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History

Contacts

Office: Building 200, Room 113
Mail Code: 94305-2024
Phone: (650) 723-2651
Web Site: http://history.stanford.edu

Courses offered by the Department of History are listed under the subject code History on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

Mission of the Department of History

History courses teach the analytical, interpretive, and writing knowledge and skills necessary for understanding the connections between past and present. History is a pragmatic discipline in which the analysis of change over time involves sifting the influences and perspectives that affect the course of events, and evaluating the different forms of evidence historians exploit to make sense of them. Teaching students how to weigh these sources and convert the findings into persuasive analysis lies at the heart of the department's teaching. Graduates with a History major pursue careers and graduate study in law, public service, business, writing, education, and journalism.

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduate)

The department expects undergraduate majors in the program to be able to demonstrate the following learning outcomes. These learning outcomes are used in evaluating students and the department's undergraduate program. Students are expected to demonstrate:

  1. an understanding of what it means to think historically: locating subjects in time and place and being sensitive to the contingencies of context and to change over time.
  2. critical and interpretive thinking skills using course's primary source materials.
  3. the ability to identify different types of sources of historical knowledge.
  4. analytical writing skills and close reading skills.
  5. effective oral communication skills

Degrees Offered

The Department of History offers the following degree programs: Bachelor of Arts, coterminal Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts, Master of Arts, and Doctor of Philosophy.

Graduate Programs in History

The primary goal of the Stanford Department of History's graduate program is the training of scholars. Most students who receive doctorates in the program go on to teach at colleges or universities. Other students have obtained positions in university administration and research.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The purpose of the master's program is to further develop knowledge and skills in History and to prepare students for a professional career or doctoral studies. This is achieved through completion of courses, in the primary field as well as related areas, and experience with independent work and specialization.

The Ph.D. is conferred upon candidates who have demonstrated substantial scholarship and the ability to conduct independent research and analysis in History. Through completion of advanced course work and rigorous skills training, the doctoral program prepares students to make original contributions to the knowledge of History and to interpret and present the results of such research.

History Course Catalog Numbering System

Location Introductory Seminars:Freshman/Sophomores Sources and Methods Seminars Lectures Colloquia Research Seminars and Workshops
International, Global, Thematic4N, 44Q, 95N3S1B, 64, 102, 103D,F, 105C, 106A,B, 107201A, 202A,B,G, 203,B,C, 204,C,E,G, 206,206A, 207C, 208C, 243G, 301A, 302A,B,G, 303,303B,C,F, 304,C,G, 305, 306A, D, 307C,E, 308C, 343G, 399A306K, 401A
Ancient and Medieval Europe11N101207F, 215K, 307F
Early Modern and Modern Europe33S, 38S110B, C, 131A, 133A, 134A230C, 231G, 232A, 233, 331G, 332A, 333326A, 430, 433A, B, 438
Eastern Europe, Russia, Eurasia20N20S125221B, 224A, 228, 321A, 328424A, B
History of Science41Q, 44Q 42S130A, 140, 144208A, 232F, 308A, 332F
Africa48N, 48Q145B, 147445A, B
United States36N, 41Q, 50K, 60N71S, 74S, 76S64, 130A, 150A, B, C, 151, 158C,159, 161, 166, B, 167A201, 203C, 251G, 252B, 253D, 256, G, 257C, 258, E, 260, 261G, 262A, E, 269, 301, 303C, 351B, C, E, 356, 358, 369 460
Latin America78N174277D471A, B
Middle East181B, 182C, 187281B, 284, F, 288, 381, B, 384, F481
Jewish History185B486A
Asia98N191B, 192, 195, C, 196, 198290E, 292, D, 297, 390E, 391B, 392, D, 396D, 397491A, B, 494C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bachelor of Arts in History

Prerequisites for the Major

Before declaring the History major, students must take one lecture course. They must take a second lecture course within one year of declaring. Fulfilling this requirement are courses numbered HISTORY 101-199.

The choices for 2013-14 are:

Units
HISTORY 1BGlobal History: The Early Modern World, 1300 to 18003-5
HISTORY 102The History of the International System since 19145
HISTORY 103DHuman Society and Environmental Change4
HISTORY 103FIntroduction to Military History5
HISTORY 105CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives5
HISTORY 106AGlobal Human Geography: Asia and Africa5
HISTORY 106BGlobal Human Geography: Europe and Americas5
HISTORY 106CGlobal Historical Geography5
HISTORY 107Introduction to Feminist Studies5
HISTORY 110BFrom Renaissance to Revolution: Early Modern Europe5
HISTORY 110CIntroduction to Modern Europe5
HISTORY 125Dark Century: Eastern Europe After 19005
HISTORY 130AIn Sickness and In Health: Medicine and American Society, 1800-Present5
HISTORY 131ABritain and World History since 1750: "Britain invented everything!"5
HISTORY 133ABlood and Roses: The Age of the Tudors5
HISTORY 134AThe European Witch Hunts5
HISTORY 140World History of Science5
HISTORY 144History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine and Engineering5
HISTORY 147History of South Africa5
HISTORY 150AColonial and Revolutionary America5
HISTORY 150B19th-Century America5
HISTORY 150CThe United States in the Twentieth Century5
HISTORY 159Introduction to Asian American History5
HISTORY 161Women in Modern America4-5
HISTORY 166Introduction to African American History: The Modern African American Freedom Struggle3-5
HISTORY 166BImmigration Debates in America, Past and Present3-5
HISTORY 167AMartin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle3-5
HISTORY 168American History in Film Since World War ll3-4
HISTORY 174Mexico Since 1876: HIstory of a "Failed State"?5
HISTORY 181BFormation of the Contemporary Middle East5
HISTORY 182CThe Making of the Islamic World, 600-15005
HISTORY 185BJews, 1500 to the Present5
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 191BThe City in Imperial China5
HISTORY 192China: The Early Empires5
HISTORY 194BJapan in the Age of the Samurai5
HISTORY 195Modern Korean History5
HISTORY 195CModern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon5
HISTORY 196Worlds of Gandhi5
HISTORY 198The History of Modern China5

Bachelor of Arts Requirements

Completion of the major requires planning. History majors should plan to meet with their faculty advisers twice yearly, once in the Autumn and once in the Winter or Spring quarters. These meetings should take place within the first three weeks of the quarter, before the final study list deadline.

History majors are required to complete a minimum of 63 units and at least 13 courses of at least 3 units each, to include:

Units
1. One Sources and Methods Seminar (HISTORY 1S-99S) (5) 15
Sources and Methods courses offered this year are:
Building Modern Society: Revolution & Economy in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World
Resistance and Rebellion under Communism
Public Knowledge? Propaganda, Censorship, and News in Early Modern England
Antislavery, Abolition, and Emancipation in the British Empire
The Circle of Life: Visions of Nature in Modern Science, Religion, Politics and Culture
American Political Thought from the Civil War to the Cold War
Sounds of the Century: Popular Music and the United States in the 20th Century
The World that Columbus Made: Imagining the Spanish Empire (1492- c. 1600)
2. Two 200-level undergraduate colloquia (HISTORY 200-298) (10) 210
3. At least one other small group course (5)5
To be chosen among the department's undergraduate colloquia, research seminars, or Stanford Introductory Seminars
4. Two lecture courses (10) 310
One of which must be either
A Europe survey course such as:
From Renaissance to Revolution: Early Modern Europe
Introduction to Modern Europe
Or, or a United States survey course such as:
Colonial and Revolutionary America
19th-Century America
The United States in the Twentieth Century
The second must be a lecture course in African, Asian, Middle East, or Latin American History.
5. Completion of the Writing in the Major (WIM) requirement (5) 4
HISTORY 209SResearch Seminar for Majors5
6. At least 6 additional courses to total a minimum of 63 units. (28)28

1

Students must complete the Sources and Methods Seminar requirement prior to enrolling in the Research Seminar for Majors.

2

 ExploreCourses lists all colloquia offered this year.

3

 Students may count courses they took as prerequisites to the major for this requirement.

4

In completing this course, students must write a 20-25 page essay based on original research and including at least two drafts. HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors may be taken in either the junior or the senior year. Students must complete the Sources and Methods seminar before enrolling in the Research Seminar.

 Additional Requirements

  1. Courses comprising the 63 units must be taken for a letter grade, and the student must maintain a grade point average (GPA) in History courses of 2.0 or higher.
  2. At least nine courses must be taken from within the Stanford Department of History. Transfer students and those who study abroad may be granted exemptions from this requirement at the discretion of the Director of Undergraduate Studies.
  3. At least six quarters of enrollment in the major. Each candidate for the B.A. in History should declare the major by the Autumn Quarter of the third year of study or earlier, if possible.
  4. One HISTORY 299S Undergraduate Directed Research and Writing taken for 3-5 units and for a letter grade may be applied toward the thirteen courses required for the B.A. in History.
  5. Capstone: The History department organizes a series of luncheon workshops in May, at which students present their research essays and honors theses.
  6. The department  encourages students to acquire proficiency in foreign languages and study at one of Stanford's overseas programs. Such studies are not only valuable in themselves; they can provide an opportunity for independent research and a foundation for honors essays and graduate study.
  7. Advanced Placement credits do not fulfill any major requirements.

For further information on History courses' satisfaction of major requirements, see the Department of History web site.

Writing in the Major (WIM) Requirement

History's Writing in the Major requirement is satisfied by completing HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors.

This course may be taken in either the junior or senior year, but not before completing the sources and methods seminar requirement. Students write a 20-25 page research essay. Original research and revision are important parts of the research essay. Students must conduct substantial research in the libraries and must submit at least two drafts (a rough draft and a final draft) of the essay. Any student wishing to write an honors thesis should take HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors in the junior year and use it to begin work on the thesis; this work can take the place of a research essay.

HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills the WIM requirement only. It does not fulfill geographical requirements or small group course requirements.

Students select their research topics based on the general topics of each quarter's offerings.

  • HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors
    • Autumn: Religion in the U.S.; History of Science/Honors
    • Winter: Gender. Sexuality and Race; Biography and History
    • Spring: Early Modern European Travel Accounts; Europe Since 1500

Honors Program

For a limited number of majors, the department offers a special program leading to Departmental Honors in History. Students accepted for this program, in additional to fulfilling the general requirements stated above, begin work on an essay in Spring Quarter of the junior year and complete the essay by mid-May of the senior year. In addition to HISTORY 299H Junior Honors Colloquium, students must enroll in 11-15 units of Senior Research in the senior year, to be distributed as best fits their specific project. For students in the Honors program, Senior Research units (HISTORY 299A Senior Research I,HISTORY 299B Senior Research II,HISTORY 299C Senior Research III) are taken in addition to the thirteen required courses in History.

To enter this program, the student must be accepted by a member of the department who agrees to advise the research and writing of the essay, and must complete the Junior Honors Colloquium (299H) offered in Winter Quarter. An exception to the latter requirement may be made for those studying overseas Winter Quarter of the junior year, but such students should consult with the director of the honors program, if possible, prior to going overseas. Students who study abroad for the entire junior year and want to write an honors thesis should plan to take the Research Seminar for Majors in the first quarter following completion of the study abroad program. Under exceptional circumstances, students are admitted to the program in Autumn Quarter of the senior year. Such students must not enroll in any HISTORY 299A Senior Research I,HISTORY 299B Senior Research II,HISTORY 299C Senior Research III, units until HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors, has been completed.

In considering an applicant for such a project, the adviser and director of the honors program take into account general preparation in the field of the project and expect a GPA of at least 3.5 in the student's previous work in History and a 3.3 in overall University work. Students completing the thesis with a grade of 'B+' or higher are eligible for Departmental Honors in History. To enter the Honors program, apply at the Department of History office.

Outstanding honors essays may be considered for the University's Robert M. Golden Medals, as well as for departmental James Birdsall Weter prizes.

Honors Program Requirements—To graduate with departmental honors in History, students must:

  1. complete HISTORY 299H Junior Honors Colloquium in the junior year
  2. maintain a GPA of at least 3.3 in overall University work and a 3.5 in the History major during the final 5 quarters of enrollment/thesis preparation, or obtain the consent of the Director of the Honors Program.
  3. select both a primary thesis adviser (who is a member of the Stanford History faculty) and a secondary adviser (who is a Stanford University faculty member) no later than Autumn Quarter of the senior year
  4. submit on May 12, 2014 by noon a 65-120 page honors thesis including bibliography that receives a grade of 'B+' or better
  5. enroll in the 11-15 units of Senior Research as specified below
  6. participate in mandatory Honors Program activities throughout senior year (including, but not limited to, writing workshops and the annual Honors Day oral presentations) as specified in the Honors Program Handbook.

HISTORY 299A Senior Research I,HISTORY 299B Senior Research II,HISTORY 299C Senior Research III do not fulfill any history major requirements other than honors, but the units do count towards the 180 required for B.A. degree conferral.

Required Course—To be taken in the junior year:

Units
HISTORY 299HJunior Honors Colloquium1

Required Course—Recommended to be taken in junior year:

Units
HISTORY 209SResearch Seminar for Majors5

An exception (for HISTORY 299H Junior Honors Colloquium) may be made for those studying overseas Winter Quarter of the junior year, but such students should consult with the Director of the Honors Program prior to going overseas.

To be taken in the senior year:

Units
HISTORY 299ASenior Research I1-5
HISTORY 299BSenior Research II1-5
HISTORY 299CSenior Research III1-5

Overseas Studies or Study Abroad

Courses offered by Stanford's Bing Overseas Studies Program and appearing on the History department's cognate course list automatically receive credit towards the major or minor in History. Course work completed in non-Stanford Study Abroad programs is evaluated for major/minor credit by designated History department faculty on a case-by-case basis. Students in non-Stanford Study Abroad programs are advised to take classes with reading and writing components comparable to History department course loads.

History Fields of Study or Degree Options

The Department of History offers the following tracks to the B.A. in History. These tracks are not declared on Axess; they do not appear on the transcript or on the diploma. The tracks are:

  • General History
  • Global Affairs and World History
  • History, Literature, and the Arts
  • History of Science and Medicine
  • History and the Law
  • Public History/Public Service

The General History track emphasizes breadth of study among historical areas and periods as well as concentration in one selected field. The Global Affairs and World History track emphasizes an understanding of today's world through a historical examination of its evolution, from the early modern to the contemporary era.  The four tracks with interdisciplinary emphasis (History, Literature and the Arts; History of Science and Medicine; History and the Law; and Public History/Public Service) combine the study of history with the methods and approaches of other disciplines, and involve substantial course work outside of History.

General History Track

In addition to completing the requirements for all History majors, the student in the General History track is required to satisfy breadth and concentration requirements.

  1. Breadth Requirements: to ensure chronological and geographical breadth, at least two courses must be completed in a premodern chronological period and in each of three geographical fields:
    1. Field I (Africa, Asia, and Middle East)
    2. Field II (the Americas)
    3. Field III (Europe, including Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and Russia).
    4. Courses fulfilling the premodern chronological period (Field IV) may also count for Fields I-III.
  2. Courses for 2013-14 follow below.
  3. Concentration: to develop some measure of expertise, students must complete four courses in a single area (including one undergraduate colloquium or research seminar). The proposed concentration must be approved by the major adviser; a proposal for a thematic concentration must be approved by both the adviser and the department's director of undergraduate studies. Areas of concentration are:
    • Africa
    • Asia
    • Eastern Europe and Russia
    • Europe before 1700
    • Europe since 1700
    • Jewish History
    • Latin America
    • Science and Medicine
    • The United States
    • The Middle East
    • International History
    • Comparative Empires and Cultures
    • or a thematic subject treated comparatively, such as war and revolution, work, gender, family history, popular culture, or high culture.
  4. Required course: HISTORY 102 The History of the International System since 1914 is a required course for students who select the International History concentration. This course is offered in Spring Quarter.

Field I: Africa/Asia/Middle East

Units
HISTORY 45BAfrica in the Twentieth Century3
HISTORY 47History of South Africa3
HISTORY 48NAfrican History through Literature and Film3-4
HISTORY 48QSouth Africa: Contested Transitions3
HISTORY 81BFormation of the Contemporary Middle East3
HISTORY 82CThe Making of the Islamic World, 600-15003
HISTORY 87The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan3
HISTORY 91BThe City in Imperial China3
HISTORY 92Early Empires in China3
HISTORY 94BJapan in the Age of the Samurai3
HISTORY 95Modern Korean History3
HISTORY 95CModern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon3
HISTORY 96Worlds of Gandhi3
HISTORY 98The History of Modern China3
HISTORY 98NBeijing, Shanghai, and the Structure of Modern China3
HISTORY 106AGlobal Human Geography: Asia and Africa5
HISTORY 107Introduction to Feminist Studies4-5
HISTORY 145BAfrica in the 20th Century5
HISTORY 147History of South Africa5
HISTORY 159Introduction to Asian American History5
HISTORY 181BFormation of the Contemporary Middle East5
HISTORY 182CThe Making of the Islamic World, 600-15005
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 191BThe City in Imperial China5
HISTORY 192China: The Early Empires5
HISTORY 194BJapan in the Age of the Samurai5
HISTORY 195Modern Korean History5
HISTORY 195CModern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon5
HISTORY 196Worlds of Gandhi5
HISTORY 198The History of Modern China5
HISTORY 215KThe Crusades: A Cultural History5
HISTORY 245EHealth and Society in Africa4-5
HISTORY 248SAfrican Societies and Colonial States, Part 14-5
HISTORY 281BModern Egypt4-5
HISTORY 284The Ottoman Empire, 1300-19234-5
HISTORY 284FIslamic Eurasia: Empires, Nomads and Merchants (1300-1850)4-5
HISTORY 288Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict4-5
HISTORY 290EMovies and Empire in East Asia5
HISTORY 292The Two Koreas4-5
HISTORY 292DJapan in Asia, Asia in Japan4-5
HISTORY 297The Cold War and East Asia5

Field II: The Americas

Units
HISTORY 41QMad Women: Women and Mental Illness in U.S. History3
HISTORY 50AColonial and Revolutionary America3
HISTORY 50B19th Century America3
HISTORY 50CThe United States in the Twentieth Century3
HISTORY 59Introduction to Asian American History3
HISTORY 60NRevolutionaries and Founders3
HISTORY 70Culture, Politics, and Society in Latin America3
HISTORY 71SAmerican Political Thought from the Civil War to the Cold War5
HISTORY 76SThe World that Columbus Made: Imagining the Spanish Empire (1492- c. 1600)5
HISTORY 130AIn Sickness and In Health: Medicine and American Society, 1800-Present5
HISTORY 150AColonial and Revolutionary America5
HISTORY 150B19th-Century America5
HISTORY 150CThe United States in the Twentieth Century5
HISTORY 158BHistory of Education in the United States3-5
HISTORY 158CHistory of Higher Education in the U.S.3-5
HISTORY 161Women in Modern America4-5
HISTORY 166Introduction to African American History: The Modern African American Freedom Struggle3-5
HISTORY 166BImmigration Debates in America, Past and Present3-5
HISTORY 167AMartin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle3-5
HISTORY 168American History in Film Since World War ll3-4
HISTORY 201Introduction to Public History in the U.S.,19th Century to the Present4-5
HISTORY 251GTopics in Constitutional History5
HISTORY 252KAmerica as a World Power: U.S. Foreign Relations, 1914 to Present5
HISTORY 253DApproaches to American Legal History5
HISTORY 255EEducation, Race, and Inequality in African American History, 1880-19903-5
HISTORY 256U.S.-China Relations: From the Opium War to Tiananmen4-5
HISTORY 257CLGBT/Queer Life in the United States4-5
HISTORY 258Topics in the History of Sexuality: Sexual Violence4-5
HISTORY 258DSchool: What Is It Good For?3-4
HISTORY 258EHistory of School Reform: Origins, Policies, Outcomes, and Explanations3-5
HISTORY 260California's Minority-Majority Cities4-5
HISTORY 261GPresidents and Foreign Policy in Modern History5
HISTORY 262AGlobalizing the American Revolution5
HISTORY 262EAtlantic America: Politics, Economics, and Empire5
HISTORY 264GThe Social History of Mental Illness in the United States5
HISTORY 267Religion in Twentieth Century American Life5
HISTORY 269History of Capitalism5
HISTORY 277DU.S. Intervention and Regime Change in 20th Century Latin America5

Field III: Europe, Eastern Europe, and Russia

Units
HISTORY 10BFrom Renaissance to Revolution: Early Modern Europe3
HISTORY 20SResistance and Rebellion under Communism5
HISTORY 30QEnglish Society Through Fiction4
HISTORY 33ABlood and Roses: The Age of the Tudors3
HISTORY 33SPublic Knowledge? Propaganda, Censorship, and News in Early Modern England5
HISTORY 34AEuropean Witch Hunts3
HISTORY 38SAntislavery, Abolition, and Emancipation in the British Empire5
HISTORY 85BJews, 1500 to the Present3
HISTORY 101The Greeks4-5
HISTORY 102AThe Romans3-5
HISTORY 110BFrom Renaissance to Revolution: Early Modern Europe5
HISTORY 110CIntroduction to Modern Europe5
HISTORY 125Dark Century: Eastern Europe After 19005
HISTORY 133ABlood and Roses: The Age of the Tudors5
HISTORY 134AThe European Witch Hunts5
HISTORY 185BJews, 1500 to the Present5
HISTORY 204ETotalitarianism4-5
HISTORY 207CThe Global Early Modern4-5
HISTORY 207FHeavenly Bodies: Saints' Bodies, Relics and Miracles in Late Antique and Medieval Europe4-5
HISTORY 221BThe Woman Question in Modern Russia5
HISTORY 224AThe Soviet Civilization4-5
HISTORY 228Circles of Hell: Poland in World War II5
HISTORY 230CParis: Capital of the Modern World4-5
HISTORY 232APower, Art, and Knowledge in Renaissance Italy4-5
HISTORY 232FThe Scientific Revolution5
HISTORY 233Reformation, Political Culture, and the Origins of the English Civil War4-5

Field IV: Pre-1700

Units
HISTORY 1BGlobal History: The Early Modern World, 1300 to 18003-5
HISTORY 10BFrom Renaissance to Revolution: Early Modern Europe3
HISTORY 33ABlood and Roses: The Age of the Tudors3
HISTORY 33SPublic Knowledge? Propaganda, Censorship, and News in Early Modern England5
HISTORY 34AEuropean Witch Hunts3
HISTORY 40World History of Science3
HISTORY 76SThe World that Columbus Made: Imagining the Spanish Empire (1492- c. 1600)5
HISTORY 82CThe Making of the Islamic World, 600-15003
HISTORY 91BThe City in Imperial China3
HISTORY 92Early Empires in China3
HISTORY 101The Greeks4-5
HISTORY 102AThe Romans3-5
HISTORY 110BFrom Renaissance to Revolution: Early Modern Europe5
HISTORY 114Origins of History in Greece and Rome4-5
HISTORY 133ABlood and Roses: The Age of the Tudors5
HISTORY 134AThe European Witch Hunts5
HISTORY 140World History of Science5
HISTORY 182CThe Making of the Islamic World, 600-15005
HISTORY 191BThe City in Imperial China5
HISTORY 192China: The Early Empires5
HISTORY 202BCoffee, Sugar, and Chocolate: Commodities and Consumption in World History, 1200-18004
HISTORY 204CHow Wars End: War and Peace in the 20th Century5
HISTORY 207CThe Global Early Modern4-5
HISTORY 207FHeavenly Bodies: Saints' Bodies, Relics and Miracles in Late Antique and Medieval Europe4-5
HISTORY 215KThe Crusades: A Cultural History5
HISTORY 231GEuropean Reformations4-5
HISTORY 232APower, Art, and Knowledge in Renaissance Italy4-5
HISTORY 232FThe Scientific Revolution5
HISTORY 233Reformation, Political Culture, and the Origins of the English Civil War4-5
HISTORY 262EAtlantic America: Politics, Economics, and Empire5
HISTORY 284The Ottoman Empire, 1300-19234-5
HISTORY 284FIslamic Eurasia: Empires, Nomads and Merchants (1300-1850)4-5

Global Affairs and World History Track

The Global Affairs and World History track is designed to offer an empirically rich curriculum for Stanford students interested in international affairs. The goal is to impart an understanding of today's world through a historical examination of its evolution, from the early modern to the contemporary era. This track appeals to students who are aiming for a career in the international arena, and who seek to inform themselves about the complexities of cultural diversity and spatial differentiation on the ground. Deploying both connective and comparative modes of analysis, majors who choose this track will acquire a robust understanding of the relevance of the past to current events.

The Global Affairs and World History track features gateway courses in Global Human Geography, a recommended skills component, a geographical concentration, and a core cluster of global and comparative offerings. Students choosing this track also develop proficiency in a foreign language at the second-year level or above. Incorporating primary sources in a language other than English into the capstone seminar or honors thesis is encouraged.

Gateway Courses (two courses): All students in Global Affairs and World History complete the two quarter Global Human Geography sequence. HISTORY 106A Global Human Geography: Asia and Africa is offered in Spring Quarter. HISTORY 106B is offered Autumn Quarter 2013-14.

Geographical Cluster (four courses): Students select four History courses in one geographic area, such as Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East, or Africa. The faculty coordinator must preapprove all courses in this cluster.

Global and Comparative Courses (Methodological Cluster) (six courses): Majors selecting this track take at least 6 thematic history courses of global scope. Courses offered in 2013-14 are:

Units
HISTORY 1BGlobal History: The Early Modern World, 1300 to 18003-5
HISTORY 3SBuilding Modern Society: Revolution & Economy in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World5
HISTORY 4NA World History of Genocide3-5
HISTORY 5CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives3
HISTORY 40World History of Science3
HISTORY 44History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Environment3
HISTORY 44QGendered Innovations in Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Environment4-5
HISTORY 76SThe World that Columbus Made: Imagining the Spanish Empire (1492- c. 1600)5
HISTORY 81BFormation of the Contemporary Middle East3
HISTORY 82CThe Making of the Islamic World, 600-15003
HISTORY 87The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan3
HISTORY 91BThe City in Imperial China3
HISTORY 92Early Empires in China3
HISTORY 95CModern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon3
HISTORY 95NMapping the World: Cartography and the Modern Imagination4-5
HISTORY 96Worlds of Gandhi3
HISTORY 102The History of the International System since 19145
HISTORY 103DHuman Society and Environmental Change4
HISTORY 103FIntroduction to Military History5
HISTORY 105CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives5
HISTORY 106AGlobal Human Geography: Asia and Africa5
HISTORY 106BGlobal Human Geography: Europe and Americas5
HISTORY 106CGlobal Historical Geography5
HISTORY 107Introduction to Feminist Studies4-5
HISTORY 125Dark Century: Eastern Europe After 19005
HISTORY 131ABritain and World History since 1750: "Britain invented everything!"5
HISTORY 140World History of Science5
HISTORY 144History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine and Engineering5
HISTORY 181BFormation of the Contemporary Middle East5
HISTORY 182CThe Making of the Islamic World, 600-15005
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 191BThe City in Imperial China5
HISTORY 192China: The Early Empires5
HISTORY 195CModern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon5
HISTORY 196Worlds of Gandhi5
HISTORY 201AThe Global Drug Wars4-5
HISTORY 202AQuestions in Modern World History: Provincializing Europe?4-5
HISTORY 202BCoffee, Sugar, and Chocolate: Commodities and Consumption in World History, 1200-18004
HISTORY 202GPeoples, Armies and Governments of the Second World War4-5
HISTORY 203BSecret Societies in Western History5
HISTORY 203CHistory of Ignorance3
HISTORY 204Introduction to History and Historiography4-5
HISTORY 204CHow Wars End: War and Peace in the 20th Century5
HISTORY 204ETotalitarianism4-5
HISTORY 204GWar and Society5
HISTORY 206History and Geography of Contemporary Global Issues5
HISTORY 207CThe Global Early Modern4-5
HISTORY 208AScience and Law in History4-5
HISTORY 208CHistory of Death and Dying4
HISTORY 224AThe Soviet Civilization4-5
HISTORY 224CGenocide and Humanitarian Intervention3
HISTORY 226EFamine in the Modern World3
HISTORY 243GTobacco and Health in World History4-5
HISTORY 248SAfrican Societies and Colonial States, Part 14-5
HISTORY 252KAmerica as a World Power: U.S. Foreign Relations, 1914 to Present5
HISTORY 256U.S.-China Relations: From the Opium War to Tiananmen4-5
HISTORY 262AGlobalizing the American Revolution5
HISTORY 262EAtlantic America: Politics, Economics, and Empire5
HISTORY 266CThe Cold War: An International History5
HISTORY 277DU.S. Intervention and Regime Change in 20th Century Latin America5
HISTORY 281BModern Egypt4-5
HISTORY 284The Ottoman Empire, 1300-19234-5
HISTORY 284FIslamic Eurasia: Empires, Nomads and Merchants (1300-1850)4-5
HISTORY 290EMovies and Empire in East Asia5
HISTORY 292The Two Koreas4-5
HISTORY 292DJapan in Asia, Asia in Japan4-5
HISTORY 303CHistory of Ignorance3

Proficiency in a foreign language: Students electing the Global Affairs and World History track must acquire proficiency in a foreign language through two years of college-level course work (second-year, third-quarter) or by passing a proficiency exam. Language courses do not count toward the 13 required courses in the major; students may, however, find it appealing to pair this track in the History major with a foreign language minor.

