. The main focus of this course is to use original source material to explore editorial practice. Having prepared the score, students learn to perform the piece from an historically informed performance practice point of view. In addition to broadening the student¿s knowledge of vocal repertoire, the following skills are developed: text preparation, foreign language translation and diction; rehearsal for performance and/or recording. Prerequisite: vocal or instrumental instruction, as the class is open to singers or collaborative artists.

MUSIC 184B. Topics in Opera Stagecraft. 1-3 Unit.

This course is a practical workshop in vocal repertoire for the stage. Each quarter's offering emphasizes a specific genre or period, therefore the course can be repeated with permission of the instructor. In addition to broadening the student's knowledge of vocal repertoire, the following skills are developed: text preparation, foreign language translation and diction; rehearsal etiquette for performance and/or recording. Prerequisite: vocal or instrumental instruction, as the class is open to singers or collaborative artists.

MUSIC 185. Music Across Media: Music Video to Postclassical Cinema. 4 Units.

What makes music videos, YouTube clips and musical numbers in today's films engaging? What makes them tick? Emphasis is on aesthetics and close reading. How music videos and its related forms work. Uses of the body, how visual iconography operates, what lyrics and dialogue can do, how and what music can say, and how it can work with other media. Questions of representation such as how class, ethnicity, gender, race, and nationality function. Viewership and industry practices.
Same as: FILMSTUD 141, FILMSTUD 341, MUSIC 385.

MUSIC 186. Religion and Music in South Asia. 4-5 Units.

How music and other arts in South Asia are intertwined with religion. Classical, devotional, folk, and popular examples introduce Gods as musicians, sound as God, music as yoga, singing as devotion, music as ¿ecstasy¿-inducing, music as site for doctrinal argument, music and religion as vehicles for nationalism. Co-taught by professors of Music and Religious Studies, focusing Hinduism and Islam in India, Pakistan, and the diaspora. Music practice along with academic study; guest artists and films; no background required.
Same as: MUSIC 286, RELIGST 259.

MUSIC 186A. Music and Religious Experience in the Contemporary World. 3-5 Units.

Explores the central role of music in the performance and experience of religion, positioning music not as an adjunct to silent rituals and liturgy, but as the catalyst and carrier of religious experience, indeed as religious experience itself. Topics include: trance, spirit possession, heightened religious experience, sacred sound and chant, shamanism, politics, and identity. Musical traditions include: Zimbabwean mbira music, African-American church music, Southeast Asian Buddhist ritual music, South Asian Hindu and Islamic devotional music, shamanistic music of Southeast Asia.
Same as: MUSIC 286A, RELIGST 156, RELIGST 256.

MUSIC 187. Music and Culture from the Land of Fire: Introduction to Azerbaijani Mugham. 1-5 Unit.

Nestled in the Caucasus, Azerbaijan is a crossroads between East and West; its rich musical heritage contains threads of Turkish, Central Asian, Persian, Caucasian, Russian, and Arabic traditions. In this course, master-musician Imamyar Hasanov teaches students to perform and appreciate Azeri music. Content includes classical mugham, Eastern theory, improvisation and microtonality. We¿ll discuss Azeri music culture, supplemented by guest lecturers and Skype¿ interviews with musicians in Azerbaijan. Open to students with any experience playing a musical instrument (including voice). No previous experience with Azeri music necessary. Supported by the SF World Music Festival.Questions? Email schultza@stanford.edu.

MUSIC 192A. Foundations of Sound-Recording Technology. 3 Units.

For upper division undergraduates and graduate students; preference given to Music majors with MST specialization. Topics: elementary electronics; the physics of sound transduction and microphone operation, selection, and placement; mixing consoles; connectors and device interconnection; grounding and shielding; principles of analog magnetic recording; operation maintenance of recording equipment; and principles of recording engineering. Enrollment limited. Prerequisites: MUSIC 150, algebra, physics basics, and consent of instructor.

MUSIC 192B. Advanced Sound Recording Technology. 3 Units.

Topics: noise reduction techniques; dynamics and time-delay audio effects; the principles of digital audio; disk- and tape-based digital recorders; digital audio workstations and editing; advanced multitrack techniques; SMPTE and MIDI time code and device synchronization; MIDI sequencing and synchronization. See http://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/. Prerequisite: 192A.

