Skip navigation

History

Contacts

Office: Building 200, Room 113
Mail Code: 94305-2024
Phone: (650) 723-2651
Web Site: http://history.stanford.edu

Courses offered by the Department of History are listed under the subject code History on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

Mission of the Department of History

History courses teach the analytical, interpretive, and writing knowledge and skills necessary for understanding the connections between past and present. History is a pragmatic discipline in which the analysis of change over time involves sifting the influences and perspectives that affect the course of events, and evaluating the different forms of evidence historians exploit to make sense of them. Teaching students how to weigh these sources and convert the findings into persuasive analysis lies at the heart of the department's teaching. Graduates with a History major pursue careers and graduate study in law, public service, business, writing, education, and journalism.

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduate)

The department expects undergraduate majors in the program to be able to demonstrate the following learning outcomes. These learning outcomes are used in evaluating students and the department's undergraduate program. Students are expected to demonstrate:

  1. an understanding of what it means to think historically: locating subjects in time and place and being sensitive to the contingencies of context and to change over time.
  2. critical and interpretive thinking skills using course's primary source materials.
  3. the ability to identify different types of sources of historical knowledge.
  4. analytical writing skills and close reading skills.
  5. effective oral communication skills.

Degrees Offered

The Department of History offers the following degree programs: Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Arts and Sciences, Master of Arts, and Doctor of Philosophy.

Graduate Programs in History

The primary goal of the Stanford Department of History's graduate program is the training of scholars. Most students who receive doctorates in the program go on to teach at colleges or universities. Other students have obtained positions in university administration and research.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The purpose of the master's program is to further develop knowledge and skills in History and to prepare students for a professional career or doctoral studies. This is achieved through completion of courses, in the primary field as well as related areas, and experience with independent work and specialization.

The Ph.D. is conferred upon candidates who have demonstrated substantial scholarship and the ability to conduct independent research and analysis in History. Through completion of advanced course work and rigorous skills training, the doctoral program prepares students to make original contributions to the knowledge of History and to interpret and present the results of such research.

History Course Catalog Numbering System

Location Introductory Seminars:Freshman/Sophomores Sources and Methods Seminars Lectures Colloquia Research Seminars and Workshops
International, Global, Thematic4N, 44Q, 95N3S1B, 64, 102, 103D,F, 105C, 106A,B, 107201A, 202A,B,G, 203,B,C, 204,C,E,G, 206,206A, 207C, 208C, 243G, 301A, 302A,B,G, 303,303B,C,F, 304,C,G, 305, 306A, D, 307C,E, 308C, 343G, 399A306K, 401A
Ancient and Medieval Europe11N101207F, 215K, 307F
Early Modern and Modern Europe33S, 38S110B, C, 131A, 133A, 134A230C, 231G, 232A, 233, 331G, 332A, 333326A, 430, 433A, B, 438
Eastern Europe, Russia, Eurasia20N20S125221B, 224A, 228, 321A, 328424A, B
History of Science41Q, 44Q 42S130A, 140, 144208A, 232F, 308A, 332F
Africa48N, 48Q145B, 147445A, B
United States36N, 41Q, 50K, 60N71S, 74S, 76S64, 130A, 150A, B, C, 151, 158C,159, 161, 166, B, 167A201, 203C, 251G, 252B, 253D, 256, G, 257C, 258, E, 260, 261G, 262A, E, 269, 301, 303C, 351B, C, E, 356, 358, 369 460
Latin America78N174277D471A, B
Middle East181B, 182C, 187281B, 284, F, 288, 381, B, 384, F481
Jewish History185B486A
Asia98N191B, 192, 195, C, 196, 198290E, 292, D, 297, 390E, 391B, 392, D, 396D, 397491A, B, 494C

Bachelor of Arts in History

Prerequisites for the Major

Before declaring the History major, students must take one lecture course. They must take a second lecture course within one year of declaring. Fulfilling this requirement are courses numbered HISTORY 1-199 (with the exception of Freshman (xxN) and Sophomore (xxQ) Introductory Seminars).

The choices for 2014-15 are:

Units
HISTORY 1AGlobal History: The Ancient World3-5
HISTORY 1BGlobal History: The Early Modern World, 1300 to 18003-5
HISTORY 13The Historical and Geographical Background of Current Global Events3
HISTORY 102History of the International System5
HISTORY 103DHuman Society and Environmental Change4
HISTORY 103EThe International History of Nuclear Weapons5
HISTORY 103FIntroduction to Military History5
HISTORY 105CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives5
HISTORY 106AGlobal Human Geography: Asia and Africa5
HISTORY 106BGlobal Human Geography: Europe and Americas5
HISTORY 110BSurvey of Early Modern Europe5
HISTORY 112Medicine and Disease in the Ancient World5
HISTORY 114Origins of History in Greece and Rome4-5
HISTORY 115DThe Civilization and Culture of the Middle Ages3-5
HISTORY 120AThe Russian Empire, 1450-18005
HISTORY 130AIn Sickness and In Health: Medicine and Society in the United States: 1800-Present5
HISTORY 131Leonardo's World: Science, Technology, and Art in the Renaissance3-5
HISTORY 137The Holocaust4-5
HISTORY 138AGermany and the World Wars5
HISTORY 139Modern Britain and the British Empire5
HISTORY 140World History of Science5
HISTORY 144History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine and Engineering5
HISTORY 145BAfrica in the 20th Century5
HISTORY 146History of Humanitarian Aid in sub-Saharan Africa5
HISTORY 147History of South Africa5
HISTORY 150AColonial and Revolutionary America5
HISTORY 150B19th-Century America5
HISTORY 150CThe United States in the Twentieth Century5
HISTORY 152History of American Law5
HISTORY 154American Intellectual and Cultural History to the Civil War5
HISTORY 156American Economic History5
HISTORY 157The Constitution: A Brief History5
HISTORY 161Women in Modern America4-5
HISTORY 165DThe Pacific World5
HISTORY 166Introduction to African American History - the Modern Freedom Struggle3-5
HISTORY 166BImmigration Debates in America, Past and Present3-5
HISTORY 182CMaking of the Islamic World, 600-15005
HISTORY 184Zionism5
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 193Late Imperial China5
HISTORY 194BJapan in the Age of the Samurai5
HISTORY 195Modern Korean History5
HISTORY 195CModern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon5
HISTORY 196Worlds of Gandhi5
HISTORY 197Southeast Asia: From Antiquity to the Modern Era5
HISTORY 198History of Modern China5

Bachelor of Arts Requirements

Completion of the major requires planning. History majors should plan to meet with their faculty advisers twice yearly, once in the Autumn and once in the Winter or Spring quarters. These meetings should take place within the first three weeks of the quarter, before the final study list deadline.

History majors are required to complete a minimum of 63 units (i.e. a minimum of 13 courses) to include:

Units
1. One Sources and Methods Seminar (HISTORY 1S-99S) (55) 15
Sources and Methods courses offered this year are:
HISTORY 29SThe Animal Other: Humans and Animals in Western History5
HISTORY 39SBrave New World: Berlin in the Twenties5
HISTORY 40SMagic and Occult Science in Early Modern Europe5
HISTORY 64SDebtor Nation: 20th Century American Capitalism5
HISTORY 65SIntimate Frontiers: Race, Gender, and Colonialism in the American West5
HISTORY 66SThe Americans are Coming!: The Cold War at Home and Abroad5
HISTORY 72SFamily and Law in American History5
HISTORY 93SBandits, Merchants, and Saints: The Sino-Tibetan Frontier, 1700-20005
HISTORY 94SMuscle Men and Iron Girls: Sex and Masculinity in Chinese and American History5
HISTORY 99SChristianity in East Asia5
2. Two 200-level undergraduate colloquia (HISTORY 200-298) (10) 210
3. At least one other small group course (5)5
To be chosen among the department's undergraduate colloquia, research seminars, or Stanford Introductory Seminars
4. Two lecture courses (10) 310
One of which must be either
A Europe survey course such as:
Survey of Early Modern Europe
Or, or a United States survey course such as:
Colonial and Revolutionary America
19th-Century America
The United States in the Twentieth Century
The second must be a lecture course in African, Asian, Middle East, or Latin American History.
5. Completion of the Writing in the Major (WIM) requirement (5) 4
HISTORY 209SResearch Seminar for Majors5
6. At least 6 additional courses to total a minimum of 63 units. (28)28
1

Sources and Methods seminars constitute the department's "skills" class and should be taken as early as possible in a student's course of study.  They are designed for freshmen and sophomores considering or beginning the History major.  This requirement must be completed prior to enrolling in HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors. 

2

 ExploreCourses lists all colloquia offered this year.

3

 Students may count courses they took as prerequisites to the major for this requirement.

4

In completing this course, students must write a 20-25 page essay based on original research and including at least two drafts. HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors may be taken in either the junior or the senior year. Students must complete the Sources and Methods seminar before enrolling in the Research Seminar.

 Additional Requirements

  1. Courses comprising the 63 units must be taken for a letter grade, and the student must maintain a grade point average (GPA) in History courses of 2.0 or higher.
  2. At least nine courses must be taken from within the Stanford Department of History. Transfer students and those who study abroad may be granted exemptions from this requirement at the discretion of the Director of Undergraduate Studies.
  3. At least six quarters of enrollment in the major. Each candidate for the B.A. in History should declare the major by the Autumn Quarter of the third year of study or earlier, if possible.
  4. One HISTORY 299S Undergraduate Directed Research and Writing taken for 3-5 units and for a letter grade may be applied toward the thirteen courses required for the B.A. in History.
  5. Capstone: The History department organizes a series of luncheon workshops quarterly, at which students present their research essays and honors theses.
  6. The department  encourages students to acquire proficiency in foreign languages and study at one of Stanford's overseas programs. Such studies are not only valuable in themselves; they can provide an opportunity for independent research and a foundation for honors essays and graduate study.
  7. Advanced Placement credits do not fulfill any major requirements.

For further information on History courses' satisfaction of major requirements, see the Department of History web site.

Writing in the Major (WIM) Requirement

History's Writing in the Major requirement is satisfied by completing HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors.

This course may be taken in either the junior or senior year, but not before completing the sources and methods seminar requirement. Students write a 20-25 page research essay. Original research and revision are important parts of the research essay. Students must conduct substantial research in the libraries and must submit at least two drafts (a rough draft and a final draft) of the essay. Students who wish to write an honors thesis should take HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors in the junior year.  Where appropriate, a student can use the research seminar to begin working on the honors thesis. 

HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills the WIM requirement only. It does not fulfill geographical requirements or small group course requirements.

Students select their research topics based on the general topics of each quarter's offerings.

  • HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors
    • Autumn: Modern Times; History of Science/Honors
    • Winter: Gender. Sexuality and Race in U.S. History; Comparative Colonialism
    • Spring: Early Modern European Travel Accounts; Politics/Culture in Europe Since 1650

Honors Program

For a limited number of majors, the department offers a special program leading to Departmental Honors in History. Students accepted for this program, in additional to fulfilling the general requirements stated above, begin work as early as Spring Quarter of the junior year and complete the essay by mid-May of the senior year. In addition to HISTORY 299H Junior Honors Colloquium, students must enroll in 11-15 units of Senior Research in the senior year, to be distributed as best fits their specific project. For students in the Honors program, Senior Research units (HISTORY 299A Senior Research I,HISTORY 299B Senior Research II,HISTORY 299C Senior Research III) are taken in addition to the thirteen required courses in History.

To enter this program, the student must be accepted by a member of the department who agrees to advise the research and writing of the essay, and must complete the Junior Honors Colloquium (299H) offered in Winter Quarter. An exception to the latter requirement may be made for those studying overseas Winter Quarter of the junior year, but such students should consult with the director of the honors program, if possible, prior to going overseas. Students who study abroad for the entire junior year and want to write an honors thesis should plan to take the Research Seminar for Majors in the first quarter following completion of the study abroad program. Under exceptional circumstances, students are admitted to the program in Autumn Quarter of the senior year. Such students must not enroll in any HISTORY 299A Senior Research I,HISTORY 299B Senior Research II,HISTORY 299C Senior Research III, units until HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors, has been completed.

In considering an applicant for such a project, the adviser and director of the honors program take into account general preparation in the field of the project and expect a GPA of at least 3.5 in the student's previous work in History and a 3.3 in overall University work. Students completing the thesis with a grade of 'B+' or higher are eligible for Departmental Honors in History. To enter the Honors program, apply at the Department of History office.

Outstanding honors essays may be considered for the University's Robert M. Golden Medals, as well as for departmental James Birdsall Weter prizes.

Honors Program Requirements—To graduate with departmental honors in History, students must:

  1. complete HISTORY 299H Junior Honors Colloquium in the junior year
  2. maintain a GPA of at least 3.3 in overall University work and a 3.5 in the History major during the final 5 quarters of enrollment/thesis preparation, or obtain the consent of the Director of the Honors Program.
  3. select both a primary thesis adviser (who is a member of the Stanford History faculty) and a secondary adviser (who is a Stanford University faculty member) no later than Autumn Quarter of the senior year
  4. submit on May 11, 2015 by noon a 16,250- 30,000 words honors thesis including bibliography that receives a grade of 'B+' or better
  5. enroll in the 11-15 units of Senior Research as specified below
  6. participate in mandatory Honors Program activities throughout senior year (including, but not limited to, writing workshops and the annual Honors Day oral presentations) as specified in the Honors Program Handbook.

HISTORY 299A Senior Research I,HISTORY 299B Senior Research II,HISTORY 299C Senior Research III do not fulfill any history major requirements other than honors, but the units do count towards the 180 required for B.A. degree conferral.

Required Course—To be taken in the junior year:

Units
HISTORY 299HJunior Honors Colloquium1

Required Course—Recommended to be taken in junior year:

Units
HISTORY 209SResearch Seminar for Majors5

An exception (for HISTORY 299H Junior Honors Colloquium) may be made for those studying overseas Winter Quarter of the junior year, but such students should consult with the Director of the Honors Program prior to going overseas.

To be taken in the senior year:

Units
HISTORY 299ASenior Research I1-5
HISTORY 299BSenior Research II1-5
HISTORY 299CSenior Research III1-5

Overseas Studies or Study Abroad

Courses offered by Stanford's Bing Overseas Studies Program and appearing on the History department's cognate course list automatically receive credit towards the major or minor in History. Course work completed in non-Stanford Study Abroad programs is evaluated for major/minor credit by designated History department faculty on a case-by-case basis. Students in non-Stanford Study Abroad programs are advised to take classes with reading and writing components comparable to History department course loads.

History Fields of Study or Degree Options

The Department of History offers the following tracks to the B.A. in History. These tracks are not declared on Axess; they do not appear on the transcript or on the diploma. The tracks are:

  • General History
  • Global Affairs and World History
  • History, Philosophy, and the Arts
  • History of Science and Medicine
  • History and the Law
  • Public History/Public Service

The General History track emphasizes breadth of study among historical areas and periods as well as concentration in one selected field. The Global Affairs and World History track emphasizes an understanding of today's world through a historical examination of its evolution, from the early modern to the contemporary era.  The four tracks with interdisciplinary emphasis (History, Philosophy, and the Arts; History of Science and Medicine; History and the Law; and Public History/Public Service) combine the study of history with the methods and approaches of other disciplines, and involve substantial course work outside of History.

General History Track

In addition to completing the requirements for all History majors, the student in the General History track is required to satisfy breadth and concentration requirements.

  1. Breadth Requirements: to ensure chronological and geographical breadth, at least two courses must be completed in a premodern chronological period and in each of three geographical fields:
    1. Field I (Africa, Asia, and Middle East)
    2. Field II (the Americas)
    3. Field III (Europe, including Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and Russia).
    4. Courses fulfilling the pre-modern chronological period (Field IV) may also count for Fields I-III.
  2. Courses for 2014-15 follow below.
  3. Concentration: to develop some measure of expertise, students must complete four courses in a single area (including one undergraduate colloquium or research seminar). The proposed concentration must be approved by the major adviser; a proposal for a thematic concentration must be approved by both the adviser and the department's director of undergraduate studies. Areas of concentration are:
    • Africa
    • Asia
    • Eastern Europe and Russia
    • Europe before 1700
    • Europe since 1700
    • Jewish History
    • Latin America
    • Science and Medicine
    • The United States
    • The Middle East
    • International History
    • Comparative Empires and Cultures
    • or a thematic subject treated comparatively, such as war and revolution, work, gender, family history, popular culture, or high culture.
  4. Required course: HISTORY 102 History of the International System is a required course for students who select the International History concentration. This course is offered in Spring Quarter.