Skills Training: Students in the Global Affairs and World History track are encouraged to acquire technical proficiencies relevant for geo-historical analysis and fieldwork abroad. Please see the Undergraduate Student Services Officer for further information on these courses.

Those planning to pursue research overseas are also advised to enroll in the one-credit workshop, HISTORY 299X Preparing for International Field Work: Public Service or Research in Spring Quarter.

Overseas Study Experience: Students electing this track are encouraged to study abroad, with a Stanford BOSP program or another program approved by the directors of the track. Course work taken overseas may be accepted for credit in the track on a case by case basis, in consultation with a faculty coordinator.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills Writing in the Major requirement. 

General Requirements:

As for all History majors, students in this track must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or U.S., and one Africa, Asia, Middle East, or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors.

History Tracks with Interdisciplinary Emphasis (HMIE)

There are four History Tracks with Interdisciplinary Emphasis:

  • History, Literature and the Arts
  • History of Science and Medicine
  • History and the Law
  • Public History/Public Service

These tracks are designed for students who are interested in other disciplines who want to focus on the historical aspects of the subject matter covered by that discipline, who want to understand how interdisciplinary approaches can deepen their understanding of history, or who are primarily interested in developing interdisciplinary approaches to historical scholarship by combining the careful attention to evidence and context that motivates historical research with the analytic and methodological tools of science and the humanities. In pursuing the above requirements for all History majors, students in HMIE are required to complete their thirteen courses for the major as follows:

Gateway Course (one course): Students are required to take the appropriate gateway course for their interdisciplinary track. This course introduces students to the application of particular interdisciplinary methods to the study of history. See the section on each HMIE for the gateway course appropriate to that major track. Note: The History and the Law track has no gateway course requirement.

Methodological Cluster (three courses): This cluster is designed to acquaint students with the ways in which interdisciplinary methods are employed in historical scholarship, by practicing historians and scholars in other disciplines whose work is historical. This program of study must provide methodological coherence and must be approved in advanced by the student's adviser. See the section on each HMIE for the appropriate historical methods courses. (Note: The History and the Law track requires four methodology courses.)

Geographic Cluster (four courses): History is embedded in time and place. This cluster is designed to emphasize that the purpose of studying methodology is to more fully understand the history of a particular region of the world. Students select a particular geographic region, as specified in the History major, and complete four courses in that area.

Interdisciplinary Cluster (four courses): These courses, taken outside the Department of History, acquaint students with the methods and approaches of another discipline appropriate for the interdisciplinary study of history. This program of study must provide methodological coherence and must be approved in advance by the student's adviser. See the section on each HMIE for appropriate interdisciplinary courses.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills Writing in the Major Requirement.

HMIE tracks do not mandate the breadth or concentration requirements of the General History track. IHUM courses taught by History faculty may apply to HMIE tracks only insofar as their content is specifically appropriate to the particular methodological or geographic cluster; IHUM courses are no longer offered.

History, Literature, and the Arts

The History, Literature, and the Arts (HLA) track is designed for the student who wishes to complement his or her work in History with study in literature, particularly in a foreign language. For the purposes of this major, literature is defined broadly, including art, drama, films and poetry, memoirs and autobiography, novels, as well as canonical works of philosophy and political science. It appeals to students who are interested in studying literature primarily in its historical context, or who want to focus on both the literature and history of a specific geographical area while also learning the language of that area.

Gateway Course: HISTORY 232A Power, Art, and Knowledge in Renaissance Italy gives students a broad introduction to the study of literary texts in history.

Methodological Cluster: This three-course cluster teaches students how historians, in particular, analyze literary texts as documentary sources. Students choose three courses from among the pre-approved HLA methodology curriculum. These courses need not be in the student's geographic concentration. For 2013-14, these courses are:

Units
HISTORY 30QEnglish Society Through Fiction4
HISTORY 36NGay Autobiography4
HISTORY 48NAfrican History through Literature and Film3-4
HISTORY 50AColonial and Revolutionary America3
HISTORY 87The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan3
HISTORY 150AColonial and Revolutionary America5
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 215KThe Crusades: A Cultural History5
HISTORY 230CParis: Capital of the Modern World4-5
HISTORY 232APower, Art, and Knowledge in Renaissance Italy4-5
HISTORY 267Religion in Twentieth Century American Life5
HISTORY 269History of Capitalism5
HISTORY 290EMovies and Empire in East Asia5

Note: HISTORY 187 The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan and HISTORY 193 Late Imperial China (not offered 2013-14) are non-Western lectures that students in the the History, Literature, and the Arts (HLA) track can use towards both an HLA methodology course and as the non-Western lecture requirement.

Geographical Cluster: Students select four History courses in one geographic area. These are: Europe, Britain and the countries of the former British Empire, Asia, North America, Latin America, the Middle East, or Africa. These four courses must be taken in addition to the three methodological courses required above.

Interdisciplinary Cluster: Four courses, taken outside the Department of History, must address the literature and arts, broadly defined, of the area chosen for the geographic concentration. The student's adviser must pre-approve all courses in this cluster; these courses may not be double-counted towards a minor or major other than History.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills Writing in the Major requirement.

General Requirements: Like all History majors, students in History Interdisciplinary Programs must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or U.S, one Africa, Asia, Middle East or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and a Research Seminar for Majors.

History of Science and Medicine

The History of Science and Medicine (HS&M) track is a collaborative program of the Department of History and the Program in the History and Philosophy of Science. The major is designed for students interested in both sciences and humanities, and in the interactions between the two. It is also especially useful for students contemplating medical school, since it allows them to study the history of medicine, biology, and allied sciences in conjunction with fulfilling the premed science requirements. 

Gateway Course (one course): HISTORY 232F The Scientific Revolution

Methodological Cluster (three courses): These History courses focus on the history of science and medicine. For 2013-14, these courses are:

Units
HISTORY 5CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives3
HISTORY 40World History of Science3
HISTORY 41QMad Women: Women and Mental Illness in U.S. History3
HISTORY 44History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Environment3
HISTORY 44QGendered Innovations in Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Environment4-5
HISTORY 105CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives5
HISTORY 130AIn Sickness and In Health: Medicine and American Society, 1800-Present5
HISTORY 140World History of Science5
HISTORY 144History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine and Engineering5
HISTORY 202BCoffee, Sugar, and Chocolate: Commodities and Consumption in World History, 1200-18004
HISTORY 208AScience and Law in History4-5
HISTORY 208CHistory of Death and Dying4
HISTORY 232FThe Scientific Revolution5
HISTORY 243GTobacco and Health in World History4-5
HISTORY 245EHealth and Society in Africa4-5
HISTORY 264GThe Social History of Mental Illness in the United States5

Geographical Cluster (four courses): Students select four History courses in one geographic area. Examples include: Europe, Britain and the countries of the former British Empire, Asia, North America, Latin America, the Middle East, or Africa. These four courses must be taken in addition to the three methodological cluster courses. Courses in the history of science, technology, and medicine that have a geographic focus may be used to fulfill this requirement, but cannot be double-counted in the methodological cluster.

Interdisciplinary Cluster (four courses): Students select four courses in scientific disciplines and/or in philosophy of science, anthropology of science, or sociology of science. These courses require faculty adviser pre-approval.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills the Writing in the Major requirement.

General Requirements: As with all History majors, students in History Interdisciplinary Programs must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or U.S., one Africa, Asia, Middle East or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and a Research Seminar for Majors.

History and Law

The History and Law (HL) interdisciplinary track is for students who want to explore the intersections between historical and legal studies. The HL curriculum focuses on the role of legal institutions, policies, and structures in various societies. HL track majors enroll in at least four History department courses that focus on issues of law in civil societies and four courses that provide a geographic concentration. In addition, students enroll in four courses outside History that provide disciplinary or interdisciplinary perspectives on the role of law in shaping societies and a Research Seminar for Majors.

Gateway Course: There is no gateway course for this track. Instead, students take an extra course in the Methodological cluster.

Methodological Cluster (four courses): Students enroll in at least four History department courses, including courses outside History taught by faculty affiliated with the department, that focus on how law, policies, constitutions, and legal structures affect the development of various societies. Note: The Methodological Cluster for this HIP contains one extra course since there is no Gateway course.

For 2013-14, these courses are:

Units
HISTORY 5CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives3
HISTORY 87The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan3
HISTORY 105CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives5
HISTORY 166BImmigration Debates in America, Past and Present3-5
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 201AThe Global Drug Wars4-5
HISTORY 208AScience and Law in History4-5
HISTORY 243GTobacco and Health in World History4-5
HISTORY 251GTopics in Constitutional History5
HISTORY 253DApproaches to American Legal History5
HISTORY 258Topics in the History of Sexuality: Sexual Violence4-5
HISTORY 307ALegal History Workshop4-5
HISTORY 352BHistory of American Law5

Note: HISTORY 187 The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan is a non-Western lecture that students in the History and Law track can use towards both a Law methodology course and as the non-Western lecture requirement.

Geographical Cluster: Students select four History courses in one geographic area. These are: Europe, Britain and the countries of the former British Empire, Asia, North America, Latin America, the Middle East, or Africa. These four courses must be taken in addition to the three methodological courses required above.

Interdisciplinary Cluster (four courses): Students may select from courses offered in the School of Law, School of Education, and others as appropriate. Note: Courses in the School of Law and School of Education require the permission of the instructor before undergraduate students can enroll, since these are graduate-level courses.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills the Writing in the Major requirement.

General Requirements: Like all history majors, students in History Interdisciplinary Programs must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or U.S., one Africa, Asia, Middle East or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and a Research Seminar for Majors.

Public History/Public Service

The Public History/Public Service (PH/PS) interdisciplinary history track is designed for students who wish to include in their course of studies the application of historical study in (1) public settings such as museums and heritage sites, national and state parks, public agencies, and private foundations, and (2) public service settings in non-profit organizations, public agencies, and educational institutions.

PH/PS majors enroll in a gateway course on public history and public service and in four History department courses that provide a geographic concentration as well as completing a two-course methodological requirement. In addition, students, in consultation with the PH/PS faculty coordinator, complete four courses from outside the History department drawn from the annual listing of service-learning courses provided by the Haas Center for Public Service; these courses provide interdisciplinary and methodological perspectives on public service. PH/PS majors must also complete an internship through a regularly offered service-learning course or through a summer internship or fellowship.

Gateway Course (one course): HISTORY 201 Introduction to Public History in the U.S.,19th Century to the Present, provides grounding in the theory and practice of public service and exposure to the types of public history practiced in venues such as museums, historical sites, parks, and non-profit organizations, including local historical societies.

Geographical Cluster (four courses): Students select four History courses in one geographic area, such as the United States, Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East, or Africa. The faculty coordinator must preapprove all courses in this cluster.

Interdisciplinary Cluster (four courses): Students select four courses from outside the History department drawn from the annual listing of service-learning and theory/practice courses provided by the Haas Center for Public Service. The faculty coordinator must preapprove all courses in this cluster.

Methodological Cluster (two courses): Students must enroll in one Sources and Methods seminar course and one additional 200-level History course. The Writing in the Major (WIM) requirement must be completed in a Research Seminar for Majors.

Public Service/Service Learning Internship (one course): Students must engage in at least a one quarter internship through a service learning course or through a full-time public service or public history summer internship or fellowship. This internship must be preapproved by the faculty coordinator.

Students who complete a paid summer internship in lieu of one for academic credit have two options: they can complete an additional history course, or they can enroll in 3 units of HISTORY 299S Undergraduate Directed Research and Writing with the faculty coordinator of the PH/PS track and write a 20-page research paper related to their internship work. This research paper is in addition to that required for the Research Seminar for Majors.)

The following History service-learning courses are offered in 2013-14:

Units
HISTORY 5CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives3
HISTORY 105CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives5
HISTORY 166BImmigration Debates in America, Past and Present3-5
HISTORY 201Introduction to Public History in the U.S.,19th Century to the Present4-5
HISTORY 201AThe Global Drug Wars4-5
HISTORY 260California's Minority-Majority Cities4-5

If students elect to fulfill the internship requirement through a History Department service-learning course, they must enroll in an additional course in either the geographical cluster or the Interdisciplinary cluster in order to complete the 13 courses required for the major.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills Writing in the Major requirement.

General Requirements: As with all history majors, students in History Interdisciplinary Programs must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or US, one Africa, Asia, Middle East or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and a Research Seminar for Majors.

History Secondary Teacher's Credential

Applicants for the Single Subject Teaching Credential (Secondary) in the social studies may obtain information regarding this program from the Credential Administrator, School of Education.

Minor in History

Students must declare the minor in History no later than Autumn Quarter of the senior year via Axess. Minor declarations are approved by the Department of History and confirmation is sent via email to the student.

Candidates for the minor in History must complete six courses, at least three of which must have a field or thematic focus. Students completing the minor may choose to concentrate in such fields as African, American, Asian, British, European (medieval, early modern, or modern), Russian and East European history, comparative empires and cultures, or such thematic topics as the history of gender, the family, religion, technology, or revolution. Students may also petition to have a concentration of their own design count toward the minor.

Degree Requirements

All six courses must be of at least 3 units each and must be taken for a letter grade. The student must maintain a grade point average (GPA) in History courses of 2.0 (C) or higher. Two of the six courses must be small-group in format (Stanford Introductory Seminars, Sources and Methods Seminars, departmental colloquia, and research seminars). History courses taken at Stanford overseas campuses may count toward the minor, but at least three of the six courses must be taken from Stanford History faculty.

Advanced Placement credits do not fulfill any minor requirements.

Optional Courses for the Minor

History courses taken at non-Stanford Study Abroad programs may count toward the minor (provided the History Department approves them), but at least three of the six courses must be taken from Stanford History faculty. One course from certain Introduction to the Humanities courses and Thinking Matters courses (those taught by History faculty) may count toward the six-course requirement, but not for the three-course field of concentration. One Undergraduate Directed Research and Writing (HISTORY 299S) course may count toward the minor, if taken for 3-5 units and for a letter grade. A maximum of three transfer courses may be used toward the minor.

Coterminal B.A. and M.A. Program in History

The department each year admits a limited number of undergraduates for coterminal B.A. and M.A. degrees in History. Coterminal applications are accepted during Autumn Quarter for admission in Spring Quarter; check with the History office for the application deadline. Applicants are responsible for checking their compliance with University coterminal requirements listed in the "Coterminal Bachelor's and Master's Degrees" section of this bulletin.

Admission

Applicants must meet the same general standards as those seeking admission to the M.A. program; they must submit a written statement of purpose, a transcript, GRE test scores, and three letters of recommendation, at least two of which should be from members of the Department of History faculty. To be competitive, coterminal applicants should have a 3.75 GPA in their undergraduate history major (or equivalent if they are entering without a History major.) The decision on admission rests with the department faculty upon recommendation by the Graduate Admissions Committee. Students must meet all requirements for both degrees. They must complete 15 full-time quarters (or the equivalent), or three full-time quarters after completing 180 units, for a total of 225 units. During the senior year they may, with the consent of the instructors, register for as many as two graduate courses. In the final year of study, they must complete at least three courses that fall within a single Ph.D. field.

The application filing deadline is December 3, 2013.

The coterminal B.A. and M.A. program is not declarable on Axess.

University requirements for the coterminal M.A. are described in the "Coterminal Bachelor's and Master's Degrees" section of this bulletin. For University coterminal degree program rules and University application forms, see the Stanford Undergrad Coterm Guide.

Master of Arts in History

University requirements for the M.A. are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

The department requires the completion of nine courses (totaling not less than 45 units) of graduate work; seven courses of this work must be Department of History courses. Of the seven, one must be a seminar and four must be either graduate colloquia or graduate seminars. Directed reading may be counted for a maximum of 10 units. A candidate whose undergraduate training in history is deemed inadequate must complete nine courses of graduate work in the department. The department does not recognize for credit toward the M.A. degree any work that has not received the grade of 'A' or 'B.'

Terminal M.A. Program

Applicants who do not wish to continue beyond the M.A. degree are admitted to this program at the discretion of the faculty in individual fields (U.S., modern Europe, and so on). Students admitted may not apply to enter the Ph.D. program in History during the course of work for the M.A. degree.

M.A. in Teaching (History)

The department cooperates with the School of Education in offering the Master of Arts in Teaching degree. For the general requirements, see the "School of Education" section of this bulletin. For certain additional requirements made by the Department of History, contact the department office. Candidates must possess a teaching credential or relevant teaching experience.

Admission

Applicants for admission to graduate work must take the General Test of the Graduate Record Examination. It may be taken at most American colleges and in nearly all foreign countries. For details, see the Graduate Admissions web site.

Students admitted to graduate standing do not automatically become candidates for a graduate degree. With the exception of students in the terminal M.A. program, they are admitted with the expectation that they will be working toward the Ph.D. degree and may become candidates to receive the M.A. degree after completing three quarters of work.

The application filing deadline is December 3, 2013.

Doctor of Philosophy in History

University requirements for the Ph.D. are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

Students planning to work for the doctorate in history should be familiar with the general degree requirements of the University outlined in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin. Those interested in applying for admission to the M.A. and Ph.D. programs should contact the graduate program coordinator in the History department. Online applications are available in September of the year prior to intended enrollment. The application filing deadline is December 3, 2013. Applicants must file a report of their general scores on the Graduate Record Examination and submit a writing sample of 10-25 pages on a historical topic. Successful applicants for the M.A. and Ph.D. programs may enter only in Autumn Quarter.

Upon enrollment in the graduate program in History, the student has a member of the department designated as an adviser with whom to plan the Ph.D. program. Much of the first two years of graduate study is spent taking courses, and, from the outset, the student should be aware that the ultimate objective is not merely the completion of courses but preparation for general examinations and for writing a dissertation.

Admission to the Department of History in the graduate division does not establish any rights respecting candidacy for an advanced degree. At the end of the first year of graduate study, students are evaluated by the faculty and given a progress report. A decision as to whether the student is admitted to candidacy for the Ph.D. is normally made by the start of the student's third year.

After the completion of certain further requirements, students must apply for acceptance for candidacy for the doctorate in the graduate division of the University.

Admission

Applicants for admission to graduate work must take the General Test of the Graduate Record Examination. It may be taken at most American colleges and in nearly all foreign countries. For details, see the Office of Graduate Admissions web site.

Students admitted to graduate standing do not automatically become candidates for a graduate degree. With the exception of students in the terminal M.A. program, they are admitted with the expectation that they will be working toward the Ph.D. degree and may become candidates to receive the M.A. degree after completing three quarters of work.

The application filing deadline is December 3, 2013. The Medieval Field will not be accepting applications for autumn quarter, 2014-2015 .

Degree Requirements

Required Courses

Units
For all first-year Ph.D. students (5-6)
HISTORY 304Approaches to History4-5
HISTORY 305Graduate Workshop in Teaching1
For first-year and second-year Ph.D students in American History (24-30)
HISTORY 351ACore in American History, Part I4-5
HISTORY 351BCore in American History, Part II4-5
HISTORY 351CCore in American History, Part III4-5
HISTORY 351DCore in American History, Part IV4-5
HISTORY 351ECore in American History, Part V4-5
HISTORY 351FCore in American History, Part VI4-5

Other Graduate Core Colloquia required for Ph.D. students studying in fields other than the above are listed in the Department of History's Graduate Handbook.

University Oral Examinations

The student is expected to take the University oral examination in the major concentration in the third graduate year.

Dissertation

The student must complete and submit a dissertation which is the result of independent work and is a contribution to knowledge. It should evidence the command of approved techniques of research, ability to organize findings, and competence in expression. For details and procedural information, inquire in the department.

Dissertation Committee

The reading committee consists of the principal dissertation adviser (first reader), and two additional members of the Department (second and third readers) agreed upon by the adviser and the student.

Financial Support

Students who are admitted with financial support are provided multiple years of support through fellowships, teaching and research assistantships, and tuition grants. Applicants should indicate on the admissions application whether they wish to be considered for such support. No separate application for financial aid is required.

U.S. citizens and permanent resident aliens who are interested in area language studies in East Asia, Africa, and the republics of the former Soviet Union may request a Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) fellowship application from the FLAS coordinator of the respective programs offering the FLAS (CEAS, CAS, CREEES). The FLAS application deadlines are in January and February (CAS).

Resources

The degree requirements section relates to formal requirements, but the success of a student's graduate program depends in large part on the quality of the guidance received from faculty and on the library resources available. Prospective graduate applicants are advised to study the list of History faculty and the courses this faculty offers. As to library resources, no detailed statement is possible in this bulletin, but areas in which library resources are unusually strong are described following.

The University Library maintains strong general collections in almost all fields of history. It has a very large microtext collection, including, for instance, all items listed in Charles Evans' American Bibliography, and in the Short-Title Catalogues of English publications, 1474-1700, and virtually complete microfilmed documents of the Department of State to 1906. It also has a number of valuable special collections including the Borel Collection on the History of California; many rare items on early American and early modern European history; the Brasch Collection on Sir Isaac Newton and scientific thought during his time; the Gimon Collection on French political economy, and other such materials.

The rich collection of the Hoover Institution on the causes, conduct, and results of WW I and WW II are being augmented for the post-1945 period. The materials include government documents, newspaper and serial files, and organization and party publications (especially the British and German Socialist parties). There are also important manuscript collections, including unpublished records of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and the Herbert Hoover archives, which contain the records of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, the American Relief Administration, the various technical commissions established at the close of WW I for reconstruction in Central and Eastern Europe, the personal papers of Herbert Hoover as United States Food Administrator, and other important personal papers. Other materials for the period since 1914 relate to revolutions and political ideologies of international importance; colonial and minority problems; propaganda and public opinion; military occupation; peace plans and movements; international relations; international organizations and administration including the publications of the United Nations, as well as principal international conferences. The Hoover Institution also possesses some of the richest collections available anywhere on the British labor movement; Eastern Europe, including the Soviet Union; East Asia (runs of important newspapers and serials and extensive documentary collections, especially for the period of WW II); and Africa since 1860, especially French-speaking Africa, the former British colonies, and South Africa.

Requirements

  1. In consultation with the adviser, students select an area of study from the list below in which to concentrate their study and later take the University oral examination. The major concentrations are:
    • Europe, 300-1500
    • Europe, 1400-1800
    • Europe since 1700
    • Jewish History
    • Russia
    • Eastern Europe
    • Middle East and Central Asia
    • South Asia
    • East Asia before 1600
    • China since 1600
    • Japan since 1600
    • Korea since 1800
    • Africa
    • Britain and the British Empire since 1460
    • Latin America
    • The United States (including colonial America)
    • The History of Science and Medicine
    • Transnational, International, and Global
  2. The department seeks to provide a core colloquium in every major concentration. Students normally enroll in this colloquium during the first year of graduate study.
  3. Students are required to take two research seminars, at least one in the major concentration. Normally, research seminars are taken in the first and second years.
  4. Each student, in consultation with the adviser, defines a secondary concentration. This concentration should represent a total of four graduate courses or their equivalents, and it may be fulfilled by working in a historical concentration or an interdisciplinary concentration. The historical concentrations include:
    1. One of the concentrations listed above (other than the student's major concentration).
    2. One of the concentrations listed below, which falls largely outside the student's major concentration:
      • The Ancient Greek World
      • The Roman World
      • Europe, 300-1000
      • Europe, 1000-1400
      • Europe, 1400-1600
      • Europe, 1600-1789
      • Europe, 1700-1871
      • Europe since 1848
      • England, 450-1460
      • Britain and the British Empire, 1460-1714
      • Britain and the British Empire since 1714
      • Russia to 1800
      • Russia since 1800
      • Eastern Europe to 1800
      • Eastern Europe since 1800
      • Jewish History
      • Middle East and Central Asia to 1800
      • Middle East and Central Asia since 1800
      • Africa
      • South Asia
      • China before 1600
      • China since 1600
      • Japan before 1600
      • Japan since 1600
      • Latin America to 1825
      • Latin America since 1810
      • The United States (including Colonial America) to 1865
      • The United States since 1850
      • The History of Science and Medicine
      • Transnational, International, and Global
    3. Work in a national history of sufficiently long time to span chronologically two or more major concentrations. For example, a student with Europe since 1700 as a major concentration may take France from 1000 to the present as a secondary concentration.
    4. A comparative study of a substantial subject across countries or periods. The secondary concentration requirement may also be satisfied in an interdisciplinary concentration. Students plan these concentrations in consultation with their advisers. Interconcentrations require course work outside the Department of History which is related to the student's training as a historian. Interdisciplinary course work can either add to a student's technical competence or broaden his or her approach to the problems of the research concentration.
  5. Each student, before conferral of the Ph.D., is required to satisfy the department's teaching requirement.
  6. There is no University or department foreign language requirement for the Ph.D. degree. A reading knowledge of one or more foreign languages is required in concentrations where appropriate. The faculty in the major concentration prescribes the necessary languages. In no concentration is a student required to take examinations in more than two foreign languages. Certification of competence in commonly taught languages (that is, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish) for candidates seeking to fulfill the language requirement in this fashion is done by the appropriate language department of the University. Certification of competence in other languages is determined in a manner decided on by faculty in the major concentration. In either case, certification of language competence must be accomplished before a student takes the University oral examination.
  7. The student is expected to take the University oral examination in the major concentration in the third graduate year.
  8. The student must complete and submit a dissertation which is the result of independent work and is a contribution to knowledge. It should evidence the command of approved techniques of research, ability to organize findings, and competence in expression. For details and procedural information, inquire in the department.

Ph.D. in History and Humanities

The department of History participated in the Graduate Program in Humanities leading to a Ph.D. degree in History and Humanities. At this time, the option is available only to students already enrolled in the Graduate Program in Humanities; no new students are being accepted. The University remains committed to a broad-based graduate education in the humanities; the courses, colloquium, and symposium continue to be offered, and the Division of Literatures, Cultures, and Languages provides advising for students already enrolled who may contact DLCL Student Affairs at 650-724-1333 or dlcl@stanford.edu for further information. Courses are listed under the subject code HUMNTIES and may be viewed on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

Ph.D. Minor in History

Students pursuing a Ph.D. other than in History may apply for the Ph.D. Minor in History. Ph.D. students cannot pursue a minor in their own program. The minimum University requirement for a Ph.D. minor is 20 units of History course work at the graduate level (courses numbered 300 and above) at Stanford. All units should be in a single field. Units taken for the minor can be counted as part of the overall requirement for the Ph.D. of 135 units taken at Stanford. Courses used for a minor may not be used to meet the requirements for a master's degree.

Degree Requirements

20 units of History course work at the graduate level (HISTORY 300-399W and 400-499X) at Stanford. All units should be in a single field.

Optional Courses for the Minor

A Ph.D. minor form outlining the program of study must be approved by the major and minor departments.

Emeriti: (Professors) Barton J. Bernstein, Carl N. Degler, Peter Duus, Terence Emmons, Harold L. Kahn, David M. Kennedy, George H. Knoles, Mark Mancall, Peter Paret, Paul A. Robinson, Paul Seaver, James J. Sheehan, Peter Stansky, David B. Tyack, Lyman P. Van Slyke; (Senior Lecturer) Joseph J. Corn

Chair: Kären E. Wigen

Professors: Keith M. Baker, Joel Beinin, Albert Camarillo, James T. Campbell, Clayborne Carson, Gordon Chang, Paula Findlen, Estelle Freedman, Stephen Haber, David Holloway, Nancy S. Kollmann, Mark E. Lewis, Carolyn Lougee Chappell, Ian Morris, Norman M. Naimark, Robert Proctor, Jack N. Rakove, Richard L. Roberts, Aron Rodrigue, Richard P. Saller, Walter Scheidel, Londa Schiebinger, Richard White, Kären E. Wigen, Caroline Winterer, Steven J. Zipperstein

Associate Professors: David R. Como, Robert Crews, James P. Daughton, Zephyr Frank, Sean Hanretta, Thomas S. Mullaney, Jessica Riskin, Priya Satia, Matthew H. Sommer,  Jun Uchida, Amir Weiner

Assistant Professors: Jennifer Burns, Allyson V. Hobbs, Aishwary Kumar, Ana Raquel Minian, Yumi Moon, Edith Sheffer, Laura Stokes, Mikael D. Wolfe, Ali Yaycioglu

Courtesy Professors: Giovanna Ceserani, Daniel Edelstein, Lawrence Friedman, Leah Gordon, Avner Greif, Amalia Kessler, David F. Labaree, Reviel Netz, Sam Wineburg, Gavin Wright

Senior Lecturers: Katherine Jolluck, Martin W. Lewis

Acting Assistant Professor: Justin duRivage

Lecturers: Carol McKibben

Overseas Studies Courses in History

The Bing Overseas Studies Program manages Stanford study abroad programs for Stanford undergraduates. Students should consult their department or program's student services office for applicability of Overseas Studies courses to a major or minor program.