MUSIC 192C. Session Recording. 1-2 Unit.

Independent engineering of recording sessions. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Prerequisites: 192A,B.

MUSIC 197. Undergraduate Teaching Apprenticeship. 1-2 Unit.

Work in an apprentice-like relationship with faculty teaching a student-initiated course. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. (Staff).

MUSIC 198. Concentrations Project. 4 Units.

For concentration program participants only. Must be taken in senior year. Multiple concentrators may enroll in one section of 198 per concentration.

MUSIC 199. Independent Study. 1-5 Unit.

For advanced undergraduates and graduate students who wish to do work outside the regular curriculum. Before registering, student must present specific project and enlist a faculty sponsor. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times.

MUSIC 200A. Proseminar in Musicology and Music Bibliography. 3-4 Units.

Introduction to research in music, bibliographical materials, major issues in the field, philosophy, and methods in music history. Guest lecturers and individual research topics.

MUSIC 200B. Proseminar in Ethnomusicology. 3-5 Units.

A graduate-level introduction to the field of ethnomusicology. Issues and debates are traced through the history of the discipline, with emphasis on influences from anthropology, performance studies, linguistics, and cultural studies. Topics include music and: social organization, "culture," structure, practice, comparison, representation, globalization, identity, transcription, and embodiment.

MUSIC 201. CCRMA Colloquium. 1 Unit.

Weekly review of work being done in the field, research taking palce at CCRMA, and tools to make the most of the CCRMA technical facilities.

MUSIC 208C. Architecture, Acoustics and Ritual in Byzantium. 1-3 Unit.

Onassis Seminar "Icons of Sound: Architecture, Acoustics and Ritual in Byzantium". This year-long seminar explores the creation and operations of sacred space in Byzantium by focusing on the intersection of architecture, acoustics, music, and ritual. Through the support of the Onassis Foundation (USA), nine leading scholars in the field share their research and conduct the discussion of their pre-circulated papers. The goal is to develop a new interpretive framework for the study of religious experience and assemble the research tools needed for work in this interdisciplinary field.
Same as: ARTHIST 208C, ARTHIST 408C, CLASSART 108, CLASSART 208, MUSIC 408C, REES 208C, REES 408C, RELIGST 208C, RELIGST 308C.

MUSIC 220A. Fundamentals of Computer-Generated Sound. 2-4 Units.

Techniques for digital sound synthesis, effects, and reverberation. Topics: summary of digital synthesis techniques (additive, subtractive, nonlinear, wavetable, spectral-modeling, and physical-modeling); digital effects algorithms (phasing, flanging, chorus, pitch-shifting, and vocoding); and techniques for digital reverberation. Majors (undergraduate or graduate) must take for 4 units. See http://ccrma.stanford.edu/.

MUSIC 220B. Compositional Algorithms, Psychoacoustics, and Computational Music. 2-4 Units.

The use of high-level programming language as a compositional aid in creating musical structures. Advanced study of sound synthesis techniques. Simulation of a reverberant space and control of the position of sound within the space. See http://ccrma.stanford.edu/. Prerequisite: 220A.

MUSIC 220C. Research Seminar in Computer-Generated Music. 2-4 Units.

Individual projects in composition, psychoacoustics, or signal processing. See http://ccrma.stanford.edu. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: 220B.

MUSIC 220D. Research in Computer-Generated Music. 1-10 Unit.

Independent research projects in composition, psychoacoustics, or signal processing. See http://ccrma.stanford.edu/. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: 220C.

MUSIC 221. Topics in the History of Theory. 3-5 Units.

The intersection of music theory and compositional practice in different eras of Western music history. Primary sources in music theory and issues such as notation, rhythm, mode, dissonance treatment, counterpoint, tonality, form, rhetoric, affect and imitation, expression, linear analysis, 12-tone and set theory, in light of relevant repertoire and modern scholarship. May be repeated for credit a total of 5 times.

MUSIC 222. Sound in Space. 1-4 Unit.

Historical background, techniques and theory on the use of space in music composition and diffusion. Listening and analysis of relevant pieces. Experimental work in spatialization techniques leading to short studies to be diffused in concert at the end of the quarter.