Field I: Africa/Asia/Middle East

Units
HISTORY 45BAfrica in the Twentieth Century3
HISTORY 47History of South Africa3
HISTORY 48QSouth Africa: Contested Transitions3
HISTORY 82CMaking of the Islamic World, 600-15003
HISTORY 84Zionism3
HISTORY 84NThe American Empire in the Middle East4-5
HISTORY 87The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan3
HISTORY 93Late Imperial China3
HISTORY 93SBandits, Merchants, and Saints: The Sino-Tibetan Frontier, 1700-20005
HISTORY 94BJapan in the Age of the Samurai3
HISTORY 94SMuscle Men and Iron Girls: Sex and Masculinity in Chinese and American History5
HISTORY 95Modern Korean History3
HISTORY 95CModern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon3
HISTORY 96Worlds of Gandhi3
HISTORY 98The History of Modern China3
HISTORY 98NBeijing, Shanghai, and the Structure of Modern China3
HISTORY 106AGlobal Human Geography: Asia and Africa5
HISTORY 145BAfrica in the 20th Century5
HISTORY 146History of Humanitarian Aid in sub-Saharan Africa5
HISTORY 147History of South Africa5
HISTORY 182CMaking of the Islamic World, 600-15005
HISTORY 184Zionism5
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 193Late Imperial China5
HISTORY 194BJapan in the Age of the Samurai5
HISTORY 195Modern Korean History5
HISTORY 195CModern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon5
HISTORY 196Worlds of Gandhi5
HISTORY 197Southeast Asia: From Antiquity to the Modern Era5
HISTORY 198History of Modern China5
HISTORY 244Egyptomania! The Allure of Ancient Egypt Over the Past 3,500 Years5
HISTORY 245Violence and Identity in the African Great Lakes Region5
HISTORY 248SColonial States and African Societies, Part I4-5
HISTORY 282FHistory of Modern Turkey5
HISTORY 283The New Global Economy, Oil and Origins of the Arab Spring4-5
HISTORY 284FEmpires, Markets and Networks: Early Modern Islamic World and Beyond, 1500-18004-5
HISTORY 286Jews Among Muslims in Modern Times4-5
HISTORY 292DJapan in Asia, Asia in Japan4-5
HISTORY 292FCulture and Religions in Korean History4-5
HISTORY 293EFemale Divinities in China4-5
HISTORY 295FRace and Ethnicity in East Asia4-5
HISTORY 295JChinese Women's History5

Field II: The Americas

Units
HISTORY 41QMad Women: Women and Mental Illness in U.S. History3
HISTORY 44History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine and Engineering3
HISTORY 50AColonial and Revolutionary America3
HISTORY 50B19th Century America3
HISTORY 50CThe United States in the Twentieth Century3
HISTORY 54American Intellectual and Cultural History to the Civil War3
HISTORY 54NAfrican American Women's Lives3-4
HISTORY 55QThe Origins of the Modern American City, 1865-19203
HISTORY 64SDebtor Nation: 20th Century American Capitalism5
HISTORY 65SIntimate Frontiers: Race, Gender, and Colonialism in the American West5
HISTORY 72SFamily and Law in American History5
HISTORY 78NFilm and History of Latin American Revolutions3
HISTORY 94SMuscle Men and Iron Girls: Sex and Masculinity in Chinese and American History5
HISTORY 106BGlobal Human Geography: Europe and Americas5
HISTORY 116NHoward Zinn and the Quest for Historical Truth3
HISTORY 130AIn Sickness and In Health: Medicine and Society in the United States: 1800-Present5
HISTORY 144History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine and Engineering5
HISTORY 150AColonial and Revolutionary America5
HISTORY 150B19th-Century America5
HISTORY 150CThe United States in the Twentieth Century5
HISTORY 152History of American Law5
HISTORY 154American Intellectual and Cultural History to the Civil War5
HISTORY 157The Constitution: A Brief History5
HISTORY 161Women in Modern America4-5
HISTORY 166BImmigration Debates in America, Past and Present3-5
HISTORY 201Introduction to Public History and Public Service4-5
HISTORY 243GTobacco and Health in World History4-5
HISTORY 250ETaxing America: From the Puritans to Prop. 135
HISTORY 254Popular Culture and American Nature5
HISTORY 254GThe Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution5
HISTORY 256America- China Relations4-5
HISTORY 258Topics in the History of Sexuality: Sexual Violence in America4-5
HISTORY 258EHistory of School Reform: Origins, Policies, Outcomes, and Explanations3-5
HISTORY 260California's Minority-Majority Cities4-5
HISTORY 264GMadness in American Society: The Social History of Mental Illness in the United States5
HISTORY 271Mexicans in the United States5
HISTORY 272ETheories of Citizenship and Sovereignty in a Transnational Context4-5
HISTORY 274EUrban Poverty and Inequality in Latin America5
HISTORY 279Latin American Development: Economy and Society, 1800-20144-5

Field III: Europe, Eastern Europe, and Russia

Units
HISTORY 1BGlobal History: The Early Modern World, 1300 to 18003-5
HISTORY 10BSurvey of Early Modern Europe3
HISTORY 20AThe Russian Empire, 1450-18003
HISTORY 29SThe Animal Other: Humans and Animals in Western History5
HISTORY 31Leonardo's World: Science, Technology, and Art in the Renaissance3-5
HISTORY 38AGermany and the World Wars3
HISTORY 39Modern Britain and the British Empire3
HISTORY 39SBrave New World: Berlin in the Twenties5
HISTORY 40SMagic and Occult Science in Early Modern Europe5
HISTORY 84Zionism3
HISTORY 101The Greeks4-5
HISTORY 102AThe Romans3-5
HISTORY 110BSurvey of Early Modern Europe5
HISTORY 120AThe Russian Empire, 1450-18005
HISTORY 131Leonardo's World: Science, Technology, and Art in the Renaissance3-5
HISTORY 138AGermany and the World Wars5
HISTORY 139Modern Britain and the British Empire5
HISTORY 184Zionism5
HISTORY 204ETotalitarianism4-5
HISTORY 207CThe Global Early Modern4-5
HISTORY 221BThe 'Woman Question' in Modern Russia5
HISTORY 222Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe and Russia5
HISTORY 224AThe Soviet Civilization4-5
HISTORY 228Circles of Hell: Poland in World War II5
HISTORY 231EPaper, Printing, and Digital Revolutions: Transformations of the Book4-5
HISTORY 232BHeretics, Prostitutes and Merchants: The Venetian Empire5
HISTORY 232FThe Scientific Revolution5
HISTORY 233CTwo British Revolutions4-5
HISTORY 234The Enlightenment3-5
HISTORY 234GNarrating the British Empire4-5
HISTORY 235The Renaissance of War: Politics, Technology, and War in Late Medieval and Renaissance Italy5
HISTORY 235CReadings in the Supernatural4-5
HISTORY 238GEthnography of the Late Middle Ages: Social history and popular culture in the age of the plague4-5

Field IV: Pre-1700

Units
HISTORY 1BGlobal History: The Early Modern World, 1300 to 18003-5
HISTORY 10BSurvey of Early Modern Europe3
HISTORY 12Medicine and Disease in the Ancient World3
HISTORY 20AThe Russian Empire, 1450-18003
HISTORY 29SThe Animal Other: Humans and Animals in Western History5
HISTORY 31Leonardo's World: Science, Technology, and Art in the Renaissance3-5
HISTORY 40World History of Science3
HISTORY 40SMagic and Occult Science in Early Modern Europe5
HISTORY 82CMaking of the Islamic World, 600-15003
HISTORY 93Late Imperial China3
HISTORY 94BJapan in the Age of the Samurai3
HISTORY 101The Greeks4-5
HISTORY 102AThe Romans3-5
HISTORY 110BSurvey of Early Modern Europe5
HISTORY 112Medicine and Disease in the Ancient World5
HISTORY 114Origins of History in Greece and Rome4-5
HISTORY 115DThe Civilization and Culture of the Middle Ages3-5
HISTORY 120AThe Russian Empire, 1450-18005
HISTORY 131Leonardo's World: Science, Technology, and Art in the Renaissance3-5
HISTORY 140World History of Science5
HISTORY 182CMaking of the Islamic World, 600-15005
HISTORY 193Late Imperial China5
HISTORY 194BJapan in the Age of the Samurai5
HISTORY 203EGlobal Catholicism5
HISTORY 207CThe Global Early Modern4-5
HISTORY 212Knights, Monks, and Nobles: Masculinity in the Middle Ages4-5
HISTORY 216Women and the Book: Scribes, Artists, and Readers from Late Antiquity through the Fourteenth Century4-5
HISTORY 217SMinorities In Medieval Europe5
HISTORY 222Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe and Russia5
HISTORY 231EPaper, Printing, and Digital Revolutions: Transformations of the Book4-5
HISTORY 232BHeretics, Prostitutes and Merchants: The Venetian Empire5
HISTORY 232FThe Scientific Revolution5
HISTORY 233CTwo British Revolutions4-5
HISTORY 235The Renaissance of War: Politics, Technology, and War in Late Medieval and Renaissance Italy5
HISTORY 235CReadings in the Supernatural4-5
HISTORY 238GEthnography of the Late Middle Ages: Social history and popular culture in the age of the plague4-5
HISTORY 244Egyptomania! The Allure of Ancient Egypt Over the Past 3,500 Years5
HISTORY 284FEmpires, Markets and Networks: Early Modern Islamic World and Beyond, 1500-18004-5

Global Affairs and World History Track

The Global Affairs and World History track is designed to offer an empirically rich curriculum for Stanford students interested in international affairs. The goal is to impart an understanding of today's world through a historical examination of its evolution, from the early modern to the contemporary era. This track appeals to students who are aiming for a career in the international arena, and who seek to inform themselves about the complexities of cultural diversity and spatial differentiation on the ground. Deploying both connective and comparative modes of analysis, majors who choose this track will acquire a robust understanding of the relevance of the past to current events.

The Global Affairs and World History track features gateway courses in Global Human Geography, a recommended skills component, a geographical concentration, and a core cluster of global and comparative offerings. Students choosing this track also develop proficiency in a foreign language at the second-year level or above. Incorporating primary sources in a language other than English into the capstone seminar or honors thesis is encouraged.

Gateway Courses (two courses): All students in Global Affairs and World History complete the two quarter Global Human Geography sequence. HISTORY 106A Global Human Geography: Asia and Africa is offered in Spring Quarter. HISTORY 106B is offered Autumn Quarter 2014-15.

Geographical Cluster (four courses): Students select four History courses in one geographic area, such as Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East, or Africa. The faculty coordinator must pre-approve all courses in this cluster.

Global and Comparative Courses (Methodological Cluster) (six courses): Majors selecting this track take at least 6 thematic history courses of global scope.

Courses offered in 2014-15 are:

Units
HISTORY 1AGlobal History: The Ancient World3-5
HISTORY 1BGlobal History: The Early Modern World, 1300 to 18003-5
HISTORY 4NA World History of Genocide3-5
HISTORY 5CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives3
HISTORY 13The Historical and Geographical Background of Current Global Events3
HISTORY 30NEighteen-Year-Olds Go to War: Global Experiences of World War I4
HISTORY 39Modern Britain and the British Empire3
HISTORY 40World History of Science3
HISTORY 40SMagic and Occult Science in Early Modern Europe5
HISTORY 44History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine and Engineering3
HISTORY 63NThe Feminist Critique: The History and Politics of Gender Equality3-4
HISTORY 65DThe Pacific World3
HISTORY 66SThe Americans are Coming!: The Cold War at Home and Abroad5
HISTORY 82CMaking of the Islamic World, 600-15003
HISTORY 84Zionism3
HISTORY 84NThe American Empire in the Middle East4-5
HISTORY 87The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan3
HISTORY 93SBandits, Merchants, and Saints: The Sino-Tibetan Frontier, 1700-20005
HISTORY 94SMuscle Men and Iron Girls: Sex and Masculinity in Chinese and American History5
HISTORY 95CModern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon3
HISTORY 95NMapping the World: Cartography and the Modern Imagination4-5
HISTORY 96Worlds of Gandhi3
HISTORY 102History of the International System5
HISTORY 103DHuman Society and Environmental Change4
HISTORY 103EThe International History of Nuclear Weapons5
HISTORY 103FIntroduction to Military History5
HISTORY 105CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives5
HISTORY 106AGlobal Human Geography: Asia and Africa5
HISTORY 106BGlobal Human Geography: Europe and Americas5
HISTORY 139Modern Britain and the British Empire5
HISTORY 140World History of Science5
HISTORY 144History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine and Engineering5
HISTORY 165DThe Pacific World5
HISTORY 182CMaking of the Islamic World, 600-15005
HISTORY 184Zionism5
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 195CModern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon5
HISTORY 196Worlds of Gandhi5
HISTORY 201AThe Global Drug Wars4-5
HISTORY 202International History and International Relations Theory5
HISTORY 202GPeoples, Armies and Governments of the Second World War4-5
HISTORY 203CHistory of Ignorance5
HISTORY 203EGlobal Catholicism5
HISTORY 204What is History?5
HISTORY 204ETotalitarianism4-5
HISTORY 204GWar and Society5
HISTORY 207CThe Global Early Modern4-5
HISTORY 209CLiberalism and Violence5
HISTORY 221BThe 'Woman Question' in Modern Russia5
HISTORY 222Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe and Russia5
HISTORY 224AThe Soviet Civilization4-5
HISTORY 224CGenocide and Humanitarian Intervention3
HISTORY 226EFamine in the Modern World3
HISTORY 234GNarrating the British Empire4-5
HISTORY 243GTobacco and Health in World History4-5
HISTORY 244Egyptomania! The Allure of Ancient Egypt Over the Past 3,500 Years5
HISTORY 248SColonial States and African Societies, Part I4-5
HISTORY 256America- China Relations4-5
HISTORY 266CThe Cold War: An International History5
HISTORY 271Mexicans in the United States5
HISTORY 272ETheories of Citizenship and Sovereignty in a Transnational Context4-5
HISTORY 274EUrban Poverty and Inequality in Latin America5
HISTORY 278SThe Ethical Challenges of Climate Change4-5
HISTORY 279Latin American Development: Economy and Society, 1800-20144-5
HISTORY 282FHistory of Modern Turkey5
HISTORY 283The New Global Economy, Oil and Origins of the Arab Spring4-5
HISTORY 284FEmpires, Markets and Networks: Early Modern Islamic World and Beyond, 1500-18004-5
HISTORY 286Jews Among Muslims in Modern Times4-5
HISTORY 292DJapan in Asia, Asia in Japan4-5
HISTORY 293BQueer History in Comparative Perspective4-5
HISTORY 293DGlobal Intellectual History4-5
HISTORY 303CHistory of Ignorance4-5

Proficiency in a foreign language: Students electing the Global Affairs and World History track must acquire proficiency in a foreign language through two years of college-level course work (second-year, third-quarter) or by passing a proficiency exam. Language courses do not count toward the 13 required courses in the major; students may, however, be interested in pairing this track in the History major with a foreign language minor.

Skills Training: Students in the Global Affairs and World History track are encouraged to acquire technical proficiencies relevant for geo-historical analysis and fieldwork abroad. Please see the Undergraduate Student Services Coordinator for further information on these courses.

Those planning to pursue research overseas are also advised to enroll in the one-credit workshop, HISTORY 299X Preparing for International Field Work: Public Service or Research in Spring Quarter.

Overseas Study Experience: Students electing this track are encouraged to study abroad, with a Stanford BOSP program or another program approved by the directors of the track. Course work taken overseas may be accepted for credit in the track on a case by case basis, in consultation with a faculty coordinator.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills Writing in the Major requirement. 

General Requirements:

As for all History majors, students in this track must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or U.S., and one Africa, Asia, Middle East, or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors.

History Tracks with Interdisciplinary Emphasis (HMIE)

There are four History Tracks with Interdisciplinary Emphasis:

  • History, Philosophy, and the Arts
  • History of Science and Medicine
  • History and the Law
  • Public History/Public Service

These tracks are designed for students who are interested in other disciplines who want to focus on the historical aspects of the subject matter covered by that discipline, who want to understand how interdisciplinary approaches can deepen their understanding of history, or who are primarily interested in developing interdisciplinary approaches to historical scholarship by combining the careful attention to evidence and context that motivates historical research with the analytic and methodological tools of science and the humanities.

In pursuing the designated requirements for all History majors, students in HMIE are required to complete their thirteen courses for the major as follows:

Gateway Course: Students are required to take the appropriate gateway course for their interdisciplinary track. This course introduces students to the application of particular interdisciplinary methods to the study of history. See the section on each HMIE for the gateway course appropriate to that major track.  Note: The History and the Law track has no gateway course requirement.

Methodological Cluster: This cluster is designed to acquaint students with the ways in which interdisciplinary methods are employed in historical scholarship, by practicing historians and scholars in other disciplines whose work is historical. This program of study must provide methodological coherence and must be approved in advanced by the student's adviser. See the section on each HMIE for the appropriate historical methods courses.

Geographic Cluster: History is embedded in time and place. This cluster is designed to emphasize that the purpose of studying methodology is to more fully understand the history of a particular region of the world. Students select a particular geographic region, as specified in the History major, and complete four courses in that area.

Interdisciplinary Cluster: These courses, taken outside the Department of History, acquaint students with the methods and approaches of another discipline appropriate for the interdisciplinary study of history. This program of study must provide methodological coherence and must be approved in advance by the student's adviser. See the section on each HMIE for appropriate interdisciplinary courses.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills Writing in the Major Requirement.

HMIE tracks do not mandate the breadth or concentration requirements of the General History track. IHUM courses taught by History faculty may apply to HMIE tracks only insofar as their content is specifically appropriate to the particular methodological or geographic cluster; IHUM courses are no longer offered.