The Bing Overseas Studies course search site displays courses, locations, and quarters relevant to specific majors.

For course descriptions and additional offerings, see the listings in the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses or Bing Overseas Studies.


Units
OSPBEIJ 67China-Africa and Middle East Relations4
OSPBER 70The Long Way to the West: German History from the 18th Century to the Present4-5
OSPCPTWN 33Southern Africa: from Liberation Struggles to Region-Building4
OSPCPTWN 38Genocide: The African Experience3-5
OSPFLOR 44Galileo: Genius, Innovation and the Scientific Revolution5
OSPFLOR 49On-Screen Battles: Filmic Portrayals of Fascism and World War II5
OSPFLOR 58Space as History: Social Vision and Urban Change4
OSPFLOR 75Florence in the Renaissance: Family, Youth and Marriage in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries5
OSPFLOR 115YBuilding the Cathedral and the Town Hall: Constructing and Deconstructing Symbols of a Civilization4
OSPMADRD 62Spanish California: Historical Issues5
OSPOXFRD 74History and Architecture of Oxford4-5
OSPOXFRD 221YArt and Society in Britain4-5
OSPPARIS 6Franco-Arab Encounters3-5
OSPPARIS 81France During the Second World War: Between History and Memory5
OSPSANTG 68The Emergence of Nations in Latin America4-5

Courses

HISTORY 1B. Global History: The Early Modern World, 1300 to 1800. 3-5 Units.

Topics include early globalization and cross-cultural exchanges; varying and diverse cultural formations in different parts of the world; the growth and interaction of empires and states; the rise of capitalism and the economic divergence of "the west"; changes in the nature of technology, including military and information technologies; migration of ideas and people (including the slave-trade); disease, climate, and environmental change over time. Designed to accommodate beginning students, non-majors, and more advanced history students.

HISTORY 3S. Building Modern Society: Revolution & Economy in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World. 5 Units.

What do the Declaration of Independence and Adam Smith¿s Wealth of Nations have in common? Both were published in 1776, and both ushered in an age of political and economic upheaval. This course examines the relationship between new ways of economic thinking and democratic revolution. We will use pamphlets, cartoons, revolutionary speeches, currencies, sermons, laws, poetry, and advertisements to explore debates on luxury, virtue, self-interest, the evils of paper money, consumer culture, free trade, and the moral economy of slavery.

HISTORY 4N. A World History of Genocide. 3-5 Units.

Reviews the history of genocide from ancient times until the present. Defines genocide, both in legal and historical terms, and investigates its causes, consequences, and global dimensions. Issues of prevention, punishment, and interdiction. Main periods of concern are the ancient world, Spanish colonial conquest; early modern Asia; settler genocides in America, Australia, and Africa; the Armenian genocide and the Holocaust; genocide in communist societies; and late 20th century genocide.

HISTORY 5C. Human Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 105C. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 105C.) Interdisciplinary approach to understanding the extent and complexity of the global phenomenon of human trafficking, especially for forced prostitution and labor exploitation, focusing on human rights violations and remedies. Provides a historical context for the development and spread of human trafficking. Analyzes the current international and domestic legal and policy frameworks to combat trafficking and evaluates their practical implementation. Examines the medical, psychological, and public health issues involved. Uses problem-based learning and offers an optional service-learning component.
Same as: FEMGEN 5C, HUMBIO 178T, SOMGEN 205.

HISTORY 5W. Human Trafficking Service Learning. 2 Units.

Continuation of service learning for students who completed HISTORY 105C.

HISTORY 10B. From Renaissance to Revolution: Early Modern Europe. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 110B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 110B.) From 1350 to 1789, Europe went from being a provincial backwater to a new global center of power. This course surveys the profound changes of the period that shape our world today: the spread of humanism and science, religious reformation, new styles of warfare, the rise of capitalism and a new global economy, the emergence of the state, and revolution which sought to overthrow established governments.

HISTORY 10C. Introduction to Modern Europe. 3 Units.

(SAME as HISTORY 110C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 110C.) From the late 18th century to the present. How Europeans responded to rapid social changes caused by political upheaval, industrialization, and modernization. How the experience and legacy of imperialism and colonialism both influenced European society and put in motion a process of globalization that continues to shape international politics today.

HISTORY 10SC. Biography in History, Fiction, and Elsewhere. 2 Units.

How biographers, novelists, critics and others have written about the rhythms of life the lives of the famous as well as the obscure - will be explored in this course. Biographical writing can be frivolous, but at its best it has the capacity to undercover so much of life's richness, complexity, and confusions. We'll study biography with the use of some of the most resonant, compelling examples of the genre. Together we'll read books about poets Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes, Henry James Aspern Papers, the brilliant novel on biographical writing, A. S. Byatt's Possession, and Norman Mailer on Marilyn Monroe. How one chooses one topic over another; the differences and similarities between the representation of lives in fiction and biography; the benefits and pitfalls of an intense identification with one's own subjects these and other matters will be examined. We'll meet in San Francisco with local writers wrestling with issues of this sort, and students will be encouraged to try their hands at writing about lives based on research, personal observation, or both.

HISTORY 11N. The Roman Empire: Its Grandeur and Fall. 4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Explore themes on the Roman Empire and its decline from the 1st through the 5th centuries C.E.. What was the political and military glue that held this diverse, multi-ethnic empire together? What were the bases of wealth and how was it distributed? What were the possibilities and limits of economic growth? How integrated was it in culture and religion? What were the causes and consequences of the conversion to Christianity? Why did the Empire fall in the West? How suitable is the analogy of the U.S. in the 21st century?
Same as: CLASSHIS 24N.

HISTORY 11SC. How Is a Buddhist. 2 Units.

Buddhism as a system of thought, a culture, a way of life, a definition of reality, a method for investigating it, and a mental, physical, and social practice. Buddhism as a total phenomenon. Readings, films, music, and art. How Buddhist practices constitue the world of the Buddhist.

HISTORY 11W. Service-Learning Workshop on Issues of Education Equity. 1 Unit.

Introduces students to a variety of issues at stake in the public education of at-risk high school youth in California. Participants will hear from some of the leading faculty in the School of Education as well as the Departments of Psychology, Sociology, and others, who will share perspectives on the problems and challenges of educating a diverse student body in the state's public school system. The service-learning component of the workshop is a mentoring project (Stanford Students for Educational Equity) with junior class history students from East Palo Alto Academy High School, a Stanford charter school.
Same as: CSRE 11W.

HISTORY 12N. The Early Roman Emperors: HIstory, Biography, and Fiction. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. The politics, drama, and characters of the period after the fall of the Roman Republic in 49 B.C.E. Issues of liberty and autocracy explored by Roman writers through history and biography. The nature of history writing, how expectations about literary genres shape the materials, the line between biography and fiction,and senatorial ideology of liberty. Readings include: Tacitus' Annals, Suetonius' Lives of the Caesers, and Robert Graves' I Claudius and episodes from the BBC series of the same title.

HISTORY 20N. Russia in the Early Modern European Imagination. 4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. The contrast between the early modern image of Europe as free, civilized, democratic, rational, and clean against the notion of New World Indians, Turks, and Chinese as savage. The more difficult, contemporary problem regarding E. Europe and Russia which seemed both European and exotic. Readings concerning E. Europe and Russia from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment; how they construct a positive image of Europe and conversely a negative stereotype of E. Europe. Prerequisite: PWR 1.

HISTORY 20S. Resistance and Rebellion under Communism. 5 Units.

Massive demonstrations swept through Eastern Europe in 1989-1991, ushering in the surprisingly peaceful collapse of communism. This course focuses on resistance and rebellion in the Soviet Bloc, including the Hungarian Uprising (1956), the Solidarity movement in Poland (1980-81), worker strikes, literature and art of dissent, and environmental activism. Students will work with eyewitness accounts, memoirs, archival documents, and visual materials, in order to better understand how resistance evolved under Soviet communism and whether peaceful protests precipitated its collapse.

HISTORY 22SC. A Tale of Two Cities: London and San Francisco. 2 Units.

San Francisco and London are two of the world's best-loved and most-visited cities. They have certain things in common: both are ports, situated on the edge of continents; both are major commercial and cultural centres; and both have been shaped by immigration. Their differences are more obvious than their similarities, however, and these differences are to a large extent explained by their very different histories. London was founded by the Romans and was, for a period in its recent history, the capital of an Empire on which the sun famously never set; San Francisco did not emerge as a city until well into the 19th century and even now has something of the character of a "city state" rather than a national or state capital. Though often considered one of the most European of American cities, San Francisco is in fact laid out on the typically American grid plan; the planning of London is, by contrast, chaotic, reflecting its long evolution and the lack of any effective central planning control. nThe course will explain the ways in which these two fascinating cities have evolved, especially over the past 200 years. We will focus on the development of what is sometimes called the "urban landscape"--streets, public buildings, housing, open spaces, transport systems--and investigate who made the decisions that shaped the two cities as we experience them today. We will look not only at the impact of major events--the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, the bombing of London during World War II--but also at the small decisions made by property owners and developers which helped determine the character of urban neighborhoods. We will use maps and primary documents as well as published histories, and there will be at least two field trips to explore buildings and neighborhoods in San Francisco. Students will write two papers, each of 4-5-pages, on aspects of the history of each city. An interest in history and/urban studies is an obvious asset.

HISTORY 23SC. People, Land, and Water in the Heart of the West. 2 Units.

Salmon River. Sun Valley. Pioneer Mountains. The names speak of powerful forces and ideas in the American West. Central Idaho - a landscape embracing snow-capped mountains, raging rivers, sagebrush deserts, farms, ranches, and resort communities - is our classroom for this field-based seminar led by David Freyberg, professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and David Kennedy, professor emeritus of History. nnThis course focuses on the history and future of a broad range of natural resource management issues in the western United States. We will spend a week on campus preparing for a two-week field course in Idaho exploring working landscapes, private and public lands, water and fisheries, conservation, and the history and literature of the relationship between people and the land in the American West. After the first week spent on campus, we will drive to Idaho to begin the field portion of our seminar. In Idaho, we will spend time near Twin Falls, at Lava Lake Ranch near Craters of the Moon National Monument, in Custer County at the Upper Salmon River, and near Stanley in the Sawtooth National Forest. No prior camping experience is required, but students should be comfortable living outdoors in mobile base camps for periods of several days. Students will investigate specific issues in-depth and present their findings at the end of the course.
Same as: CEE 11SC, EARTHSYS 13SC.

HISTORY 30C. Culture and Society in Reformation England. 3 Units.

(Same as History 130C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 130C.) Focuses on the appeal of both Reformed and Catholic ideas in the political and cultural contexts of early modern Europe. Topics include: the Lutheran revolt; the spread of Protestant ideas; Calvin's Geneva; the English Reformation; Tridentine reform and the Jesuits; toleration and the underground churches; wars and religious violence; and the making of European confessional identities. Sources include sermons, religious polemic, autobiographies, graphic prints, poetry, and music.

HISTORY 30Q. English Society Through Fiction. 4 Units.

Preference to sophomores. England from the eighteenth century to the twentieth century through the reading of seven novels ranging from Henry Fielding's Joseph Andrews, to Evelyn Waugh's A Handful of Dust. Focus is on the novels themselves and the historical context of the novels to acquire a knowledge of British history over two hundred years.

HISTORY 33A. Blood and Roses: The Age of the Tudors. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 133A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 133A.) English society and state from the Wars of the Roses to the death of Elizabeth. Political, social, and cultural upheavals of the Tudor period and the changes wrought by the Reformation. The establishment of the Tudor monarchy; destruction of the Catholic church; rise of Puritanism; and 16th-century social and economic changes.

HISTORY 33S. Public Knowledge? Propaganda, Censorship, and News in Early Modern England. 5 Units.

New technologies of communication inevitably raise questions of access, control, and freedom. With the invention of Guttenberg's press, printing became integral to political life in early modern England during the upheavals of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as actors vied to manipulate the printed word. Topics include: visual and written propaganda, censorship, book burning, secret printing, freedom of the press, growth in printed news, coffeehouses, the public sphere, and political debate during the English Reformation, Civil Wars and Glorious Revolution.

HISTORY 34A. European Witch Hunts. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 134A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 134A.) After the Reformation, in the midst of state building and scientific discovery, Europeans conducted a series of deadly witch hunts, violating their own laws and procedures in the process. What was it about early modernity that fueled witch hunting? Witch trials and early modern demonology as well as historians' interpretations of events to seek answers to this question.

HISTORY 36N. Gay Autobiography. 4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Gender, identity, and solidarity as represented in nine autobiographies: Isherwood, Ackerley, Duberman, Monette, Louganis, Barbin, Cammermeyer, Gingrich, and Lorde. To what degree do these writers view sexual orientation as a defining feature of their selves? Is there a difference between the way men and women view identity? What politics follow from these writers' experiences?.

HISTORY 38A. Germany and the World Wars, 1870-1990. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 138A. Majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 138A.) Germany's history from Bismarck's wars of unification through the end of the Cold War. The radicalizing relationship between international conflict, social upheaval, and state transformation with a focus on the clashes of the Second Empire, the road to WW I, interwar instability, the rise of Nazism, WW II, the Holocaust, the division of communist E. and capitalist W. Germany, and the fall of the Iron Curtain.

HISTORY 38S. Antislavery, Abolition, and Emancipation in the British Empire. 5 Units.

This seminar will introduce students to the history of abolition and emancipations in three broad periods: first, the origins and rise of the British antislavery movement in the late eighteenth century; second, the rise and triumph of abolition in the early nineteenth century; and third, the complex persistence of un-free labor in the era of emancipation, roughly 1834 to 1900. Through close analysis of primary and secondary sources, students will examine key relationships between antislavery thought and historical notions of race, religion, law, gender, national identity, and capitalism.

HISTORY 40. World History of Science. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 140. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 140.) The earliest developments in science, the prehistoric roots of technology, the scientific revolution, and global voyaging. Theories of human origins and the oldest known tools and symbols. Achievements of the Mayans, Aztecs, and native N. Americans. Science and medicine in ancient Greece, Egypt, China, Africa, and India. Science in medieval and Renaissance Europe and the Islamic world including changing cosmologies and natural histories. Theories of scientific growth and decay; how science engages other factors such as material culture and religions.

HISTORY 41Q. Mad Women: Women and Mental Illness in U.S. History. 3 Units.

Explores how gender and historical context have shaped the experience and treatment of mental illness in U.S. history. Why have women been the witches and hysterics of the past, and why have there historically been more women than men among the mentally ill? Topics include the relationship between historical ideas of femininity and insanity, the ways that notions of gender influence the definition and treatment of mental disorder, and the understanding of the historically embedded nature of medical ideas, diagnoses, and treatments.

HISTORY 42S. The Circle of Life: Visions of Nature in Modern Science, Religion, Politics and Culture. 5 Units.

A new understanding of nature emerged in the 1700s that fundamentally altered our perception of the living world and humanity's relationship with it. By tracing the evolution of this understanding forward, we gain insight into the interactions among science, religion, politics and culture. Topics include: nature in Romantic science, poetry and art; Darwin's theory of evolution and its afterlife in science, literature and popular culture; the science and politics of the 20th-century environmental movement; and the philosophical presuppositions underlying modern debates about biodiversity. In addition to close readings of canonical texts and contemporary commentaries, students will be introduced to digital history methods. Students will design their own final projects in consultation with the instructor.

HISTORY 44. History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Environment. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 144. Majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in HISTORY 144.) Men's and women's roles in science, medicine, and engineering over the past 200 years with a focus on the present. What are the efforts underway globally to transform science, medicine, and engineering into fields where women can flourish? How have science and medicine studied and defined males and females? Can gender analysis spark creativity in human knowledge?.

HISTORY 44Q. Gendered Innovations in Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Environment. 4-5 Units.

Section 1 focuses on the history of women in science, medicine, and engineering. Section 2 looks at transforming research institutions so that both men and women can flourish. Section 3 explores how sex and gender analysis can enhance creativity. We discuss concrete examples of how taking gender into account has yielded new research results. Stanford University currently has a multiple year collaboration with the European Commission for Gendered Innovations, and this class will be part of that project. This course fulfills the second level Writing and Rhetoric Requirement (WRITE 2) and will emphasize oral and multimedia presentation.

HISTORY 45B. Africa in the Twentieth Century. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 145B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 145B.) The challenges facing Africans from when the continent fell under colonial rule until independence. Case studies of colonialism and its impact on African men and women drawn from West, Central, and Southern Africa. Novels, plays, polemics, and autobiographies written by Africans.

HISTORY 47. History of South Africa. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 147. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 147.) Introduction, focusing particularly on the modern era. Topics include: precolonial African societies; European colonization; the impact of the mineral revolution; the evolution of African and Afrikaner nationalism; the rise and fall of the apartheid state; the politics of post-apartheid transformation; and the AIDS crisis.
Same as: AFRICAAM 47.

HISTORY 48N. African History through Literature and Film. 3-4 Units.

Literary and cinematic works as a window into the history of sub-Saharan Africa.; and the difficulty of using artistic works as historical sources, the value of art as representation and artifact of the past. Premodern traditions of political narrative; art in the era of the slave trade; the impact of colonialism on African intellectuals; the political uses of art by nationalists; and the struggle to represent rapidly changing social and culture norms.

HISTORY 48Q. South Africa: Contested Transitions. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. The inauguration of Nelson Mandela as president in May 1994 marked the end of an era and a way of life for S. Africa. The changes have been dramatic, yet the legacies of racism and inequality persist. Focus: overlapping and sharply contested transitions. Who advocates and opposes change? Why? What are their historical and social roots and strategies? How do people reconstruct their society? Historical and current sources, including films, novels, and the Internet.
Same as: AFRICAAM 48Q.

HISTORY 49C. THE SLAVE TRADE. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 149C. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 149C.) Slave trades and forms of slavery in W. Africa from 1000 to 1885; impacts on lives, social organization, and political structures. Slavery in Islam, the slave market in the Mediterranean and Middle East, and the Saharan slave trade. Slavery within Africa, growth of the Atlantic trade, the Middle Passage, and war and trade that produced slaves. Impact of the Industrial Revolution and European abolition movements on the use of slaves and warfare in Africa. The relationship between slaving and the European conquest of Africa.

HISTORY 50A. Colonial and Revolutionary America. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 150A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150A.) Survey of the origins of American society and polity in the 17th and 18th centuries. Topics: the migration of Europeans and Africans and the impact on native populations; the emergence of racial slavery and of regional, provincial, Protestant cultures; and the political origins and constitutional consequences of the American Revolution.

HISTORY 50B. 19th Century America. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 150B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register in 150B.) Territorial expansion, social change, and economic transformation. The causes and consequences of the Civil War. Topics include: urbanization and the market revolution; slavery and the Old South; sectional conflict; successes and failures of Reconstruction; and late 19th-century society and culture.
Same as: AFRICAAM 50B.

HISTORY 50C. The United States in the Twentieth Century. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 150C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150C.) Major political, economic, social, and diplomatic developments in the U.S. Themes: the economic and social role of government (Progressive, New Deal, Great Society, and Reagan-Bush eras); ethnic and racial minorities in society (mass immigration at the turn of the century and since 1965, the civil rights era of the 50s and 60s); the changing status of women since WW II; shifting ideological bases, institutional structures, and electoral characteristics of the political system (New Deal and post-Vietnam); determinants of foreign policy in WW I and II, and the Cold War.

HISTORY 50K. John F. Kennedy: Fifty Years Later. 1 Unit.

November 22, 2013 marks the 50th anniversary of President John F. Kennedy¿s assassination. Half a century on, our visually saturated culture remains besotted with images of the youthful president and his strikingly photogenic family. But the passage of time has also yielded new perspectives on Kennedy¿s presidency and on his era. November 22, 1963 may well come to be remembered not only as the day when the life of a promising young leader was violently cut short, but also as the pivot between two distinct eras in American history. Ironically, though Kennedy was the first World War II veteran to reach the White House, his death heralded the end of the long postwar season of national pride, optimism, confidence, and widely shared prosperity¿and may have opened the road to the great catastrophe that was the Vietnam War. His passing also helped to pry open the portals to historic changes in the lives of millions of African Americans, as witnessed by Lyndon Johnson¿s artful invocation of the fallen president to bring about passage of the epic civil rights legislation of the late 1960s. nnnThis course will examine the postwar domestic and international settings in which Kennedy rose to and exercised power. It will probe our continuing fascination with his character and with his family; his role as a Cold Warrior, especially in the tense confrontation known as the Cuban Missile Crisis; and his relation to the African American struggle to bury Jim Crow. We will conclude with an assessment of the longer-term historical consequence of his brief moment in the arenas of celebrity and power. Guest speakers will include noted Kennedy biographer Robert Dallek; Johnson biographer Bruce Schulman; Taylor Branch, acclaimed biographer of Martin Luther King, Jr.; and Stanford¿s own Jennifer Burns, historian of modern America.

HISTORY 59. Introduction to Asian American History. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 159. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 159.) The historical experience of people of Asian ancestry in the U.S. Immigration, labor, community formation, family, culture and identity, and contemporary social and political controversies. Readings: interpretative texts, primary material, and historical fiction.

HISTORY 60N. Revolutionaries and Founders. 3 Units.

Americans remain fascinated by the revolutionary generation which secured independence and established a national constitutional republic. Books about the founders come steadily from the presses, some describing the lives of individual revolutionaries, others trying to analyze and explain what made these events possible. This seminar will approach the Revolution through both a biographical and analytical framework, relying both on scholarly writings and the massive array of primary sources that are readily available through letterpress editions and on-line. The course will rely on the instructor's own recent book, Revolutionaries: A New History of the Invention of America, which carries the story from the crisis around the Boston Tea Party of 1773 through the end of President Washington's first administration. The course will be divided evenly between modern scholarship and the careful reading of original materials, and students will write short essays that will involve the analysis of explanatory problems, the close interpretation of documents, and the crafting of historical narratives. Topics to be discussed will include the outbreak of the revolution, constitution-making at both the state and national levels of government, the conduct of the war, and the legacies that Americans particularly associate with Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton.

HISTORY 64. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Modern America. 4-5 Units.

How ethnicity influenced the American experience and how prevailing attitudes about racial and ethnic groups over time have affected the historical and contemporary reality of the nation's major minority populations. Focus is on the past two centuries.
Same as: CSRE 64.

HISTORY 70. Culture, Politics, and Society in Latin America. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 170B. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in HISTORY 170B.) The course of Latin American history from the colonial era to the present day. Key issues such as colonialism, nationalism, democracy, and revolution will be examined critically in light of broad comparative themes in Latin American and world history. Sources include writings in the social sciences as well as primary documents, fiction, and film.

HISTORY 71S. American Political Thought from the Civil War to the Cold War. 5 Units.

This course explores America's most important political tradition: liberalism. What does liberalism mean? Does it mean something different today than it did in the past? Using multiple textual and visual sources, students will grapple with how Americans remade liberalism in the 19th and 20th centuries and how political thinkers have understood its meaning over time. We will see how American liberalism was shaped by factors of race, gender, and class and by competing ideologies like conservatism and socialism.

HISTORY 74. Mexico Since 1876: History of a "Failed State"?. 3 Units.

This course is an introduction to the history and diverse peoples of modern Mexico from 1876 to the present. Through lectures, discussions, primary and secondary readings, short documentaries, and written assignments, students will critically explore and analyze the multiplicity of historical processes, events and trends that shaped and were shaped by Mexicans over the course of a century. The course will cover some of the social and political dimensions of rural social change, urbanization and industrialization, technological innovation and misuse, environmental degradation and conservation, education, ideology, culture and media, migration, and the drug trade.

HISTORY 74S. Sounds of the Century: Popular Music and the United States in the 20th Century. 5 Units.

What can popular music teach us about the pst? What can we learn about music if we study it historically? This course grapples with these two questions by examining various examples of American music in the 20th century, as well as more conventional historical sources, scholarly books, and essays. Will pay special attention to how issues of race, gender, sexuality, class, and nation were reflected in and produced by people's interactions with music, inside and outside American borders.

HISTORY 76S. The World that Columbus Made: Imagining the Spanish Empire (1492- c. 1600). 5 Units.

According to J.H. Elliott, it took a century for Europeans to come "to grips with the realities of America." This is a seminar about this process as it took place in the Spanish world. We will read a wide array of primary sources: Explorers' journals, conquistadors' accounts, chronicles, pioneering ethnographies, gory engravings, and heartfelt denunciations of colonialism. We will explore issues related to otherness, cultural encounters, knowledge and power, rhetoric and propaganda, and historical memory in the early modern era.
Same as: ILAC 168.

HISTORY 78N. Latin American Movies of Revolution. 3 Units.

In this course we will watch and critique films made about Latin America's 20th century revolutions focusing on the Mexican, Cuban, Chilean and Nicaraguan revolutions. We will analyze the films as both social and political commentaries and as aesthetic and cultural works, alongside archivally-based histories of these revolutions.

HISTORY 81B. Formation of the Contemporary Middle East. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 181B. History majors and and others taking 5 units, register for 181B.) The history of the Middle East since WW I, focusing on the eastern Arab world, Egypt, the Fertile Crescent, and the Arabian Peninsula, with attention to Turkey, Iran, and Israel.

HISTORY 82C. The Making of the Islamic World, 600-1500. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 182C. Majors and other taking 5 units, register for 182C.) The History of Islam and Muslim peoples from 600-1500. Topics include Muhammad and his community; the early Arab conquests and empires; sectarian movements; formation of Islamic belief, thought, legal culture and religious institutions; transregional Sufi and learned networks; family and sexuality; urban, rural and nomadic life; non-Muslim communities; the development of Mediterranean and Indian Ocean trade; relations with Byzantium, the Latin West, China; the Crusades and the Mongols.

HISTORY 85B. Jews, 1500 to the Present. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 185B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 185B.) Topics include the restructuring of Jewish existence during the Enlightenment and legal emancipation at the end of the 18th century in W. Europe; the transformation of Jewish life in E. Europe under the authoritarian Russian regime; colonialism in the Sephardic world; new ideologies (Reform Judaism and Jewish nationalisms); the persistence and renewal of antisemitism; the destruction of European Jewry under the Nazis; new Jewish centers in the U.S.; and the State of Israel.
Same as: JEWISHST 85B.

HISTORY 87. The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 187. History majors and other taking 5 units, register for 187.) Explores the contested politics of these societies in modern times. Topics include controversies surrounding the meaning of revolution, state building, war, geopolitics, Islamic law, clerical authority, gender, an Islamic economy, culture, and ethnic, national and religious identities from the 1940s to the present. Assignments will focus on primary sources (especially legal documents, poetry, novels, and memoirs) and films.

HISTORY 91B. The City in Imperial China. 3 Units.

The evolution of cities in the early imperial, medieval, and early modern periods. Topics include physical structure, social order, cultural forms, economic roles, relations to rural hinterlands, and the contrast between imperial capitals and other cities. Comparative cases from European history. Readings include primary and secondary sources, and visual materials.

HISTORY 91D. China: The Northern and Southern Dynasties. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 191D. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 191D.) Examines one of the most dynamic periods of Chinese history with the emergence of the institutional religions (Buddhism and Daoism), the development of the garden as an art form, the rise of landscape as a theme of verse and art, the invention of lyric poetry, and the real beginnings of the southward spread of Chinese civilization.

HISTORY 92. Early Empires in China. 3 Units.

How China was transformed as a consequence of its political unification by the Qin dynasty. The geographical reorganization of China in the process of unification. The changing nature of rulership, cities, rural society, military organization, kinship structure, religion, literary practice, law, and relations to the outside world. The nature of empire as a political system.

HISTORY 92A. The Historical Roots of Modern East Asia. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on China and Japan before and during their transition to modernity. The populous, urbanized, economically advanced, and culturally sophisticated Ming empire and Muromachi shogunate in the 16th century when Europeans first arrived. How the status quo had turned on its head by the early 20th century when European and American steamships dominated the Pacific, China was in social and political upheaval, and Japan had begun its march to empire.
Same as: HISTORY 392E.

HISTORY 94B. Japan in the Age of the Samurai. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 194B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 194B.) From the Warring States Period to the Meiji Restoration. Topics include the three great unifiers, Tokugawa hegemony, the samurai class, Neoconfucian ideologies, suppression of Christianity, structures of social and economic control, frontiers, the other and otherness, castle-town culture, peasant rebellion, black marketing, print culture, the floating world, National Studies, food culture, samurai activism, black ships, unequal treaties, anti-foreign terrorism, restorationism, millenarianism, modernization as westernization, Japan as imagined community.

HISTORY 94S. Rebels, Boxers and Bandits: Violent Resistance in Late Imperial China. 5 Units.

In the mid-19th century a man claiming to be Jesus Christ's younger brother led a rebellion that killed 20 million. In 1900, the Boxers United in Righteousness staged a bloody uprising. Bandits, something in Western women's clothing, raided across the country. How did these rebels, Boxers and bandits see themselves? How were they represented by others? What were their relations to the state? Do they mean anything? Are they important?.