MUSIC 223. Composition for Electronic Musicians. 1-4 Unit.

Composition for any combination of acoustic and electroacoustic instrumentation, computer-generated sound, invented instruments, sound-sculptures, and multi-disciplinary elements including theater and visual media. Project-based laboratory to advance original student works, supported by lectures on the fundamentals of composition. Concert performance of final works. Taught at CCRMA with a focus on engendering deliberate conversation on the enrichment of a cultural context for new media. Open to undergraduates and graduates.

MUSIC 223T. Computer Music Improvisation and Algorithmic Performance. 2-4 Units.

This seminar will investigate how to approach configuring a set of composition tools for real time composition. Composition programming, ensemble rehearsal, and performance. Determining algorithmic composition beginning by imagining a process or a structure, applying a mapping process to transform that structure (which resides in the conceptual domain), into sound (which may reveal the original conception). Investigation of gestural mapping that occurs when a sonic result is achieved by an act of interpretation, whether it be reading a score and/or improvising.

MUSIC 230. Advanced Orchestral Conducting. 2-4 Units.

May be repeated for credit a total of 8 times. Prerequisite: 130B.

MUSIC 231. Advanced Choral Conducting. 2-4 Units.

Individual instruction continuing trajectory of MUSIC 130C. Focus on gestural technique and analysis of works by genre and historical period. May be repeated for credit a total of 8 times. Prerequisite: 130C.

MUSIC 236. Future Media, Media Archaeologies. 3-4 Units.

Hand-on. Media technologies from origins to the recent past. Students create artworks based on Victorian era discoveries and inventions, early developments in electronic media, and orphaned technologies. Research, rediscover, invent, and create devices of wonder and impossible objects. Readings in history and theory. How and what media technologies mediate.
Same as: ARTSTUDI 236.

MUSIC 240. Studies in Medieval Music. 3-4 Units.

Prerequisites: MUSIC 21, MUSIC 40. (WIM at 4-unit level only.)
Same as: MUSIC 140.

MUSIC 241. Studies in Renaissance Music. 2-4 Units.

Prerequisites: MUSIC 21, MUSIC 40. (WIM at 4-unit level only.)
Same as: MUSIC 141.

MUSIC 243. Studies in Classic Music. 3-4 Units.

Prerequisites: MUSIC 22, MUSIC 41. (WIM at 4-unit level only.)
Same as: MUSIC 143.

MUSIC 244. Studies in Romantic Music. 3-4 Units.

Prerequisites: MUSIC 23, MUSIC 42 (WIM at 4-unit level only.)
Same as: MUSIC 144.

MUSIC 246. Music and Urban Film. 3-4 Units.

How music and sound work in urban cinema. What happens when music's capacity to transform everyday reality combines with the realism of urban films? Provides an introduction to traditional theories of film music and film sound; considers how new technologies and practices have changed the roles of music in film. Readings discuss film music, realistic cinema, urban musical practices and urban culture. Viewing includes action/adventure, Hindi film, documentary, film noir, hip hop film, the musical, and borderline cases by Jean-Luc Godard, Spike Lee, Wong Kar-Wai and Tsai Ming-Liang. Pre- or corequisite (for music majors): MUSIC 22. (WIM at 4 unit level only.)
Same as: MUSIC 146.

MUSIC 247A. Listening to the Local: Music Ethnography of the Bay Area. 3-5 Units.

An introduction to music ethnography through student research on musical life in the Bay Area. Focus is on the intersections of music, social life, and cultural practice by engaging with people as they perform music and culture in situ. Techniques taught include participant-observation, interviewing and oral history, writing fieldnotes, recording, transcription, analysis, and ethnographic writing. Pre-/corequisite (for music majors): MUSIC 22. (WIM at 4 units only.)
Same as: MUSIC 147A.

MUSIC 247C. Latin American Music and Globalization. 3-4 Units.

Focuses on vernacular music of Latin America and the Caribbean, including Mexico, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Peru, Brazil, Colombia, and Argentina. Musical examples discussed in relation to: globalization, migration, colonialism, nationalism, diaspora, indigeneity, politics, religion, dance, ethnicity, and gender. How music reflects and shapes cultures, identities, and social structures. Genres addressed: bachata, bossa nova, cumbia, forro, ranchero, reggaeton, rock, salsa, tango, and others. Seminar, guest performances, reading, listening, and analysis. Pre-/corequisite (for music majors): MUSIC 22. (WIM at 4 units only.)
Same as: MUSIC 147C.