History, Philosophy, and the Arts

The History, Philosophy, and the Arts (HPA) track is designed for the student who wishes to complement his or her work in History with study in literature and philosophy, particularly in a foreign language. For the purposes of this track, Arts are defined broadly, including fine art and art history, drama, films, memoirs and autobiography, poetry and novels, as well as canonical works in philosophy, political science, and history of political thought. It appeals to students who are interested in studying the humanities and its conceptual and linguistic worlds in their historical context, or who want to focus on both the literature and history of a specific geographical area while also learning the language of that area.

Gateway Courses (two courses): Students must take HISTORY 234 The Enlightenment and one of the following courses: HISTORY 36N Gay Autobiography ,HISTORY 187 The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan ,or HISTORY 209C Liberalism and Violence

Methodological Cluster (two courses): This two-course cluster teaches students how historians, in particular, analyze literary texts and philosophical works as documentary sources for writing cultural and intellectual history. Students choose two courses from among the pre-approved HLA methodology curriculum. These courses need not be in the student's geographic concentration.

For 2014-15, these courses are:

Units
HISTORY 29SThe Animal Other: Humans and Animals in Western History5
HISTORY 30NEighteen-Year-Olds Go to War: Global Experiences of World War I4
HISTORY 31Leonardo's World: Science, Technology, and Art in the Renaissance3-5
HISTORY 36NGay Autobiography4
HISTORY 39SBrave New World: Berlin in the Twenties5
HISTORY 50AColonial and Revolutionary America3
HISTORY 54NAfrican American Women's Lives3-4
HISTORY 65SIntimate Frontiers: Race, Gender, and Colonialism in the American West5
HISTORY 66SThe Americans are Coming!: The Cold War at Home and Abroad5
HISTORY 84Zionism3
HISTORY 87The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan3
HISTORY 93Late Imperial China3
HISTORY 94SMuscle Men and Iron Girls: Sex and Masculinity in Chinese and American History5
HISTORY 96Worlds of Gandhi3
HISTORY 99SChristianity in East Asia5
HISTORY 115DThe Civilization and Culture of the Middle Ages3-5
HISTORY 131Leonardo's World: Science, Technology, and Art in the Renaissance3-5
HISTORY 150AColonial and Revolutionary America5
HISTORY 166Introduction to African American History - the Modern Freedom Struggle3-5
HISTORY 184Zionism5
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 193Late Imperial China5
HISTORY 196Worlds of Gandhi5
HISTORY 204GWar and Society5
HISTORY 209CLiberalism and Violence5
HISTORY 216Women and the Book: Scribes, Artists, and Readers from Late Antiquity through the Fourteenth Century4-5
HISTORY 231EPaper, Printing, and Digital Revolutions: Transformations of the Book4-5
HISTORY 232BHeretics, Prostitutes and Merchants: The Venetian Empire5
HISTORY 234The Enlightenment3-5
HISTORY 234GNarrating the British Empire4-5
HISTORY 236FThe End of the World As They Knew It: Culture, Cafés, and Crisis in Europe, 1880-19185
HISTORY 237KSpeed and Power in Twentieth-Century Europe4-5
HISTORY 254Popular Culture and American Nature5
HISTORY 267EMartin Luther King, Jr. - His Life, Ideas, and Legacy5
HISTORY 293DGlobal Intellectual History4-5

Note: HISTORY 187 The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan is a non-Western lectures that students in the the History, Literature, and the Arts (HLA) track can use towards both an HLA methodology course and as the non-Western lecture requirement.

Geographical Cluster (four courses): Students select four History courses in one geographic area. These are: Europe, Britain and the countries of the former British Empire, Asia, North America, Latin America, the Middle East, or Africa. These four courses must be taken in addition to the two methodological courses required above.

Interdisciplinary Cluster (four courses): Four courses, taken outside the Department of History, must address the literature and arts, broadly defined, of the area chosen for the geographic concentration. The student's adviser must pre-approve all courses in this cluster; these courses may not be double-counted towards a minor or major other than History.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills Writing in the Major requirement.

General Requirements: Like all History majors, students in History Interdisciplinary Programs must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or U.S, one Africa, Asia, Middle East or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and a Research Seminar for Majors.

History of Science and Medicine

The History of Science and Medicine (HS&M) track is a collaborative program of the Department of History and the Program in the History and Philosophy of Science. The major is designed for students interested in both sciences and humanities, and in the interactions between the two. It is also especially useful for students contemplating medical school, since it allows them to study the history of medicine, biology, and allied sciences in conjunction with fulfilling the premed science requirements. 

Gateway Course (one course): HISTORY 140 World History of Science

Methodological Cluster (three courses): These History courses focus on the history of science and medicine.

For 2014-15, these courses are:

Units
HISTORY 5CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives3
HISTORY 12Medicine and Disease in the Ancient World3
HISTORY 29SThe Animal Other: Humans and Animals in Western History5
HISTORY 31Leonardo's World: Science, Technology, and Art in the Renaissance3-5
HISTORY 40World History of Science3
HISTORY 40SMagic and Occult Science in Early Modern Europe5
HISTORY 41QMad Women: Women and Mental Illness in U.S. History3
HISTORY 44History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine and Engineering3
HISTORY 46NScience and Magic in History4-5
HISTORY 66SThe Americans are Coming!: The Cold War at Home and Abroad5
HISTORY 94SMuscle Men and Iron Girls: Sex and Masculinity in Chinese and American History5
HISTORY 105CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives5
HISTORY 112Medicine and Disease in the Ancient World5
HISTORY 130AIn Sickness and In Health: Medicine and Society in the United States: 1800-Present5
HISTORY 131Leonardo's World: Science, Technology, and Art in the Renaissance3-5
HISTORY 140World History of Science5
HISTORY 144History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine and Engineering5
HISTORY 203CHistory of Ignorance5
HISTORY 232FThe Scientific Revolution5
HISTORY 234The Enlightenment3-5
HISTORY 240The History of Evolution4-5
HISTORY 243GTobacco and Health in World History4-5
HISTORY 264GMadness in American Society: The Social History of Mental Illness in the United States5
HISTORY 278SThe Ethical Challenges of Climate Change4-5

Geographical Cluster (four courses): Students select four History courses in one geographic area. Examples include: Europe, Britain and the countries of the former British Empire, Asia, North America, Latin America, the Middle East, or Africa. These four courses must be taken in addition to the three methodological cluster courses. Courses in the history of science, technology, and medicine that have a geographic focus may be used to fulfill this requirement, but cannot be double-counted in the methodological cluster.

Interdisciplinary Cluster (four courses): Students select four courses in scientific disciplines and/or in philosophy of science, anthropology of science, or sociology of science. These courses require faculty adviser pre-approval.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills the Writing in the Major requirement.

General Requirements: As with all History majors, students in History Interdisciplinary Programs must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or U.S., one Africa, Asia, Middle East or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and a Research Seminar for Majors.

History and Law

The History and Law (HL) interdisciplinary track is for students who want to explore the intersections between historical and legal studies. The HL curriculum focuses on the role of legal institutions, policies, and structures in various societies. HL track majors enroll in at least four History department courses that focus on issues of law in civil societies and four courses that provide a geographic concentration. In addition, students enroll in four courses outside History that provide disciplinary or interdisciplinary perspectives on the role of law in shaping societies and a Research Seminar for Majors.

Gateway Course: There is no gateway course for this track. Instead, students take an extra course in the Methodological cluster.

Methodological Cluster (four courses): Students enroll in at least four History department courses, including courses outside History taught by faculty affiliated with the department, that focus on how law, policies, constitutions, and legal structures affect the development of various societies. Note: The Methodological Cluster for this HIP contains one extra course since there is no Gateway course.

For 2014-15, these courses are:

Units
HISTORY 5CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives3
HISTORY 50NWho Killed Jane Stanford?4
HISTORY 63NThe Feminist Critique: The History and Politics of Gender Equality3-4
HISTORY 64SDebtor Nation: 20th Century American Capitalism5
HISTORY 66SThe Americans are Coming!: The Cold War at Home and Abroad5
HISTORY 72SFamily and Law in American History5
HISTORY 87The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan3
HISTORY 94SMuscle Men and Iron Girls: Sex and Masculinity in Chinese and American History5
HISTORY 105CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives5
HISTORY 166BImmigration Debates in America, Past and Present3-5
HISTORY 187The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan5
HISTORY 201AThe Global Drug Wars4-5
HISTORY 203CHistory of Ignorance5
HISTORY 204GWar and Society5
HISTORY 209CLiberalism and Violence5
HISTORY 222Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe and Russia5
HISTORY 234The Enlightenment3-5
HISTORY 243GTobacco and Health in World History4-5
HISTORY 250ETaxing America: From the Puritans to Prop. 135
HISTORY 254GThe Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution5
HISTORY 258Topics in the History of Sexuality: Sexual Violence in America4-5
HISTORY 293BQueer History in Comparative Perspective4-5
HISTORY 307ALegal History Workshop4-5
HISTORY 352BHistory of American Law5

Note: HISTORY 187 The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan is a non-Western lecture that students in the History and Law track can use towards both a Law methodology course and as the non-Western lecture requirement.

Geographical Cluster (four courses): Students select four History courses in one geographic area. These are: Europe, Britain and the countries of the former British Empire, Asia, North America, Latin America, the Middle East, or Africa. These four courses must be taken in addition to the three methodological courses required above.

Interdisciplinary Cluster (four courses): Students may select from courses offered in the School of Law, School of Education, and others as appropriate. Note: Courses in the School of Law and School of Education require the permission of the instructor before undergraduate students can enroll, since these are graduate-level courses.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills the Writing in the Major requirement.

General Requirements: Like all history majors, students in History Interdisciplinary Programs must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or U.S., one Africa, Asia, Middle East or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and a Research Seminar for Majors.

Public History/Public Service

The Public History/Public Service (PH/PS) interdisciplinary history track is designed for students who wish to include in their course of studies the application of historical study in (1) public settings such as museums and heritage sites, national and state parks, public agencies, and private foundations, and (2) public service settings in non-profit organizations, public agencies, and educational institutions.

PH/PS majors enroll in a gateway course on public history and public service and in four History department courses that provide a geographic concentration as well as completing a two-course methodological requirement. In addition, students, in consultation with the PH/PS faculty coordinator, complete four courses from outside the History department drawn from the annual listing of service-learning courses provided by the Haas Center for Public Service; these courses provide interdisciplinary and methodological perspectives on public service. PH/PS majors must also complete an internship through a regularly offered service-learning course or through a summer internship or fellowship.

Gateway Course (one course): HISTORY 201 Introduction to Public History and Public Service, provides grounding in the theory and practice of public service and exposure to the types of public history practiced in venues such as museums, historical sites, parks, and non-profit organizations, including local historical societies.

Geographical Cluster (four courses): Students select four History courses in one geographic area, such as the United States, Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East, or Africa. The faculty coordinator must pre-approve all courses in this cluster.

Interdisciplinary Cluster (four courses): Students select four courses from outside the History department drawn from the annual listing of service-learning and theory/practice courses provided by the Haas Center for Public Service. The faculty coordinator must pre-approve all courses in this cluster.

Methodological Cluster (two courses): Students must enroll in one Sources and Methods seminar course and one additional 200-level History course. The Writing in the Major (WIM) requirement must be completed in a Research Seminar for Majors.

Public Service/Service Learning Internship (one course): Students must engage in at least a one quarter internship through a service learning course or through a full-time public service or public history summer internship or fellowship. This internship must be pre-approved by the faculty coordinator.

Students who complete a paid summer internship in lieu of one for academic credit have two options: they can complete an additional history course, or they can enroll in 3 units of HISTORY 299S Undergraduate Directed Research and Writing with the faculty coordinator of the PH/PS track and write a 20-page research paper related to their internship work. This research paper is in addition to that required for the Research Seminar for Majors.)

The following History service-learning courses are offered in 2014-15:

Units
HISTORY 5CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives3
HISTORY 105CHuman Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives5
HISTORY 130AIn Sickness and In Health: Medicine and Society in the United States: 1800-Present5
HISTORY 166BImmigration Debates in America, Past and Present3-5
HISTORY 201Introduction to Public History and Public Service4-5
HISTORY 201AThe Global Drug Wars4-5
HISTORY 209CLiberalism and Violence5
HISTORY 243GTobacco and Health in World History4-5
HISTORY 260California's Minority-Majority Cities4-5

If students elect to fulfill the internship requirement through a History Department service-learning course, they must enroll in an additional course in either the geographical cluster or the Interdisciplinary cluster in order to complete the 13 courses required for the major.

Research Seminar for Majors: HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors fulfills Writing in the Major requirement.

General Requirements: As with all history majors, students in History Interdisciplinary Programs must complete two lecture courses (one Europe or US, one Africa, Asia, Middle East or Latin America), two 200-level courses, a Sources and Methods seminar, and a Research Seminar for Majors.

History Secondary Teacher's Credential

Applicants for the Single Subject Teaching Credential (Secondary) in the social studies may obtain information regarding this program from the Credential Administrator, School of Education.

Joint Major Program in History and Computer Science

The joint major program (JMP), authorized by the Academic Senate for a pilot period of six years, permits students to major in both Computer Science and one of ten Humanities majors. See the "Joint Major Program" section of this bulletin for a description of University requirements for the JMP. See also the Undergraduate Advising and Research JMP web site and its associated FAQs.

Students completing the JMP receive a B.A.S. (Bachelor of Arts and Sciences).

Because the JMP is new and experimental, changes to procedures may occur; students are advised to check the relevant section of the bulletin periodically.

History Major Requirements in the Joint Major Program

See the "Computer Science Joint Major Program" section of this bulletin for details on Computer Science requirements.

Students majoring in the History and Computer Science joint major program fulfill all of the breadth, focus, and WIM requirements of the standard History major. Students in the JMP are excused from completing one elective course, reducing the required unit count of the History major from 63 to 59 units (i.e., from a minimum of 13 courses to 12 courses). All courses comprising the major must be taken for a letter grade. 

For details on the requirements of the History major, see the Bachelor's tab of this section of this bulletin. 

Integrative Capstone Experience

One of the highlights of the JMP is an integrative capstone experience, which enables students to work with faculty mentors in the two departments to devise and complete original projects that bring together the different fields. Some students may choose to complete capstone projects under the auspices of HISTORY 209S Research Seminar for Majors which is the required Writing in the Major requirement for all History majors including those in the JMP. Others may choose to complete their capstones under the auspices of other courses in Computer Science or History, or in the context of senior honors projects in one or the other or both departments. In keeping with University policy, units obtained from a capstone course taken within a particular department can be applied to only that department’s requirements.

Declaring a Joint Major Program

To declare the joint major, students must first declare each major through Axess, and then submit the Declaration or Change of Undergraduate Major, Minor, Honors, or Degree Program. The Major-Minor and Multiple Major Course Approval Form is required for graduation for students with a joint major.

Dropping a Joint Major Program

Information about dropping a joint major program is still being developed. This bulletin will be updated when that information is available. Student may consult the Student Services Center with questions concerning dropping the joint major.

Transcript and Diploma

Students completing a joint major graduate with a B.A.S. degree. The two majors are identified on one diploma separated by a hyphen. There will be a notation indicating that the student has completed a "Joint Major".  The two majors are identified on the transcript with a notation indicating that the student has completed a "Joint Major".

Minor in History

Students must declare the minor in History no later than Autumn Quarter of the senior year via Axess. Minor declarations are approved by the Department of History and confirmation is sent via email to the student.

Candidates for the minor in History must complete six courses, at least three of which must have a field or thematic focus. Students completing the minor may choose to concentrate in such fields as African, American, Asian, British, European (medieval, early modern, or modern), Russian and East European history, comparative empires and cultures, or such thematic topics as the history of gender, the family, religion, technology, or revolution. Students may also petition to have a concentration of their own design count toward the minor.

Degree Requirements

All six courses must be of at least 3 units each and must be taken for a letter grade. The student must maintain a grade point average (GPA) in History courses of 2.0 (C) or higher. Two of the six courses must be small-group in format (Stanford Introductory Seminars, Sources and Methods Seminars, departmental colloquia, and research seminars). History courses taken at Stanford overseas campuses may count toward the minor, but at least three of the six courses must be taken from Stanford History faculty.

Advanced Placement credits do not fulfill any minor requirements.

Optional Courses for the Minor

History courses taken at non-Stanford Study Abroad programs may count toward the minor (provided the History Department approves them), but at least three of the six courses must be taken from Stanford History faculty. One course from certain Introduction to the Humanities courses and Thinking Matters courses (those taught by History faculty) may count toward the six-course requirement, but not for the three-course field of concentration. One Undergraduate Directed Research and Writing HISTORY 299S) course may count toward the minor, if taken for 3-5 units and for a letter grade. A maximum of three transfer courses may be used toward the minor.

Coterminal B.A. and M.A. Program in History

The department each year admits a limited number of undergraduates for coterminal B.A. and M.A. degrees in History. Coterminal applications are accepted during Autumn Quarter for admission in Spring Quarter; check with the History office for the application deadline. Applicants are responsible for checking their compliance with University coterminal requirements listed in the "Coterminal Bachelor's and Master's Degrees" section of this bulletin.