HISTORY 95. Modern Korean History. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 195. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195.) Themes include status, gender, and monarchy in the Choson dynasty; intellectual life and social transformation in the 19th century; the rise of Korean nationalism; Japan's colonial rule and Korean identities; culture, economy, and society in colonial Korea; the Korean War, and the different state building processes in North and South after the Korean War.

HISTORY 95C. Modern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 195C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195C.) Japan's modern transformation from the late 19th century to the present. Topics include: the Meiji revolution; industrialization and social dislocation; the rise of democracy and empire; total war and US occupation; economic miracle and malaise; Japan as soft power; and politics of memory. Readings and films focus on the lived experience of ordinary men and women across social classes and regions.

HISTORY 95N. Mapping the World: Cartography and the Modern Imagination. 4-5 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Focus is on cutting-edge research. Topics: the challenge of grasping the globe as a whole; geography's roots in empire; maps as propaganda and as commodities; the cultural production of scale; and the cartography of imaginery worlds.Sources include resources in the Green Library Special Collections and in the Stanford Spatial History Lab.

HISTORY 96. Worlds of Gandhi. 3 Units.

Place the paradox of Gandhi in context of global convulsions of 20th century. Gandhi lived across continents; maturing in South Africa, struggling in India, attaining celebrity in Europe. As leader of masses, his method of Satyagraha was distinctively at odds with his times. Yet, he also privileged sacrifice, dying, even euthanasia. In a world beset by fear and war, Gandhi's complex theory of nonviolence is compelling. What kind of nonviolent politics did Gandhi envision after Fascism, Auschwitz, Hiroshima, and Pakistan?.

HISTORY 98. The History of Modern China. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 198. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 198.) Major historical transformations including the decline of the last imperial dynasty, the formation of the first Chinese republic, WW II, the rise of Communism, China under Mao, post-Mao reforms, and the Beijing Olympics of 2008.

HISTORY 98N. Beijing, Shanghai, and the Structure of Modern China. 3 Units.

This course examines the transformation of China from the late empire to the present by studying the nature of its two greatest cities. Topics examined will include the evolving physical structure of the cities, their changing relations to the Chinese state and the outside world, shifting understandings of the urban population/crowd, the changing nature of time, new modes of self-definition through patterns of consumption, the cities as topics of literature and movies, and the nature of urban modernity.

HISTORY 101. The Greeks. 4-5 Units.

Greek history from the rise of the city state through Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia. Economics, society, culture, and technology. Competition and cooperation within and between states; the emergence of strong forms of citizenship along with chattel slavery and gender inequality; the origins and practices of democracy; and relations with non-Greek peoples. Focus is on ancient sources and archaeological remains. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: CLASSHIS 101.

HISTORY 102. The History of the International System since 1914. 5 Units.

After defining the characteristics of the international system at the beginning of the twentieth century, this course reviews the primary developments in its functioning in the century that followed. Topics include the major wars and peace settlements; the emergence of Nazism and Communism; the development of the Cold War and nuclear weapons; the rise of China, India, and the EU; and the impact of Islamic terrorism. The role of international institutions and international society will also be a focus as will the challenge of environment, health, poverty, and climate issues to the functioning of the system.
Same as: INTNLREL 102.

HISTORY 102A. The Romans. 3-5 Units.

How did a tiny village create a huge empire and shape the world, and why did it fail? Roman history, imperialism, politics, social life, economic growth, and religious change. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: CLASSHIS 60.

HISTORY 103D. Human Society and Environmental Change. 4 Units.

Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding human-environment interactions with a focus on economics, policy, culture, history, and the role of the state. Prerequisite: ECON 1A
Same as: EARTHSYS 112, EESS 112.

HISTORY 103F. Introduction to Military History. 5 Units.

Introduces students to the rich history of military affairs and, at the same time, examines the ways in which we think of change and continuity in military history. How did war evolve from ancient times, both in styles of warfare and perceptions of war? What is the nature of the relationship between war and society? Is there such a thing as a Western way of war? What role does technology play in transforming military affairs? What is a military revolution and can it be manufactured or induced? Chronologically following the evolution of warfare from Ancient Greece to present day so-called new wars, we will continuously investigate how the interdependencies between technological advances, social change, philosophical debates and economic pressures both shaped and were influenced by war.

HISTORY 105C. Human Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 5C. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 105C.) Interdisciplinary approach to understanding the extent and complexity of the global phenomenon of human trafficking, especially for forced prostitution and labor exploitation, focusing on human rights violations and remedies. Provides a historical context for the development and spread of human trafficking. Analyzes the current international and domestic legal and policy frameworks to combat trafficking and evaluates their practical implementation. Examines the medical, psychological, and public health issues involved. Uses problem-based learning and offers an optional service-learning component.
Same as: FEMGEN 105C, INTNLREL 105C.

HISTORY 106A. Global Human Geography: Asia and Africa. 5 Units.

Global patterns of demography, economic and social development, geopolitics, and cultural differentiation, covering E. Asia, S. Asia, S.E. Asia, Central Asia, N. Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. Use of maps to depict geographical patterns and processes.

HISTORY 106B. Global Human Geography: Europe and Americas. 5 Units.

Patterns of demography, economic and social development, geopolitics, and cultural differentiation. Use of maps to depict geographical patterns and processes.

HISTORY 106C. Global Historical Geography. 5 Units.

The sweep of human history through the medium of maps. The rise, expansion, and fall of kingdoms, empires, and other states; the spread of major religions; the paths of explorers, conquerors, and diseases; and the development and intensification of trade networks. Overview of the prehistoric period and ancient times, but focus is on the modern world.

HISTORY 107. Introduction to Feminist Studies. 4-5 Units.

Introduction to interdisciplinary feminist scholarship, which seeks to understand the creation, perpetuation, and critiques of gender inequalities. Topics include the historical emergence of feminist politics and contemporary analysis of work and family, health and sexuality, creativity, and politics. Close attention to the intersections of race, gender, ethnicity, and sexuality and to international, as well as U.S., perspectives. Students learn to think critically about gender in the past, present, and future.
Same as: AMSTUD 107, CSRE 108, FEMGEN 101.

HISTORY 110B. From Renaissance to Revolution: Early Modern Europe. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 10B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 110B.) From 1350 to 1789, Europe went from being a provincial backwater to a new global center of power. This course surveys the profound changes of the period that shape our world today: the spread of humanism and science, religious reformation, new styles of warfare, the rise of capitalism and a new global economy, the emergence of the state, and revolution which sought to overthrow established governments.

HISTORY 110C. Introduction to Modern Europe. 5 Units.

(SAME as HISTORY 10C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 110C.) From the late 18th century to the present. How Europeans responded to rapid social changes caused by political upheaval, industrialization, and modernization. How the experience and legacy of imperialism and colonialism both influenced European society and put in motion a process of globalization that continues to shape international politics today.

HISTORY 113. Before Globalization: Understanding Premodern World History. 3-5 Units.

This course covers the history of the world from 60,000 years ago until 1500 by asking big questions: Why did civilizations develop the way they did? What factors were responsible for similarities and differences between different parts of the world? What does this mean for our newly globalized world?
Same as: CLASSHIS 147.

HISTORY 114. Origins of History in Greece and Rome. 4-5 Units.

The beginnings and development of historical writing in the ancient world. Emphasis on major classical historians and various models of history they invented, from local to imperial, military, cultural, biographical, world history and church history. Focus on themes of power, war, loss, growth and decline, as put by the ancients into historical narrative forms and probed by way of historical questioning and explanation. Attention to how these models resonate still today. Readings in translation: Herodotus, Thucydides, Tacitus, Livy and others.
Same as: CLASSHIS 117.

HISTORY 116N. Howard Zinn's 'A People's History' and the Quest for Historical Truth. 3 Units.

Howard Zinn's 'A People's History of the United States' has few peers among contemporary historical works. With more than two million copies in print, A People's History is more than a book. It is a cultural icon, a symbol of our time. "You wanna read a real history book," Matt Damon tells Robin Williams in Good Will Hunting, "read People's History of the US. That book'll knock you on your ass." Today, A People's History's original grey cover has been colorized in red, white, and blue for its Harper "Perennial Modern Classic" edition, and is now marketed with special displays in suburban megastores. You can buy A People's History T-shirts and tote-bags. Zinn's book was not the first but is certainly the defining example of a genre of historical writing known as revisionism, in which the cherished truths of a previous generation are turned on their head. In this seminar, we will use A People's History to probe the question of historical truth. How do we determine what was true in the past? Why and under what circumstances should we believe what historians say? Under what circumstances are we required to rethink our own interpretations about the past, even if doing so causes discomfort and upheaval? A People's History will be our point of departure, but our journey will visit a variety of historical trouble spots: debates about whether the US was founded as a Christian nation, Holocaust denial, and the "Birther" controversy of President Obama.
Same as: EDUC 116N.

HISTORY 120B. The Russian Empire. 5 Units.

From Peter the Great to the Bolsheviks. Russia as an empire; its varied regions, including the Caucasus, Central Asia, Ukraine, Poland, and the Baltics. Focus is on the politics and cultures of empire. Sources include novels, political tracts, paintings, music, and other primary sources.

HISTORY 120C. 20th-Century Russian and Soviet History. 5 Units.

The Soviet polity from the 1917 Revolution to its collapse in 1991. Essentials of Marxist ideology; the Russian Empire in 1917. Causation in history; interpretations of the Revolution; state building in a socialist polity; social engineering through collectivization of agriculture, force-paced industrialization, and cultural revolution; terror as concept and practice; nationality policies in a multiethnic socialist empire; the routinization, decline, and collapse of the revolutionary ethos; and the legacy of the Soviet experiment in the new Russia.

HISTORY 125. Dark Century: Eastern Europe After 1900. 5 Units.

Major historical trends in 20th-century E. European history. Empires and national movements. The creation of independent Eastern Europe after WW I; social movements and the emergence of dictatorships and fascism in the inter-war period. WW II, Stalinism, and destalinization in contemporary E. Europe.

HISTORY 130A. In Sickness and In Health: Medicine and American Society, 1800-Present. 5 Units.

Explores the history of medical institutions, ideas and practices in the United States from the early nineteenth century to the present. How are ideas of illness and health historically rooted and socially constructed? How did scientific and medical discoveries lead to the risk of scientific medicine, and how were these innovations adopted within the American cultural landscape? Topics include the transformation of therapeutics and technologies, medicine and the scientific ideal in the U.S., gender and race and medicine, the history of public health, and the professionalization and specialization of American medical practice.

HISTORY 131A. Britain and World History since 1750: "Britain invented everything!". 5 Units.

Jolly Chaps or Perfidious Albion?- That is the question. This course introduces students to the broad world-historical patterns of the last two centuries, with an eye to the particular role of Britain and its Empire. Britain's role in spreading industrialism, capitalism, nationalism, Darwinism and liberalism among others are studied. We consider the abyss between intentions and outcomes, the hypocrisies of the 'civilizing mission,' as well as tangible benefits for those touched by British power.

HISTORY 132. Ordinary Lives: A Social History of the Everyday in Early Modern Europe. 5 Units.

What war meant for foot soldiers and the peasants across whose fields they marched. Ordinary people's lives in the eras of Machiavelli, Shakespeare, the Reformation, and the scientific revolution. Topics include: birth, marriage, and death; city life and peasant culture; lay encounters with religious and intellectual ideas; war and crime; and gender and sexuality.

HISTORY 133A. Blood and Roses: The Age of the Tudors. 5 Units.

English society and state from the Wars of the Roses to the death of Elizabeth. Political, social, and cultural upheavals of the Tudor period and the changes wrought by the Reformation. The establishment of the Tudor monarchy; destruction of the Catholic church; rise of Puritanism; and 16th-century social and economic changes.

HISTORY 134A. The European Witch Hunts. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 34A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 134A.) After the Reformation, in the midst of state-building and scientific discovery, Europeans conducted a series of deadly witch hunts, violating their own laws and procedures in the process. What was it about early modernity that fueled witch hunting? Examines witch trials and early modern demonology as well as historians' interpretations of events to seek answers to this question.

HISTORY 137A. Europe, 1945-2002. 5 Units.

Europe's transformation from the end of WW II to an expanded EU. Political, cultural, economic, and social history. Topics: postwar reconstruction, Cold War, consumer versus socialist culture, collapse of Communism, postcommunist integration.

HISTORY 138A. Germany and the World Wars, 1870-1990. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 38A. Majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 138A.) Germany's history from Bismarck's wars of unification through the end of the Cold War. The radicalizing relationship between international conflict, social upheaval, and state transformation with a focus on the clashes of the Second Empire, the road to WW I, interwar instability, the rise of Nazism, WW II, the Holocaust, the division of communist E. and capitalist W. Germany, and the fall of the Iron Curtain.

HISTORY 140. World History of Science. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 40. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 140.) The earliest developments in science, the prehistoric roots of technology, the scientific revolution, and global voyaging. Theories of human origins and the oldest known tools and symbols. Achievements of the Mayans, Aztecs, and native N. Americans. Science and medicine in ancient Greece, Egypt, China, Africa, and India. Science in medieval and Renaissance Europe and the Islamic world including changing cosmologies and natural histories. Theories of scientific growth and decay; how science engages other factors such as material culture and religions.

HISTORY 144. History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine and Engineering. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 44. Majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in HISTORY 144.) Men's and women's roles in science, medicine, and engineering over the past 200 years with a focus on the present. What are the efforts underway globally to transform science, medicine, and engineering into fields where women can flourish? How have science and medicine studied and defined males and females? Can gender analysis spark creativity in human knowledge?
Same as: FEMGEN 144.

HISTORY 145A. Africa Until European Conquest. 5 Units.

Episodes in African history from the earliest records up until European partition of the continent, focusing on how knowledge about the natural, social, and spiritual worlds was linked to the exercise of power. The effects of technological innovations on states and other forms of social complexity; use of religious beliefs and practices to legitimate or critique authority. The effects of slave trades and imperial conquest on these forms of authority.

HISTORY 145B. Africa in the 20th Century. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 45B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 145B.) The challenges facing Africans from when the continent fell under colonial rule until independence. Case studies of colonialism and its impact on African men and women drawn from West, Central, and Southern Africa. Novels, plays, polemics, and autobiographies written by Africans.
Same as: AFRICAAM 145B.

HISTORY 147. History of South Africa. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 47. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 147.) Introduction, focusing particularly on the modern era. Topics include: precolonial African societies; European colonization; the impact of the mineral revolution; the evolution of African and Afrikaner nationalism; the rise and fall of the apartheid state; the politics of post-apartheid transformation; and the AIDS crisis.
Same as: AFRICAAM 147.

HISTORY 149C. The Slave Trade. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 49C. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 149C.) Slave trades and forms of slavery in W. Africa from 1000 to 1885; impacts on lives, social organization, and political structures. Slavery in Islam, the slave market in the Mediterranean and Middle East, and the Saharan slave trade. Slavery within Africa, growth of the Atlantic trade, the Middle Passage, and war and trade that produced slaves. Impact of the Industrial Revolution and European abolition movements on the use of slaves and warfare in Africa. The relationship between slaving and the European conquest of Africa.

HISTORY 150A. Colonial and Revolutionary America. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 50A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for HISTORY 150A.) Survey of the origins of American society and polity in the 17th and 18th centuries. Topics: the migration of Europeans and Africans and the impact on native populations; the emergence of racial slavery and of regional, provincial, Protestant cultures; and the political origins and constitutional consequences of the American Revolution.
Same as: AMSTUD 150A.

HISTORY 150B. 19th-Century America. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 50B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150B.) Territorial expansion, social change, and economic transformation. The causes and consequences of the Civil War. Topics include: urbanization and the market revolution; slavery and the Old South; sectional conflict; successes and failures of Reconstruction; and late 19th-century society and culture.
Same as: AFRICAAM 150B, AMSTUD 150B.

HISTORY 150C. The United States in the Twentieth Century. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 50C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150C.) Major political, economic, social, and diplomatic developments in the U.S. Themes: the economic and social role of government (Progressive, New Deal, Great Society, and Reagan-Bush eras); ethnic and racial minorities in society (mass immigration at the turn of the century and since 1965, the civil rights era of the 50s and 60s); the changing status of women since WW II; shifting ideological bases, institutional structures, and electoral characteristics of the political system (New Deal and post-Vietnam); determinants of foreign policy in WW I and II, and the Cold War.
Same as: AMSTUD 150C.

HISTORY 151. THE AMERICAN WEST. 4 Units.

The American West is characterized by frontier mythology, vast distances, marked aridity, and unique political and economic characteristics. This course integrates several disciplinary perspectives into a comprehensive examination of Western North America¿its history, geology, climate, literature, art, film, institutions, politics, demography, economy, and continuing policy challenges. Students will examine several themes fundamental to understanding the region: borders (including how we define the West), space and distance, Native Americans, water, and boom and bust cycles.
Same as: AMSTUD 124A, ARTHIST 152, ENGLISH 124, POLISCI 124A.

HISTORY 154D. Religion and War in America. 4 Units.

Scholars have devoted much attention to wars in American history, but have not agreed as to whether religion was a major cause or simply a cover for political, economic, and other motives. We will compare interpretations that leave religion out, with those that take it into account. We will also look at the impact of war on the religious lives of ordinary Americans. We will examine both secondary as well as primary sources, beginning with King Philip's War in the 17th century, and ending with the "War on Terror" in the present day.
Same as: RELIGST 105.

HISTORY 158. The United States Since 1945. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on foreign policy and politics with less attention to social and intellectual history. Topics include nuclear weapons in WW II, the Cold War, the Korean and Vietnam wars, Eisenhower revisionism, the Bay of Pigs and Cuban missile crisis, civil rights and the black freedom struggle, the women's movement, the Great Society and backlash, welfare policy, conservatism and liberalism, the 60s anti-war movement, Watergate and the growth of executive power, Iran-Contra and Reagan revisionism, Silicon Valley, the Gulf War, the Clinton impeachment controversy, 2004 election, and 9/11 and Iraq war.

HISTORY 158B. History of Education in the United States. 3-5 Units.

How education came to its current forms and functions, from the colonial experience to the present. Focus is on the 19th-century invention of the common school system, 20th-century emergence of progressive education reform, and the developments since WW II. The role of gender and race, the development of the high school and university, and school organization, curriculum, and teaching.
Same as: AMSTUD 201, EDUC 201.

HISTORY 158C. History of Higher Education in the U.S.. 3-5 Units.

Major periods of evolution, particularly since the mid-19th century. Premise: insights into contemporary higher education can be obtained through its antecedents, particularly regarding issues of governance, mission, access, curriculum, and the changing organization of colleges and universities.
Same as: AMSTUD 165, EDUC 165, EDUC 265.

HISTORY 159. Introduction to Asian American History. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 59. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 159.) The historical experience of people of Asian ancestry in the U.S. Immigration, labor, community formation, family, culture and identity, and contemporary social and political controversies. Readings: interpretative texts, primary material, and historical fiction. (Chang)
Same as: AMSTUD 159, ASNAMST 159.

HISTORY 161. Women in Modern America. 4-5 Units.

The transformation from the New Woman of the 1890s to the New Woman of the 1990s; attention to immigrant, black, and white women, both historical analyses and personal accounts. Topics include: workforce participation; family and reproductive labor; educational and professional opportunities; the impact of wars, economic depression, and popular culture; and recurrent feminist movements.
Same as: AMSTUD 161, CSRE 162, FEMGEN 161.

HISTORY 163. A History of North American Wests. 5 Units.

The history, peoples, and natural systems of a region that has never been contained within a single empire or nation state, but has been united by the movement of peoples, species, and things. Topics include smallpox, horses, gold, salmon, rivers, coal, and oil.

HISTORY 164C. From Freedom to Freedom Now: African American History, 1865-1965. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 64C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 164C.) Explores the working lives, social worlds, political ideologies and cultural expressions of African Americans from emancipation to the early civil rights era. Topics include: the transition from slavery to freedom, family life, work, culture, leisure patterns, resistance, migration and social activism. Draws largely on primary sources including autobiographies, memoirs, letters, personal journals, newspaper articles, pamphlets, speeches, literature, film and music.
Same as: AMSTUD 164C.

HISTORY 165. Mexican American History through Film. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on the 20th century. Themes such as immigration, urbanization, ethnic identity, the role of women, and the struggle for civil rights.

HISTORY 166. Introduction to African American History: The Modern African American Freedom Struggle. 3-5 Units.

This course is an introduction to African-American Political movements of the period after 1930, with special emphasis on mass protest and civil rights activism as well as leaders such as W. E. B. Du Bois, Thurgood Marshall, Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcom X, Jesse Jackson, and Barack Obama. The lectures will utilize audio-visual materials extensively, and the exams will cover these materials as well as the traditional lectures. In addition to attending lectures, students are encouraged to undertake research projects.
Same as: AFRICAAM 166, AMSTUD 166.

HISTORY 166B. Immigration Debates in America, Past and Present. 3-5 Units.

Examines the ways in which the immigration of people from around the world and migration within the United States shaped American nation-building and ideas about national identity in the twentieth century. Focuses on how conflicting ideas about race, gender, ethnicity, and citizenship with respect to particular groups led to policies both of exclusion and integration. Part One begins with the ways in which the American views of race and citizenship in the colonial period through the post-Reconstruction Era led to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 and subsequently to broader exclusions of immigrants from other parts of Asia, Southern and Eastern Europe, and Mexico. Explores how World War II and the Cold War challenged racial ideologies and led to policies of increasing liberalization culminating in the passage of the 1965 Immigration Act, which eliminated quotas based on national origins and opened the door for new waves of immigrants, especially from Asia and Latin America. Part Two considers new immigration patterns after 1965, including those of refugees, and investigates the contemporary debate over immigration and immigration policy in the post 9/11 era as well as inequalities within the system and the impact of foreign policy on exclusions and inclusions.
Same as: CSRE 166B, HISTORY 366B.

HISTORY 167A. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle. 3-5 Units.

Using the unique documentary resources and publications of Stanford's King Research and Education Institute, this course will be taught by Professor Carson and his colleagues at the Institute. It will provide a general introduction to the life and legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr., as well as devote attention to the movements he inspired. In addition to lectures, the course will include presentations of documentaries such as Eyes on the Prize. Students will be expected to read the required texts, participate in class discussions, and take a final exam or submit a research paper (or an audio-visual project developed in consultation with the professor).

HISTORY 168. American History in Film Since World War ll. 3-4 Units.

U.S. society, culture, and politics since WW II through feature films. Topics include: McCarthyism and the Cold War; ethnicity and racial identify; changing sex and gender relationships; the civil rights and anti-war movements; and mass media. Films include The Best Years of Our Lives, Salt of the Earth, On the Waterfront, Raisin in the Sun, Kramer v Kramer, and Falling Down..

HISTORY 172A. Mexico: From Colony to Nation, or the History of an impossible Republic?. 5 Units.

Was a republican form of government even possible in 19th-century Mexico after 300 years of colonial rule under the Spanish monarchy? Was the Spanish colonial heritage a positive or a negative legacy according to 19th-century Mexican politicians? How were they to forge a new national identity with so many ethnically and culturally diverse peoples throughout the territory? Just how ¿traditional¿ was, in fact, the colonial period? These are some of the questions we will explore in this course. Journeying from the late colonial period (c.1700) to the 35-year dictatorship known as El Porfiriato (1876-1911) we will examine how Mexico¿s diverse indigenous peoples adapted to both colonial and postcolonial rule, how they actively participated in politics and political discourse to preserve their cultures, customs and colonial privileges, and how after independence in 1821, a new republican political culture was forged. Mexico was not an impossible republic, but rather another kind of republic.

HISTORY 174. Mexico Since 1876: HIstory of a "Failed State"?. 5 Units.

This course is an introduction to the history and diverse peoples of modern Mexico from 1876 to the present. Through lectures, discussions, primary and secondary readings, short documentaries, and written assignments, students will critically explore and analyze the multiplicity of historical processes, events and trends that shaped and were shaped by Mexicans over the course of a century. The course will cover some of the social and political dimensions of rural social change, urbanization and industrialization, technological innovation and misuse, environmental degradation and conservation, education, ideology, culture and media, migration, and the drug trade.

HISTORY 181B. Formation of the Contemporary Middle East. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 81B. History majors and and others taking 5 units, register for 181B.) The history of the Middle East since WW I, focusing on the eastern Arab world, Egypt, the Fertile Crescent, and the Arabian Peninsula, with attention to Turkey, Iran, and Israel.

HISTORY 182C. The Making of the Islamic World, 600-1500. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 82C. Majors and other taking 5 units, register for 182C.) The History of Islam and Muslim peoples from 600-1500. Topics include Muhammad and his community; the early Arab conquests and empires; sectarian movements; formation of Islamic belief, thought, legal culture and religious institutions; transregional Sufi and learned networks; family and sexuality; urban, rural and nomadic life; non-Muslim communities; the development of Mediterranean and Indian Ocean trade; relations with Byzantium, the Latin West, China; the Crusades and the Mongols.

HISTORY 185B. Jews, 1500 to the Present. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 85B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 185B.) Topics include the restructuring of Jewish existence during the Enlightenment and legal emancipation at the end of the 18th century in W. Europe; the transformation of Jewish life in E. Europe under the authoritarian Russian regime; colonialism in the Sephardic world; new ideologies (Reform Judaism and Jewish nationalisms); the persistence and renewal of antisemitism; the destruction of European Jewry under the Nazis; new Jewish centers in the U.S.; and the State of Israel.
Same as: JEWISHST 185B.

HISTORY 187. The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 87. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 187.) Explores the contested politics of these societies in modern times. Topics include controversies surrounding the meaning of revolution, state building, war, geopolitics, Islamic law, clerical authority, gender, an Islamic economy, culture and ethnic, national and religious identities from the 1940s to the present. Assignments will focus on primary sources (especially legal documents, poetry, novels, and memoirs) and films.

HISTORY 187D. Zionism and Its Critics. 4-5 Units.

Zionism from its genesis in the 1880s up until the establishment of the state of Israel in May, 1948, exploring the historical, ideological and political dimensions of Zionism. Topics include: the emergence of Zionist ideology in connection to and as a response to challenges of modernity; emancipation; Haskalah (Jewish enlightenment); other national and ideological movements of the period; the ideological crystallization of the movement; and the immigration waves to Palestine.

HISTORY 191B. The City in Imperial China. 5 Units.

The evolution of cities in the early imperial, medieval, and early modern periods. Topics include physical structure, social order, cultural forms, economic roles, relations to rural hinterlands, and the contrast between imperial capitals and other cities. Comparative cases from European history. Readings include primary and secondary sources, and visual materials.

HISTORY 191D. China: The Northern and Southern Dynasties. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 91D. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 191D.) Examines one of the most dynamic periods of Chinese history with the emergence of the institutional religions (Buddhism and Daoism), the development of the garden as an art form, the rise of landscape as a theme of verse and art, the invention of lyric poetry, and the real beginnings of the southward spread of Chinese civilization.

HISTORY 192. China: The Early Empires. 5 Units.

How China was transformed as a consequence of its political unification by the Qin dynasty. The geographical reorganization of China in the process of unification. The changing nature of rulership, cities, rural society, military organization, kinship structure, religion, literary practice, law, and relations to the outside world. The nature of empire as a political system.

HISTORY 194B. Japan in the Age of the Samurai. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 94B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 194B.) From the Warring States Period to the Meiji Restoration. Topics include the three great unifiers, Tokugawa hegemony, the samurai class, Neoconfucian ideologies, suppression of Christianity, structures of social and economic control, frontiers, the other and otherness, castle-town culture, peasant rebellion, black marketing, print culture, the floating world, National Studies, food culture, samurai activism, black ships, unequal treaties, anti-foreign terrorism, restorationism, millenarianism, modernization as westernization, Japan as imagined community.

HISTORY 195. Modern Korean History. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 95. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195.) Themes include status, gender, and monarchy in the Choson dynasty; intellectual life and social transformation in the 19th century; the rise of Korean nationalism; Japan's colonial rule and Korean identities; culture, economy, and society in colonial Korea; the Korean War, and the different state buildling processes in North and South after the Korean War.
Same as: HISTORY 395.

HISTORY 195C. Modern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 95C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195C.) Japan's modern transformation from the late 19th century to the present. Topics include: the Meiji revolution; industrialization and social dislocation; the rise of democracy and empire; total war and US occupation; economic miracle and malaise; Japan as soft power; and politics of memory. Readings and films focus on the lived experience of ordinary men and women across social classes and regions.

HISTORY 195X. Islam in India: Conflict and Accommodation. 4 Units.

This course will investigate the history of Islam in South Asia, particularly interactions between Muslims and Hindus, through the lenses of conflict and accommodation. This topic has become increasingly important in modern times as India and neighboring nations experience sectarian violence and simultaneously strive to engender the peaceful coexistence of multiple religious communities. In many ways the debate over South Asia¿s present and future is being played out in regards to interpretations of its past. In this course, students will gain a solid overview of the chronological development of Islam in India and its negotiations with other religious traditions on the subcontinent. We will think critically about the relevance of South Asia¿s past to its present and the crucial role of forms of Indian Islam in the broader context of Islamic cultures across the globe.
Same as: RELIGST 111.