MUSIC 248. Musical Shakespeare: Theater, Song, Opera, and Film. 3-5 Units.

The role of music in productions, adaptations, and interpretations of Shakespeare's plays as theater, opera, and film from the Elizabethan era through the present. Emphasis is on the role of songs, stage music, and music in operatic and film adaptations. Incidental music, orchestral tone poems, and art-song settings of lyrics from the plays. Plays include Romeo and Juliet, Othello, Macbeth, Hamlet, The Tempest, Midsummer Night's Dream, and Twelfth Night. Pre-/corequisite (for music majors): MUSIC 22. (WIM at 4- or 5-unit level only.)
Same as: MUSIC 148.

MUSIC 249. Reactions to the Record: Early Recordings, Lost Styles, and Music's Future. 3-4 Units.

This is a seminar on the transformation of musical style in the era of recordings in light of their roots in cultural trends, including shifting hierarchies between composer and performer, work and notation, text and act. Early recordings will be studied as documents of musical values and conceptions different from those around us today. Methodologies of performance analysis will be explored and used to contextualize sources, which include historic recordings from Stanford's Archive of Recorded Sound, performance documents, and field research with performers, composers, critics, and listeners. Repertoire includes works for orchestra, piano, strings, chamber ensemble and voice. Outstanding contributions from seminar members may be featured in the Music Department¿s May 2014 Reactions to the Record symposium. May be repeated for credit. Pre- or corequisite (for music majors): MUSIC 22. (WIM at 4-unit level only.)
Same as: MUSIC 149.

MUSIC 250A. Physical Interaction Design for Music. 3-4 Units.

This lab and project-based course explores how we can physically interact with real-time electronic sound. Students learn to use and design sensors, circuits, embedded computers, communication protocols and sound synthesis. Advanced topics include real-time media, haptics, sound synthesis using physical model analogs, and human-computer interaction theory and practice. Course culminates in musical performance with or exhibition of completed design projects. See http://ccrma.stanford.edu/.

MUSIC 250B. Interactive Sound Art. 1-4 Unit.

A project based course where students will create Interactive Sound Art Installations focusing on the acoustical properties of reverberation. See http://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/250b/.

MUSIC 251. Psychophysics and Music Cognition. 1-5 Unit.

Lecture, lab and experiment-based course in perception, psychoacoustics, cognition, and neuroscience of music. (WIM at 4 or 5 units only.).

MUSIC 251F. Studying Popular Music. 3-5 Units.

What is "popular" music? How do the tools we use to think about the popular shape our understanding of what it contains? What can popular music tell us about a time period, a community, an artist, an industry, or a country? This course teaches the methodologies utilized in popular music studies, including analysis of sonic, visual, and social media, listener and performance ethnography, critical theory, and engagement with journalism. No musical experience required.
Same as: FEMGEN 151, FEMGEN 251, MUSIC 151F.

MUSIC 252. Introduction to Music Notation Software. 1-2 Unit.

Learn to use music notation programs Finale®, Sibelius® and open-source alternatives.

MUSIC 253. Symbolic Musical Information. 2-4 Units.

Focus on symbolic data for music applications including advanced notation systems, optical music recognition, musical data conversion, and internal structure of MIDI files.
Same as: CS 275A.

MUSIC 254. Music Query, Analysis, and Style Simulation. 2-4 Units.

Leveraging off three synchronized sets of symbolic data resources for notation and analysis, the lab portion introduces students to the open-source Humdrum Toolkit for music representation and analysis. Issues of data content and quality as well as methods of information retrieval, visualization, and summarization are considered in class. Grading based primarily on student projects. Prerequisite: 253 or consent of instructor.
Same as: CS 275B.

MUSIC 255. Intermedia Workshop. 3-4 Units.

Students develop and produce intermedia works. Musical and visual approaches to the conceptualisation and shaping of time-based art. Exploration of sound and image relationship. Study of a wide spectrum of audiovisual practices including experimental animation, video art, dance, performance, non-narrative forms, interactive art and installation art. Focus on works that use music/sound and image as equal partners. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: consent of instructors, and one of FILMPROD 114, ARTSTUDI 131, 138, 167, 177, 179, or MUSIC 123, or equivalent. May be repeated for credit
Same as: ARTSTUDI 239, MUSIC 155.