Admission

Applicants must meet the same general standards as those seeking admission to the M.A. program; they must submit a written statement of purpose, a transcript, GRE test scores, and three letters of recommendation, at least two of which should be from members of the Department of History faculty. To be competitive, coterminal applicants should have a 3.75 GPA in their undergraduate history major (or equivalent if they are entering without a History major.) The decision on admission rests with the department faculty upon recommendation by the Graduate Admissions Committee. Students must meet all requirements for both degrees. They must complete 15 full-time quarters (or the equivalent), or three full-time quarters after completing 180 units, for a total of 225 units. During the senior year they may, with the consent of the instructors, register for as many as two graduate courses. In the final year of study, they must complete at least three courses that fall within a single Ph.D. field.

The application filing deadline is December 2, 2014.

The coterminal B.A. and M.A. program is not declarable on Axess.

University requirements for the coterminal M.A. are described in the "Coterminal Bachelor's and Master's Degrees" section of this bulletin. For University coterminal degree program rules and University application forms, see the Stanford Undergrad Coterm Guide.

Master of Arts in History

University requirements for the M.A. are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

The department requires the completion of nine courses (totaling not less than 45 units) of graduate work; seven courses of this work must be Department of History courses. Of the seven, one must be a seminar and four must be either graduate colloquia or graduate seminars. Directed reading may be counted for a maximum of 10 units. A candidate whose undergraduate training in history is deemed inadequate must complete nine courses of graduate work in the department. The department does not recognize for credit toward the M.A. degree any work that has not received the grade of 'A' or 'B.'

Terminal M.A. Program

Applicants who do not wish to continue beyond the M.A. degree are admitted to this program at the discretion of the faculty in individual fields (U.S., modern Europe, and so on). Students admitted may not apply to enter the Ph.D. program in History during the course of work for the M.A. degree.

M.A. in Teaching (History)

The department cooperates with the School of Education in offering the Master of Arts in Teaching degree. For the general requirements, see the "School of Education" section of this bulletin. For certain additional requirements made by the Department of History, contact the department office. Candidates must possess a teaching credential or relevant teaching experience.

Admission

Applicants for admission to graduate work must take the General Test of the Graduate Record Examination. It may be taken at most American colleges and in nearly all foreign countries. For details, see the Graduate Admissions web site.

Students admitted to graduate standing do not automatically become candidates for a graduate degree. With the exception of students in the terminal M.A. program, they are admitted with the expectation that they will be working toward the Ph.D. degree and may become candidates to receive the M.A. degree after completing three quarters of work.

The application filing deadline is December 2, 2014.

Doctor of Philosophy in History

University requirements for the Ph.D. are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

Students planning to work for the doctorate in history should be familiar with the general degree requirements of the University outlined in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin. Those interested in applying for admission to the M.A. and Ph.D. programs should contact the graduate program coordinator in the History department. Online applications are available in September of the year prior to intended enrollment. The application filing deadline is December 2, 2014. Applicants must file a report of their general scores on the Graduate Record Examination and submit a writing sample of 10-25 pages on a historical topic. Successful applicants for the M.A. and Ph.D. programs may enter only in Autumn Quarter.

Upon enrollment in the graduate program in History, the student has a member of the department designated as an adviser with whom to plan the Ph.D. program. Much of the first two years of graduate study is spent taking courses, and, from the outset, the student should be aware that the ultimate objective is not merely the completion of courses but preparation for general examinations and for writing a dissertation.

Admission to the Department of History in the graduate division does not establish any rights respecting candidacy for an advanced degree. At the end of the first year of graduate study, students are evaluated by the faculty and given a progress report. A decision as to whether the student is admitted to candidacy for the Ph.D. is normally made by the start of the student's third year.

After the completion of certain further requirements, students must apply for acceptance for candidacy for the doctorate in the graduate division of the University.

Admission

Applicants for admission to graduate work must take the General Test of the Graduate Record Examination. It may be taken at most American colleges and in nearly all foreign countries. For details, see the Office of Graduate Admissions web site.

Students admitted to graduate standing do not automatically become candidates for a graduate degree. With the exception of students in the terminal M.A. program, they are admitted with the expectation that they will be working toward the Ph.D. degree and may become candidates to receive the M.A. degree after completing three quarters of work.

The application filing deadline is December 2, 2014.

Degree Requirements

Required Courses

Units
For all first-year Ph.D. students (6)
HISTORY 304Approaches to History5
HISTORY 305Graduate Pedagogy Workshop1
For first-year and second-year Ph.D students in American History (24-30)
HISTORY 351ACore in American History, Part I4-5
HISTORY 351BCore in American History, Part II4-5
HISTORY 351CCore in American History, Part III4-5
HISTORY 351DCore in American History, Part IV4-5
HISTORY 351ECore in American History, Part V4-5
HISTORY 351FCore in American History, Part VI4-5

Other Graduate Core Colloquia required for Ph.D. students studying in fields other than the above are listed in the Department of History's Graduate Handbook.

University Oral Examinations

The student is expected to take the University oral examination in the major concentration in the third graduate year.

Dissertation

The student must complete and submit a dissertation which is the result of independent work and is a contribution to knowledge. It should evidence the command of approved techniques of research, ability to organize findings, and competence in expression. For details and procedural information, inquire in the department.

Dissertation Committee

The reading committee consists of the principal dissertation adviser (first reader), and two additional members of the Department (second and third readers) agreed upon by the adviser and the student.

Financial Support

Students who are admitted with financial support are provided multiple years of support through fellowships, teaching and research assistantships, and tuition grants. Applicants should indicate on the admissions application whether they wish to be considered for such support. No separate application for financial aid is required.

U.S. citizens and permanent resident aliens who are interested in area language studies in East Asia, Africa, and the republics of the former Soviet Union may request a Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) fellowship application from the FLAS coordinator of the respective programs offering the FLAS (CEAS, CAS, CREEES). The FLAS application deadlines are in January and February (CAS).

Resources

The degree requirements section relates to formal requirements, but the success of a student's graduate program depends in large part on the quality of the guidance received from faculty and on the library resources available. Prospective graduate applicants are advised to study the list of History faculty and the courses this faculty offers. As to library resources, no detailed statement is possible in this bulletin, but areas in which library resources are unusually strong are described following.

The University Library maintains strong general collections in almost all fields of history. It has a very large microtext collection, including, for instance, all items listed in Charles Evans' American Bibliography, and in the Short-Title Catalogues of English publications, 1474-1700, and virtually complete microfilmed documents of the Department of State to 1906. It also has a number of valuable special collections including the Borel Collection on the History of California; many rare items on early American and early modern European history; the Brasch Collection on Sir Isaac Newton and scientific thought during his time; the Gimon Collection on French political economy, and other such materials.

The rich collection of the Hoover Institution on the causes, conduct, and results of WW I and WW II are being augmented for the post-1945 period. The materials include government documents, newspaper and serial files, and organization and party publications (especially the British and German Socialist parties). There are also important manuscript collections, including unpublished records of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and the Herbert Hoover archives, which contain the records of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, the American Relief Administration, the various technical commissions established at the close of WW I for reconstruction in Central and Eastern Europe, the personal papers of Herbert Hoover as United States Food Administrator, and other important personal papers. Other materials for the period since 1914 relate to revolutions and political ideologies of international importance; colonial and minority problems; propaganda and public opinion; military occupation; peace plans and movements; international relations; international organizations and administration including the publications of the United Nations, as well as principal international conferences. The Hoover Institution also possesses some of the richest collections available anywhere on the British labor movement; Eastern Europe, including the Soviet Union; East Asia (runs of important newspapers and serials and extensive documentary collections, especially for the period of WW II); and Africa since 1860, especially French-speaking Africa, the former British colonies, and South Africa.

Requirements

  1. In consultation with the adviser, students select an area of study from the list below in which to concentrate their study and later take the University oral examination. The major concentrations are:
    • Europe, 300-1500
    • Europe, 1400-1800
    • Europe since 1700
    • Jewish History
    • Russia
    • Eastern Europe
    • Middle East and Central Asia
    • South Asia
    • East Asia before 1600
    • China since 1600
    • Japan since 1600
    • Korea since 1800
    • Africa
    • Britain and the British Empire since 1460
    • Latin America
    • The United States (including colonial America)
    • The History of Science and Medicine
    • Transnational, International, and Global
  2. The department seeks to provide a core colloquium in every major concentration. Students normally enroll in this colloquium during the first year of graduate study.
  3. Students are required to take two research seminars, at least one in the major concentration. Normally, research seminars are taken in the first and second years.
  4. Each student, in consultation with the adviser, defines a secondary concentration. This concentration should represent a total of four graduate courses or their equivalents, and it may be fulfilled by working in a historical concentration or an interdisciplinary concentration. The historical concentrations include:
    1. One of the concentrations listed above (other than the student's major concentration).
    2. One of the concentrations listed below, which falls largely outside the student's major concentration:
      • The Ancient Greek World
      • The Roman World
      • Europe, 300-1000
      • Europe, 1000-1400
      • Europe, 1400-1600
      • Europe, 1600-1789
      • Europe, 1700-1871
      • Europe since 1848
      • England, 450-1460
      • Britain and the British Empire, 1460-1714
      • Britain and the British Empire since 1714
      • Russia to 1800
      • Russia since 1800
      • Eastern Europe to 1800
      • Eastern Europe since 1800
      • Jewish History
      • Middle East and Central Asia to 1800
      • Middle East and Central Asia since 1800
      • Africa
      • South Asia
      • China before 1600
      • China since 1600
      • Japan before 1600
      • Japan since 1600
      • Latin America to 1825
      • Latin America since 1810
      • The United States (including Colonial America) to 1865
      • The United States since 1850
      • The History of Science and Medicine
      • Transnational, International, and Global
    3. Work in a national history of sufficiently long time to span chronologically two or more major concentrations. For example, a student with Europe since 1700 as a major concentration may take France from 1000 to the present as a secondary concentration.
    4. A comparative study of a substantial subject across countries or periods. The secondary concentration requirement may also be satisfied in an interdisciplinary concentration. Students plan these concentrations in consultation with their advisers. Interconcentrations require course work outside the Department of History which is related to the student's training as a historian. Interdisciplinary course work can either add to a student's technical competence or broaden his or her approach to the problems of the research concentration.
  5. Each student, before conferral of the Ph.D., is required to satisfy the department's teaching requirement.
  6. There is no University or department foreign language requirement for the Ph.D. degree. A reading knowledge of one or more foreign languages is required in concentrations where appropriate. The faculty in the major concentration prescribes the necessary languages. In no concentration is a student required to take examinations in more than two foreign languages. Certification of competence in commonly taught languages (that is, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish) for candidates seeking to fulfill the language requirement in this fashion is done by the appropriate language department of the University. Certification of competence in other languages is determined in a manner decided on by faculty in the major concentration. In either case, certification of language competence must be accomplished before a student takes the University oral examination.
  7. The student is expected to take the University oral examination in the major concentration in the third graduate year.
  8. The student must complete and submit a dissertation which is the result of independent work and is a contribution to knowledge. It should evidence the command of approved techniques of research, ability to organize findings, and competence in expression. For details and procedural information, inquire in the department.

Ph.D. in History and Humanities

The department of History participated in the Graduate Program in Humanities leading to a Ph.D. degree in History and Humanities. At this time, the option is available only to students already enrolled in the Graduate Program in Humanities; no new students are being accepted. The University remains committed to a broad-based graduate education in the humanities; the courses, colloquium, and symposium continue to be offered, and the Division of Literatures, Cultures, and Languages provides advising for students already enrolled who may contact DLCL Student Affairs at 650-724-1333 or dlcl@stanford.edu for further information. Courses are listed under the subject code HUMNTIES and may be viewed on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

Ph.D. Minor in History

Students pursuing a Ph.D. other than in History may apply for the Ph.D. Minor in History. Ph.D. students cannot pursue a minor in their own program. The minimum University requirement for a Ph.D. minor is 20 units of History course work at the graduate level (courses numbered 300 and above) at Stanford. All units should be in a single field. Units taken for the minor can be counted as part of the overall requirement for the Ph.D. of 135 units taken at Stanford. Courses used for a minor may not be used to meet the requirements for a master's degree.

Degree Requirements

20 units of History course work at the graduate level (HISTORY 300-399W and 400-499X) at Stanford. All units should be in a single field.

Optional Courses for the Minor

A Ph.D. minor form outlining the program of study must be approved by the major and minor departments.

Emeriti: (Professors) Barton J. Bernstein, Carl N. Degler, Peter Duus, Terence Emmons, Harold L. Kahn, David M. Kennedy, George H. Knoles, Carolyn Lougee Chappell, Mark Mancall, Peter Paret, Paul A. Robinson, Paul Seaver, James J. Sheehan, Peter Stansky, David B. Tyack, Lyman P. Van Slyke; (Senior Lecturer) Joseph J. Corn

Chair: Paula Findlen

Professors: Keith M. Baker, Joel Beinin, Albert Camarillo, James T. Campbell, Clayborne Carson, Gordon Chang, Paula Findlen, Estelle Freedman, Stephen Haber, David Holloway, Nancy S. Kollmann, Mark E. Lewis, Norman M. Naimark, Robert Proctor, Jack N. Rakove, Richard L. Roberts, Aron Rodrigue, Richard P. Saller, Walter Scheidel, Londa Schiebinger, Richard White, Kären E. Wigen, Caroline Winterer, Steven J. Zipperstein

Associate Professors: David R. Como, Robert Crews, James P. Daughton, Zephyr Frank, Yumi Moon, Thomas S. Mullaney, Jessica Riskin, Priya Satia, Matthew H. Sommer,  Laura Stokes, Jun Uchida, Amir Weiner

Assistant Professors: Jennifer Burns, Allyson V. Hobbs, Aishwary Kumar, Ana Raquel Minian, Edith Sheffer, Mikael D. Wolfe, Ali Yaycioglu

Courtesy Professors: Giovanna Ceserani, Daniel Edelstein, Lawrence Friedman, Leah Gordon, Avner Greif, Amalia Kessler, David F. Labaree, Kathryn Gin Lum, Reviel Netz, Sam Wineburg, Gavin Wright

Senior Lecturers: Katherine Jolluck, Martin W. Lewis

Acting Assistant Professor: Justin duRivage, Jill Rosenthal

Lecturers: Anne Austin, Frederic Clark, Margo Horn, Carol McKibben

Overseas Studies Courses in History

The Bing Overseas Studies Program manages Stanford study abroad programs for Stanford undergraduates. Students should consult their department or program's student services office for applicability of Overseas Studies courses to a major or minor program.

The Bing Overseas Studies course search site displays courses, locations, and quarters relevant to specific majors.

For course descriptions and additional offerings, see the listings in the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses or Bing Overseas Studies.


Units
OSPBEIJ 67China-Africa and Middle East Relations4
OSPBER 70The Long Way to the West: German History from the 18th Century to the Present4-5
OSPCPTWN 33Southern Africa: from Liberation Struggles to Region-Building4
OSPCPTWN 38Genocide: African Experiences3-5
OSPFLOR 25Italian Food: A Cultural History5
OSPFLOR 44Galileo: Genius, Innovation and the Scientific Revolution5
OSPFLOR 49On-Screen Battles: Filmic Portrayals of Fascism and World War II5
OSPFLOR 58Space as History: Social Vision and Urban Change4
OSPFLOR 75Florence in the Renaissance: Family, Youth and Marriage in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries5
OSPFLOR 115YBuilding the Cathedral and the Town Hall: Constructing and Deconstructing Symbols of a Civilization4
OSPMADRD 25Politics of "Culture/s" in the Iberian's World: the Multicultural Debate4
OSPMADRD 62Spanish California: Historical Issues4
OSPOXFRD 70The History of London5
OSPOXFRD 221YArt and Society in Britain4-5
OSPPARIS 26France: Present and Future2
OSPPARIS 27Paris and Politics5
OSPPARIS 81France During the Second World War: Between History and Memory5
OSPSANTG 68The Emergence of Nations in Latin America4-5

Courses

HISTORY 1A. Global History: The Ancient World. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the emergence of "world empires"-- the first way of constituting a world-- in four regions of the eastern hemisphere from the first millennium BCE to the year 900 CE. It will study the pivotal role of cities, the importance of rulers, the incorporation of diverse peoples, and how the states that followed their collapse constituted new world orders through combining imitation of the vanished empire with the elaboration of the new "world religions."
Same as: CLASSICS 76.

HISTORY 1B. Global History: The Early Modern World, 1300 to 1800. 3-5 Units.

Topics include early globalization and cross-cultural exchanges; varying and diverse cultural formations in different parts of the world; the growth and interaction of empires and states; the rise of capitalism and the economic divergence of "the west"; changes in the nature of technology, including military and information technologies; migration of ideas and people (including the slave-trade); disease, climate, and environmental change over time. Designed to accommodate beginning students, non-majors, and more advanced history students.

HISTORY 3. The Historical and Geographical Background of Current Global Events. 1 Unit.

This one-unit lecture course aims to provide the historical and geographical context necessary for understanding the most important global issues of the day. Weekly lectures will explore two or more major issues in some detail, illustrating them with maps, timelines, photographs, and other images. Topics are not planned in advance, but will instead reflect stories currently in the news.