HISTORY 196. Worlds of Gandhi. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 96. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 196.) Place the paradox of Gandhi in context of global convulsions of 20th century. Gandhi lived across continents; maturing in South Africa, struggling in India, attaining celebrity in Europe. As leader of masses, his method of Satyagraha was distinctively at odds with his times. Yet, he also privileged sacrifice, dying, even euthanasia. In a world beset by fear and war, Gandhi's complex theory of nonviolence is compelling. What kind of nonviolent politics did Gandhi envision after Fascism, Auschwitz, Hiroshima, and Pakistan?.

HISTORY 197. Southeast Asia: From Antiquity to the Modern Era. 5 Units.

The history of S.E. Asia, comprising Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia, and Laos, from antiquity to the present. The spread of Indian cultural influences, the rise of indigenous states, and the emergence of globally linked trade networks. European colonization, economic transformation, the rise of nationalism, the development of the modern state, and the impact of globalization.

HISTORY 198. The History of Modern China. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 98. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 198.) Major historical transformations including the decline of the last imperial dynasty, the formation of the first Chinese republic, WW II, the rise of Communism, China under Mao, post-Mao reforms, and the Beijing Olympics of 2008.

HISTORY 198G. Beijing, Shanghai, and the Structure of China. 3-5 Units.

China's modern history through the rivalry of its two most important cities. The course begins in the nineteenth century, contrasting Beijing, the classic imperial capital and a foreign foundation paradoxically celebrated as the embodiment of "traditional" China, with Shanghai, a treaty port and demographic/economic center of China, but identified as a "foreign" city. After following the cities' history through the warlord period, the "Shanghai decade" of Nationalist rule, and the Japanese occupation, the course examines the two cities' developments under Mao and Deng. The course concludes with a look at their current relations and roles, and the transformed nature of China's cities.

HISTORY 201. Introduction to Public History in the U.S.,19th Century to the Present. 4-5 Units.

Gateway course for the History and Public Service interdisciplinary track. Topics include the production, presentation, and practice of public history through narratives, exhibits, web sites, and events in museums, historical sites, parks, and public service settings in nonprofit organizations, government agencies, and educational institutions. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center).
Same as: AFRICAAM 102, CSRE 201, HISTORY 301.

HISTORY 201A. The Global Drug Wars. 4-5 Units.

Explores the global story of the struggle over drugs from the nineteenth century to the present. Topics include the history of the opium wars in China, controversies over wine and tobacco in Iran, narco-trafficking and civil war in Lebanon, the Afghan 'narco-state,' Andean cocaine as a global commodity, the politics of U.S.- Mexico drug trafficking, incarceration, drugs, and race in the U.S., and the globalization of the American 'war on drugs.'
Same as: HISTORY 301A.

HISTORY 201C. The U.S., U.N. Peacekeeping, and Humanitarian War. 5 Units.

The involvement of U.S. and the UN in major wars and international interventions since the 1991 Gulf War. The UN Charter's provisions on the use of force, the origins and evolution of peacekeeping, the reasons for the breakthrough to peacemaking and peace enforcement in the 90s, and the ongoing debates over the legality and wisdom of humanitarian intervention. Case studies include Croatia and Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda, Kosovo, East Timor, and Afghanistan.
Same as: INTNLREL 140C.

HISTORY 202A. Questions in Modern World History: Provincializing Europe?. 4-5 Units.

Though this class will consider themes addressed in most modern history classes (imperialism, liberalism, capitalism, the construction of the modern nation-state, the roots of the 19th and 20th century wars, questions of governance, various forms of resistance, colonizer and colonized identities, and the process of globalization, etc.), we will take a world-historical approach, considering these topics from a non-western viewpoint, outside of a nationalist narrative, while taking a multi-perspectival stance.
Same as: HISTORY 302A.

HISTORY 202B. Coffee, Sugar, and Chocolate: Commodities and Consumption in World History, 1200-1800. 4 Units.

Many of the basic commodities that we consider staples of everyday life became part of an increasingly interconnected world of trade, goods, and consumption between 1200 and 1800. This seminar offers an introduction to the material culture of the late medieval and early modern world, with an emphasis on the role of European trade and empires in these developments. We will examine recent work on the circulation, use, and consumption of things, starting with the age of the medieval merchant, and followed by the era of the Columbian exchange in the Americas that was also the world of the Renaissance collector, the Ottoman patron, and the Ming connoisseur. This seminar will explore the material horizons of an increasingly interconnected world, with the rise of the Dutch East India Company and other trading societies, and the emergence of the Atlantic economy. It concludes by exploring classic debates about the "birth" of consumer society in the eighteenth century. How did the meaning of things and people's relationships to them change over these centuries? What can we learn about the past by studying things?
Same as: HISTORY 302B.

HISTORY 202G. Peoples, Armies and Governments of the Second World War. 4-5 Units.

Clausewitz conceptualized war as always consisting of a trinity of passion, chance, and reason, mirrored, respectively, in the people, army and government. Following Clausewitz, this course examines the peoples, armies, and governments that shaped World War II. Analyzes the ideological, political, diplomatic and economic motivations and constraints of the belligerents and their resulting strategies, military planning and fighting. Explores the new realities of everyday life on the home fronts and the experiences of non-combatants during the war, the final destruction of National Socialist Germany and Imperial Japan, and the emerging conflict between the victors. How the peoples, armies and governments involved perceived their possibilities and choices as a means to understand the origins, events, dynamics and implications of the greatest war in history.
Same as: HISTORY 302G.

HISTORY 203. Premodern Economic Cultures. 5 Units.

A comparative survey of premodern economies and the value systems that supported them. Students will read and discuss theories of economic culture as well as historical monographs about specific regions. Discussions will focus on the comparison and conceptualization of premodern economic cultures. Students will be required to research the literature on a particular premodern society of their choosing, compile an annotated bibliography of that literature, and compose an essay analyzing the problems and possibilities presented therein.
Same as: HISTORY 303.

HISTORY 203B. Secret Societies in Western History. 5 Units.

What drives human beings to join secret societies? What is the knowledge so jealously guarded by these groups? Are they just for men or are there female secret societies? Is there really a Judeo-Masonic conspiracy to dominate the world? These are some of the questions we will answer in this course. Surveying ancient civilizations to contemporary society, we will discuss secret societies from anthropological and sociological approaches, but especially from a historical perspective, by reviewing their political, religious and cultural impacts in Western History as well as the myths surrounding them.
Same as: HISTORY 303B.

HISTORY 203C. History of Ignorance. 3 Units.

Scholars pay a lot of attention to knowledge¿how it arises and impacts society¿but much less attention has been given to ignorance, even though its impacts are equally profound. Here we explore the political history of ignorance, through case studies including: corporate denials of harms from particular products (tobacco, asbestos), climate change denialism, and creationist rejections of Darwinian evolution. Students will be expected to produce a research paper tracing the origins and impact of a particular form of ignorance.

HISTORY 204. Introduction to History and Historiography. 4-5 Units.

An introduction to the discipline of history, designed for current or prospective History majors. Focusing on methods and theories of historical inquiry, students will learn how historians frame problems, collect and analyze evidence, and contribute to on-going debates. Through a series of case studies or exemplary works of historical study, the course will also explore different genres of historical writing (such as narrative, biography, social history) and different methodological approaches to history (such as Annales school, microhistory, and cultural history).

HISTORY 204C. How Wars End: War and Peace in the 20th Century. 5 Units.

Based on an analysis of primary documents, the course will examine how conflicts end: cases in include the two world wars, Korea, Vietnam, the Cold War, the Bosnian conflict, and the Irish Civil War.
Same as: HISTORY 304C.

HISTORY 204E. Totalitarianism. 4-5 Units.

Modern revolutionary and totalitarian politics. Sources include monographs on the medieval, Reformation, French Revolutionary, and Great War eras. Topics: the essence of modern ideology, the concept of the body national, state terror, charismatic leadership, gender assignments, private and public spheres, and identities.
Same as: HISTORY 307E.

HISTORY 204G. War and Society. 5 Units.

How Western societies and cultures have responded to modern warfare. The relationship between its destructive capacity and effects on those who produce, are subject to, and must come to terms with its aftermath. Literary representations of WW I; destructive psychological effects of modern warfare including those who take pleasure in killing; changes in relations between the genders; consequences of genocidal ideology and racial prejudice; the theory of just war and its practical implementation; and how wars are commemorated.
Same as: HISTORY 304G.

HISTORY 205F. Digital History. 4 Units.

Students will study the development of the relationship between the discipline of history and computing tools through a combination of theoretical and hands-on activities, and readings. Students will read leading critical works, examine seminal digital projects, and examine the works of leading digital humanities scholars. The end product of the course will be a beta version of a born-digital scholarly product.

HISTORY 206. History and Geography of Contemporary Global Issues. 5 Units.

The historical background and geographical context of contemporary global issues and events. Texts are a world atlas and regular reading of The New York Times and The Economist. Topics vary according to what is happening in the world. Student presentations.

HISTORY 206A. City, Society, Literature- 19th Century Histories. 4 Units.

This course examines the rise of modern cities through an analysis of urban society and the imaginative literature of the 1800s.
Same as: HISTORY 306A.

HISTORY 207. Biography and History. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between biographical and historical writing, primarily in Europe and America. Problems of methodology, evidence, dispassion, and empathy. Texts: biographies, critical literature on biographical work, and novels (A. S. Byatt's Possession, Bernard Malamud's Dubin's Lives) that illuminate the intellectual underpinnings of biographical labor.
Same as: HISTORY 308.

HISTORY 207B. Environment, Technology and Revolution in World History. 4-5 Units.

Exploration of historiographical and interdisciplinary methodologies and approaches to intersections among environmental, technological, and revolutionary social change in diverse geographical and temporal contexts. Readings include broad theoretical and synthetic works as well as case studies of American, French, Mexican, Russian, Chinese, and Hungarian revolutions.

HISTORY 207C. The Global Early Modern. 4-5 Units.

In what sense can we speak of "globalization" before modernity? What are the characteristics and origins of the economic system we know as "capitalism"? When and why did European economies begin to diverge from those of other Eurasian societies? With these big questions in mind, the primary focus will be on the history of Europe and European empires, but substantial readings deal with other parts of the world, particularly China and the Indian Ocean.
Same as: HISTORY 307C.

HISTORY 207F. Heavenly Bodies: Saints' Bodies, Relics and Miracles in Late Antique and Medieval Europe. 4-5 Units.

This seminar will use both written and visual sources to explore how the body mattered in the creation of saintly tropes and cults in late antique and medieval Europe. We will begin by reading the diary of an early Christian martyr to consider how a good death set the terms for an ideal Christian life. We will then explore a number of medieval vitae or saints' lives to uncover narrative devices used to describe an exemplary life and consider the role self-denial, bodily and otherwise, played in constructing those portraits. We will conclude by considering the power medieval people ascribed to the remains of saints' bodies and look at the cult of relics as well as miracle accounts describing the bodily healings and transformations ascribed to saints.
Same as: HISTORY 307F, RELIGST 237, RELIGST 337.

HISTORY 208. Private Lives, Public Stories: Autobiography in Women's History. 5 Units.

Changing contexts of women's lives and how women's actions have shaped and responded to those contexts.

HISTORY 208A. Science and Law in History. 4-5 Units.

How the intertwined modern fields of science and law, since the early modern period, together developed central notions of fact, evidence, experiment, demonstration, objectivity, and proof.
Same as: HISTORY 308A.

HISTORY 208B. Women Activists' Response to War. 4-5 Units.

Theoretical issues, historical origins, changing forms of women's activism in response to war throughout the 20th century, and contemporary cases, such as the Russian Committee of Soldiers Mothers, Bosnian Mothers of Srebrenica, Serbian Women in Black, and the American Cindy Sheehan. Focus is on the U.S. and Eastern Europe, with attention to Israel, England, and Argentina.
Same as: HISTORY 308B.

HISTORY 208C. History of Death and Dying. 4 Units.

The changing realities of, attitudes towards and ways of coping with death drawing on examples from Europe, Africa, the Caribbean, Latin America and the United States. The role of death in shaping the modern world via the global slave trades, imperial conquest, pandemics, wars and genocides. Changing rituals relating to death, intellectual and philosophical debates about the personal and social meanings of death, and the political and personal consequences of particular ways and patterns of dying.
Same as: HISTORY 308C.

HISTORY 208S. Facing the Past: The Politics of Retrospective Justice. 5 Units.

Forms of injustice in history including slavery, genocide, ethnic cleansing, mass rape, forced religious conversion, and torture of prisoners. Mechanisms developed over the last century to define, deter, and alleviate the effects of such offenses, including war crimes tribunals, truth commissions, national apologies, and monetary reparations. Case studies chart the international field of retrospective justice, exploring the legal, political, and moral implications of confronting traumatic pasts.

HISTORY 209B. The Idea of Politics. 4-5 Units.

Can we live without politics? Is politics indispensable for humanity and vice-versa? The idea of politics is that it must transform, through human action, conditions of collective life. But the 20th century produced colliding beliefs about what that life might be and what the human being itself might look like. Explore whether, after the century, we might still think of politics as an ethical idea and the "human" as foundational political category. Keywords: Civility, Cruelty, Friendship, Empire, Democracy, Humanism, Animals.
Same as: HISTORY 309B.

HISTORY 209D. Postcolonialism and Universalism. 4-5 Units.

Key texts and motifs from postcolonial theory: empire, class, exile, suffering, textuality, archive in juxtaposition to 20th-century philosophical questions about universal history and the relevance of humanist inquiry.
Same as: HISTORY 309A.

HISTORY 209S. Research Seminar for Majors. 5 Units.

Required of History majors. How to conduct original, historical research and analysis, including methods such as using the libraries and archives at Stanford and elsewhere, and working collaboratively to frame topics, identify sources, and develop analyses. Autumn quarter focuses on European Lit and Arts; winter quarter on U.S. History and Colonialism; spring quarter on modern Europe, ancient China and early modern Europe.

HISTORY 214D. Mediterranean Crossroads: Power, Culture, and Religion in Medieval Sicily. 5 Units.

Sicily in the Middle Ages was a Mediterranean crossroads, a dynamic and diverse kingdom in which Muslim and Christian, Viking and African, European and Eastern Cultures all came together. Explores the life and times of Frederick II (1194-1250). He claimed universal authority as a Christian emperor, yet ruled multireligious Sicily as king. He promoted crusading, yet was accused of being a heretic and a crypto Muslim. He spoke six languages and actively patronized the arts and sciences. Topics include: structures and influences that made such a figure possible; how he managed the tensions of governing a diverse and disparate empire; how religion and cultural production created and maintained his authority; how contemporaries and later generations reacted to this enigmatic emperor; why has he continued to generate such polarizing reactions; and how did Frederick become a figure revered by Nazis and multiculturalists alike.
Same as: HISTORY 314D.

HISTORY 215K. The Crusades: A Cultural History. 5 Units.

This seminar follows the trajectory of the Crusades in Europe and the Middle East from the late eleventh to the fifteenth century. A particular emphasis will be placed on cultural developments such art and architecture in both regions, the depiction of Crusaders in Muslim sources and of Muslims in Christian chronicles, and on the cultural assimilation of the Crusaders into the Holy Land as they settled there and became acquainted with local customs. The first crusade, started at the initiative of pope Urban II in 1095, brought Jerusalem under Christian rule for the first time since the early 7th century. This event was perceived as crucial in both Muslim and Christian sources, and the transformation of the architecture of the city soon began, with mosques being converted to churches, some of them thus returning to their initial function. Other buildings, such as the Dome of the Rock, built for Muslim worship in 689-691, were given new meaning. The direct contact between Christians and Muslims had an effect also on Europe, which now increasingly heard first-hand reports from the Holy Lands, and received objects such as glass, metalwork, and textiles produced in Syria or Egypt for its church treasuries. Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn b. Ayyub, better known in the West as Saladin, regained Jerusalem in 1187, an event that started further crusades and brought Richard Lionheart to the Holy Land. The fourth crusade in 1204 brought the sack of Constantinople, traumatic for the Byzantine Empire, yet influential for the artistic production of Western Europe as new relics, icons, and jewelry arrived. Venice received the famous bronze horses that still adorn the facade of the basilica of San Marco. In 1270, the French king Louis IX died in Tunisia during his second attempt at crusade. In 1292, the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria captured Acre, the last Crusader stronghold on the Levant, yet the notion of Crusade as religious conflict was to persist over centuries to be inserted into present-day political discourse.

HISTORY 219C. Science, Technology, and Modernity in the Soviet Union. 5 Units.

Science and technology were integral to the Soviet claim to offer a vision of modernity superior to that of Western capitalism. Science and technology would flourish; society would develop on a scientific basis. The results were more complex than the vision. Topics to be covered: science and Marxism-Leninism; the Lysenko affair; the R&D system; the role of the secret police; the atomic project; the space race; missile development; Andrei Sakharov; technology and innovation.
Same as: HISTORY 319C.

HISTORY 221A. Men, Women, and Power in Early Modern Russia, 1500-1800. 5 Units.

Social values, gender relations, and social change in an era of rapid change; challenges to established norms by new constructions of deviance (witchcraft, religious reform, and revolt) and new standards of civility; encounters with non-Russians and the construction of national consciousness. Social values as political ethos: patrimonial autocracy and the reality of female rule in the late 17th and 18th century.

HISTORY 221B. The Woman Question in Modern Russia. 5 Units.

Russian radicals believed that the status of women provided the measure of freedom in a society and argued for the extension of rights to women as a basic principle of social progress. The social status and cultural representations of Russian women from the mid-19th century to the present. The arguments and actions of those who fought for women's emancipation in the 19th century, theories and policies of the Bolsheviks, and the reality of women's lives under them. How the status of women today reflects on the measure of freedom in post-Communist Russia.

HISTORY 222. Honor, Law, and Modernity. 5 Units.

How Europe evolved from medieval to modern; focus is on standards for conflict resolution emphasizing insults to honor. How attitudes towards the self and society, and the state's relationship to individuals, changed from the 16th to 18th centuries in Europe and Russia. Traditional concepts of honor and patterns of settling disputes contrasted to early modern concepts of honor, private life, civility, and crime and punishment.

HISTORY 223. Art and Ideas in Imperial Russia. 4-5 Units.

Poetry, novels, symphonic music, theater, opera, painting, design, and architecture: what they reveal about the politics and culture of tsarist Russia.
Same as: HISTORY 323.

HISTORY 224A. The Soviet Civilization. 4-5 Units.

Socialist visions and practices of the organization of society and messianic politics; the Soviet understanding of mass violence, political and ethnic; and living space. Primary and secondary sources. Research paper or historiographical essay.
Same as: HISTORY 424A.

HISTORY 224C. Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Traces the history of genocide in the 20th century and the question of humanitarian intervention to stop it, a topic that has been especially controversial since the end of the Cold War. The pre-1990s discussion begins with the Armenian genocide during the First World War and includes the Holocaust and Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s. Coverage of genocide and humanitarian intervention since the 1990s includes the wars in Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo, the Congo and Sudan.
Same as: HISTORY 324C, PEDS 224.

HISTORY 226E. Famine in the Modern World. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Examines the major famines of modern history, the controversies surrounding them, and the reasons that famine persists in our increasingly globalized world. Focus is on the relative importance of natural, economic, and political factors as causes of famine in the modern world. Case studies include the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s; the Bengal famine of 1943-44; the Soviet famines of 1921-22 and 1932-33; China's Great Famine of 1959-61; the Ethiopian famines of the 1970s and 80s, and the Somalia famines of the 1990s and of 2011.
Same as: HISTORY 326E, PEDS 226.

HISTORY 228. Circles of Hell: Poland in World War II. 5 Units.

Looks at the experience and representation of Poland's wartime history from the Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939) to the aftermath of Yalta (1945). Examines Nazi and Soviet ideology and practice in Poland, as well as the ways Poles responded, resisted, and survived. Considers wartime relations among Polish citizens, particularly Poles and Jews. In this regard, interrogates the traditional self-characterization of Poles as innocent victims, looking at their relationship to the Holocaust, thus engaging in a passionate debate still raging in Polish society.
Same as: HISTORY 328, JEWISHST 282, JEWISHST 382.

HISTORY 230A. The Witness in Modern History: Memoir, Reportage, Image. 5 Units.

The rise of the witness as icon and debates about its reliability as a historical source. The power of eyewitness accounts to convict accused criminals, inspire indignation about war and genocide, and attract attention to humanitarian crises. Their notorious unreliability due to exaggeration and misapprehension. Sources include reportage, photography, and documentary film. Case studies include criminal cases, war, poverty, and natural disasters.

HISTORY 230C. Paris: Capital of the Modern World. 4-5 Units.

This course explores how Paris, between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries, became the political, cultural, and artistic capital of the modern world. It considers how the city has both shaped and been shaped by the tumultuous events of modern history- class conflict, industrialization, imperialism, war, and occupation. It will also explore why Paris became the major world destination for intellectuals, artists and writers. Sources will include films, paintings, architecture, novels, travel journals, and memoirs.
Same as: FRENCH 140, FRENCH 340.

HISTORY 230D. Europe in the World, 1789-Present. 4-5 Units.

The European conquest of parts of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific by European merchants, missionaries, armies, and administrators had significant, and often cataclysmic, effects on indigenous political alliances, cultural practices, and belief systems. But were the effects of expansion entirely one-sided? What impact did the experiences of colonialism have on European politics, culture,and Europe's relations with the rest of the world? Explores how interaction between Europe and the rest of the world redefined the political, racial, sexual, and religious boundaries of both Europe and its colonies and gave rise to the more "globalized' society we live in today.
Same as: HISTORY 330D.

HISTORY 230F. Self-Policing, Denunciation, and Surveillance in Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

How individual actions impact state machineries of power. The motives, pressures, and consequences of everyday collaboration from the French Revolution to Nazi Germany and Soviet bloc police states; popular outrage over such practices in the aftermath of these regimes. The phenomenon of anticipatory compliance, as people tended to perceive less freedom of action than actually existed, and the reciprocal intensification of real and imagined restrictions. The malleability of personal values and interests as represented in diaries, memoirs, secondary sources, and film; variety of individual and national responses.
Same as: HISTORY 330F.

HISTORY 231G. European Reformations. 4-5 Units.

Readings in and discussion of theological and social aspects of sixteenth century reformations: Luther, Radical Reform, Calvin, and Council of Trent, missionary expansion, religious conflict, creative and artistic expressions. Texts include primary sources and secondary scholarly essays and monographs.
Same as: HISTORY 331G, RELIGST 236, RELIGST 336.

HISTORY 232A. Power, Art, and Knowledge in Renaissance Italy. 4-5 Units.

Provides a fundamental understanding of the cultural and political imagination of the Italian Renaissance, with particular emphasis on Florence between 1300 and 1600 CE. Topics include political and social upheavals, radical shifts in religious practice and devotion, the commercial revolution in trade and banking, the rediscovery of classical philosophy and style, and the flowering of the literary and visual arts.
Same as: HISTORY 332A.

HISTORY 232D. Rome: The City and the World, 1350-1750. 4-5 Units.

What lies beyond the ruins of an ancient city? The history of Rome from the Renaissance to the age of the grand tour. Topics include: the political, diplomatic, and religious history of the papacy; society and cultural life; the everyday world of Roman citizens; the relationship between the city and the surrounding countryside; the material transformation of Rome as a city; and its meaning for foreigners.
Same as: HISTORY 332D.

HISTORY 232F. The Scientific Revolution. 5 Units.

Was there a scientific revolution in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? How did modern science emerge as a distinctive kind of knowledge and practices? Explores changing ideas of nature and knowledge during the age of Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, and Newton. Examines the contexts in which western science emerged, issues of scientific methodology (e.g. induction, deduction, probability, and the rise of experimentation), the development of scientific institutions, and the emergence of the scientist as a historical figure. How historians have explained and debated the birth pangs of modern science.

HISTORY 233. Reformation, Political Culture, and the Origins of the English Civil War. 4-5 Units.

English political and religious culture from the end of the Wars of the Roses to the Civil War of the 1640s. Themes include the growth of the size and power of the state, Reformation, creation of a Protestant regime, transformation of the political culture of the ruling elite, emergence of Puritanism, and causes of the Civil War.
Same as: HISTORY 333.

HISTORY 233C. Two British Revolutions. 4-5 Units.

Current scholarship on Britain,1640-1700, focusing on political and religious history. Topics include: causes and consequences of the English civil war and revolution; rise and fall of revolutionary Puritanism; the Restoration; popular politics in the late 17th century; changing contours of religious life; the crisis leading to the Glorious Revolution; and the new order that emerged after the deposing of James II.
Same as: HISTORY 333C.

HISTORY 233F. Political Thought in Early Modern Britain. 5 Units.

1500 to 1700. Theorists include Hobbes, Locke, Harrington, the Levellers, and lesser known writers and schools. Foundational ideas and problems underlying modern British and American political thought and life.

HISTORY 233G. Catholic Politics in Europe, 1789-1992. 5 Units.

What led to the creation of a specifically Catholic mass politics? How did these parties and movements interact with the Vatican and the wider Church? What accounts for political Catholicism's involvement in clerical-fascist states and its important role in shaping the EU? Sources focus on monographs. Research paper using primary sources.

HISTORY 233K. The Invention of the Modern Republic. 4-5 Units.

Examines the history of republican thinking in the Atlantic World from the Renaissance to the French Revolution.
Same as: HISTORY 333K.

HISTORY 236. The Ethics of Imperialism. 5 Units.

Can a commitment to liberty, progress, and universal rights be reconciled with imperialism? The ethical underpinnings of empire; how modern Europeans provided ethical and political justifications for colonial expansion. How European ideals were used to defend and justify inequality, violence, and genocide. The ethics of American-driven globalization and humanitarianism. Texts include primary sources, philosophical treatises, and historical studies.

HISTORY 239F. Empire and Information. 4-5 Units.

How do states see? How do they know what they know about their subjects, citizens, economies, and geographies? How does that knowledge shape society, politics, identity, freedom, and modernity? Focus is on the British imperial state activities in S. Asia and Britain: surveillance technologies and information-gathering systems, including mapping, statistics, cultural schemata, and intelligence systems, to render geographies and social bodies legible, visible, and governable.
Same as: HISTORY 339F.

HISTORY 239H. Colonialism and Empire in Modern Europe. 5 Units.

To better understand the history of modern Europe within a global context, explores the following questions: What impact did more than a century of colonialism have on the social lives, cultural attitudes, political loyalties, and intellectual world views of European women and men during the nineteenth century? What accounts for the resiliency of empire during a period of rapid global change that witnessed the rise of modern democracy, economic liberalism, ethnic nationalism, and international socialism?.

HISTORY 243G. Tobacco and Health in World History. 4-5 Units.

Same as: HISTORY 343G.

HISTORY 243J. Climate Change in the West: A History of the Future. 5 Units.

Global warming is changing the American West. But this region is no stranger to environmental change and human adaption to harsh environments. How can history create more clear thinking about the current crisis and choices for the future? The long history of climate change in the West, as well as current warming, through scientific research, historical sources, environmental histories, and visions for the future, including plans for mitigation and adaption, scientific predictions, and science fiction.
Same as: EARTHSYS 143J.

HISTORY 243S. Human Origins: History, Evidence, and Controversy. 4-5 Units.

Research seminar. Debates and controversies include: theories of human origins; interpretations of fossils, early art, and the oldest tools; the origin and fate of the Neanderthals; evolutionary themes in literature and film; visual rhetoric and cliché in anthropological dioramas and phyletic diagrams; the significance of hunting, gathering, and grandmothering; climatological theories and neocatastrophic geologies; molecular anthropology; the impact of racial theories on human origins discourse. Background in human evolution not required.
Same as: HISTORY 443A.

HISTORY 244C. The History of the Body in Science, Medicine, and Culture. 4-5 Units.

The human body as a natural and cultural object, historicized. The crosscultural history of the body from the 18th century to the present. Topics include: sciences of sex and race; medical discovery of particular body parts; human experimentation, foot binding, veiling, and other bodily coverings; thinness and obesity; notions of the body politic.
Same as: HISTORY 444C.

HISTORY 245E. Health and Society in Africa. 4-5 Units.

The history of disease, therapeutic and diagnostic systems, and the definition of health in precolonial, colonial, and postcolonial Africa. The social and political histories of specific epidemics, including sleeping sickness, influenza, TB, mental illness, and AIDS. The colonial contexts of epidemics and the social consequences of disease.
Same as: HISTORY 347E.

HISTORY 248S. African Societies and Colonial States, Part 1. 4-5 Units.

The encounter between African societies and European colonialism in the colony or region of their choice. Approaches to the colonial state; tours of primary source collections in the Hoover Institution and Green Libraries. Students present original research findings and may continue research for a second quarter.

HISTORY 250A. History of California Indians. 5 Units.