MUSIC 256A. Music, Computing, and Design I: Software Paradigms for Computer Music. 1-4 Unit.

Software design and implementation for computer audio. Strategies, best practices, and tradeoffs in building audio software systems of various sizes (S, M, L, XL), with a focus on interactive (real-time) systems. Lectures examine high-level designs as well as dissect code in a hands-on manner. Course work includes small programming assignments and a final software project. This course is the prerequisite for MUSIC 256B. Prerequisite: experience in C/C++ and/or Java.
Same as: CS 476A.

MUSIC 256B. Music, Computing, Design II: Mobile Music. 1-4 Unit.

Aesthetic, design, and implementation of mobile music, centered around the modern super smartphones such as the iPhone). Similarities and intrinsic differences between mobile and traditional computing and design for music. Topics include mobile software design, social and cloud computing, mobile interface design, and programming phones, in the service of music. Prerequisite: MUSIC 256A.
Same as: CS 476B.

MUSIC 257. Neuroplasticity and Musical Gaming. 3-5 Units.

What changes in a musician's brain after hours and years of daily practice? How do skills that make a great violinist transfer to other abilities? Can directed neuroplasticity be used to target skill learning? This course will include fundamentals of psychoacoustics and auditory neuroscience. Focus will be development of video games that use perceptually motivated tasks to drive neural change. Emphasis will be on music, linguistic, and acoustic based skills. Programming experience is highly recommended, but not required.

MUSIC 260. Music of South Asia. 3-4 Units.

Focuses on the history, theory, and practice of South Asian music with particular emphasis on the classical traditions of North and South India. Also addresses regional folk, popular, and devotional musical styles of India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Topics include: raga, tala, vocal and instrumental genres, improvisation, aesthetics, music transmission, musical nationalism, social organization of musicians, music and ritual, music and gender, and technology. Lecture with discussion, some singing (no experience necessary), guest performances, reading, listening, and analysis.

MUSIC 269. Research in Performance Practices. 1-5 Unit.

Directed reading and research. May be repeated for credit a total of 5 times.

MUSIC 272A. Advanced Piano. 1-3 Unit.

Private lessons and group masterclass weekly. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 272B. Advanced Organ. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 272C. Advanced Harpsichord. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 272D. Advanced Jazz Piano. 1-3 Unit.

By invitation only; priority to majors and jazz-ensemble participants. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 272E. Advanced Fortepiano. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 272F. Advanced Carillon. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 273. Advanced Voice. 1-3 Unit.

Private lessons and group master class weekly. May be repeated for credit. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 274A. Advanced Violin. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 274B. Advanced Viola. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 274C. Advanced Violoncello. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 274D. Advanced Contrabass. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 274E. Advanced Viola da Gamba. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.htmlfor class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 274F. Advanced Classical Guitar. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 274G. Advanced Harp. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 274H. Advanced Baroque Violin. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 274I. Advanced Jazz Bass. 1-3 Unit.

Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 274J. Advanced Jazz Guitar. 1-3 Unit.

Individual lessons in jazz guitar. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 275A. Advanced Flute. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 275B. Advanced Oboe. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 275C. Advanced Clarinet. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 275D. Advanced Bassoon. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 275E. Advanced Recorder/Early Winds. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 275F. Advanced Saxophone. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 275G. Advanced Baroque Flute. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 276A. Advanced French Horn. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 276B. Advanced Trumpet. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 276C. Advanced Trombone. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 276D. Advanced Tuba. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 277. Advanced Percussion. 1-3 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times. Admission is by audition only. There is a fee for this class. Please visit http://music.stanford.edu/Academics/LessonSignups.html for class fees and audition information.

MUSIC 280. TA Training Course. 1 Unit.

Required for doctoral students serving as teaching assistants. Orientation to resources at Stanford, guest presentations on the principles of common teaching activities, supervised teaching experience. Students who entered in the Autumn should take 280 in the Spring prior to the Autumn they begin teaching.

MUSIC 286. Religion and Music in South Asia. 4-5 Units.