HISTORY 4N. A World History of Genocide. 3-5 Units.

Reviews the history of genocide from ancient times until the present. Defines genocide, both in legal and historical terms, and investigates its causes, consequences, and global dimensions. Issues of prevention, punishment, and interdiction. Main periods of concern are the ancient world, Spanish colonial conquest; early modern Asia; settler genocides in America, Australia, and Africa; the Armenian genocide and the Holocaust; genocide in communist societies; and late 20th century genocide.
Same as: JEWISHST 4N.

HISTORY 5C. Human Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 105C. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 105C.) Interdisciplinary approach to understanding the extent and complexity of the global phenomenon of human trafficking, especially for forced prostitution and labor exploitation, focusing on human rights violations and remedies. Provides a historical context for the development and spread of human trafficking. Analyzes the current international and domestic legal and policy frameworks to combat trafficking and evaluates their practical implementation. Examines the medical, psychological, and public health issues involved. Uses problem-based learning and offers an optional service-learning component.
Same as: FEMGEN 5C, HUMBIO 178T, SOMGEN 205.

HISTORY 5W. Human Trafficking Service Learning. 2 Units.

Continuation of service learning for students who completed HISTORY 105C.

HISTORY 7E. Islamic Routes: Archaeology and Heritage of Muslim Societies. 3-5 Units.

How has archaeology changed our knowledge of the spread of Islam and past Muslim societies? How does archaeology shape heritage debates, conflicts and ideas about Islam today? Topics include the city and urban change, secular and religious life, gender, economy, and globalization. These topics are explored using archaeological and critical heritage approaches. Focus is on examples drawn from Syria-Palestine, Egypt, Iraq, Arabian Peninsula, India, and Africa. Sources include archaeological data and material culture, historical texts in translation, and photography.
Same as: ANTHRO 13A, ARCHLGY 13, HISTORY 107E.

HISTORY 10B. Survey of Early Modern Europe. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 110B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 110B.) From 1350 to 1789, Europe went from being a provincial backwater to a new global center of power. This course surveys the profound changes of the period that shape our world today: the spread of humanism and science, religious reformation, new styles of warfare, the rise of capitalism and a new global economy, the emergence of the state, and revolution which sought to overthrow established governments.

HISTORY 10C. Introduction to Modern Europe. 3 Units.

(SAME as HISTORY 110C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 110C.) From the late 18th century to the present. How Europeans responded to rapid social changes caused by political upheaval, industrialization, and modernization. How the experience and legacy of imperialism and colonialism both influenced European society and put in motion a process of globalization that continues to shape international politics today.

HISTORY 10SC. Biography in History, Fiction, and Elsewhere. 2 Units.

How biographers, novelists, critics and others have written about the rhythms of life the lives of the famous as well as the obscure - will be explored in this course. Biographical writing can be frivolous, but at its best it has the capacity to undercover so much of life's richness, complexity, and confusions. We'll study biography with the use of some of the most resonant, compelling examples of the genre. Together we'll read books about poets Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes, Henry James Aspern Papers, the brilliant novel on biographical writing, A. S. Byatt's Possession, and Norman Mailer on Marilyn Monroe. How one chooses one topic over another; the differences and similarities between the representation of lives in fiction and biography; the benefits and pitfalls of an intense identification with one's own subjects these and other matters will be examined. We'll meet in San Francisco with local writers wrestling with issues of this sort, and students will be encouraged to try their hands at writing about lives based on research, personal observation, or both.

HISTORY 11N. The Roman Empire: Its Grandeur and Fall. 4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 24N.) Preference to freshmen. Explore themes on the Roman Empire and its decline from the 1st through the 5th centuries C.E.. What was the political and military glue that held this diverse, multi-ethnic empire together? What were the bases of wealth and how was it distributed? What were the possibilities and limits of economic growth? How integrated was it in culture and religion? What were the causes and consequences of the conversion to Christianity? Why did the Empire fall in the West? How suitable is the analogy of the U.S. in the 21st century?
Same as: CLASSICS 26N.

HISTORY 11SC. How Is a Buddhist. 2 Units.

Buddhism as a system of thought, a culture, a way of life, a definition of reality, a method for investigating it, and a mental, physical, and social practice. Buddhism as a total phenomenon. Readings, films, music, and art. How Buddhist practices constitue the world of the Buddhist.

HISTORY 11W. Service-Learning Workshop on Issues of Education Equity. 1 Unit.

Introduces students to a variety of issues at stake in the public education of at-risk high school youth in California. Participants will hear from some of the leading faculty in the School of Education as well as the Departments of Psychology, Sociology, and others, who will share perspectives on the problems and challenges of educating a diverse student body in the state's public school system. The service-learning component of the workshop is a mentoring project (Stanford Students for Educational Equity) with junior class history students from East Palo Alto Academy High School, a Stanford charter school.
Same as: CSRE 11W.

HISTORY 12. Medicine and Disease in the Ancient World. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 112. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 112.) This course explores medicine and disease through case studies from civilizations of the ancient world such as Egypt, Greece, and Peru. We will discuss how these cultures conceptualized disease, and in turn, how they contended with illnesses. Lectures will address different forms of illness through medical texts, art, and human remains. Weekly discussion will incorporate evidence from these sources to explore both their potential and their limitations.

HISTORY 12N. The Early Roman Emperors: HIstory, Biography, and Fiction. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. The politics, drama, and characters of the period after the fall of the Roman Republic in 49 B.C.E. Issues of liberty and autocracy explored by Roman writers through history and biography. The nature of history writing, how expectations about literary genres shape the materials, the line between biography and fiction,and senatorial ideology of liberty. Readings include: Tacitus' Annals, Suetonius' Lives of the Caesers, and Robert Graves' I Claudius and episodes from the BBC series of the same title.

HISTORY 13. The Historical and Geographical Background of Current Global Events. 3 Units.

This three-unit course is designed to complement HISTORY 3, which aims to provide the historical and geographical context necessary for understanding important global issues of the day. Students taking the three-unit course will, in addition to attending the weekly lectures, participate in a weekly seminar in which the same topics addressed in lecture will be examined in greater depth. Students will also be required to write a research paper on a generally neglected news topic of their own choosing.

HISTORY 15D. The Civilization and Culture of the Middle Ages. 3-5 Units.

This course provides an introduction to Medieval Europe from the fall of Rome to the Renaissance. While the framework of the course is chronological, we¿ll concentrate particularly on the structure of medieval society. Rural and urban life, kingship and papal government, wars and plagues provide the context for our examination of the lives of medieval people, what they believed, and how they interacted with other, both within Christendom and beyond it.
Same as: HISTORY 115D.

HISTORY 15N. Inequality: the Last 100,000 Years. 3 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 13N.) This seminar traces the evolution of resource inequality from the Stone Age to the present. Only this long-term perspective reveals the forces that drive inequality and allows us to address two key questions: what causes inequality, and what factors have been capable of reducing it, at least for a while? We are going to confront challenging arguments: that inequality has been closely tied up with overall economic and human development, and that over the long course of history, war, revolution and pestilence were the most effective equalizers of income and wealth. This class will help you appreciate contexts and complexities that are usually obscured by partisan polemics and short-term thinking. Seminar participants will be directly involved in the instructor's current research project on the history of inequality.
Same as: CLASSICS 28N.

HISTORY 20A. The Russian Empire, 1450-1800. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 120A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 120A.) Explores rise of Russian state and expanse of empire; patterns of governance of a Eurasian empire; strategies and institutions of governance; survey of various ethnic and religious groups in empire and their varied cultures and political economies; gender and family; serfdom; Russian Orthodox religion and culture; reforms and Europeanization of 18th century.

HISTORY 20N. Russia in the Early Modern European Imagination. 4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. The contrast between the early modern image of Europe as free, civilized, democratic, rational, and clean against the notion of New World Indians, Turks, and Chinese as savage. The more difficult, contemporary problem regarding E. Europe and Russia which seemed both European and exotic. Readings concerning E. Europe and Russia from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment; how they construct a positive image of Europe and conversely a negative stereotype of E. Europe. Prerequisite: PWR 1.

HISTORY 22SC. A Tale of Two Cities: London and San Francisco. 2 Units.

San Francisco and London are two of the world's best-loved and most-visited cities. They have certain things in common: both are ports, situated on the edge of continents; both are major commercial and cultural centres; and both have been shaped by immigration. Their differences are more obvious than their similarities, however, and these differences are to a large extent explained by their very different histories. London was founded by the Romans and was, for a period in its recent history, the capital of an Empire on which the sun famously never set; San Francisco did not emerge as a city until well into the 19th century and even now has something of the character of a "city state" rather than a national or state capital. Though often considered one of the most European of American cities, San Francisco is in fact laid out on the typically American grid plan; the planning of London is, by contrast, chaotic, reflecting its long evolution and the lack of any effective central planning control. nThe course will explain the ways in which these two fascinating cities have evolved, especially over the past 200 years. We will focus on the development of what is sometimes called the "urban landscape"--streets, public buildings, housing, open spaces, transport systems--and investigate who made the decisions that shaped the two cities as we experience them today. We will look not only at the impact of major events--the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, the bombing of London during World War II--but also at the small decisions made by property owners and developers which helped determine the character of urban neighborhoods. We will use maps and primary documents as well as published histories, and there will be at least two field trips to explore buildings and neighborhoods in San Francisco. Students will write two papers, each of 4-5-pages, on aspects of the history of each city. An interest in history and/urban studies is an obvious asset.

HISTORY 29S. The Animal Other: Humans and Animals in Western History. 5 Units.

Enter a world in which war was waged not by tanks but on horseback and oceans brimmed with fantastic monsters. This class explores the animal-human divide in Western cultural history through topics including: the rise of natural history; the centralized state and its relationship to nature; monstrosity and witchcraft; the ethics of metaphor; scapegoating, sexism, racism; history of animal-rights. Students will have the opportunity to help curate a Green Library exhibition on this subject. The course fulfills the departmental Sources and Methods requirement.
Same as: FEMGEN 29S.

HISTORY 30C. Culture and Society in Reformation England. 3 Units.

(Same as History 130C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 130C.) Focuses on the appeal of both Reformed and Catholic ideas in the political and cultural contexts of early modern Europe. Topics include: the Lutheran revolt; the spread of Protestant ideas; Calvin's Geneva; the English Reformation; Tridentine reform and the Jesuits; toleration and the underground churches; wars and religious violence; and the making of European confessional identities. Sources include sermons, religious polemic, autobiographies, graphic prints, poetry, and music.

HISTORY 30N. Eighteen-Year-Olds Go to War: Global Experiences of World War I. 4 Units.

Exactly one hundred years ago, eighteen-year-olds like you went to war, imagining a romantic, life-changing experience. They found instead an apocalyptic nightmare, senseless mass death, unending stalemate, mud, rats, and endless trauma. In this course we will revisit the journeys of young men and women who lived through the First World War in Europe, India, the Middle East, and Africa. We will explore the causes, unfolding, legacy, and memory of the war, using diaries, letters, memoirs, novels, poetry, films, and works of historical analysis. Witness the birth of the modern world.

HISTORY 31. Leonardo's World: Science, Technology, and Art in the Renaissance. 3-5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 31. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 131.) What did Leonardo actually know? How did he acquire that knowledge? Explores Leonardo¿s interests and accomplishments in such fields as painting, architecture, nengineering, physics, mathematics, geology, anatomy, and physiology, and more generally the nature of Renaissance science, art, and technology. Considers the nrelationship between the society of fifteenth century Italy and the work of the man nfrom Vinci: why did this world produce a Leonardo? How might we use him to understand creativity, innovation, and invention in the Renaissance and beyond? What was his legacy and how did he become a myth? Designed both for students interested in the history of science, medicine, and technology and for students interested in the history and art of Renaissance Italy.
Same as: HISTORY 131.

HISTORY 36N. Gay Autobiography. 4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Gender, identity, and solidarity as represented in nine autobiographies: Isherwood, Ackerley, Duberman, Monette, Louganis, Barbin, Cammermeyer, Gingrich, and Lorde. To what degree do these writers view sexual orientation as a defining feature of their selves? Is there a difference between the way men and women view identity? What politics follow from these writers' experiences?
Same as: FEMGEN 36N.

HISTORY 38A. Germany and the World Wars. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 138A. Majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 138A.) Germany's tumultuous history from the Second Empire through the end of the Cold War. International conflict, social upheaval, and state transformation during Bismarck's wars of unification, World War One, the Weimar Republic, the rise of Nazism, World War Two, the Holocaust, the division of communist East and capitalist West Germany, and the fall of the Iron Curtain.
Same as: JEWISHST 38A.

HISTORY 39. Modern Britain and the British Empire. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 139. History majors and others taking 5 units, register in 139.) From American Independence to the latest war in Iraq. Topics include: the rise of the modern British state and economy; imperial expansion and contraction; the formation of class, gender, and national identities; mass culture and politics; the world wars; and contemporary racial politics. Focus is on questions of decline, the fortunes and contradictions of British liberalism in an era of imperialism, and the weight of the past in contemporary Britain.

HISTORY 39S. Brave New World: Berlin in the Twenties. 5 Units.

From Expressionism to Nazism, the bloodstream of Germany's Weimar Republic (1918-33) coursed with bold and terrifying ideas about how to be modern. Using classic films and architecture, cabaret songs and novels, propaganda posters and newspapers, we will explore Berlin's Roaring Twenties. Yet we will also see that profound and frightening questions accompanied the glamour and sex appeal: about technology and the city, gender and modernity, political violence and the fragility of democracy, the place of emotions in public life. The course fulfills the departmental Sources and Methods requirement.

HISTORY 40. World History of Science. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 140. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 140.) The earliest developments in science, the prehistoric roots of technology, the scientific revolution, and global voyaging. Theories of human origins and the oldest known tools and symbols. Achievements of the Mayans, Aztecs, and native N. Americans. Science and medicine in ancient Greece, Egypt, China, Africa, and India. Science in medieval and Renaissance Europe and the Islamic world including changing cosmologies and natural histories. Theories of scientific growth and decay; how science engages other factors such as material culture and religions.

HISTORY 40S. Magic and Occult Science in Early Modern Europe. 5 Units.

The history of magic and occult philosophy in Europe during the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment. How did magical and occult ways of approaching the world figure in the development of science, technology, and culture, and how do they relate to our views today? We will read primary texts on astrology and alchemy, esoteric cosmology, mathematical mysticism, magic and technology, exploration and discovery, and the Chinese occult tradition, as well as consider their expression in art and music. The course fulfills the departmental Sources and Methods requirement.

HISTORY 41Q. Mad Women: Women and Mental Illness in U.S. History. 3 Units.

Explores how gender and historical context have shaped the experience and treatment of mental illness in U.S. history. Why have women been the witches and hysterics of the past, and why have there historically been more women than men among the mentally ill? Topics include the relationship between historical ideas of femininity and insanity, the ways that notions of gender influence the definition and treatment of mental disorder, and the understanding of the historically embedded nature of medical ideas, diagnoses, and treatments.

HISTORY 42S. The Circle of Life: Visions of Nature in Modern Science, Religion, Politics and Culture. 5 Units.

A new understanding of nature emerged in the 1700s that fundamentally altered our perception of the living world and humanity's relationship with it. By tracing the evolution of this understanding forward, we gain insight into the interactions among science, religion, politics and culture. Topics include: nature in Romantic science, poetry and art; Darwin's theory of evolution and its afterlife in science, literature and popular culture; the science and politics of the 20th-century environmental movement; and the philosophical presuppositions underlying modern debates about biodiversity. In addition to close readings of canonical texts and contemporary commentaries, students will be introduced to digital history methods. Students will design their own final projects in consultation with the instructor.

HISTORY 44. History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine and Engineering. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 144. Majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in HISTORY 144.) Men's and women's roles in science, medicine, and engineering over the past 200 years with a focus on the present. What efforts are underway globally to transform research institutions so that both men's and women's careers can flourish? How have science and medicine studied and defined males and females? How can we harness the creative power of gender analysis to enhance knowledge and spark innovation?.

HISTORY 45B. Africa in the Twentieth Century. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 145B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 145B.) The challenges facing Africans from when the continent fell under colonial rule until independence. Case studies of colonialism and its impact on African men and women drawn from West, Central, and Southern Africa. Novels, plays, polemics, and autobiographies written by Africans.

HISTORY 46N. Science and Magic in History. 4-5 Units.

Preference to freshmen. This course explores the intertwined histories of science and magic. We will begin with the emergence of experimental modern science from natural magic during the Renaissance and will look closely at the apparatus of the natural magician -- magic lanterns and other optical devices, magnets, siphons and other tricky gadgets -- which supplied the first experimental philosophers with their instruments. We will follow the development of scientific performances through the electrical and pneumatic amusements of the 18th century and the founding of "modern magic" in the 19th. Finally, we will look at the legacy of this joint history for both magic and science today. You may think magic and science sound like opposites, but by the light of history -- presto! -- you will see them merge in surprising ways.