Demographic, political, and economic history of California Indians, 1700s-1950s. Processes and events leading to the destruction of California tribes, and their effects on the groups who survived. Geographic and cultural diversity. Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo-American periods. The mission system.
Same as: CSRE 117S.

HISTORY 251G. Topics in Constitutional History. 5 Units.

Ideas of rights in American history emphasizing the problem of defining constitutional rights, the free exercise of religion, freedom of expression, and the contemporary debate over rights talk and the idiom of human rights.
Same as: AMSTUD 251, POLISCI 222S.

HISTORY 252B. Diplomacy on the Ground: Case Studies in the Challenges of Representing Your Country. 5 Units.

The tragic death of Ambassador Chris Stevens has recently highlighted the dangers of diplomacy in the modern era. This class will look at how Americans in embassies have historically confronted questions such as authoritarian rule, human rights abuses, violent changes of government, and covert action. Case studies will include the Berlin embassy in the 1930s, Tehran in 1979, and George Kennan's experiences in Moscow, among others. Recommended for students contemplating careers in diplomatic service.
Same as: INTNLREL 174.

HISTORY 252K. America as a World Power: U.S. Foreign Relations, 1914 to Present. 5 Units.

This course will examine the modern history of American foreign relations, from 1914 to the present. Beginning with the fateful decision to intervene in the First World War, it will examine the major crises and choices that have defined the ¿American Century.¿ Our study of U.S. foreign relations will consider such key factors as geopolitics, domestic politics, bureaucracy, psychology, race, and culture. Students will be expected to undertake their own substantial examination of a critical episode in the era studied.
Same as: INTNLREL 168.

HISTORY 253D. Approaches to American Legal History. 5 Units.

Legal history, once primarily devoted to exploring legal doctrines and key judicial opinions and thus of interest mainly to legal scholars and lawyers,now resembles historical writing more generally; the study of legal ideas and practices is increasingly integrated with social, intellectual, cultural, and political history. Recent writings in American legal history; how the field reflects developments in historical writing; and how the use of legal materials affects understanding of American history.
Same as: POLISCI 226U.

HISTORY 255. Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Social Gospel and the Struggle for Justice. 5 Units.

The religious and political thought of Martin Luther King, Jr., using the documentary resources of the King Institute at Stanford. His social gospel Christianity and prophetic message of radical social transformation. Readings include the forthcoming The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., Volume VI: Advocate of the Social Gospel.

HISTORY 255E. Education, Race, and Inequality in African American History, 1880-1990. 3-5 Units.

Seminar. The relationship among race, power, inequality, and education from the 1880s to the 1990s. How schools have constructed race, the politics of school desegregation, and ties between education and the late 20th-century urban crisis.
Same as: AFRICAAM 116, CSRE 216X, EDUC 216.

HISTORY 256. U.S.-China Relations: From the Opium War to Tiananmen. 4-5 Units.

The history of turbulent relations, military conflict, and cultural clashes between the U.S. and China, and the implications for the domestic lives of these increasingly interconnected countries. Diplomatic, political, social, cultural, and military themes from early contact to the recent past.
Same as: AMSTUD 256, HISTORY 356.

HISTORY 256G. Constructing Race and Religion in America. 4-5 Units.

This seminar focuses on the interrelationships between social constructions of race, and social interpretations of religion in America. How have assumptions about race shaped religious worldviews? How have religious beliefs shaped racial attitudes? How have ideas about religion and race contributed to notions of what it means to be "American"? We will look at primary and secondary sources, and at the historical development of ideas and practices over time.
Same as: CSRE 246, HISTORY 356G, RELIGST 246, RELIGST 346.

HISTORY 257C. LGBT/Queer Life in the United States. 4-5 Units.

An introductory course on LGBT social, cultural, and political history in the United States. This course explores how categories of sexuality have changed over time, with particular emphasis on the relationship among homosexuality, heterosexuality, and transgenderism. Students will analyze how the intersections of race, class, and sexuality influenced the constitution of these categories and the politics of social relations. Historical and literary sources will be used to examine changes in LGBT experiences and identities, primarily in the twentieth century.
Same as: FEMGEN 140D, FEMGEN 240D.

HISTORY 258. Topics in the History of Sexuality: Sexual Violence. 4-5 Units.

Recent historical interpretations of sexual violence, with particular attention to the intersections of gender and race in the construction of rape, from early settlement through the twentieth century. Topics include the legal prosecution of rape in Early America; the racialization of rape in the U.S.; lynching and anti-lynching in the U.S.; and feminist responses to sexual violence.
Same as: AMSTUD 258, CSRE 192E, FEMGEN 258, FEMGEN 358, HISTORY 358.

HISTORY 258D. School: What Is It Good For?. 3-4 Units.

Focus is on authors who establish claims that the purposes, functions, impacts, and social roles of schooling promote human capital, citizenship, social reproduction, values transmission, social mobility, class equality, racial equality, social stratification, disciplinary power, and the pursuit of individual interests. Historical and sociological approaches.
Same as: EDUC 207.

HISTORY 258E. History of School Reform: Origins, Policies, Outcomes, and Explanations. 3-5 Units.

Required for students in the POLS M.A. program; others welcome. Focus is on 20th-century U.S. Intended and unintended patterns in school change; the paradox of reform that schools are often reforming but never seem to change much; rhetorics of reform and factors that inhibit change. Case studies emphasize the American high school.nnThis course is required for POLS students pursuing the PreK-12 concentration.
Same as: EDUC 220D.

HISTORY 259A. Poverty and Homelessness in America. 4-5 Units.

Service learning. Students participate in a two quarter internship at a local shelter for homeless individuals or families. Readings include historical, social science, and social commentary literature. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center).

HISTORY 260. California's Minority-Majority Cities. 4-5 Units.

Historical development and the social, cultural, and political issues that characterize large cities and suburbs where communities of color make up majority populations. Case studies include cities in Los Angeles, Santa Clara, and Monterey counties. Comparisons to minority-majority cities elsewhere in the U.S. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center).
Same as: CSRE 260.

HISTORY 261. Race, Gender, and Class in Jim Crow America. 5 Units.

How African American life and labor were redefined from 1890-1954. Topics include family life, work, leisure patterns, transnational relations, cultural expressions emphasizing literature and music, resistance and social activisim. Primary sources including visual materials, literature, and film; historical interpretations of the period.

HISTORY 261G. Presidents and Foreign Policy in Modern History. 5 Units.

Nothing better illustrates the evolution of the modern presidency than the arena of foreign policy. This class will examine the changing role and choices of successive presidential administrations over the past century, examining such factors as geopolitics, domestic politics, the bureaucracy, ideology, psychology, and culture. Students will be encouraged to think historically about the institution of the presidency, while examining specific case studies, from the First World War to the conflicts of the 21st century.
Same as: INTNLREL 173.

HISTORY 262A. Globalizing the American Revolution. 5 Units.

The causes and consequences of the American Revolution. Takes into account worldwide developments and their implications for North America. Topics include the crisis of the British Empire, efforts to create an American republic, global imperial competition, and comparisons with other Atlantic revolutions.
Same as: AMSTUD 262A.

HISTORY 262E. Atlantic America: Politics, Economics, and Empire. 5 Units.

The British North American colonies and their relationship to Africa, Europe, and Latin America in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The course focuses on both the connections between Britain's colonies and the rest of the world as well as the ways in which they were similar and different to other European expansion efforts. Topics include ideas about colonization and empire, politics- both local and imperial, state building, economic development, and slavery.

HISTORY 264G. The Social History of Mental Illness in the United States. 5 Units.

(Formerly HPS 158.) Explores the variety of meanings of mental illness in the past, and the diagnostic, therapeutic, cultural and policy challenges historically posed by mental illness. Focus is on the U.S. but is not limited to it. How has mental illness been defined in history? How has the mind been medicalized and managed? Topics include the rise of institutions for the mentally ill, the growth of the psychiatric profession and the relationship between psychiatry, deviance and anti-psychiatry,and gender and psychiatric norms.

HISTORY 266C. The Cold War: An International History. 5 Units.

Though it ended twenty years ago, we still live in a world shaped by the Cold War. Beginning with its origins in the mid-1940s, this course will trace the evolution of the global struggle, until its culmination at the end of the 1980s. Students will be asked to ponder the fundamental nature of the Cold War, what kept it alive for nearly fifty years, how it ended, and its long term legacy for the world.
Same as: INTNLREL 154.

HISTORY 267. Religion in Twentieth Century American Life. 5 Units.

Why is the United States such a religious country? Over 90% of Americans profess a belief in God, and more than half identify religion as "very important" to their lives. In this seminar, we will examine the durability and power of religion in modern American history, from the emergence of Christian fundamentalism to the theology of the Cold war to the conflict with radical Islam. Other topics include: the Holocaust, Civil Rights and religion, gender and sexuality.
Same as: AMSTUD 267.

HISTORY 269. History of Capitalism. 5 Units.

What is capitalism? An economic and social system that maximizes both individual freedom and social good? An exploitative arrangement dependent on the subordination of labor to capital? A natural arrangement guided by a munificent invisible hand? Or a finely tuned mechanism requiring state support? We will study the history of debates about markets and social organization, taking capitalism as both an economic system and a culture. Focus on American and British writers including Keynes, Lippmann, Hayek, Rand, Schumpeter, and Friedman.
Same as: HISTORY 369.

HISTORY 272A. Spanish Nationalist Discourses from Franco to Zapatero: What does 'plural Spain' mean?. 3-5 Units.

Spanish nationalism and 'patriotic affirmation' discourses existing in contemporary Spain. Since the end of Francoism, Spanish nationalism has existed in a de-articulated and diffuse way, rather as a reaction against the challenge of stateless nationalisms than as a substantive doctrine. However, since the mid-1980s there has been a recovery of Spanish nationalist discourse, often labeled as 'Constitutional patriotism', whose main point is the insistence on History as the founding basis for the legitimation of the present Spanish polity, as well as the vindication of the 1978 Constitution as the end-point of decentralization.

HISTORY 273. The European Expansion. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between European monarchies and their colonial domains from the 16th-18th centuries. Reasons for expansion, methods, and results. Case studies include the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English domains in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Readings include primary and secondary sources.
Same as: HISTORY 373A.

HISTORY 277D. U.S. Intervention and Regime Change in 20th Century Latin America. 5 Units.

As the drumbeats of war in the U.S. grow louder for a forcible regime change in Iran due to its alleged nuclear ambitions, many politicians, pundits and journalists have already consigned the disastrous war for regime change in neighboring Iraq in 2003 to seemingly ancient and irrelevant history. This course does the opposite and takes seriously the proverbial saying "if history is any guide..." by examining U.S. interventions in Latin America, a region where so-called preventive regime change (covert as well as overt) has been operative policy for well over a century. Investigates the rationales, motivations and strategies behind U.S.-backed or engineered regime changes in Mexico in the 1910s, Guatemala in the 1950s, Chile in the 1970s, and Nicaragua in the 1980s.

HISTORY 279. Latin American Development: Economy and Society, 1800-2000. 4-5 Units.

The newly independent nations of Latin America began the 19th century with economies roughly equal to, or even ahead of, the U.S. and Canada. What explains the economic gap that developed since 1900? Why are some Latin American nations rich and others poor? Marxist, dependency, neoclassical, and institutionalist interpretive frameworks. The effects of globalization on Latin American economic growth, autonomy, and potential for social justice.
Same as: HISTORY 379.

HISTORY 281A. Twentieth-Century Iraq: A Political and Social History. 5 Units.

The colonial experience, creation of the modern Iraqi state, and transition to military dictatorship. Political movements, religious and tribal elements, and their relation to the state. Geopolitical context.

HISTORY 281B. Modern Egypt. 4-5 Units.

From the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Topics: European imperialism, the political economy of cotton, rise of nationalism, gender and the nation, minorities, the coup of 1952, positive neutralism and the Cold War, and the neo-liberal reconstruction of Egypt.

HISTORY 282. The United States and the Middle East since 1945. 4-5 Units.

Since the end of WW II, U.S. interests in the Middle East have traditionally been defined as access to oil at a reasonable price, trade and markets, containing the influence of the Soviet Union, and the security of Israel. Is this the full range of U.S. interests? How has the pursuit of these interests changed over time? What forces have shaped U.S. policy? What is the impact of U.S. policy on the region itself?
Same as: HISTORY 382.

HISTORY 282F. History of Modern Turkey. 4-5 Units.

Social, political and cultural history of Modern Turkey from the last decades of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century until Today. Themes include transformation from a multi-national empire to a national republic; Islam, secularism and radical modernism; military, bureaucracy and democratic experience; economic development, underdevelopment and class; Istanbul, Ankara and provincial Turkey; socialism, conservatism(s), and Kurdish challenge; Turkey in Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia; gender, sexuality and family; popular culture, soccer, and film industry; Post-Modernism, Neo-Ottomanism, and the New-Turkey; The class also include reading works of Turkish literature and watching movies by Turkish directors.

HISTORY 283. The New Global Economy, Oil, and Islamic Movements in the Middle East. 4-5 Units.

The integration of the Middle East into the world capitalist market on a subordinate basis and the impact on economic development, class formation, and politics. Alternative theoretical perspectives on the rise and expansion of the international capitalist market combined with case studies of Egypt, Iraq, and Palestine.
Same as: HISTORY 383.

HISTORY 284. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1923. 4-5 Units.

This is a course on the Middle East and Southeast Europe under the Ottoman Empire. Topics include how the Ottoman enterprise was constructed in the frontier region of the Christian and Islamic worlds; the conquests and consolidation of the imperial institutions; how diverse peoples, cultures, and regions were integrated into the imperial system; the Ottoman Empire and the broader world; merchants and their markets; elite, urban, rural and nomadic lives; women, family sexuality; art, literature, and architecture; the transformation of the empire on the eve of modernity; the rise of nationalism and the Ottoman response; Ottoman disintegration and the making of the Middle East and Southeast Europe.
Same as: HISTORY 384.

HISTORY 284F. Islamic Eurasia: Empires, Nomads and Merchants (1300-1850). 4-5 Units.

Focuses on political regimes, economic interactions and sociocultural formations in the early modern Balkans and Middle East to Central and South Asia. Topics include complex political systems of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires; experiences of various Muslim, Christian, Jewish and Hindu, as well as urban, rural and nomadic communities; consolidation of transregional commerce and cultural exchange; incorporation of the Islamic world in the global economy; transimperial networks of the Muslim and Non-Muslim merchants, scholars and sufis.
Same as: HISTORY 384F.

HISTORY 287C. Zionism and its Critics. 4-5 Units.

Zionism from its genesis in the 1880s up until the establishment of the state of Israel in May, 1948, exploring the historical, ideological and political dimensions of Zionism. Topics include: the emergence of Zionist ideology in connection to and as a response to challenges of modernity; emancipation; Haskalah (Jewish enlightenment); other national and ideological movements of the period; the ideological crystallization of the movement; and the immigration waves to Palestine.

HISTORY 288. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. 4-5 Units.

1882 to the present. Comparison of representative expressions of competing historical interpretations. U.S. policy towards the conflict since 1948. (Beinin)
Same as: JEWISHST 288, JEWISHST 388.

HISTORY 290E. Movies and Empire in East Asia. 5 Units.

Cinema was invented in the 1890s and simultaneously introduced to East Asia. This colloquium explores how this new medium changed the cultural and social landscape of East Asia and how the visual power of films also affected the culture politics of empires in the region. The themes include cinema and urban spaces, cultural imperialism, film images and gender discourse, colonial modernity, Americanism and Asianism, the visual and the textual, wartime propaganda, and Hollywood movies and cold war empires.
Same as: HISTORY 390E.

HISTORY 291A. Archaeology and Modernity in Asia: The Excavation of Ancient Civilizations in Modern Times. 4-5 Units.

The interplay in Asia between antiquity and modernity, civilization and nation state, and national versus colonial science. The recent excavation of artifacts and places associated with Asian civilization such as the terracotta warriors in China and Angkor Wat in Cambodia. How Asian states have grappled with modernity and colonialism as they simultaneously dug up their ancient pasts.
Same as: HISTORY 391A.

HISTORY 292. The Two Koreas. 4-5 Units.

Examines major themes and scholarly works to understand the origins, outbreak, and consequences of the Korean War. One focus will be the division of Korea into ROK and DPRK and their subsequent developments. Themes include World War II in East Asia; Korean communist movements during Japanese colonial rule; the Cold War in East Asia; the roles of the US, China, and USSR in the Korean War; the ideas of key North and South Korean leaders, and the consolidation of the two Koreas after the Korean War.
Same as: HISTORY 392.

HISTORY 292D. Japan in Asia, Asia in Japan. 4-5 Units.

How Japan and Asia mutually shaped each other in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Focus is on Japanese imperialism in Asia and its postwar legacies. Topics include: pan-Asianism and orientalism; colonial modernization in Korea and Taiwan; collaboration and resistance; popular imperialism in Manchuria; total war and empire; comfort women and the politics of apology; the issue of resident Koreans; and economic and cultural integration of postwar Asia.
Same as: HISTORY 392D.

HISTORY 292F. Traditional Korea: History and Culture. 4-5 Units.

Korea before 1800 and how iconic features of Korean tradition were created and reinvented. Themes include Korea's ancient kingdoms, the aristocracy and military in the Koryo dynasty, the print culture and Korean alphabet, ideologies and religions, the social status system and the life of women, the kingship and court culture of the Choson dynasty, and Korea's place in premodern East Asia. The modern and contemporary debates.
Same as: HISTORY 392F.

HISTORY 296. Communism and Revolution in China. 5 Units.

From the formation of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1921 through the 1949 founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Topics include: early theories of socialism in China; the relationship between Chinese communism and the Communist International and Soviet Union; agrarian reformulation of communism by Mao; the communist-nationalist civil war; the Communist Revolution of 1949; and the consolidation of communist power in the PRC.

HISTORY 296F. Short Stories from India and Pakistan. 3-5 Units.

The course introduces the main periods and trends of 20th- and 21st-century Urdu short story: Progressive Writers' Movement, Partition literature, Modernism, contemporary fiction. Classes include close reading and discussion of selected short stories, with special focus on prominent themes such as social problems; personal loss, exile, displacement, alienation, and questions of identity; gender and sexuality; history, memory, and nostalgia; myth and imagination. Readings include: Premchand, Manto, Ismat Chughtai, Qurratulain Hyder, Intizar Husain, Naiyer Masud. All readings are in English.
Same as: ICA 296F.

HISTORY 297. The Cold War and East Asia. 5 Units.

Explores how East Asia negotiated superpower rivalry and global ideological competition during the Cold War. Considers the ways in which China, Japan, and Korea were more than battlegrounds for US-Soviet contestation and played active roles in defining the nature and dynamics of the conflict. Re-examines conventional narratives and periodizations against alternative conceptual models and interpretive frameworks highlighting the constructed nature of the struggle as well as the role of historical and cultural factors in shaping the East Asian experience.
Same as: HISTORY 397.

HISTORY 299A. Senior Research I. 1-5 Unit.

HISTORY 299B. Senior Research II. 1-5 Unit.

HISTORY 299C. Senior Research III. 1-5 Unit.

HISTORY 299D. Tooling Up for Digital Humanities. 1 Unit.

What are the digital humanities? The twenty-first century presents new opportunities in the humanities, such as unprecedented access to millions upon millions of digitized sources along with powerful technological tools to study those sources. Yet it also raises new challenges, such as the responsible and effective use of technology, and defining the nature of digital scholarship and communication. This workshop offers an introduction to fundamental concepts, methods, and issues within the growing field of digital humanities, including managing your online identity, digitizing sources, managing databases, text mining, spatial analysis, visualization, and pedagogy.

HISTORY 299H. Junior Honors Colloquium. 1 Unit.

Required of junior History majors planning to write a History honors thesis during senior year. Meets four times during the quarter.

HISTORY 299M. Undergraduate Directed Research: Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute. 1-4 Unit.

May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 299S. Undergraduate Directed Research and Writing. 1-5 Unit.

May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 299X. Preparing for International Field Work: Public Service or Research. 1 Unit.

Problems involved in research abroad: ethical issues; safety; security and conduct; human subjects protocol. Methodologies of research: interviewing, networking, case studies, participant observation, large surveys.
Same as: HISTORY 399A.

HISTORY 301. Introduction to Public History in the U.S.,19th Century to the Present. 4-5 Units.

Gateway course for the History and Public Service interdisciplinary track. Topics include the production, presentation, and practice of public history through narratives, exhibits, web sites, and events in museums, historical sites, parks, and public service settings in nonprofit organizations, government agencies, and educational institutions. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center).
Same as: AFRICAAM 102, CSRE 201, HISTORY 201.

HISTORY 301A. The Global Drug Wars. 4-5 Units.

Explores the global story of the struggle over drugs from the nineteenth century to the present. Topics include the history of the opium wars in China, controversies over wine and tobacco in Iran, narco-trafficking and civil war in Lebanon, the Afghan 'narco-state,' Andean cocaine as a global commodity, the politics of U.S.- Mexico drug trafficking, incarceration, drugs, and race in the U.S., and the globalization of the American 'war on drugs.'
Same as: HISTORY 201A.

HISTORY 302A. Questions in Modern World History: Provincializing Europe?. 4-5 Units.

Though this class will consider themes addressed in most modern history classes (imperialism, liberalism, capitalism, the construction of the modern nation-state, the roots of the 19th and 20th century wars, questions of governance, various forms of resistance, colonizer and colonized identities, and the process of globalization, etc.), we will take a world-historical approach, considering these topics from a non-western viewpoint, outside of a nationalist narrative, while taking a multi-perspectival stance.
Same as: HISTORY 202A.

HISTORY 302B. Coffee, Sugar, and Chocolate: Commodities and Consumption in World History, 1200-1800. 4 Units.

Many of the basic commodities that we consider staples of everyday life became part of an increasingly interconnected world of trade, goods, and consumption between 1200 and 1800. This seminar offers an introduction to the material culture of the late medieval and early modern world, with an emphasis on the role of European trade and empires in these developments. We will examine recent work on the circulation, use, and consumption of things, starting with the age of the medieval merchant, and followed by the era of the Columbian exchange in the Americas that was also the world of the Renaissance collector, the Ottoman patron, and the Ming connoisseur. This seminar will explore the material horizons of an increasingly interconnected world, with the rise of the Dutch East India Company and other trading societies, and the emergence of the Atlantic economy. It concludes by exploring classic debates about the "birth" of consumer society in the eighteenth century. How did the meaning of things and people's relationships to them change over these centuries? What can we learn about the past by studying things?
Same as: HISTORY 202B.

HISTORY 302E. The Great War. 4-5 Units.

The First World War provided a prototype for a new , horrific kind of war. It catalyzed the emergence of modern means of warfare and the social mechanisms necessary to sustain the industrialized war machine. Killing millions, it became the blueprint for the total war that succeeded it. It also brought about new social and political orders, transforming the societies which it mobilized at unprecedented levels. nThis course will examine the military, political, economic, social and cultural aspects of the conflict. We will discuss the origins and outbreak of the war, the land, sea and air campaigns, the war's economic and social consequences, the home fronts, the war's final stages in eastern and western Europe as well as non-European fronts, and finally, the war's impact on the international system and on its belligerents' and participants' perceptions of the new reality it had created.

HISTORY 302G. Peoples, Armies and Governments of the Second World War. 4-5 Units.

Clausewitz conceptualized war as always consisting of a trinity of passion, chance, and reason, mirrored, respectively, in the people, army and government. Following Clausewitz, this course examines the peoples, armies, and governments that shaped World War II. Analyzes the ideological, political, diplomatic and economic motivations and constraints of the belligerents and their resulting strategies, military planning and fighting. Explores the new realities of everyday life on the home fronts and the experiences of non-combatants during the war, the final destruction of National Socialist Germany and Imperial Japan, and the emerging conflict between the victors. How the peoples, armies and governments involved perceived their possibilities and choices as a means to understand the origins, events, dynamics and implications of the greatest war in history.
Same as: HISTORY 202G.

HISTORY 303. Premodern Economic Cultures. 5 Units.

A comparative survey of premodern economies and the value systems that supported them. Students will read and discuss theories of economic culture as well as historical monographs about specific regions. Discussions will focus on the comparison and conceptualization of premodern economic cultures. Students will be required to research the literature on a particular premodern society of their choosing, compile an annotated bibliography of that literature, and compose an essay analyzing the problems and possibilities presented therein.
Same as: HISTORY 203.

HISTORY 303B. Secret Societies in Western History. 5 Units.

What drives human beings to join secret societies? What is the knowledge so jealously guarded by these groups? Are they just for men or are there female secret societies? Is there really a Judeo-Masonic conspiracy to dominate the world? These are some of the questions we will answer in this course. Surveying ancient civilizations to contemporary society, we will discuss secret societies from anthropological and sociological approaches, but especially from a historical perspective, by reviewing their political, religious and cultural impacts in Western History as well as the myths surrounding them.
Same as: HISTORY 203B.

HISTORY 303C. History of Ignorance. 3 Units.

Scholars pay a lot of attention to knowledge - how it arises and impacts society - but much less attention has been given to ignorance, even though its impacts are equally profound. Here we explore the political history of ignorance, through case studies including: corporate denials of harms from particular products (tobacco, asbestos), climate change denialism, and creationist rejections of Darwinian evolution. Students will be expected to produce a research paper tracing the origins and impact of a particular form of ignorance.

HISTORY 303F. Words and Things in the History of Classical Scholarship. 4-5 Units.

How have scholars used ancient texts and objects since the revival of the classical tradition? How did antiquarians study and depict objects and relate them to texts and reconstructions of the past? What changed and what stayed the same as humanist scholarship gave way to professional archaeologists, historians, and philologists? Focus is on key works in the history of classics, such as Erasmus and Winckelmann, in their scholarly, cultural, and political contexts, and recent critical trends in intellectual history and the history of disciplines.
Same as: CLASSGEN 241.

HISTORY 304. Approaches to History. 4-5 Units.

Required of first-year History Ph.D. students.

HISTORY 304C. How Wars End: War and Peace in the 20th Century. 5 Units.

Based on an analysis of primary documents, the course will examine how conflicts end: cases in include the two world wars, Korea, Vietnam, the Cold War, the Bosnian conflict, and the Irish Civil War.
Same as: HISTORY 204C.

HISTORY 304G. War and Society. 5 Units.

How Western societies and cultures have responded to modern warfare. The relationship between its destructive capacity and effects on those who produce, are subject to, and must come to terms with its aftermath. Literary representations of WW I; destructive psychological effects of modern warfare including those who take pleasure in killing; changes in relations between the genders; consequences of genocidal ideology and racial prejudice; the theory of just war and its practical implementation; and how wars are commemorated.
Same as: HISTORY 204G.

HISTORY 305. Graduate Workshop in Teaching. 1 Unit.

Required of first-year History Ph.D. students. Perspectives on pedagogy for historians: course design, lecturing, leading discussion, evaluation of student learning, use of technology in teaching lectures and seminars. Addressing today's classroom: sexual harassment issues, integrating diversity, designing syllabi to include students with disabilities.

HISTORY 305A. The History of Information. 4-5 Units.

Examines the history of information from multiple perspectives such as the changing conceptions of facticity and evidence cross-culturally as well as a range of information technologies, from moveable type printing and telegraphy to text messaging and Twitter. Other topics include the ways in which information is shaped by the languages in which it is recorded, stored, and transmitted, and also the ways in which information infrastructures influence what is forgotten and lost.

HISTORY 305G. Creative Political Thinking: Three Cases. 4-5 Units.

How can we account for creativity and innovation in political thinking? Are these qualities simply a product of political expediency and rhetorical urgency, or do they also depend on qualities of mind and historical contingencies that have to be studied individually? This class will explore these questions with three noteworthy cases: Niccolo Machiavelli, John Locke, and James Madison. Extensive reading in both primary writings and secondary sources.
Same as: POLISCI 235J, POLISCI 335J.

HISTORY 306A. City, Society, Literature- 19th Century Histories. 4 Units.

This course examines the rise of modern cities through an analysis of urban society and the imaginative literature of the 1800s.
Same as: HISTORY 206A.

HISTORY 306D. World History: Graduate Colloquium. 4 Units.

How do historians engage the global scale in the classroom as well as in research? The world history canon including Toynbee, McNeill, Braudel, Wolf, and Wallerstein; contrasting approaches, recent research, and resources for teaching. Recommended: concurrent enrollment in HISTORY 306K.

HISTORY 306E. International History and International Relations Theory. 5 Units.

The relationship between history and political science as disciplines. Sources include studies by historians and political scientists on topics such as the origins of WW I, the role of nuclear weapons in international politics, the end of the Cold War, nongovernmental organizations in international relations, and change and continuity in the international system.
Same as: POLISCI 216E, POLISCI 316.

HISTORY 306F. Identities and Identification in the Atlantic World. 4-5 Units.

How identities and processes of identification changed in Europe, Africa, and the Americas during the early modern period and as a result of the engagement of the inhabitants of these three continents in the Atlantic world.

HISTORY 306G. Colonial Law. 4-5 Units.