How music and other arts in South Asia are intertwined with religion. Classical, devotional, folk, and popular examples introduce Gods as musicians, sound as God, music as yoga, singing as devotion, music as ¿ecstasy¿-inducing, music as site for doctrinal argument, music and religion as vehicles for nationalism. Co-taught by professors of Music and Religious Studies, focusing Hinduism and Islam in India, Pakistan, and the diaspora. Music practice along with academic study; guest artists and films; no background required.
Same as: MUSIC 186, RELIGST 259.

MUSIC 286A. Music and Religious Experience in the Contemporary World. 3-5 Units.

Explores the central role of music in the performance and experience of religion, positioning music not as an adjunct to silent rituals and liturgy, but as the catalyst and carrier of religious experience, indeed as religious experience itself. Topics include: trance, spirit possession, heightened religious experience, sacred sound and chant, shamanism, politics, and identity. Musical traditions include: Zimbabwean mbira music, African-American church music, Southeast Asian Buddhist ritual music, South Asian Hindu and Islamic devotional music, shamanistic music of Southeast Asia.
Same as: MUSIC 186A, RELIGST 156, RELIGST 256.

MUSIC 300A. Medieval Notation. 3-4 Units.

Western notation of the Middle Ages and Renaissance: principles, purposes, and transcription.

MUSIC 300B. Renaissance Notation. 4 Units.

Western notation of the Middle Ages and Renaissance: principles, purposes, and transcription.

MUSIC 300C. Medieval Methodologies. 3 Units.

An introduction to the essential tool-kit for medievalists, this course will give all medievalists a great head start in knowing how to access and interpret major works and topics in the field. Stanford's medieval faculty will explain the key sources and methods in the major disciplines from History to Religion, French to Arabic, English to Chinese, and Art History to German and Music. In so doing, students will be introduced to the breadth and interdisciplinary potential of Medieval Studies. A workshop devoted to Digital Technologies and Codicology/Palaeography will offer elementary training in these fundamental skills.
Same as: DLCL 300, ENGLISH 300.

MUSIC 302. Research in Musicology. 1-5 Unit.

Directed reading and research. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times.

MUSIC 305A. Analysis and Repertoire: Medieval and Renaissance. 4 Units.

Analytical approaches to genres, styles, forms, and techniques of Western music from [chant and early polyphony through the sixteenth century]. Issues of aesthetics, history, and interpretation viewed through representative repertoire, readings, and analytical methods.

MUSIC 305B. Analysis and Repertoire: Baroque to Early Romantic. 4 Units.

Analytical approaches to genres, styles, forms, and techniques of Western music from the seventeenth through the mid-nineteenth centuries. Issues of aesthetics, history, and interpretation viewed through representative repertoire, readings, and analytical methods.

MUSIC 305C. Analysis and Repertoire: Late-Romantic to Contemporary. 4 Units.

Analytical approaches to genres, styles, materials and techniques of Western music from the mid-nineteenth century through the present. Questions of aesthetics, history and performance explored through musical analysis. Representative repertoire and readings, and a range of analytical methods.

MUSIC 310. Research Seminar in Musicology. 3-5 Units.

For graduate students. Topics vary each quarter. May be repeated for credit a total of 8 times.

MUSIC 310A. Music and Critical Theory. 3-5 Units.

The seminar provides an opportunity to study some of the seminal texts of Critical Theory dealing with music. Concentrating on Theodor Adorno's writings on music, we will also include key philosophers who informed Adorno's thinking (in particular Kant, Hegel and Nietzsche), influential nineteenth-century aesthetics of music (Hoffmann, Schopenhauer and Hanslick), other contemporaries of Adorno (for example, Ernst Bloch), and some later authors whose work was influenced by the Frankfurt School (such as Carl Dahlhaus). We will also consider the impact of Critical Theory on recent scholarship. Weekly meetings will be organized around various topics, ranging from central concepts such as "Enlightenment" and "musical material" to individual composers. Music by Wagner, Mahler, Schoenberg, Stravinsky and Weill will feature prominently on the syllabus.
Same as: GERMAN 310A.

MUSIC 312A. Aesthetics and Criticism of Music, Ancients and Moderns: Plato to Nietzsche. 4 Units.