HISTORY 47. History of South Africa. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 147. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 147.) Introduction, focusing particularly on the modern era. Topics include: precolonial African societies; European colonization; the impact of the mineral revolution; the evolution of African and Afrikaner nationalism; the rise and fall of the apartheid state; the politics of post-apartheid transformation; and the AIDS crisis.
Same as: AFRICAAM 47.

HISTORY 47N. Global History of Death and Dying. 4 Units.

Does death have a history? Explores the changing realities of, attitudes towards and ways of coping with death. The role of death in shaping the modern world via the global slave trades, imperial conquests, pandemics, wars and genocides. Ways people have made sense of death in extraordinary circumstances and during calmer times. Continuities and transformations in death rituals, intellectual and philosophical debates about the personal and social meanings of death, and the consequences of ways and patterns of dying.

HISTORY 48Q. South Africa: Contested Transitions. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. The inauguration of Nelson Mandela as president in May 1994 marked the end of an era and a way of life for S. Africa. The changes have been dramatic, yet the legacies of racism and inequality persist. Focus: overlapping and sharply contested transitions. Who advocates and opposes change? Why? What are their historical and social roots and strategies? How do people reconstruct their society? Historical and current sources, including films, novels, and the Internet.
Same as: AFRICAAM 48Q.

HISTORY 49C. THE SLAVE TRADE. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 149C. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 149C.) Slave trades and forms of slavery in W. Africa from 1000 to 1885; impacts on lives, social organization, and political structures. Slavery in Islam, the slave market in the Mediterranean and Middle East, and the Saharan slave trade. Slavery within Africa, growth of the Atlantic trade, the Middle Passage, and war and trade that produced slaves. Impact of the Industrial Revolution and European abolition movements on the use of slaves and warfare in Africa. The relationship between slaving and the European conquest of Africa.

HISTORY 50A. Colonial and Revolutionary America. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 150A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150A.) Survey of the origins of American society and polity in the 17th and 18th centuries. Topics: the migration of Europeans and Africans and the impact on native populations; the emergence of racial slavery and of regional, provincial, Protestant cultures; and the political origins and constitutional consequences of the American Revolution.

HISTORY 50B. 19th Century America. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 150B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register in 150B.) Territorial expansion, social change, and economic transformation. The causes and consequences of the Civil War. Topics include: urbanization and the market revolution; slavery and the Old South; sectional conflict; successes and failures of Reconstruction; and late 19th-century society and culture.
Same as: AFRICAAM 50B.

HISTORY 50C. The United States in the Twentieth Century. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 150C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150C.) Major political, economic, social, and diplomatic developments in the U.S. Themes: the economic and social role of government (Progressive, New Deal, Great Society, and Reagan-Bush eras); ethnic and racial minorities in society (mass immigration at the turn of the century and since 1965, the civil rights era of the 50s and 60s); the changing status of women since WW II; shifting ideological bases, institutional structures, and electoral characteristics of the political system (New Deal and post-Vietnam); determinants of foreign policy in WW I and II, and the Cold War.

HISTORY 50K. John F. Kennedy: Fifty Years Later. 1 Unit.

November 22, 2013 marks the 50th anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's assassination. Half a century on, our visually saturated culture remains besotted with images of the youthful president and his strikingly photogenic family. But the passage of time has also yielded new perspectives on Kennedy's presidency and on his era. November 22, 1963 may well come to be remembered not only as the day when the life of a promising young leader was violently cut short, but also as the pivot between two distinct eras in American history. Ironically, though Kennedy was the first World War II veteran to reach the White House, his death heralded the end of the long postwar season of national pride, optimism, confidence, and widely shared prosperity¿and may have opened the road to the great catastrophe that was the Vietnam War. His passing also helped to pry open the portals to historic changes in the lives of millions of African Americans, as witnessed by Lyndon Johnson's artful invocation of the fallen president to bring about passage of the epic civil rights legislation of the late 1960s. nnThis course will examine the postwar domestic and international settings in which Kennedy rose to and exercised power. It will probe our continuing fascination with his character and with his family; his role as a Cold Warrior, especially in the tense confrontation known as the Cuban Missile Crisis; and his relation to the African American struggle to bury Jim Crow. We will conclude with an assessment of the longer-term historical consequence of his brief moment in the arenas of celebrity and power. Guest speakers will include noted Kennedy biographer Robert Dallek; Johnson biographer Bruce Schulman; Taylor Branch, acclaimed biographer of Martin Luther King, Jr.; and Stanford's own Jennifer Burns, historian of modern America.

HISTORY 50N. Who Killed Jane Stanford?. 4 Units.

In 1905 Jane Stanford died of strychnine poisoning. Who may have killed her remains unknown. You will, in effect, be a grand jury. Like most of your real life intellectual work, the class will be collaborative. Together you will identify suspects and examine the often odd actions of central figures in the case: her personal secretary, physicians, and David Starr Jordan, the president of Stanford.

HISTORY 54. American Intellectual and Cultural History to the Civil War. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 154. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 154.) How Americans considered problems such as slavery, imperialism, and sectionalism. Topics include: the political legacies of revolution; biological ideas of race; the Second Great Awakening; science before Darwin; reform movements and utopianism; the rise of abolitionism and proslavery thought; phrenology and theories of human sexuality; and varieties of feminism. Sources include texts and images.

HISTORY 54N. African American Women's Lives. 3-4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. The everyday lives of African American women in 19th- and 20th-century America in comparative context of histories of European, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American women. Primary sources including personal journals, memoirs, music, literature, and film, and historical texts. Topics include slavery and emancipation, labor and leisure, consumer culture, social activism, changing gender roles, and the politics of sexuality.
Same as: AFRICAAM 54N, AMSTUD 54N, CSRE 54N, FEMGEN 54N.

HISTORY 55Q. The Origins of the Modern American City, 1865-1920. 3 Units.

Are we living in a new Gilded Age? To answer this question, we go back to the original Gilded Age, as well as its successor, the Progressive Era. How did urban Americans around the turn of the twentieth century deal with stark inequalities of class, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality? And what can we learn from their struggles for our own time? Students use primary and secondary sources in digital and print formats. Possible field trip to San Francisco.
Same as: URBANST 25Q.

HISTORY 57E. State of the Union 2014. 1 Unit.

This course will examine major themes that contribute to the health, or disease, of the US body politic. Challenges and opportunities abound: we live in an age of rising inequality, dazzling technological innovation, economic volatility, geopolitical uncertainty, and the accumulating impact of climate change. These conditions confront our political leaders and us as citizens of a democracy plagued by dysfunction. What are the implications for the body politic? Led by Rob Reich (Political Science, Stanford), David Kennedy (History, Stanford), and James Steyer (CEO, Common Sense Media), the course will bring together distinguished analysts of American politics. Together, we will examine the following topics: inequality; energy and the environment; media and technology; the economy; and the 2014 midterm elections. The course is designed for the entire Stanford community: jointly offered for undergraduate and graduate students at Stanford (through listings in Political Science and History) and for community members through the Continuing Studies Program. For students, the course is available for 1 credit. This course may not be taken for a Letter Grade.
Same as: POLISCI 57E.

HISTORY 60N. Revolutionaries and Founders. 3 Units.

Americans remain fascinated by the revolutionary generation which secured independence and established a national constitutional republic. Books about the founders come steadily from the presses, some describing the lives of individual revolutionaries, others trying to analyze and explain what made these events possible. This seminar will approach the Revolution through both a biographical and analytical framework, relying both on scholarly writings and the massive array of primary sources that are readily available through letterpress editions and on-line. The course will rely on the instructor's own recent book, Revolutionaries: A New History of the Invention of America, which carries the story from the crisis around the Boston Tea Party of 1773 through the end of President Washington's first administration. The course will be divided evenly between modern scholarship and the careful reading of original materials, and students will write short essays that will involve the analysis of explanatory problems, the close interpretation of documents, and the crafting of historical narratives. Topics to be discussed will include the outbreak of the revolution, constitution-making at both the state and national levels of government, the conduct of the war, and the legacies that Americans particularly associate with Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton.

HISTORY 63N. The Feminist Critique: The History and Politics of Gender Equality. 3-4 Units.

This course explores the emergence of concepts of gender equality in world history. It asks how gender inequality relates to racial, ethnicity, and sexual identities, how men engage with feminism, whether gender equality is purely a western cultural tradition, and much more. We approach the long history of ideas about gender and equality by reading primary historical documents from around the world, moving from the 15th century to the present. Topics include education, the body, sexuality, violence, labor, and politics.
Same as: AMSTUD 63N, CSRE 63N, FEMGEN 63N.

HISTORY 64. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Modern America. 4-5 Units.

How ethnicity influenced the American experience and how prevailing attitudes about racial and ethnic groups over time have affected the historical and contemporary reality of the nation's major minority populations. Focus is on the past two centuries.
Same as: CSRE 64.

HISTORY 64S. Debtor Nation: 20th Century American Capitalism. 5 Units.

This course explores the history of 20th century American capitalism through the workings of credit and debt. What is debt? Who has access to credit and how is creditworthiness determined? Using a range of sources, from crop-lien contracts, to installment plans, to advertisements for municipal bonds, students will examine the ways in which capitalism shapes and is shaped by the allocation of credit along race, class, and gendered lines. The course fulfills the departmental Sources and Methods requirement.

HISTORY 65D. The Pacific World. 3 Units.

Taking the Pacific and the regions of the world that touch the ocean as the unit of analysis, we will explore geographic, social, cultural, and political interactions that created what we now call the Pacific World. Ranging over four hundred years of history, we will examine human migrations, explorations, interactions and conflicts, and human ecology. The course is not nation-focused but is transnational and international in approach.

HISTORY 65S. Intimate Frontiers: Race, Gender, and Colonialism in the American West. 5 Units.

Historians have increasingly recognized the American West as a place of empire and settler colonialism. This course will explore the colonial dimensions of the 19th century American West through a variety of sources produced in the most "intimate" spaces on North America's multicultural frontier: in homes, missions, boardinghouses, schools, mining camps, courtrooms, and more. By examining how the intimate shaped everyday lives, we will pay special attention to how ambiguous concepts like race, gender, class, sexuality, and national identity coalesced. The course fulfills the departmental Sources and Methods requirement.

HISTORY 66S. The Americans are Coming!: The Cold War at Home and Abroad. 5 Units.

This course explores the relationship between U.S. foreign and domestic policy from 1945 to 1975. How did fighting the "Communist menace" shape notions of race, gender, and national identity within the United States? In what ways did nation-building abroad trigger clashes over the meaning of democracy at home? Using textual sources, photographs, films, and cartoons, students will examine notions of what it meant to be "American," both inside and outside the nation's borders, in a Cold War climate. The course fulfills the departmental Sources and Methods requirement.
Same as: CSRE 66S.

HISTORY 70. Culture, Politics, and Society in Latin America. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 170B. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in HISTORY 170B.) The course of Latin American history from the colonial era to the present day. Key issues such as colonialism, nationalism, democracy, and revolution will be examined critically in light of broad comparative themes in Latin American and world history. Sources include writings in the social sciences as well as primary documents, fiction, and film.

HISTORY 71S. American Political Thought from the Civil War to the Cold War. 5 Units.

This course explores America's most important political tradition: liberalism. What does liberalism mean? Does it mean something different today than it did in the past? Using multiple textual and visual sources, students will grapple with how Americans remade liberalism in the 19th and 20th centuries and how political thinkers have understood its meaning over time. We will see how American liberalism was shaped by factors of race, gender, and class and by competing ideologies like conservatism and socialism.

HISTORY 72S. Family and Law in American History. 5 Units.

This course explores connections between family and law in American history, from the colonial period through the early twentieth century. We will examine the roles, status, and agency of husbands, wives, mothers, fathers, and children, within the family, the law, and broader society. Using a variety of primary sources, we will consider topics including property rights, marriage, divorce, illegitimacy, child labor, slave families and family relationships among freedpeople, child custody, adoption, polygamy, immigration and citizenship, and child welfare. The course fulfills the departmental Sources and Methods requirement.

HISTORY 74. Mexico Since 1876: History of a "Failed State"?. 3 Units.

This course is an introduction to the history and diverse peoples of modern Mexico from 1876 to the present. Through lectures, discussions, primary and secondary readings, short documentaries, and written assignments, students will critically explore and analyze the multiplicity of historical processes, events and trends that shaped and were shaped by Mexicans over the course of a century. The course will cover some of the social and political dimensions of rural social change, urbanization and industrialization, technological innovation and misuse, environmental degradation and conservation, education, ideology, culture and media, migration, and the drug trade.

HISTORY 74S. Sounds of the Century: Popular Music and the United States in the 20th Century. 5 Units.

What can popular music teach us about the pst? What can we learn about music if we study it historically? This course grapples with these two questions by examining various examples of American music in the 20th century, as well as more conventional historical sources, scholarly books, and essays. Will pay special attention to how issues of race, gender, sexuality, class, and nation were reflected in and produced by people's interactions with music, inside and outside American borders.

HISTORY 78N. Film and History of Latin American Revolutions. 3 Units.

In this course we will watch and critique films made about Latin America's 20th century revolutions focusing on the Mexican, Cuban, Chilean and Nicaraguan revolutions. We will analyze the films as both social and political commentaries and as aesthetic and cultural works, alongside archivally-based histories of these revolutions.

HISTORY 82C. Making of the Islamic World, 600-1500. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 182C. Majors and other taking 5 units, register for 182C.) The History of Islam and Muslim peoples from 600-1500. Topics include Muhammad and his community; the early Arab conquests and empires; sectarian movements; formation of Islamic belief, thought, legal culture and religious institutions; transregional Sufi and learned networks; family and sexuality; urban, rural and nomadic life; non-Muslim communities; the development of Mediterranean and Indian Ocean trade; relations with Byzantium, the Latin West, China; the Crusades and the Mongols.

HISTORY 84. Zionism. 3 Units.

Hotly contested still, this course will open up the movement's ideas, practices, achievements and crises in such a way as to allow students to hear the fullest range of voices - Jewish, Arab, religious, secular, etc. It will track the movement from its appearance in the late nineteenth century until the establishment of State of Israel in 1948, and beyond.
Same as: JEWISHST 84, REES 84.

HISTORY 84N. The American Empire in the Middle East. 4-5 Units.

What have been the traditional objectives of U.S. policy in the Middle East since the end of World War II? What forces shape U.S. policy towards the Middle East? Did those interests and the means employed to pursue them change substantially after the demise of the Soviet Union? What has been the impact of U.S. policy on the region itself? The three principal cases to be examined are Afghanistan, Iraq and Israel/Palestine.

HISTORY 87. The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 187. History majors and other taking 5 units, register for 187.) Explores the contested politics of these societies in modern times. Topics include controversies surrounding the meaning of revolution, state building, war, geopolitics, Islamic law, clerical authority, gender, an Islamic economy, culture, and ethnic, national and religious identities from the 1940s to the present. Assignments will focus on primary sources (especially legal documents, poetry, novels, and memoirs) and films.

HISTORY 90. EARLY CHINESE THOUGHT. 3-5 Units.

This course will examine the basic themes that emerged among the philosophical texts of early China¿including writings attributed to Confucius and his followers, those of the early Daoists, and those focused on the authoritarian state¿and analyze their relation to the changes in the state and social order in that period. Themes to be discussed will include the nature of human networks, the state, the family, the body, personality or temperaments, stratagems, language, and the structure of the cosmos.
Same as: HISTORY 190.

HISTORY 91D. China: The Northern and Southern Dynasties. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 191D. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 191D.) Examines one of the most dynamic periods of Chinese history with the emergence of the institutional religions (Buddhism and Daoism), the development of the garden as an art form, the rise of landscape as a theme of verse and art, the invention of lyric poetry, and the real beginnings of the southward spread of Chinese civilization.

HISTORY 92A. The Historical Roots of Modern East Asia. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on China and Japan before and during their transition to modernity. The populous, urbanized, economically advanced, and culturally sophisticated Ming empire and Muromachi shogunate in the 16th century when Europeans first arrived. How the status quo had turned on its head by the early 20th century when European and American steamships dominated the Pacific, China was in social and political upheaval, and Japan had begun its march to empire.
Same as: HISTORY 392E.

HISTORY 93. Late Imperial China. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 193. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 193.) A survey of Chinese history from the 11th century to the collapse of the imperial state in 1911. Topics include absolutism, gentry society, popular culture, gender and sexuality, steppe nomads, the Jesuits in China, peasant rebellion, ethnic conflict, opium, and the impact of Western imperialism.
Same as: CHINLIT 93, FEMGEN 93.

HISTORY 93S. Bandits, Merchants, and Saints: The Sino-Tibetan Frontier, 1700-2000. 5 Units.

Beginning in the eighteenth century, this course traces the complex transition from empire to nation-state along the Sino-Tibetan frontier, touching upon a number of important issues such as imperial policies of incorporation, resistance, and the rise of modernity. We will explore varied methodological approaches to a wide range of primary sources¿Tibetan histories, Sufi hagiographies, legal cases, short stories¿and investigate how the frontier¿s merchants, herders, and farmers experienced the enormous social and political changes of the last three centuries. The course fulfills the departmental Sources and Methods requirement.