Examines the relationship between law and colonialism in Latin America, Africa and Asia during both the early modern and the modern period. By reading some of the seminal works that have been published on this issue, we will seek to understand how law both facilitated and limited colonialism and how colonialism, in turn, had modified the legal systems that had existed previously. Attention will also be given to law an an acculturating agent and to the legal arena as a sphere for conflict resolution, negotiation,and identity formation.

HISTORY 306K. World History Pedagogy Workshop. 1 Unit.

Students draft a syllabus and create a curriculum module for use in a world history lecture course. Corequisite: HISTORY 306D, recommended.

HISTORY 307A. Legal History Workshop. 4-5 Units.

(Same as LAW 372.) Faculty and students from the Law school and the History department discuss research in the field of legal history. Guest speakers. Secondary literature relevant to the speaker's research. Undergraduates require consent of instructors.

HISTORY 307C. The Global Early Modern. 4-5 Units.

In what sense can we speak of "globalization" before modernity? What are the characteristics and origins of the economic system we know as "capitalism"? When and why did European economies begin to diverge from those of other Eurasian societies? With these big questions in mind, the primary focus will be on the history of Europe and European empires, but substantial readings deal with other parts of the world, particularly China and the Indian Ocean.
Same as: HISTORY 207C.

HISTORY 307E. Totalitarianism. 4-5 Units.

Modern revolutionary and totalitarian politics. Sources include monographs on the medieval, Reformation, French Revolutionary, and Great War eras. Topics: the essence of modern ideology, the concept of the body national, state terror, charismatic leadership, gender assignments, private and public spheres, and identities.
Same as: HISTORY 204E.

HISTORY 307F. Heavenly Bodies: Saints' Bodies, Relics and Miracles in Late Antique and Medieval Europe. 4-5 Units.

This seminar will use both written and visual sources to explore how the body mattered in the creation of saintly tropes and cults in late antique and medieval Europe. We will begin by reading the diary of an early Christian martyr to consider how a good death set the terms for an ideal Christian life. We will then explore a number of medieval vitae or saints' lives to uncover narrative devices used to describe an exemplary life and consider the role self-denial, bodily and otherwise, played in constructing those portraits. We will conclude by considering the power medieval people ascribed to the remains of saints' bodies and look at the cult of relics as well as miracle accounts describing the bodily healings and transformations ascribed to saints.
Same as: HISTORY 207F, RELIGST 237, RELIGST 337.

HISTORY 308. Biography and History. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between biographical and historical writing, primarily in Europe and America. Problems of methodology, evidence, dispassion, and empathy. Texts: biographies, critical literature on biographical work, and novels (A. S. Byatt's Possession, Bernard Malamud's Dubin's Lives) that illuminate the intellectual underpinnings of biographical labor.
Same as: HISTORY 207.

HISTORY 308A. Science and Law in History. 4-5 Units.

How the intertwined modern fields of science and law, since the early modern period, together developed central notions of fact, evidence, experiment, demonstration, objectivity, and proof.
Same as: HISTORY 208A.

HISTORY 308B. Women Activists' Response to War. 4-5 Units.

Theoretical issues, historical origins, changing forms of women's activism in response to war throughout the 20th century, and contemporary cases, such as the Russian Committee of Soldiers Mothers, Bosnian Mothers of Srebrenica, Serbian Women in Black, and the American Cindy Sheehan. Focus is on the U.S. and Eastern Europe, with attention to Israel, England, and Argentina.
Same as: HISTORY 208B.

HISTORY 308C. History of Death and Dying. 4 Units.

The changing realities of, attitudes towards and ways of coping with death drawing on examples from Europe, Africa, the Caribbean, Latin America and the United States. The role of death in shaping the modern world via the global slave trades, imperial conquest, pandemics, wars and genocides. Changing rituals relating to death, intellectual and philosophical debates about the personal and social meanings of death, and the political and personal consequences of particular ways and patterns of dying.
Same as: HISTORY 208C.

HISTORY 308D. Pre-Modern Warfare. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the evolving nature of warfare and its impact on society across the Eurasian continent up to the Gunpowder Revolution and rise of the nation-state. Beginning with an attempt to define war, it will trace the evolution of military technology from the Stone Age through the rise of the chariot, the sword, and the mounted rider, and examine how changing methods of conducting warfare were inextricably linked to changes in the social order and political structures.

HISTORY 309A. Postcolonialism and Universalism. 4-5 Units.

Key texts and motifs from postcolonial theory: empire, class, exile, suffering, textuality, archive in juxtaposition to 20th-century philosophical questions about universal history and the relevance of humanist inquiry.
Same as: HISTORY 209D.

HISTORY 309B. The Idea of Politics. 4-5 Units.

Can we live without politics? Is politics indispensable for humanity and vice-versa? The idea of politics is that it must transform, through human action, conditions of collective life. But the 20th century produced colliding beliefs about what that life might be and what the human being itself might look like. Explore whether, after the century, we might still think of politics as an ethical idea and the "human" as foundational political category. Keywords: Civility, Cruelty, Friendship, Empire, Democracy, Humanism, Animals.
Same as: HISTORY 209B.

HISTORY 309C. Liberalism and Violence. 5 Units.

Does LIberalism have a theory of violence? What does modern political thought, in privileging humanity and rights, share with "terrorists" and "rogue states?" How is liberalism transformed by the use of religion and death for political ends? We read key thinkers of modern life- Adorno, Arendt, Agamben, Benjamin, Derrida, Fanon, Foucault, Gandhi, Heidegger, and Schmitt- to interrogate the relationship between religion, sacrifice, and democracy. At the center are connections between war and modern life, and between violence and non-violence.

HISTORY 309E. History Meets Geography. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on developing competence in GIS computer applications and applying it to historical problems. Previous experience with GIS not required. Recommended: complete the GIS tutorial in Branner Library before the course starts.

HISTORY 309F. Historical Geography Colloquium: Maps in the Early Modern World. 4-5 Units.

The significance of cartographic enterprise across the early modern world. Political, economic, and epistemological imperatives that drove the proliferation of nautical charts, domain surveys, city plans, atlases, and globes; the types of work such artifacts performed for their patrons, viewers, and subjects. Contributions of indigenous knowledge to imperial maps; the career of the map in commerce, surveillance, diplomacy, conquest, and indoctrination. Sources include recent research from Asia, Europe, and the Americas.

HISTORY 309G. Paleography of Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts. 3-5 Units.

Introductory course in the history of writing and of the book, from the late antique period until the advent of printing. Opportunity to learn to read and interpret medieval manuscripts through hands-on examination of original materials in Special Collections of Stanford Libraries as well as through digital images. Offers critical training in the reading of manuscripts for students from departments as diverse as Classics, History, Philosophy, Religious Studies, English, and the Division of Languages Cultures and Literatures.
Same as: CLASSGEN 311, DLCL 209, ENGLISH 209, RELIGST 204.

HISTORY 311A. Family, Gender, and Production in Ancient Rome. 4-5 Units.

Seminar. The household as the basic unit of production in Rome in the context of family relations and ideologies of gender. Methodological challenges of doing social and economic history from literary, epigraphic, and literary texts. Demography of family and kinship in ancient Rome. Ideologies of gender and family roles and their influence on economic production. Economic theories of the family and human capital.

HISTORY 311G. Big Ancient History. 4-5 Units.

How the shift away from thinking about European history in terms of a western civilization model toward embedding it in stories of how global history affects research and teaching on ancient Greece and Rome. Conventional, evolutionary, and global history narratives of the past 5,000 to 15,000 years and some new ideas about how Greco-Roman history might fit into different storylines.

HISTORY 314D. Mediterranean Crossroads: Power, Culture, and Religion in Medieval Sicily. 4-5 Units.

Sicily in the Middle Ages was a Mediterranean crossroads, a dynamic and diverse kingdom in which Muslim and Christian, Viking and African, European and Eastern Cultures all came together. Explores the life and times of Frederick II (1194-1250). He claimed universal authority as a Christian emperor, yet ruled multireligious Sicily as king. He promoted crusading, yet was accused of being a heretic and a crypto Muslim. He spoke six languages and actively patronized the arts and sciences. Topics include: structures and influences that made such a figure possible; how he managed the tensions of governing a diverse and disparate empire; how religion and cultural production created and maintained his authority; how contemporaries and later generations reacted to this enigmatic emperor; why has he continued to generate such polarizing reactions; and how did Frederick become a figure revered by Nazis and multiculturalists alike.

HISTORY 314D. Mediterranean Crossroads: Power, Culture, and Religion in Medieval Sicily. 5 Units.

Sicily in the Middle Ages was a Mediterranean crossroads, a dynamic and diverse kingdom in which Muslim and Christian, Viking and African, European and Eastern Cultures all came together. Explores the life and times of Frederick II (1194-1250). He claimed universal authority as a Christian emperor, yet ruled multireligious Sicily as king. He promoted crusading, yet was accused of being a heretic and a crypto Muslim. He spoke six languages and actively patronized the arts and sciences. Topics include: structures and influences that made such a figure possible; how he managed the tensions of governing a diverse and disparate empire; how religion and cultural production created and maintained his authority; how contemporaries and later generations reacted to this enigmatic emperor; why has he continued to generate such polarizing reactions; and how did Frederick become a figure revered by Nazis and multiculturalists alike.
Same as: HISTORY 214D.

HISTORY 319B. Secularity. 4-5 Units.

Classic theories of secularity. Is a secular world possible? How does, historically seen, the notion of the secular emerge, impose itself, and get challenged? Readings include Max Weber, E. Durkheim, R.A. Markus, Carl Schmitt, and Hans Blumenberg, and studies bearing on the Middle Ages, English monastic secularization, the French Revolution, and 20th-century political religions.

HISTORY 319C. Science, Technology, and Modernity in the Soviet Union. 5 Units.

Science and technology were integral to the Soviet claim to offer a vision of modernity superior to that of Western capitalism. Science and technology would flourish; society would develop on a scientific basis. The results were more complex than the vision. Topics to be covered: science and Marxism-Leninism; the Lysenko affair; the R&D system; the role of the secret police; the atomic project; the space race; missile development; Andrei Sakharov; technology and innovation.
Same as: HISTORY 219C.

HISTORY 320G. Demons, Witches, and Priests: Religion and Popular Culture in Russia. 4-5 Units.

19th and early 20th centuries. Peasants, parish priests, witches, possessed persons, cults and sects, old believers, saints, and women's religious communities. Nominally Christian, and members of the Orthodox Church, Russians embraced beliefs and customs that combined teaching from Church and folk traditions.

HISTORY 321A. Theories of State and Society: Russian Historiography 19th-20th Century. 4-5 Units.

Main trends of Russian intellectual history as seen through major historians' treatment of Muscovy: Romanticism, Slavophilism, Hegelianism, Populism, Social Democracy, New Idealism, and Marxism-Leninism.

HISTORY 321B. Imperial Russian Historiography. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 323. Art and Ideas in Imperial Russia. 4-5 Units.

Poetry, novels, symphonic music, theater, opera, painting, design, and architecture: what they reveal about the politics and culture of tsarist Russia.
Same as: HISTORY 223.

HISTORY 323B. Research Methodologies in Early Modern Russian History. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 324C. Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Traces the history of genocide in the 20th century and the question of humanitarian intervention to stop it, a topic that has been especially controversial since the end of the Cold War. The pre-1990s discussion begins with the Armenian genocide during the First World War and includes the Holocaust and Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s. Coverage of genocide and humanitarian intervention since the 1990s includes the wars in Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo, the Congo and Sudan.
Same as: HISTORY 224C, PEDS 224.

HISTORY 324F. The Caucasus and the Muslim World. 4-5 Units.

The linkages connecting the societies of the Caucasus to Muslim communities in Iran, Russia, the Ottoman Empire and Turkey, S. Asia, and the Middle East.

HISTORY 326A. Modern Europe: Society and Politics. 5 Units.

The goal of this course is to introduce graduate students to major works of history and literature in the field of nineteenth and early-twentieth century history. A colloquia will be given in tandem with a research seminar.

HISTORY 326C. Graduate Colloquium on Balkan History. 4-5 Units.

Designed for History Ph.D. students to develop competence in the history and historiography of the modern Balkans, from the French Revolution to the present. Areas of study include the influence of empires on the region, the rise of nationalism and nation states, the dilemmas of independence, the emergence and decline of communism in the region, and the recurrence of war and ethnic conflict.

HISTORY 326E. Famine in the Modern World. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Examines the major famines of modern history, the controversies surrounding them, and the reasons that famine persists in our increasingly globalized world. Focus is on the relative importance of natural, economic, and political factors as causes of famine in the modern world. Case studies include the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s; the Bengal famine of 1943-44; the Soviet famines of 1921-22 and 1932-33; China's Great Famine of 1959-61; the Ethiopian famines of the 1970s and 80s, and the Somalia famines of the 1990s and of 2011.
Same as: HISTORY 226E, PEDS 226.

HISTORY 327. East European Women and War in the 20th Century. 4-5 Units.

Thematic chronological approach through conflicts in the region: the Balkan Wars, WW I, WW II, and the recent wars in the former Yugoslavia. The way women in E. Europe have been involved in and affected by these wars compared to women in W. Europe in the two world wars. Women's involvement in war as members of the military services, the backbone of underground movements, workers in war industries, mothers of soldiers, subjects and supporters of war aims and propaganda, activists in peace movements, and objects of wartime destruction, dislocation, and sexual violation.

HISTORY 328. Circles of Hell: Poland in World War II. 5 Units.

Looks at the experience and representation of Poland's wartime history from the Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939) to the aftermath of Yalta (1945). Examines Nazi and Soviet ideology and practice in Poland, as well as the ways Poles responded, resisted, and survived. Considers wartime relations among Polish citizens, particularly Poles and Jews. In this regard, interrogates the traditional self-characterization of Poles as innocent victims, looking at their relationship to the Holocaust, thus engaging in a passionate debate still raging in Polish society.
Same as: HISTORY 228, JEWISHST 282, JEWISHST 382.

HISTORY 330. Core Colloquium on Early Modern Europe: Ancien Regime. 4-5 Units.

Topics in the social, political, and religious history of Western Europe, 1550-1789, with an emphasis on France. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 330D. Europe in the World, 1789-Present. 4-5 Units.

The European conquest of parts of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific by European merchants, missionaries, armies, and administrators had significant, and often cataclysmic, effects on indigenous political alliances, cultural practices, and belief systems. But were the effects of expansion entirely one-sided? What impact did the experiences of colonialism have on European politics, culture,and Europe's relations with the rest of the world? Explores how interaction between Europe and the rest of the world redefined the political, racial, sexual, and religious boundaries of both Europe and its colonies and gave rise to the more "globalized' society we live in today.
Same as: HISTORY 230D.

HISTORY 330E. Republic of Letters: Knowledge and Community, 1300-1800. 4-5 Units.

How did a "republic of letters" emerge in the Renaissance and undergo multiple transformations during the Reformation, Scientific Revolution, and Enlightenment? How did knowledge, communication, and community change between the age of Renaissance humanists such as Petrarch, Machiavelli, and Erasmus, the invention of printing, the political, religious and intellectual upheavals of the seventeenth century, and the trans-Atlantic, cosmopolitan world of salons, libraries, and enlightened philosophers such as Voltaire, Gibbon, and Franklin?.

HISTORY 330F. Self-Policing, Denunciation, and Surveillance in Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

How individual actions impact state machineries of power. The motives, pressures, and consequences of everyday collaboration from the French Revolution to Nazi Germany and Soviet bloc police states; popular outrage over such practices in the aftermath of these regimes. The phenomenon of anticipatory compliance, as people tended to perceive less freedom of action than actually existed, and the reciprocal intensification of real and imagined restrictions. The malleability of personal values and interests as represented in diaries, memoirs, secondary sources, and film; variety of individual and national responses.
Same as: HISTORY 230F.

HISTORY 330K. Left, Right, and the Intellectual Life: Politics and Intellectuals in the Short Twentieth Century. 5 Units.

The twentieth century has been called the "century of intellectuals" because of the important role that men and women of letters played in debating, creating, and legitimizing the intense ideological conflict that defined the era. Beginning with the classic debates between Sartre and Camus, which encapsulate the dilemma of political commitment felt acutely throughout the century, this course then considers intellectuals' relationships to the major ideologies of the century: from fascism and Communism to liberalism and right-wing libertarianism.

HISTORY 331D. Core Colloquium on Modern Europe: Intellectual History. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 331G. European Reformations. 4-5 Units.

Readings in and discussion of theological and social aspects of sixteenth century reformations: Luther, Radical Reform, Calvin, and Council of Trent, missionary expansion, religious conflict, creative and artistic expressions. Texts include primary sources and secondary scholarly essays and monographs.
Same as: HISTORY 231G, RELIGST 236, RELIGST 336.

HISTORY 332A. Power, Art, and Knowledge in Renaissance Italy. 4-5 Units.

Provides a fundamental understanding of the cultural and political imagination of the Italian Renaissance, with particular emphasis on Florence between 1300 and 1600 CE. Topics include political and social upheavals, radical shifts in religious practice and devotion, the commercial revolution in trade and banking, the rediscovery of classical philosophy and style, and the flowering of the literary and visual arts.
Same as: HISTORY 232A.

HISTORY 332B. Heretics, Prostitutes, and Merchants: Venice and its Empire. 4-5 Units.

Between 1200-1600, Venice created a powerful empire at the boundary between East and West that controlled much of the Mediterranean, with a merchant society that allowed social groups, religions, and ethnicities to coexist. Topics include the features of Venetian society, the relationship between center and periphery, order and disorder, orthodoxy and heresy, the role of politics, art, and culture in the Venetian Renaissance, and the empire's decline as a political power and reinvention as a tourist site and living museum.

HISTORY 332D. Rome: The City and the World, 1350-1750. 4-5 Units.

What lies beyond the ruins of an ancient city? The history of Rome from the Renaissance to the age of the grand tour. Topics include: the political, diplomatic, and religious history of the papacy; society and cultural life; the everyday world of Roman citizens; the relationship between the city and the surrounding countryside; the material transformation of Rome as a city; and its meaning for foreigners.
Same as: HISTORY 232D.

HISTORY 332F. The Scientific Revolution. 5 Units.

What do people know and how do they know it? What counts as scientific knowledge? In the 16th and 17th centuries, understanding the nature of knowledge engaged the attention of individuals and institutions including Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Newton, the early Royal Society, and less well-known contemporaries. New meanings of observing, collecting, experimenting, and philosophizing, and political, religious, and cultural ramifications in early modern Europe.

HISTORY 332G. When Worlds Collide: The Trial of Galileo. 4-5 Units.

In 1633, the Italian mathematician Galileo was tried and condemned for advocating that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the cosmos. The Catholic Church did not formally admit that Galileo was right until 1992. Examines the many factors that led to the trial of Galileo and looks at multiple perspectives on this signal event in the history of science and religion. Considers the nature and definition of intellectual heresy in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and examines the writings of Galileo's infamous predecessor Giordano Bruno (burned at the stake in 1600). Looks closely at documents surrounding the trial and related literature on Renaissance and Reformation Italy in order to understand the perspectives of various participants in this famous event. Focal point of seminar involves the examination of the many different histories that can be produced from Galileo's trial. What, in the end, were the crimes of Galileo?.

HISTORY 333. Reformation, Political Culture, and the Origins of the English Civil War. 4-5 Units.

English political and religious culture from the end of the Wars of the Roses to the Civil War of the 1640s. Themes include the growth of the size and power of the state, Reformation, creation of a Protestant regime, transformation of the political culture of the ruling elite, emergence of Puritanism, and causes of the Civil War.
Same as: HISTORY 233.

HISTORY 333C. Two British Revolutions. 4-5 Units.

Current scholarship on Britain,1640-1700, focusing on political and religious history. Topics include: causes and consequences of the English civil war and revolution; rise and fall of revolutionary Puritanism; the Restoration; popular politics in the late 17th century; changing contours of religious life; the crisis leading to the Glorious Revolution; and the new order that emerged after the deposing of James II.
Same as: HISTORY 233C.

HISTORY 333E. European Intellectual History: The Age of Grand Ideologies. 4-5 Units.

Ever since the Napoleonic Wars, European culture, society and politics have experienced a series of dramatic transformations, changes that unleashed a myriad of intellectual theories and debates. Focuses on the nineteenth century, the age of grand theories such as Liberalism, Positivism, Nationalism, Socialism, and Marxism and examines them historically. Readings include French Utopian Socialists and members of the Russian intelligentsia, J.S. Mill, Marx, Durkheim, Weber, Freud, and others.

HISTORY 333K. The Invention of the Modern Republic. 4-5 Units.

Examines the history of republican thinking in the Atlantic World from the Renaissance to the French Revolution.
Same as: HISTORY 233K.

HISTORY 334. Enlightenment Seminar. 3-5 Units.

The Enlightenment as a philosophical, literary, and political movement. Themes include the nature and limits of philosophy, the grounds for critical intellectual engagement, the institution of society and the public, and freedom, equality and human progress. Authors include Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Hume, Diderot, and Condorcet.
Same as: DLCL 324, HISTORY 432A, HUMNTIES 324.

HISTORY 334F. Science, Technology, and Empire. 4-5 Units.

How modern Europe came to be connected to thennwider world through repeated cycles of expansion, circulation, andnnexchange from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Using weeklynnthemes and in-depth discussions of ¿watershed¿ moments, nnthe roles played by colonialism, migration, commerce, warfare,nntelecommunications, and popular culture in redefining the place ofnnEurope in a changing global landscape will be explored.

HISTORY 336. Modern France. 4-5 Units.

(Daughton).

HISTORY 336E. Violence in History and Theory. 4-5 Units.

Methodological challenges associated with defining and analyzing violence in late-19th- and 20th-century contexts. How people witnessed, coped with, and survived violent episodes. Cases of state violence, ethnic and religious conflict, warfare, genocide, and decolonization. The notion of everyday suffering in the contemporary world. Sources include anthropology, sociology, and history.

HISTORY 337C. Street History: Learning the Past in School and Out. 3-5 Units.

Interdisciplinary. Since Herodotus, history and memory have competed to shape minds: history cultivates doubt and demands interpretation; memory seeks certainty and detests that which thwarts its aims. History and memory collide in modern society, often violently. How do young people become historical amidst these forces; how do school, family, nation, and mass media contribute to the process?
Same as: EDUC 356.

HISTORY 338A. Graduate Colloquium in Modern British History, Part I. 4-5 Units.

Influential approaches to problems in British, European, and imperial history. The 19th-century British experience and its relationship to Europe and empire. National identity, the industrial revolution, class formation, gender, liberalism, and state building. Goal is to prepare specialists and non-specialists for oral exams.

HISTORY 339D. Capital and Empire. 4-5 Units.

Can empire be justified with balance sheets of imperial crimes and boons, a calculus of racism versus railroads? The political economy of empire through its intellectual history from Adam Smith to the present; the history of imperial corporations from the East India Company to Wal-mart; the role of consumerism; the formation of the global economy; and the relationship between empire and the theory and practice of development.

HISTORY 339F. Empire and Information. 4-5 Units.

How do states see? How do they know what they know about their subjects, citizens, economies, and geographies? How does that knowledge shape society, politics, identity, freedom, and modernity? Focus is on the British imperial state activities in S. Asia and Britain: surveillance technologies and information-gathering systems, including mapping, statistics, cultural schemata, and intelligence systems, to render geographies and social bodies legible, visible, and governable.
Same as: HISTORY 239F.

HISTORY 339H. Modern European History in a Global Age. 4-5 Units.

How scholars can write the history of modern Europe in a way that integrates global and transnational perspectives. Discussed the methodological challenges and merits of various approaches and reviews relevant theoretical and interdisciplinary models for how this can best be done. Topics include globalization, migration, internationalism, colonialism, post-colonialism, modern warfare, and the media.

HISTORY 342. Darwin in the History of Life. 4-5 Units.

Origins and impact of evolutionary theory from the nineteenth century to the present. Early theories of fossils, the discovery of deep time and uniformitarian geology, debates over evolution vs. extinction, the origin of life, and human origins; the rise of anthropology and racial theory; the changing challenge of creationism, the abuse of evolution in eugenics and Nazi racial hygiene; and new discoveries in the realm of extreme life, evo-devo, neocatastrophism, and the new technological frontier of biomimicry. Attendance at the lectures of HISTORY 142 is required.

HISTORY 342A. What is Life? The History of a Question. 4-5 Units.

History of attempts to understand the nature of life and mind by comparing living creatures with artificial machines and material arrangements. Imitations of animal life and human thought and discussions of relations between creatures and contraptions from antiquity onward, with an eye toward providing historical depth to current attempts to simulate life and mind.

HISTORY 343G. Tobacco and Health in World History. 4-5 Units.

Same as: HISTORY 243G.

HISTORY 345A. Africa in the Era of the Slave Trade. 4-5 Units.

The slave trade, including the trans-Saharan, Indian Ocean, and trans-Atlantic trades, constituted nearly a millennium of interaction with the wider world and set in motion transformations in African societies, polities, and cultures. Topics include the debates about slavery in Africa, the impact of the slave trade on African societies, state formation, economic change, religious change, and household change in the period before the scramble for Africa in the late 19th century.

HISTORY 346C. Islam and Christianity in Africa. 4-5 Units.

History of the 20% of the Muslims and Christians in the world who live in Africa. The role of these religions in social, cultural and political transformations. Linkages between African religions and global/transnational institutions. African contributions to theology, religious practice and religious styles. Muslim/Christian relations and relations with "traditional" African religions.
Same as: AFRICAAM 246C.

HISTORY 347E. Health and Society in Africa. 4-5 Units.

The history of disease, therapeutic and diagnostic systems, and the definition of health in precolonial, colonial, and postcolonial Africa. The social and political histories of specific epidemics, including sleeping sickness, influenza, TB, mental illness, and AIDS. The colonial contexts of epidemics and the social consequences of disease.
Same as: HISTORY 245E.

HISTORY 351A. Core in American History, Part I. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 351B. Core in American History, Part II. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 351C. Core in American History, Part III. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 351D. Core in American History, Part IV. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 351E. Core in American History, Part V. 4-5 Units.

Required of all first-year United States History Ph.D. students.

HISTORY 351F. Core in American History, Part VI. 4-5 Units.

Required of all first-year Ph.D. students in U.S. History.

HISTORY 352B. History of American Law. 5 Units.

(Same as LAW 318.) Modern history of American law, legal thought, legal institutions and the legal profession. Topics include law and regulation of corporate organizations and labor relations in the age of enterprise, law of race relations in the South and North, development of classical legalism, critiques of classical legalism, modern administrative state, organized legal profession, New Deal legal thought and legislation, legal order of the 50s, expansion of enterprise liability, civil rights movements from 1940, rights revolution of the Warren Court and Great Society.

HISTORY 353D. Approaches to American Legal History. 4-5 Units.

(Same as LAW 651.) Legal history may once have been primarily devoted to exploring legal doctrines and key judicial opinions, and thus to be of interest mainly to legal scholars and lawyers. Now, the best writing in legal history resembles historical writing more generally, and the study of legal ideas and practices is increasingly integrated with social, intellectual, cultural, and political history. Examines recent writings in American legal history, ranging broadly across time and space to ask how the field reflects developments in historical writing more generally, and how the use of legal materials affects our understanding of major aspects of American history.

HISTORY 355. Decision Making in International Crises: The A-Bomb, the Korean War, and the Cuban Missile Crisis. 4-5 Units.

For advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Primary documents and secondary literature. Topics include: the decision to use the atomic bomb on Japan, the Korean War, and the Cuban missile crisis.

HISTORY 355D. Racial Identity in the American Imagination. 4-5 Units.

Major historical transformations shaping the understanding of racial identity and how it has been experienced, represented, and contested in American history. Topics include: racial passing and racial performance; migration, immigration, and racial identity in the urban context; the interplay between racial identity and American identity; the problems of class, gender, and sexuality in the construction of racial identity. Sources include historical and legal texts, memoirs, photography, literature, film, and music.
Same as: AFRICAAM 255, AMSTUD 255D, CSRE 255D.

HISTORY 356. U.S.-China Relations: From the Opium War to Tiananmen. 4-5 Units.

The history of turbulent relations, military conflict, and cultural clashes between the U.S. and China, and the implications for the domestic lives of these increasingly interconnected countries. Diplomatic, political, social, cultural, and military themes from early contact to the recent past.
Same as: AMSTUD 256, HISTORY 256.

HISTORY 356G. Constructing Race and Religion in America. 4-5 Units.

This seminar focuses on the interrelationships between social constructions of race, and social interpretations of religion in America. How have assumptions about race shaped religious worldviews? How have religious beliefs shaped racial attitudes? How have ideas about religion and race contributed to notions of what it means to be "American"? We will look at primary and secondary sources, and at the historical development of ideas and practices over time.
Same as: CSRE 246, HISTORY 256G, RELIGST 246, RELIGST 346.

HISTORY 358. Topics in the History of Sexuality: Sexual Violence. 4-5 Units.