For graduate students. Primary texts focusing on the nature, purposes, and uses of music and other arts.

MUSIC 312B. Aesthetics and Criticism of Music, Contemporaries: Heidegger to Today. 4 Units.

For graduate students. Primary texts focusing on the nature, purposes, and uses of music and other arts.

MUSIC 318. Advanced Acoustics. 1-5 Unit.

Current topics. May be repeated for credit.

MUSIC 319. Research Seminar on Computational Models of Sound Perception. 1-3 Unit.

All aspects of auditory perception, often with emphasis on computational models. Topics: music perception, signal processing, auditory models, pitch perception, speech, binaural hearing, auditory scene analysis, basic psychoacoustics, and neurophysiology. See http://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times.

MUSIC 320. Introduction to Digital Audio Signal Processing. 3-4 Units.

Digital signal processing for music and audio research. Topics: complex numbers, sinusoids, spectrum representation, sampling and aliasing, digital filters, frequency response, z transforms, transfer-function analysis, and associated Matlab software. See http://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/320/.

MUSIC 321. Readings in Music Theory. 1-5 Unit.

Directed reading and research. May be repeated for credit a total of 15 times.

MUSIC 323. Doctoral Seminar in Composition. 3-4 Units.

Illustrated discussions of compositional issues and techniques. Presentation of relevant topics, including students' own compositional practice. May be repeated for credit a total of 14 times.

MUSIC 324. Graduate Composition Forum. 1 Unit.

Community forum for all graduate student composers. Discussion of completed and in-progress work by students, faculty, and visiting composers. Repertoire listening sessions. Planning of upcoming Department events. Special area exam topic presentations, final doctoral project presentations, and review of portfolios. Many sessions are open to the public.May be repeated for credit.

MUSIC 325. Individual Graduate Projects in Composition. 1-5 Unit.

May be repeated for credit.

MUSIC 330. Musicology Dissertation Colloquium. 1-4 Unit.

Weekly meetings for all musicology students 4th year and beyond to discuss research and writing strategies, share and critique work in progress, and discuss issues in professional development (preparing abstracts, conference papers, C.V. and job interviews, book reviews, submitting articles for publication). Open to 3rd-year students.

MUSIC 341. Ph.D Dissertation. 1-10 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 5 times.

MUSIC 351. Seminar in Music Perception and Cognition. 1-3 Unit.

A seminar on topics in music perception and cognition. Students will study and discuss recent research as well as design and implement experiments.

MUSIC 385. Music Across Media: Music Video to Postclassical Cinema. 4 Units.

What makes music videos, YouTube clips and musical numbers in today's films engaging? What makes them tick? Emphasis is on aesthetics and close reading. How music videos and its related forms work. Uses of the body, how visual iconography operates, what lyrics and dialogue can do, how and what music can say, and how it can work with other media. Questions of representation such as how class, ethnicity, gender, race, and nationality function. Viewership and industry practices.
Same as: FILMSTUD 141, FILMSTUD 341, MUSIC 185.

MUSIC 390. Practicum Internship. 1 Unit.

On-the-job training under the guidance of experienced, on-site supervisors. Meets the requirements for curricular practical training for students on F-1 visas. Students submit a concise report detailing work activities, problems worked on, and key results. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: qualified offer of employment and consent of adviser.

MUSIC 399. D.M.A. Final Project. 1-10 Unit.

May be repeated for credit a total of 5 times.

MUSIC 408C. Architecture, Acoustics and Ritual in Byzantium. 1-3 Unit.

Onassis Seminar "Icons of Sound: Architecture, Acoustics and Ritual in Byzantium". This year-long seminar explores the creation and operations of sacred space in Byzantium by focusing on the intersection of architecture, acoustics, music, and ritual. Through the support of the Onassis Foundation (USA), nine leading scholars in the field share their research and conduct the discussion of their pre-circulated papers. The goal is to develop a new interpretive framework for the study of religious experience and assemble the research tools needed for work in this interdisciplinary field.
Same as: ARTHIST 208C, ARTHIST 408C, CLASSART 108, CLASSART 208, MUSIC 208C, REES 208C, REES 408C, RELIGST 208C, RELIGST 308C.

MUSIC 420A. Signal Processing Models in Musical Acoustics. 3-4 Units.