HISTORY 94B. Japan in the Age of the Samurai. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 194B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 194B.) From the Warring States Period to the Meiji Restoration. Topics include the three great unifiers, Tokugawa hegemony, the samurai class, Neoconfucian ideologies, suppression of Christianity, structures of social and economic control, frontiers, the other and otherness, castle-town culture, peasant rebellion, black marketing, print culture, the floating world, National Studies, food culture, samurai activism, black ships, unequal treaties, anti-foreign terrorism, restorationism, millenarianism, modernization as westernization, Japan as imagined community.

HISTORY 94S. Muscle Men and Iron Girls: Sex and Masculinity in Chinese and American History. 5 Units.

How is masculinity represented and experienced in different cultural contexts? How do gender, sexuality, race, and class inform the construction of American and Chinese masculinities? How do historians use primary sources to make arguments? Examines visual and textual sources including magazines, photographs, propaganda posters, legal cases and film. Analyzes transnational history of masculinity in China and the United States from the late 1800s to the present. Topics include bodybuilding, martial arts, female masculinity, homosexuality, Cold War, and 1960s social movements. The course fulfills the departmental Sources and Methods requirement.
Same as: FEMGEN 94S.

HISTORY 95. Modern Korean History. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 195. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195.) This lecture course provides a general introduction to the history of modern Korea. Themes include the characteristics of the Chosôn dynasty, reforms and rebellions in the nineteenth century, Korean nationalism; Japan's colonial rule and Korean identities; decolonization and the Korean War; and the different state-building processes in North and South, South Korea's democratization in 1980s, and the current North Korean crisis.

HISTORY 95C. Modern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 195C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195C.) Japan's modern transformation from the late 19th century to the present. Topics include: the Meiji revolution; industrialization and social dislocation; the rise of democracy and empire; total war and US occupation; economic miracle and malaise; Japan as soft power; and politics of memory. Readings and films focus on the lived experience of ordinary men and women across social classes and regions.

HISTORY 95N. Mapping the World: Cartography and the Modern Imagination. 4-5 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Focus is on cutting-edge research. Topics: the challenge of grasping the globe as a whole; geography's roots in empire; maps as propaganda and as commodities; the cultural production of scale; and the cartography of imaginery worlds.Sources include resources in the Green Library Special Collections and in the Stanford Spatial History Lab.

HISTORY 96. Worlds of Gandhi. 3 Units.

Place the paradox of Gandhi in context of global convulsions of 20th century. Gandhi lived across continents; maturing in South Africa, struggling in India, attaining celebrity in Europe. As leader of masses, his method of Satyagraha was distinctively at odds with his times. Yet, he also privileged sacrifice, dying, even euthanasia. In a world beset by fear and war, Gandhi's complex theory of nonviolence is compelling. What kind of nonviolent politics did Gandhi envision after Fascism, Auschwitz, Hiroshima, and Pakistan?.

HISTORY 98. The History of Modern China. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 198. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 198.) This course charts major historical transformations in modern China, and will be of interest to those concerned with Chinese politics, culture, society, ethnicity, economy, gender, international relations, and the future of the world.

HISTORY 98N. Beijing, Shanghai, and the Structure of Modern China. 3 Units.

This course examines the transformation of China from the late empire to the present by studying the nature of its two greatest cities. Topics examined will include the evolving physical structure of the cities, their changing relations to the Chinese state and the outside world, shifting understandings of the urban population/crowd, the changing nature of time, new modes of self-definition through patterns of consumption, the cities as topics of literature and movies, and the nature of urban modernity.

HISTORY 99S. Christianity in East Asia. 5 Units.

How did Christianity spread in East Asia? Was it simply a by-product of Western imperialism? How should we evaluate the social transformations that accompanied Christianity? How have historians addressed the related issues such as cultural encounter, nationalism, imperialism, gender, and secularism? Through a wide range of primary and secondary sources, this course examines the history of Christianity in East Asia from its origins in the 16th century to the present. The course fulfills the departmental Sources and Methods requirement.

HISTORY 101. The Greeks. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 101.) 250 years ago, for almost the first time in history, a few societies rejected kings who claimed to know what the gods wanted and began moving toward democracy. Only once before had this happened--in ancient Greece. This course asks how the Greeks did this, and what they can teach us today. It uses texts and archaeology to trace the material and military sides of the story as well as cultural developments, and looks at Greek slavery and misogyny as well as their achievements. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: CLASSICS 83.

HISTORY 102. History of the International System. 5 Units.

After defining the characteristics of the international system at the beginning of the twentieth century, this course reviews the primary developments in its functioning in the century that followed. Topics include the major wars and peace settlements; the emergence of Nazism and Communism; the development of the Cold War and nuclear weapons; the rise of China, India, and the EU; and the impact of Islamic terrorism. The role of international institutions and international society will also be a focus as will the challenge of environment, health, poverty, and climate issues to the functioning of the system.
Same as: INTNLREL 102.

HISTORY 102A. The Romans. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 60.) How did a tiny village create a huge empire and shape the world, and why did it fail? Roman history, imperialism, politics, social life, economic growth, and religious change. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required; enroll in sections on Coursework.
Same as: CLASSICS 84.

HISTORY 103D. Human Society and Environmental Change. 4 Units.

Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding human-environment interactions with a focus on economics, policy, culture, history, and the role of the state. Prerequisite: ECON 1
Same as: EARTHSYS 112, EESS 112.

HISTORY 103E. The International History of Nuclear Weapons. 5 Units.

The development of nuclear weapons and policies. How existing nuclear powers have managed their relations with each other. How nuclear war has been avoided so far and whether it can be avoided in the future.
Same as: POLISCI 116.

HISTORY 103F. Introduction to Military History. 5 Units.

Introduces students to the rich history of military affairs and, at the same time, examines the ways in which we think of change and continuity in military history. How did war evolve from ancient times, both in styles of warfare and perceptions of war? What is the nature of the relationship between war and society? Is there such a thing as a Western way of war? What role does technology play in transforming military affairs? What is a military revolution and can it be manufactured or induced? Chronologically following the evolution of warfare from Ancient Greece to present day so-called new wars, we will continuously investigate how the interdependencies between technological advances, social change, philosophical debates and economic pressures both shaped and were influenced by war.

HISTORY 104D. International Security in a Changing World. 5 Units.

This class surveys the most pressing international security issues facing the world today and includes an award-winning two-day international crisis simulation led by Stanford faculty and former policymakers. Guest lecturers have included former Secretary of Defense William Perry, former U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan Gen. Karl Eikenberry, and former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. Major topics covered: cyber security, nuclear proliferation, insurgency and intervention, terrorism, the Arab Spring, and the future of U.S. leadership in the world. No prior background in international relations is necessary.
Same as: IPS 241, POLISCI 114S.

HISTORY 105C. Human Trafficking: Historical, Legal, and Medical Perspectives. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 5C. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 105C.) Interdisciplinary approach to understanding the extent and complexity of the global phenomenon of human trafficking, especially for forced prostitution and labor exploitation, focusing on human rights violations and remedies. Provides a historical context for the development and spread of human trafficking. Analyzes the current international and domestic legal and policy frameworks to combat trafficking and evaluates their practical implementation. Examines the medical, psychological, and public health issues involved. Uses problem-based learning and offers an optional service-learning component.
Same as: FEMGEN 105C, INTNLREL 105C.

HISTORY 106A. Global Human Geography: Asia and Africa. 5 Units.

Global patterns of demography, economic and social development, geopolitics, and cultural differentiation, covering E. Asia, S. Asia, S.E. Asia, Central Asia, N. Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. Use of maps to depict geographical patterns and processes.

HISTORY 106B. Global Human Geography: Europe and Americas. 5 Units.

Patterns of demography, economic and social development, geopolitics, and cultural differentiation. Use of maps to depict geographical patterns and processes.

HISTORY 107E. Islamic Routes: Archaeology and Heritage of Muslim Societies. 3-5 Units.

How has archaeology changed our knowledge of the spread of Islam and past Muslim societies? How does archaeology shape heritage debates, conflicts and ideas about Islam today? Topics include the city and urban change, secular and religious life, gender, economy, and globalization. These topics are explored using archaeological and critical heritage approaches. Focus is on examples drawn from Syria-Palestine, Egypt, Iraq, Arabian Peninsula, India, and Africa. Sources include archaeological data and material culture, historical texts in translation, and photography.
Same as: ANTHRO 13A, ARCHLGY 13, HISTORY 7E.

HISTORY 110B. Survey of Early Modern Europe. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 10B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 110B.) From 1350 to 1789, Europe went from being a provincial backwater to a new global center of power. This course surveys the profound changes of the period that shape our world today: the spread of humanism and science, religious reformation, new styles of warfare, the rise of capitalism and a new global economy, the emergence of the state, and revolution which sought to overthrow established governments.

HISTORY 112. Medicine and Disease in the Ancient World. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 12. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for HISTORY 112.) This course explores medicine and disease through case studies from civilizations of the ancient world such as Egypt, Greece, and Peru. We will discuss how these cultures conceptualized disease, and in turn, how they contended with illnesses. Lectures will address different forms of illness through medical texts, art, and human remains. Weekly discussion will incorporate evidence from these sources to explore both their potential and their limitations.

HISTORY 113. Before Globalization: Understanding Premodern World History. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 147.) This course covers the history of the world from 60,000 years ago until 1500 by asking big questions: Why did civilizations develop the way they did? What factors were responsible for similarities and differences between different parts of the world? What does this mean for our newly globalized world?.

HISTORY 114. Origins of History in Greece and Rome. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 117.) The beginnings and development of historical writing in the ancient world. Emphasis on major classical historians and various models of history they invented, from local to imperial, military, cultural, biographical, world history and church history. Focus on themes of power, war, loss, growth and decline, as put by the ancients into historical narrative forms and probed by way of historical questioning and explanation. Attention to how these models resonate still today. Readings in translation: Herodotus, Thucydides, Tacitus, Livy and others. Participation in a weekly discussion section is required.
Same as: CLASSICS 88.

HISTORY 115D. The Civilization and Culture of the Middle Ages. 3-5 Units.

This course provides an introduction to Medieval Europe from the fall of Rome to the Renaissance. While the framework of the course is chronological, we¿ll concentrate particularly on the structure of medieval society. Rural and urban life, kingship and papal government, wars and plagues provide the context for our examination of the lives of medieval people, what they believed, and how they interacted with other, both within Christendom and beyond it.
Same as: HISTORY 15D.

HISTORY 116N. Howard Zinn and the Quest for Historical Truth. 3 Units.

With more than two million copies in print, Howard Zinn¿s A People's History is a cultural icon. We will use Zinn¿s book to probe how we determine what was true in the past. A People's History will be our point of departure, but our journey will visit a variety of historical trouble spots: debates about whether the US was founded as a Christian nation, Holocaust denial, and the "Birther" controversy of President Obama.
Same as: EDUC 116N.

HISTORY 120A. The Russian Empire, 1450-1800. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 20A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 120A.) Explores rise of Russian state and expanse of empire; patterns of governance of a Eurasian empire; strategies and institutions of governance; survey of various ethnic and religious groups in empire and their varied cultures and political economies; gender and family; serfdom; Russian Orthodox religion and culture; reforms and Europeanization of 18th century.

HISTORY 120B. The Russian Empire. 5 Units.

From Peter the Great to the Bolsheviks. Russia as an empire; its varied regions, including the Caucasus, Central Asia, Ukraine, Poland, and the Baltics. Focus is on the politics and cultures of empire. Sources include novels, political tracts, paintings, music, and other primary sources.

HISTORY 120C. 20th-Century Russian and Soviet History. 5 Units.

The Soviet polity from the 1917 Revolution to its collapse in 1991. Essentials of Marxist ideology; the Russian Empire in 1917. Causation in history; interpretations of the Revolution; state building in a socialist polity; social engineering through collectivization of agriculture, force-paced industrialization, and cultural revolution; terror as concept and practice; nationality policies in a multiethnic socialist empire; the routinization, decline, and collapse of the revolutionary ethos; and the legacy of the Soviet experiment in the new Russia.

HISTORY 126B. Protestant Reformation. 4 Units.

The emergence of Protestant Christianity in 16th-century Europe. Analysis of writings by evangelical reformers (Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, Sattler, Hubmeier, Müntzer) and study of reform movements (Lutheran, Reformed, Anabaptist, Spiritualist) in their medieval context and as expressions of new and influential visions of Christian belief, life, social order.
Same as: RELIGST 126.

HISTORY 130A. In Sickness and In Health: Medicine and Society in the United States: 1800-Present. 5 Units.

Explores the history of medical institutions, ideas and practices in the United States from the early nineteenth century to the present. How are ideas of illness and health historically rooted and socially constructed? How did scientific and medical discoveries lead to the risk of scientific medicine, and how were these innovations adopted within the American cultural landscape? Topics include the transformation of therapeutics and technologies, medicine and the scientific ideal in the U.S., gender and race and medicine, the history of public health, and the professionalization and specialization of American medical practice.

HISTORY 131. Leonardo's World: Science, Technology, and Art in the Renaissance. 3-5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 31. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 131.) What did Leonardo actually know? How did he acquire that knowledge? Explores Leonardo¿s interests and accomplishments in such fields as painting, architecture, nengineering, physics, mathematics, geology, anatomy, and physiology, and more generally the nature of Renaissance science, art, and technology. Considers the nrelationship between the society of fifteenth century Italy and the work of the man nfrom Vinci: why did this world produce a Leonardo? How might we use him to understand creativity, innovation, and invention in the Renaissance and beyond? What was his legacy and how did he become a myth? Designed both for students interested in the history of science, medicine, and technology and for students interested in the history and art of Renaissance Italy.
Same as: HISTORY 31.

HISTORY 132. Ordinary Lives: A Social History of the Everyday in Early Modern Europe. 5 Units.

What war meant for foot soldiers and the peasants across whose fields they marched. Ordinary people's lives in the eras of Machiavelli, Shakespeare, the Reformation, and the scientific revolution. Topics include: birth, marriage, and death; city life and peasant culture; lay encounters with religious and intellectual ideas; war and crime; and gender and sexuality.

HISTORY 137. The Holocaust. 4-5 Units.

The emergence of modern racism and radical anti-Semitism. The Nazi rise to power and the Jews. Anti-Semitic legislation in the 30s. WW II and the beginning of mass killings in the East. Deportations and ghettos. The mass extermination of European Jewry.
Same as: HISTORY 337, JEWISHST 183, JEWISHST 383.

HISTORY 137A. Europe, 1945-2002. 5 Units.

Europe's transformation from the end of WW II to an expanded EU. Political, cultural, economic, and social history. Topics: postwar reconstruction, Cold War, consumer versus socialist culture, collapse of Communism, postcommunist integration.

HISTORY 138A. Germany and the World Wars. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 38A. Majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 138A.) Germany's tumultuous history from the Second Empire through the end of the Cold War. International conflict, social upheaval, and state transformation during Bismarck's wars of unification, World War One, the Weimar Republic, the rise of Nazism, World War Two, the Holocaust, the division of communist East and capitalist West Germany, and the fall of the Iron Curtain.
Same as: JEWISHST 138A.

HISTORY 139. Modern Britain and the British Empire. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 39. History majors and others taking 5 units, register in 139.) From American Independence to the latest war in Iraq. Topics include: the rise of the modern British state and economy; imperial expansion and contraction; the formation of class, gender, and national identities; mass culture and politics; the world wars; and contemporary racial politics. Focus is on questions of decline, the fortunes and contradictions of British liberalism in an era of imperialism, and the weight of the past in contemporary Britain.

HISTORY 140. World History of Science. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 40. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 140.) The earliest developments in science, the prehistoric roots of technology, the scientific revolution, and global voyaging. Theories of human origins and the oldest known tools and symbols. Achievements of the Mayans, Aztecs, and native N. Americans. Science and medicine in ancient Greece, Egypt, China, Africa, and India. Science in medieval and Renaissance Europe and the Islamic world including changing cosmologies and natural histories. Theories of scientific growth and decay; how science engages other factors such as material culture and religions.

HISTORY 144. History of Women and Gender in Science, Medicine and Engineering. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 44. Majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in HISTORY 144.) Men's and women's roles in science, medicine, and engineering over the past 200 years with a focus on the present. What efforts are underway globally to transform research institutions so that both men's and women's careers can flourish? How have science and medicine studied and defined males and females? How can we harness the creative power of gender analysis to enhance knowledge and spark innovation?
Same as: FEMGEN 144.

HISTORY 145A. Africa Until European Conquest. 5 Units.

Episodes in African history from the earliest records up until European partition of the continent, focusing on how knowledge about the natural, social, and spiritual worlds was linked to the exercise of power. The effects of technological innovations on states and other forms of social complexity; use of religious beliefs and practices to legitimate or critique authority. The effects of slave trades and imperial conquest on these forms of authority.

HISTORY 145B. Africa in the 20th Century. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 45B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 145B.) The challenges facing Africans from when the continent fell under colonial rule until independence. Case studies of colonialism and its impact on African men and women drawn from West, Central, and Southern Africa. Novels, plays, polemics, and autobiographies written by Africans.
Same as: AFRICAAM 145B.

HISTORY 146. History of Humanitarian Aid in sub-Saharan Africa. 5 Units.