Recent historical interpretations of sexual violence, with particular attention to the intersections of gender and race in the construction of rape, from early settlement through the twentieth century. Topics include the legal prosecution of rape in Early America; the racialization of rape in the U.S.; lynching and anti-lynching in the U.S.; and feminist responses to sexual violence.
Same as: AMSTUD 258, CSRE 192E, FEMGEN 258, FEMGEN 358, HISTORY 258.

HISTORY 362G. The Pivotal Decade in U.S. History: 1960's or 1970's?. 4-5 Units.

Which had more lasting impact, the civil war of the 1960s or the conservative revolt of the 1970s? Should the 1970s supersede the 1960s as a pivotal moment when something happened of considerable importance to historians? Considers this debate of the decades comparatively and thematically, addressing topics including civil rights, foreign policy, electoral politics, popular culture, law, economics, labor, and social movement organizing.

HISTORY 363G. History Through a Life: The Allure of American Biography. 4-5 Units.

Considers the possibilities and limitations of exploring U.S. history through the genre of biography. Is a single life too narrow to explain why and how pivotal events in U.S. history, such as war, economic depression, social revolution, unfold? Or can one life illuminate the complexity of historical shifts? Readings will span U.S. history, exploring topics such as labor and racial civil rights, science and culture, women and sexuality, transnationalism and diplomacy, law and presidential politics. The craft of biography will be considered alongside biographical subjects.

HISTORY 365. Writing Asian American History. 5 Units.

Recent scholarship in Asian American history, with attention to methodologies and sources. Topics: racial ideologies, gender, transnationalism, culture, and Asian American art history. Primary research paper.
Same as: AMSTUD 265, ASNAMST 265.

HISTORY 366B. Immigration Debates in America, Past and Present. 3-5 Units.

Examines the ways in which the immigration of people from around the world and migration within the United States shaped American nation-building and ideas about national identity in the twentieth century. Focuses on how conflicting ideas about race, gender, ethnicity, and citizenship with respect to particular groups led to policies both of exclusion and integration. Part One begins with the ways in which the American views of race and citizenship in the colonial period through the post-Reconstruction Era led to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 and subsequently to broader exclusions of immigrants from other parts of Asia, Southern and Eastern Europe, and Mexico. Explores how World War II and the Cold War challenged racial ideologies and led to policies of increasing liberalization culminating in the passage of the 1965 Immigration Act, which eliminated quotas based on national origins and opened the door for new waves of immigrants, especially from Asia and Latin America. Part Two considers new immigration patterns after 1965, including those of refugees, and investigates the contemporary debate over immigration and immigration policy in the post 9/11 era as well as inequalities within the system and the impact of foreign policy on exclusions and inclusions.
Same as: CSRE 166B, HISTORY 166B.

HISTORY 369. History of Capitalism. 5 Units.

What is capitalism? An economic and social system that maximizes both individual freedom and social good? An exploitative arrangement dependent on the subordination of labor to capital? A natural arrangement guided by a munificent invisible hand? Or a finely tuned mechanism requiring state support? We will study the history of debates about markets and social organization, taking capitalism as both an economic system and a culture. Focus on American and British writers including Keynes, Lippmann, Hayek, Rand, Schumpeter, and Friedman.
Same as: HISTORY 269.

HISTORY 370. Graduate Colloquium on Colonial Latin American History. 4-5 Units.

Sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. Indigenous cultures. The arrival of Europeans and its impact on native and European societies. Culture, religion and institutions, and everyday life. The independence period and the formation of new nations.

HISTORY 372A. Mexico: From Colony to Nation or the History of an Impossible Republic?. 5 Units.

Was a republican form of government even possible in 19th-century Mexico after 300 years of colonial rule under the Spanish monarchy? Was the Spanish colonial heritage a positive or a negative legacy according to 19th-century Mexican politicians? How were they to forge a new national identity with so many ethnically and culturally diverse peoples throughout the territory? Just how ¿traditional¿ was, in fact, the colonial period? These are some of the questions we will explore in this course. Journeying from the late colonial period (c.1700) to the 35-year dictatorship known as El Porfiriato (1876-1911) we will examine how Mexico¿s diverse indigenous peoples adapted to both colonial and postcolonial rule, how they actively participated in politics and political discourse to preserve their cultures, customs and colonial privileges, and how after independence in 1821, a new republican political culture was forged. Mexico was not an impossible republic, but rather another kind of republic.

HISTORY 373A. The European Expansion. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between European monarchies and their colonial domains from the 16th-18th centuries. Reasons for expansion, methods, and results. Case studies include the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English domains in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Readings include primary and secondary sources.
Same as: HISTORY 273.

HISTORY 375B. Borders and Borderlands in Modern Mexico. 4-5 Units.

Surveys the history of Mexico's borders and borderlands from the nineteenth century to the present. Examines theoretical conceptualizations of the borderlands as well as the historical development of identities and geographic borders within and around Mexico. Topics include the legacies of war, map making, the construction of lo Mexicano, the politics of culture, and migrations to, from, and through Mexico. Analyzes the prevailing trends in Mexicanist historiography.

HISTORY 376. Modern Brazil. 4-5 Units.

From independence in 1822 to the present. Social and cultural history. Literary and historical sources.

HISTORY 378A. The Logic of Authoritarian Government, Ancient and Modern. 5 Units.

If authoritarianism is less economically efficient than democracy, and if authoritarianism is a less stable form of political organization than democracy, then why are there more authoritarian governments than democracies? To address this paradox, focus is on theoretical and empirical literature on authoritarian governments, and related literatures on the microeconomic analysis of property rights and credible commitments.

HISTORY 379. Latin American Development: Economy and Society, 1800-2000. 4-5 Units.

The newly independent nations of Latin America began the 19th century with economies roughly equal to, or even ahead of, the U.S. and Canada. What explains the economic gap that developed since 1900? Why are some Latin American nations rich and others poor? Marxist, dependency, neoclassical, and institutionalist interpretive frameworks. The effects of globalization on Latin American economic growth, autonomy, and potential for social justice.
Same as: HISTORY 279.

HISTORY 381. Economic and Social History of the Modern Middle East. 4-5 Units.

The integration of the Middle East into the world capitalist market on a subordinate basis and the impact on economic development, class formation, and politics. Alternative theoretical perspectives on the rise and expansion of the international capitalist market are combined with possible case studies of Egypt, Iraq, and Palestine.

HISTORY 382. The United States and the Middle East since 1945. 4-5 Units.

Since the end of WW II, U.S. interests in the Middle East have traditionally been defined as access to oil at a reasonable price, trade and markets, containing the influence of the Soviet Union, and the security of Israel. Is this the full range of U.S. interests? How has the pursuit of these interests changed over time? What forces have shaped U.S. policy? What is the impact of U.S. policy on the region itself?
Same as: HISTORY 282.

HISTORY 382E. Jews, Christians and Muslims in the Ottoman World. 4-5 Units.

The experiences of the Jewish, Christian and Muslim communities in the Ottoman Empire, fifteenth to twentieth centuries. How diverse social and religious communities lived together in an imperial setting, specifically the mechanisms, discourses and crises of coexistence in the Ottoman Empire. Various comparisons of the Ottoman Empire to the Habsburg, the Romanov (Russian), the Mughal, and the British empires.

HISTORY 382F. History of Modern Turkey. 4-5 Units.

Social, political and cultural history of Modern Turkey from the last decades of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century until Today. Themes include transformation from a multi-national empire to a national republic; Islam, secularism and radical modernism; military, bureaucracy and democratic experience; economic development, underdevelopment and class; Istanbul, Ankara and provincial Turkey; socialism, conservatism(s), and Kurdish challenge; Turkey in Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia; gender, sexuality and family; popular culture, soccer, and film industry; Post-Modernism, Neo-Ottomanism, and the New-Turkey; The class also include reading works of Turkish literature and watching movies by Turkish directors.

HISTORY 382G. Israel from the Margins. 4-5 Units.

Although secular, European Jews form a minority of the population of the State of Israel, and its history is typically narrated and interpreted from that perspective. Israel looks like a rather different place if it is seen and understood from the point of view of Middle Eastern and North African Jews,including those indigenous to the country before the advent of the modern Zionist movement, orthodox and ultra-orthodox Jews, Palestinian Arabs (nearly twenty percent of Israel's population today), migrant workers (about 200,000), and women. This course does not suggest that their perspectives are necessarily more real or true, only that an understanding of Israel that does not adequately consider them is necessarily false.

HISTORY 383. The New Global Economy, Oil, and Islamic Movements in the Middle East. 4-5 Units.

The integration of the Middle East into the world capitalist market on a subordinate basis and the impact on economic development, class formation, and politics. Alternative theoretical perspectives on the rise and expansion of the international capitalist market combined with case studies of Egypt, Iraq, and Palestine.
Same as: HISTORY 283.

HISTORY 384. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1923. 4-5 Units.

This is a course on the Middle East and Southeast Europe under the Ottoman Empire. Topics include how the Ottoman enterprise was constructed in the frontier region of the Christian and Islamic worlds; the conquests and consolidation of the imperial institutions; how diverse peoples, cultures, and regions were integrated into the imperial system; the Ottoman Empire and the broader world; merchants and their markets; elite, urban, rural and nomadic lives; women, family sexuality; art, literature, and architecture; the transformation of the empire on the eve of modernity; the rise of nationalism and the Ottoman response; Ottoman disintegration and the making of the Middle East and Southeast Europe.
Same as: HISTORY 284.

HISTORY 384F. Islamic Eurasia: Empires, Nomads and Merchants (1300-1850). 4-5 Units.

Focuses on political regimes, economic interactions and sociocultural formations in the early modern Balkans and Middle East to Central and South Asia. Topics include complex political systems of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires; experiences of various Muslim, Christian, Jewish and Hindu, as well as urban, rural and nomadic communities; consolidation of transregional commerce and cultural exchange; incorporation of the Islamic world in the global economy; transimperial networks of the Muslim and Non-Muslim merchants, scholars and sufis.
Same as: HISTORY 284F.

HISTORY 385K. History of Modern Antisemitism: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. 4-5 Units.

The articulations of anti-Jewish hatred from the advent of Jewish emancipation in Europe. The legacy of premodern Christian demonization and its modern protean transformations as they penetrated and annexed new currents of ideology, notions of identity (social, national, racial), taste, and aesthetics. A history of ideas, representations, and stereotypes, and their relation to historical experience, action, and mobilization. Europe is the focus; case studies also include the Middle East and elsewhere.

HISTORY 386. Jews among Muslims. 4-5 Units.

The history of Jewish communities in the lands of Islam and their relations with the surrounding Muslim populations from the time of Muhammad to the 20th century. Topics: the place of Jews in Muslim societies, Jewish communal life, variation in the experience of communities in different Muslim lands, the impact of the West in the Modern period, the rise of nationalisms, and the end of Jewish life in Muslim countries.

HISTORY 386B. The Ottoman Empire in the Age of Revolutions, 1750-1850. 4-5 Units.

Investigates the Ottoman World (the Balkans and the Middle East under the Ottoman Empire) in the Age of Revolutions in the global context. While the Ottoman World is the primary interest, developments in Europe, India and China are also discussed in a comparative perspective. Topics include military and fiscal transformation; regionalism; urban life and formations of public spheres; political crisis, social disturbances and political violence; transformation in the ethnoreligious structures, gender relations and family life; protonationalism in the Balkans and Egypt.

HISTORY 387C. Zionism and Its Critics. 4-5 Units.

Zionism from its genesis in the 1880s up until the establishment of the state of Israel in May, 1948, exploring the historical, ideological and political dimensions of Zionism. Topics include: the emergence of Zionist ideology in connection to and as a response to challenges of modernity; emancipation; Haskalah (Jewish enlightenment); other national and ideological movements of the period; the ideological crystallization of the movement; and the immigration waves to Palestine.

HISTORY 387K. Gentlemen and Jews: History of the Jews of England. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on key chapters in the cultural and political histories of Britain and itsnnJews, between 1650 and 1950 and examines the advantages, as well as possible difficulties, that emerge when connecting Anglo-Jewish history to mainstream British history. What is unique about Jewish emancipation in England, and what are its connections to the formation of British national identity? Is there unique path in which Jewish Enlightenment developed in England? What was the contribution of Jews to British Imperialism? Is there a cultural affinity betweennnEnglish philosemitism and liberalism?.

HISTORY 390. Han Chinese and the Global White: The Production of Ethnoracial Majorities, East and West. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 390A. Major Topics in Modern Chinese History: Qing/Republican Transition. 4-5 Units.

Continuities and discontinuities in society, economy, politics, culture, and thought during the transition from the Qing dynasty to the republic. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 390E. Movies and Empire in East Asia. 5 Units.

Cinema was invented in the 1890s and simultaneously introduced to East Asia. This colloquium explores how this new medium changed the cultural and social landscape of East Asia and how the visual power of films also affected the culture politics of empires in the region. The themes include cinema and urban spaces, cultural imperialism, film images and gender discourse, colonial modernity, Americanism and Asianism, the visual and the textual, wartime propaganda, and Hollywood movies and cold war empires.
Same as: HISTORY 290E.

HISTORY 391. East Asia in the Early Buddhist Age. 4-5 Units.

Evolution of cities in imperial China through early imperial, medieval, and early modern periods. Topics include physical structure, social order, cultural forms, economic roles, relations to rural hinterlands, and the contrast between imperial capitals and other cities. Comparative examination of cases from European history.

HISTORY 391A. Archaeology and Modernity in Asia: The Excavation of Ancient Civilizations in Modern Times. 4-5 Units.

The interplay in Asia between antiquity and modernity, civilization and nation state, and national versus colonial science. The recent excavation of artifacts and places associated with Asian civilization such as the terracotta warriors in China and Angkor Wat in Cambodia. How Asian states have grappled with modernity and colonialism as they simultaneously dug up their ancient pasts.
Same as: HISTORY 291A.

HISTORY 391B. The City in Imperial China. 5 Units.

The evolution of cities in the early imperial, medieval, and early modern periods. Topics include physical structure, social order, cultural forms, economic roles, relations to rural hinterlands, and the contrast between imperial capitals and other cities. Comparative cases from European history. Readings include primary and secondary sources, and visual materials.

HISTORY 391C. Early Imperial China. 4-5 Units.

The first millennium of imperial China, what endured over the centuries, and the major changes that took place in the political, social, and intellectual realms. Topics include the evolving geographic and environmental background, cities, the countryside, kinship, relations with the outer world, religion, philosophy,and literature. Also examines the nature of empire as a distinctive political form.

HISTORY 391G. Pre-Modern Chinese Warfare. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the evolution of warfare in China, and its impact on the evolving political and social orders, from the earliest states through the Mongol conquest. It will study how changing military technology was inextricably linked to changes in the state and society. It will also look at changing Chinese attitudes towards warfare over the same period, from the celebration of heroism, through writing about warfare as an intellectual art, to the links of militarism with steppe peoples/.

HISTORY 392. The Two Koreas. 4-5 Units.

Examines major themes and scholarly works to understand the origins, outbreak, and consequences of the Korean War. One focus will be the division of Korea into ROK and DPRK and their subsequent developments. Themes include World War II in East Asia; Korean communist movements during Japanese colonial rule; the Cold War in East Asia; the roles of the US, China, and USSR in the Korean War; the ideas of key North and South Korean leaders, and the consolidation of the two Koreas after the Korean War.
Same as: HISTORY 292.

HISTORY 392B. Law and Society in Late Imperial China. 4-5 Units.

Connections between legal and social history. Ideology and practice, center and periphery, and state-society tensions and interactions. Readings introduce the work of major historians on concepts and problems in Ming-Qing history.

HISTORY 392D. Japan in Asia, Asia in Japan. 4-5 Units.

How Japan and Asia mutually shaped each other in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Focus is on Japanese imperialism in Asia and its postwar legacies. Topics include: pan-Asianism and orientalism; colonial modernization in Korea and Taiwan; collaboration and resistance; popular imperialism in Manchuria; total war and empire; comfort women and the politics of apology; the issue of resident Koreans; and economic and cultural integration of postwar Asia.
Same as: HISTORY 292D.

HISTORY 392E. The Historical Roots of Modern East Asia. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on China and Japan before and during their transition to modernity. The populous, urbanized, economically advanced, and culturally sophisticated Ming empire and Muromachi shogunate in the 16th century when Europeans first arrived. How the status quo had turned on its head by the early 20th century when European and American steamships dominated the Pacific, China was in social and political upheaval, and Japan had begun its march to empire.
Same as: HISTORY 92A.

HISTORY 392F. Traditional Korea: History and Culture. 4-5 Units.

Korea before 1800 and how iconic features of Korean tradition were created and reinvented. Themes include Korea's ancient kingdoms, the aristocracy and military in the Koryo dynasty, the print culture and Korean alphabet, ideologies and religions, the social status system and the life of women, the kingship and court culture of the Choson dynasty, and Korea's place in premodern East Asia. The modern and contemporary debates.
Same as: HISTORY 292F.

HISTORY 393B. Homosexuality in Historical and Comparative Perspective. 4-5 Units.

Comparative history of homoerotic desire, relations, and identity through scholarship on different historical periods and parts of the world: the classical Mediterranean, early modern European cities, late imperial and modern China, Tokugawa and modern Japan, and the U.S.

HISTORY 395. Modern Korean History. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 95. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195.) Themes include status, gender, and monarchy in the Choson dynasty; intellectual life and social transformation in the 19th century; the rise of Korean nationalism; Japan's colonial rule and Korean identities; culture, economy, and society in colonial Korea; the Korean War, and the different state buildling processes in North and South after the Korean War.
Same as: HISTORY 195.

HISTORY 395J. Gender and Sexuality in Chinese History. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 396D. Modern Japan. 4-5 Units.

Introduces students to the major historical problems and historiographic trends in the study of modern Japan from the Meiji period to the present. Themes include approaches to late Meiji culture and politics, the formation of imperial subjects and citizens, agrarian society and politics, gender in modern Japan, empire and modernity, total war and transwar state and society, U.S. occupation, and postwar Japan.

HISTORY 397. The Cold War and East Asia. 5 Units.

Explores how East Asia negotiated superpower rivalry and global ideological competition during the Cold War. Considers the ways in which China, Japan, and Korea were more than battlegrounds for US-Soviet contestation and played active roles in defining the nature and dynamics of the conflict. Re-examines conventional narratives and periodizations against alternative conceptual models and interpretive frameworks highlighting the constructed nature of the struggle as well as the role of historical and cultural factors in shaping the East Asian experience.
Same as: HISTORY 297.

HISTORY 397D. Readings in Indo-Persian Literature. 3-5 Units.

This course introduces the life, poetry, and mystical thought of the Indo-Persian poet Mirza Abd al-Qadir Bedil (1644-1720) through reading selections from his autobiographical work Chahar Unsur. In this work, composed in ornate prose interspersed with poetry, Bedil recounts episodes from his life: miraculous events, encounters with Sufis, the composition of poems, and elaborates on themes of mysticism. We will pay close attention to Bedil's peculiar linguistic and literary style and tackle his metaphysical views. Two years Persian language required.
Same as: ICA 397D, RELIGST 309P.

HISTORY 399A. Preparing for International Field Work: Public Service or Research. 1 Unit.

Problems involved in research abroad: ethical issues; safety; security and conduct; human subjects protocol. Methodologies of research: interviewing, networking, case studies, participant observation, large surveys.
Same as: HISTORY 299X.

HISTORY 399E. Preparing for International Field Research: Public Svc or Research, Electronic Version. 1 Unit.

Restricted to students studying at a Stanford Overseas Studies campus; same course content as HISTORY 299X. Problems involved in research abroad: ethical issues; safety; security and conduct; human subjects protocol. Methodologies of research: interviewing, networking, case studies, participant observation, large surveys. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

HISTORY 399W. Graduate Directed Reading. 1-10 Unit.

HISTORY 401A. Spatial History: Concepts, Methods, Problems. 4-5 Units.

Technical training in GIS, with modules taught by Stanford Spatial History Lab staff; conceptual work in the use of these techniques in spatial historical analysis. Students develop their own spatial history projects and produce beta versions of dynamic visualizations.

HISTORY 401B. Spatial History, Part II. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: 401A.

HISTORY 406. Graduate Research Seminar on Colonial Law. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 306G.

HISTORY 414A. Medieval History. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 414B. Medieval History. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 421A. Early Modern Russia. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 422A. Research Seminar on the History of the Russian Empire. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 422B. Research Seminar in Imperial Russia. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 424A. The Soviet Civilization. 4-5 Units.

Socialist visions and practices of the organization of society and messianic politics; the Soviet understanding of mass violence, political and ethnic; and living space. Primary and secondary sources. Research paper or historiographical essay.
Same as: HISTORY 224A.

HISTORY 424B. The Soviet Civilization, Part 2. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 424A.

HISTORY 424C. The End of Communism in Europe. 4-5 Units.

Causes, course, and consequences.

HISTORY 430. Graduate Research Seminar: Early Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 331S. Students may research any aspect of late medieval, Renaissance, and early modern history, 1300-1800. Students wishing to take this seminar must enroll in HISTORY 332A (Power, Art, and Knowledge in Renaissance Italy) in Winter 2014.

HISTORY 430A. Graduate Research Seminar: Early Modern Europe. 3-5 Units.

Students will begin a research project on any aspect of early modern European history, 1400-1800, by taking HISTORY 430A in winter quarter as the first quarter of this two-quarter sequence. Enrollment by permission of instructor.

HISTORY 431. Early Modern Things. 4-5 Units.

How do objects reveal their histories? What can be learned about the past by studying things? The material culture of early modern Europe, ca 1450-1750. Recent work on the circulation, use, and consumption of things, starting with the Columbian exchange which expanded the material horizons of the early modern world in the late 15th century, exploring challenges to the meaning of things in the age of the Reformation and Scientific Revolution, and ending with the birth of consumer society in the 18th century How did the meaning of things and people's relationships to them change over these centuries? What objects, ordinary and extraordinary, secular and sacred, natural and man-made, came to define the emerging features of the early modern world?.

HISTORY 432A. Enlightenment Seminar. 3-5 Units.

The Enlightenment as a philosophical, literary, and political movement. Themes include the nature and limits of philosophy, the grounds for critical intellectual engagement, the institution of society and the public, and freedom, equality and human progress. Authors include Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Hume, Diderot, and Condorcet.
Same as: DLCL 324, HISTORY 334, HUMNTIES 324.

HISTORY 432B. Grad Research Seminar: The Enlightenment, Pt. II. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: completion of HISTORY 432A.

HISTORY 433A. Modern Europe: Society and Politics. 5 Units.

The goal of this course is to introduce graduate students to major works of history and literature in the field of nineteenth and early-twentieth century history. A colloquia will be given in tandem with a research seminar. nnMay be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 433B. European History. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 433A.

HISTORY 438. European History Workshop. 1 Unit.

All European history graduate students in residence register for this weekly workshop, at which dissertation chapters and prospectuses, papers, and grant proposals by students and faculty are read and discussed.

HISTORY 439A. Graduate Research Seminar: Modern Britain and the British Empire. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 439B. Graduate Research Seminar: Modern Britain and the British Empire II. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 443A. Human Origins: History, Evidence, and Controversy. 4-5 Units.

Research seminar. Debates and controversies include: theories of human origins; interpretations of fossils, early art, and the oldest tools; the origin and fate of the Neanderthals; evolutionary themes in literature and film; visual rhetoric and cliché in anthropological dioramas and phyletic diagrams; the significance of hunting, gathering, and grandmothering; climatological theories and neocatastrophic geologies; molecular anthropology; the impact of racial theories on human origins discourse. Background in human evolution not required.
Same as: HISTORY 243S.

HISTORY 444C. The History of the Body in Science, Medicine, and Culture. 4-5 Units.

The human body as a natural and cultural object, historicized. The crosscultural history of the body from the 18th century to the present. Topics include: sciences of sex and race; medical discovery of particular body parts; human experimentation, foot binding, veiling, and other bodily coverings; thinness and obesity; notions of the body politic.
Same as: HISTORY 244C.

HISTORY 445A. Research Seminar in African History. 4-5 Units.

Primary sources such as government records and missionary archives. Students present work in progress. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

HISTORY 445B. Research Seminar in African History. 4-5 Units.

Primary sources such as government records and missionary archives. Students present work in progress. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

HISTORY 460. America in the World. 4-5 Units.

Ways to place American history in an international context. Comparative, transnational, diplomatic, and world systems are approaches to complete a research paper based on research into primary materials. Historical methodologies, research strategies, and essay projects. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 461A. Research Seminar on the Histories of Women, the Family, and Sexuality. 4-5 Units.

Research design, research methods, and historical writing on topics in the histories of women, the family, or sexuality in the U.S. Prepares graduate students for dissertation work. Workshop model involves exchanging preliminary prospectus, outline, writing sample, and draft for peer responses. Article-length original paper based on primary sources, to be completed by the end of Spring Quarter.

HISTORY 461B. Research Seminar on the Histories of Women, the Family, and Sexuality, Part II. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: 461A.

HISTORY 464E. Research in History and Social Science Education. 3-5 Units.

For doctoral students. Literature on historical learning and teaching and corresponding social sciences research designs, assessment, and curriculum evaluation.
Same as: EDUC 496.

HISTORY 470. Graduate Colloquium: Explorations in Latin American Social History. 4-5 Units.

How to use primary sources such as government records, estate inventories, and parish records for social history.

HISTORY 471A. Environmental History of Latin America. 5 Units.

What role did the natural environment play in the emergence of Latin America as a distinct geographical and socio-cultural world region? How do we analyze the historical relationship between the regions rich and seemingly abundant natural resources and its status as underdeveloped? What historical consequences did this relationship have and what alternative, more sustainable developmental paths can we envision for the future in light of the past that we will study? In this course, students will become familiar with the historiography on Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Cuba and Honduras that has explored these questions through a variety of approaches, methodologies and points of view.

HISTORY 471B. Environmental History of Latin America. 5 Units.

What role did the natural environment play in the emergence of Latin America as a distinct geographical and socio-cultural world region? How do we analyze the historical relationship between the region's rich and seemingly abundant natural resources and its status as 'underdeveloped'? What historical consequences did this relationship have and what alternative, more sustainable developmental paths can we envision for the future in light of the past that we will study? In this course, students will become familiar with the historiography on Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Cuba and Honduras that has explored these questions through a variety of approaches, methodologies and points of view.

HISTORY 481. Research Seminar in Middle East History. 4-5 Units.

Student-selected research topics.
Same as: JEWISHST 287S, JEWISHST 481.

HISTORY 481A. Research Seminar in Middle East History. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 486A. Graduate Research Seminar in Jewish History. 4-5 Units.

Same as: JEWISHST 486A.

HISTORY 486B. Graduate Research Seminar in Jewish History. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 486A.
Same as: JEWISHST 486B.

HISTORY 491A. Modern Korea Research Seminar. 4-5 Units.

This graduate seminar prepares students to undertake research using Korean-language sources on a variety of themes in modern Korea. Students will identify characteristics of major online and offline archives in Korean studies, learn essential skills in investigating primary sources, and analyze selected sample documents in class.

HISTORY 491B. Modern Korea Research Seminar. 4-5 Units.

This graduate seminar prepares students to undertake research using Korean-language sources on a variety of themes in modern Korea. Students will identify characteristics of major online and offline archives in Korean studies, learn essential skills in investigating primary sources, and analyze selected sample documents in class.

HISTORY 494C. Early Empires: Han and Rome. 4-5 Units.

This course systematically compares the Han Empire and the Roman Empire in order to provide insight into the distinctive features of the empires as a political and social type. Topics examined will include geographic frames, the nature of the ruler, the role of the city, the form and function of military forces, religious aspects, legal codes, structures of kinship, and the relation of these states to the outside world.
Same as: CLASSHIS 344.

HISTORY 495A. Qing Legal Documents. 4-5 Units.

How to use Qing legal documents for research. Winter: sample documents that introduce the main genres including: the Qing code and commentaries; magistrates' handbooks and published case collections; and case records from Chinese archives. Spring: class meets occasionally; students complete research papers. Prerequisite: advanced reading ability in Chinese.

HISTORY 497A. Maps and Gazetteers as Sources for East Asian History. 4-5 Units.

For graduate students of early modern or modern East Asia. Includes weekend workshop on Chinese historical GIS with Harvard's Peter Bol. Students work with the Stanford Spatial History Lab to develop analytical techniques. Prerequisite: background in GIS.

HISTORY 497B. Maps and Gazetters as Sources for East Asian History, Part 2. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 497A.

HISTORY 498D. Japanese Imperial Archives, Part 2. 4-5 Units.

Second part of a two quarter sequence. Graduate seminar on conducting research in modern Japanese history. Focus is on Japanese imperialism and colonialism in Asia, especially Korea. Different types of archives, from national and research libraries to online databases, and methods of research including oral history. Primary sources include government publications, classified police records, and media sources. Prerequisite: HISTORY 498C.

HISTORY 499X. Graduate Research. 1-10 Unit.

Units by arrangement. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 802. TGR Dissertation. 0 Units.

Units by arrangement.