Computational methods in musical sound synthesis and digital audio effects based on acoustic physical models. Topics: acoustic simulation with delay lines, digital filters, and nonlinear elements; comb filters; allpass filters; artificial reverberation; delay-line interpolation and sampling-rate conversion; phasing, flanging, and chorus effects; efficient computational models of strings, woodwinds, brasses, and other musical instruments. See http://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/420/. Prerequisites: 320 or equivalent; PHYSICS 21 or equivalent course applying Newton's laws of motion; and CS 106B or equivalent programming in C and C++.

MUSIC 420B. Software for Sound Synthesis and Audio Effects. 1-10 Unit.

Preferred software embodiments for digital sound synthesis and audio effects. Topics: The Faust language for audio signal processing, effects programming, plugin generation for various platforms, software components for stringed and wind musical instruments, delay effects, variable filters, and nonlinear effects such as compression and distortion. The principal activity is a software project due at the end of the quarter. Prerequisite: MUSIC 420A or equivalent experience with audio signal processing in C++. Recommended Corequisite: MUSIC 424.

MUSIC 421A. Audio Applications of the Fast Fourier Transform. 3-4 Units.

Spectrum analysis and signal processing using Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) with emphasis on audio applications. Topics: Fourier theorems; FFT windows; spectrum analysis; spectrograms; sinusoidal modeling; spectral modeling synthesis; FFT convolution; FIR filter design and system identification; overlap-add and filter-bank-summation methods for short-time Fourier analysis, modification, and resynthesis. See http://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/421/. Prerequisite: MUSIC 320 or equivalent background in spectrum analysis and linear systems.
Same as: FFT.

MUSIC 421B. Projects in Spectral Audio Signal Processing. 1-10 Unit.

Frequency-domain methods for analysis and/or synthesis of sound. The principal activity is a software project. Continuing 421A, additional frequency-domain techniques for analysis, modification, and/or synthesis of audio signals will be discussed.

MUSIC 422. Perceptual Audio Coding. 3 Units.

History and basic principles: development of psychoacoustics-based data-compression techniques; perceptual-audio-coder applications (radio, television, film, multimedia/internet audio, DVD, EMD). In-class demonstrations: state-of-the-art audio coder implementations (such as AC-3, MPEG) at varying data rates; programming simple coders. Topics: audio signals representation; quantization; time to frequency mapping; introduction to psychoacoustics; bit allocation and basic building blocks of an audio codec; perceptual audio codecs evaluation; overview of MPEG-1, 2, 4 audio coding and other coding standards (such asAC-3). Prerequisites: knowledge of digital audio principles, familiarity with C programming. Recommended: 320, EE 261. See http://ccrma.stanford.edu/.

MUSIC 423. Graduate Research in Music Technology. 1-4 Unit.

Research discussion, development, and presentation by graduate students, visiting scholars, and CCRMA faculty in the areas of music and/or audio technology. See http://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/423/ for latest information. May be repeated for credit a total of 11 times.

MUSIC 424. Signal Processing Techniques for Digital Audio Effects. 3-4 Units.

Techniques for dynamic range compression, reverberation, equalization and filtering, panning and spatialization, digital emulation of analog processors, and implementation of time-varying effects. Single-band and multiband compressors, limiters, noise gates, de-essers, convolutional reverberators, parametric and linear-phase equalizers, wah-wah and envelope-following filters, and the Leslie. Students develop effects algorithms of their own design in labs. Prerequisites: digital signal processing, sampling theorem, digital filtering, and the Fourier transform at the level of 320 or EE 261; Matlab and modest C programming experience. Recommended: 420 or EE 264; audio effects in mixing and mastering at the level of 192.

MUSIC 451. Neuroscience of Auditory Perception and Music Cognition. 2-5 Units.

Understand concepts and techniques in cognitive neuroscience specific to auditory perception and music cognition via seminar and laboratory work. Acquire/practice skills in experimental design, data analysis, interpretation, writing for scientific reports and research proposals, and giving a critical review of others¿ scientific work. Seminar discusses related literature in neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropsychology, and brain-computer interface. Laboratory focuses on electroencephalography (EEG) techniques, classic paradigms for recording evoked response, and associated data analysis methods.