Explores humanitarian endeavors through the era of the slave trade, colonialism, the Cold War and the present. Our focus is both local and global examining international humanitarian policy and the effects and perceptions of humanitarian aid within different African localities. Assignments use primary and secondary sources including organizational reports, ethnographies, memoirs and film. Topics: anti-slave trade and abolition movements, `civilizing¿ missions, development, refugees, peacekeeping, famine and women's rights.

HISTORY 147. History of South Africa. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 47. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 147.) Introduction, focusing particularly on the modern era. Topics include: precolonial African societies; European colonization; the impact of the mineral revolution; the evolution of African and Afrikaner nationalism; the rise and fall of the apartheid state; the politics of post-apartheid transformation; and the AIDS crisis.
Same as: AFRICAAM 147.

HISTORY 149C. The Slave Trade. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 49C. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 149C.) Slave trades and forms of slavery in W. Africa from 1000 to 1885; impacts on lives, social organization, and political structures. Slavery in Islam, the slave market in the Mediterranean and Middle East, and the Saharan slave trade. Slavery within Africa, growth of the Atlantic trade, the Middle Passage, and war and trade that produced slaves. Impact of the Industrial Revolution and European abolition movements on the use of slaves and warfare in Africa. The relationship between slaving and the European conquest of Africa.

HISTORY 150A. Colonial and Revolutionary America. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 50A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for HISTORY 150A.) Survey of the origins of American society and polity in the 17th and 18th centuries. Topics: the migration of Europeans and Africans and the impact on native populations; the emergence of racial slavery and of regional, provincial, Protestant cultures; and the political origins and constitutional consequences of the American Revolution.
Same as: AMSTUD 150A.

HISTORY 150B. 19th-Century America. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 50B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150B.) Territorial expansion, social change, and economic transformation. The causes and consequences of the Civil War. Topics include: urbanization and the market revolution; slavery and the Old South; sectional conflict; successes and failures of Reconstruction; and late 19th-century society and culture.
Same as: AFRICAAM 150B, AMSTUD 150B.

HISTORY 150C. The United States in the Twentieth Century. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 50C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150C.) Major political, economic, social, and diplomatic developments in the U.S. Themes: the economic and social role of government (Progressive, New Deal, Great Society, and Reagan-Bush eras); ethnic and racial minorities in society (mass immigration at the turn of the century and since 1965, the civil rights era of the 50s and 60s); the changing status of women since WW II; shifting ideological bases, institutional structures, and electoral characteristics of the political system (New Deal and post-Vietnam); determinants of foreign policy in WW I and II, and the Cold War.
Same as: AMSTUD 150C.

HISTORY 151. The American West. 5 Units.

The American West is characterized by frontier mythology, vast distances, marked aridity, and unique political and economic characteristics. This course integrates several disciplinary perspectives into a comprehensive examination of Western North America: its history, physical geography, climate, literature, art, film, institutions, politics, demography, economy, and continuing policy challenges. Students examine themes fundamental to understanding the region: time, space, water, peoples, and boom and bust cycles.
Same as: AMSTUD 124A, ARTHIST 152, ENGLISH 124, POLISCI 124A.

HISTORY 152. History of American Law. 5 Units.

(Same as LAW 318.) Modern history of American law, legal thought, legal institutions and the legal profession. Topics include law and regulation of corporate organizations and labor relations in the age of enterprise, law of race relations in the South and North, development of classical legalism, critiques of classical legalism, modern administrative state, organized legal profession, New Deal legal thought and legislation, legal order of the 50s, expansion of enterprise liability, civil rights movements from 1940, rights revolution of the Warren Court and Great Society.
Same as: HISTORY 352B.

HISTORY 153. CREATION OF THE CONSTITUTION. 5 Units.

(Same as LAW 230.) The course begins with readings setting forth the intellectual and experiential background of the framing, including common law and natural rights theory, republicanism, economic & political scientific ideas, and colonial and post-Independence experience. We then study large parts of the debates at the Constitutional Convention, primarily using Madison's Notes. Next come the ratification debates, including readings from antifederalist writers, about half of The Federalist, and overviews of the Virginia and New York ratification conventions. We conclude with the addition of the Bill of Rights. Classes consist of a combination of lecture and extensive participation by students. Elements used in grading: Exam.

HISTORY 154. American Intellectual and Cultural History to the Civil War. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 54. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 154.) How Americans considered problems such as slavery, imperialism, and sectionalism. Topics include: the political legacies of revolution; biological ideas of race; the Second Great Awakening; science before Darwin; reform movements and utopianism; the rise of abolitionism and proslavery thought; phrenology and theories of human sexuality; and varieties of feminism. Sources include texts and images.
Same as: AMSTUD 154.

HISTORY 154D. Religion and War in America. 4 Units.

Scholars have devoted much attention to wars in American history, but have not agreed as to whether religion was a major cause or simply a cover for political, economic, and other motives. We will compare interpretations that leave religion out, with those that take it into account. We will also look at the impact of war on the religious lives of ordinary Americans. We will examine both secondary as well as primary sources, beginning with King Philip's War in the 17th century, and ending with the "War on Terror" in the present day.
Same as: RELIGST 105.

HISTORY 155. American Constitutional History. 5 Units.

(Same as LAW 738.) American Constitutional History from the Civil War to the Cold War. This course will address U.S. constitutional history from the post-Civil War Reconstruction period through the mid-20th century. Because of the breadth of the subject matter, the view will necessarily be partial. In particular we will take as our focus the way the Constitution has provided a point of political mobilization for social movements challenging economic and social inequality. Topics covered include: Civil War Reconstruction and restoration; the rise of corporate capitalism and efforts to constrain it; Progressive Era regulation; the New Deal challenge to federalism and the anti-New Deal backlash; government spending; the World Wars and emergency powers; Civil Liberties including speech and privacy; and the beginning of the Civil Rights Era. Readings will include both legal and historical materials with a focus on the relationship between law and society. Elements used in grading: Class Participation, Attendance, Written Assignments, Final Paper. Paper extensions will be granted with instructor permission. No automatic grading penalty for late papers.

HISTORY 156. American Economic History. 5 Units.

The American economy from colonial times to the present, illustrating the role of history in economic life. Topics: U.S. economic development in global and comparative context; slavery as an economic system; emergence of American technology and business organization; economics of the Great Depression and the New Deal; post-World War II economic performance and social change; globalization, information technology, and inequality. Prerequisite: 1 or 1A.
Same as: AMSTUD 116, ECON 116.

HISTORY 156G. Women and Medicine in US History: Women as Patients, Healers and Doctors. 5 Units.

Women's bodies in sickness and health, and encounters with lay and professional healers from the 18th century to the present. Historical consttruction of thought about women's bodies and physical limitations; sexuality; birth control and abortion; childbirth; adulthood; and menopause and aging. Women as healers, including midwives, lay physicians, the medical profession, and nursing.
Same as: AMSTUD 156H, FEMGEN 156H.

HISTORY 157. The Constitution: A Brief History. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 57. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 157.) A broad survey of the Constitution, from its Revolutionary origins to the contemporary disputes over interpretation. Topics include the invention of the written constitution and interpretative canons; the origins of judicial review; the Civil War and Reconstruction as constitutional crises; the era of substantive due process; the rights revolution; and the Constitution in wartime.
Same as: AMSTUD 157, POLISCI 128S.

HISTORY 158. The United States Since 1945. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on foreign policy and politics with less attention to social and intellectual history. Topics include nuclear weapons in WW II, the Cold War, the Korean and Vietnam wars, Eisenhower revisionism, the Bay of Pigs and Cuban missile crisis, civil rights and the black freedom struggle, the women's movement, the Great Society and backlash, welfare policy, conservatism and liberalism, the 60s anti-war movement, Watergate and the growth of executive power, Iran-Contra and Reagan revisionism, Silicon Valley, the Gulf War, the Clinton impeachment controversy, 2004 election, and 9/11 and Iraq war.

HISTORY 158B. History of Education in the United States. 3-5 Units.

How education came to its current forms and functions, from the colonial experience to the present. Focus is on the 19th-century invention of the common school system, 20th-century emergence of progressive education reform, and the developments since WW II. The role of gender and race, the development of the high school and university, and school organization, curriculum, and teaching.
Same as: AMSTUD 201, EDUC 201.

HISTORY 158C. History of Higher Education in the U.S.. 3-5 Units.

Major periods of evolution, particularly since the mid-19th century. Premise: insights into contemporary higher education can be obtained through its antecedents, particularly regarding issues of governance, mission, access, curriculum, and the changing organization of colleges and universities.
Same as: AMSTUD 165, EDUC 165, EDUC 265.

HISTORY 161. Women in Modern America. 4-5 Units.

This course explores the transition from Victorian to modern womanhood in the U.S. from the 1890s to the end of the 20th century, including the experiences of Native, European, African, Mexican, and Asian American women. It asks how, when, and why the majority of American women become wage earners, gained full citizenship, and enacted political opportunities; how race- and class-specific ideals of womanhood changed in popular culture; and how women have redefined their reproductive and sexual relations.
Same as: AMSTUD 161, CSRE 162, FEMGEN 161.

HISTORY 163. A History of North American Wests. 5 Units.

The history, peoples, and natural systems of a region that has never been contained within a single empire or nation state, but has been united by the movement of peoples, species, and things. Topics include smallpox, horses, gold, salmon, rivers, coal, and oil.

HISTORY 164C. From Freedom to Freedom Now: African American History, 1865-1965. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 64C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 164C.) Explores the working lives, social worlds, political ideologies and cultural expressions of African Americans from emancipation to the early civil rights era. Topics include: the transition from slavery to freedom, family life, work, culture, leisure patterns, resistance, migration and social activism. Draws largely on primary sources including autobiographies, memoirs, letters, personal journals, newspaper articles, pamphlets, speeches, literature, film and music.
Same as: AMSTUD 164C.

HISTORY 165. Mexican American History through Film. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on the 20th century. Themes such as immigration, urbanization, ethnic identity, the role of women, and the struggle for civil rights.

HISTORY 165D. The Pacific World. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 65D. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 165D.) Taking the Pacific and the regions of the world that touch the ocean as the unit of analysis, we will explore geographic, social, cultural, and political interactions that created what we now call the Pacific World. Ranging over four hundred years of history, we will examine human migrations, explorations, interactions and conflicts, and human ecology. The course is not nation-focused but is transnational and international in approach.

HISTORY 166. Introduction to African American History - the Modern Freedom Struggle. 3-5 Units.

(AFRICAAM-166/ AMSTUD-166/ HISTORY-166) This course focuses on African-American political movements of the period after 1930, with special emphasis on the contributions of grassroots activists and visionary leaders such W. E. B. Du Bois, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X. The lectures will utilize audio-visual materials extensively, and the exams will cover these materials as well as the content of traditional lectures. Students are encouraged to undertake research projects utilizing the unique resources of the King Research and Education Institute.
Same as: AFRICAAM 166, AMSTUD 166.

HISTORY 166B. Immigration Debates in America, Past and Present. 3-5 Units.

Examines the ways in which the immigration of people from around the world and migration within the United States shaped American nation-building and ideas about national identity in the twentieth century. Focuses on how conflicting ideas about race, gender, ethnicity, and citizenship with respect to particular groups led to policies both of exclusion and integration. Part One begins with the ways in which the American views of race and citizenship in the colonial period through the post-Reconstruction Era led to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 and subsequently to broader exclusions of immigrants from other parts of Asia, Southern and Eastern Europe, and Mexico. Explores how World War II and the Cold War challenged racial ideologies and led to policies of increasing liberalization culminating in the passage of the 1965 Immigration Act, which eliminated quotas based on national origins and opened the door for new waves of immigrants, especially from Asia and Latin America. Part Two considers new immigration patterns after 1965, including those of refugees, and investigates the contemporary debate over immigration and immigration policy in the post 9/11 era as well as inequalities within the system and the impact of foreign policy on exclusions and inclusions.
Same as: CSRE 166B, HISTORY 366B.

HISTORY 167A. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle. 3-5 Units.

Using the unique documentary resources and publications of Stanford's King Research and Education Institute, this course will be taught by Professor Carson and his colleagues at the Institute. It will provide a general introduction to the life and legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr., as well as devote attention to the movements he inspired. In addition to lectures, the course will include presentations of documentaries such as Eyes on the Prize. Students will be expected to read the required texts, participate in class discussions, and take a final exam or submit a research paper (or an audio-visual project developed in consultation with the professor).

HISTORY 168. American History in Film Since World War ll. 3-4 Units.

U.S. society, culture, and politics since WW II through feature films. Topics include: McCarthyism and the Cold War; ethnicity and racial identify; changing sex and gender relationships; the civil rights and anti-war movements; and mass media. Films include The Best Years of Our Lives, Salt of the Earth, On the Waterfront, Raisin in the Sun, Kramer v Kramer, and Falling Down..

HISTORY 170B. Culture, Society and Politics in Latin America. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 70. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in HISTORY 170B.) The course of Latin American history from the colonial era to the present day. Key issues such as colonialism, nationalism, democracy, and revolution will be examined critically in light of broad comparative themes in Latin American and world history. Sources include writings in the social sciences as well as primary documents, fiction, and film.

HISTORY 172A. Mexico: From Colony to Nation, or the History of an impossible Republic?. 5 Units.

Was a republican form of government even possible in 19th-century Mexico after 300 years of colonial rule under the Spanish monarchy? Was the Spanish colonial heritage a positive or a negative legacy according to 19th-century Mexican politicians? How were they to forge a new national identity with so many ethnically and culturally diverse peoples throughout the territory? Just how ¿traditional¿ was, in fact, the colonial period? These are some of the questions we will explore in this course. Journeying from the late colonial period (c.1700) to the 35-year dictatorship known as El Porfiriato (1876-1911) we will examine how Mexico¿s diverse indigenous peoples adapted to both colonial and postcolonial rule, how they actively participated in politics and political discourse to preserve their cultures, customs and colonial privileges, and how after independence in 1821, a new republican political culture was forged. Mexico was not an impossible republic, but rather another kind of republic.

HISTORY 174. Mexico Since 1876: HIstory of a "Failed State"?. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 374.) This course is an introduction to the history and diverse peoples of modern Mexico from 1876 to the present. Through lectures, discussions, primary and secondary readings, short documentaries, and written assignments, students will critically explore and analyze the multiplicity of historical processes, events and trends that shaped and were shaped by Mexicans over the course of a century. The course will cover some of the social and political dimensions of rural social change, urbanization and industrialization, technological innovation and misuse, environmental degradation and conservation, education, ideology, culture and media, migration, and the drug trade.

HISTORY 177D. U.S. Intervention and Regime Change in 20th Century Latin America. 5 Units.

Policy discussions of regime change by US politicians, journalists and pundits usually focus on Iraq, Iran, Syria and North Korea, often with little or no historical context or perspective. This course does the opposite and takes seriously the proverbial saying "if history is any guide..." by examining U.S. interventions in Latin America, a region where so-called preventive regime change (covert as well as overt) has been operative policy for well over a century. Investigates the rationales, motivations and strategies behind U.S.-backed or engineered regime changes in Mexico in the 1910s, Guatemala in the 1950s, Chile in the 1970s, and Nicaragua in the 1980s.

HISTORY 182C. Making of the Islamic World, 600-1500. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 82C. Majors and other taking 5 units, register for 182C.) The History of Islam and Muslim peoples from 600-1500. Topics include Muhammad and his community; the early Arab conquests and empires; sectarian movements; formation of Islamic belief, thought, legal culture and religious institutions; transregional Sufi and learned networks; family and sexuality; urban, rural and nomadic life; non-Muslim communities; the development of Mediterranean and Indian Ocean trade; relations with Byzantium, the Latin West, China; the Crusades and the Mongols.

HISTORY 184. Zionism. 5 Units.

(Same as History 24.) Hotly contested still, this course will open up the movement's ideas, practices, achievements and crises in such a way as to allow students to hear the fullest range of voices - Jewish, Arab, religious, secular, etc. It will track the movement from its appearance in the late nineteenth century until the establishment of State of Israel in 1948, and beyond.
Same as: JEWISHST 184, REES 184.

HISTORY 187. The Islamic Republics: Politics and Society in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 87. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 187.) Explores the contested politics of these societies in modern times. Topics include controversies surrounding the meaning of revolution, state building, war, geopolitics, Islamic law, clerical authority, gender, an Islamic economy, culture and ethnic, national and religious identities from the 1940s to the present. Assignments will focus on primary sources (especially legal documents, poetry, novels, and memoirs) and films.

HISTORY 187D. Zionism and Its Critics. 4-5 Units.

Zionism from its genesis in the 1880s up until the establishment of the state of Israel in May, 1948, exploring the historical, ideological and political dimensions of Zionism. Topics include: the emergence of Zionist ideology in connection to and as a response to challenges of modernity; emancipation; Haskalah (Jewish enlightenment); other national and ideological movements of the period; the ideological crystallization of the movement; and the immigration waves to Palestine.

HISTORY 190. EARLY CHINESE THOUGHT. 3-5 Units.

This course will examine the basic themes that emerged among the philosophical texts of early China¿including writings attributed to Confucius and his followers, those of the early Daoists, and those focused on the authoritarian state¿and analyze their relation to the changes in the state and social order in that period. Themes to be discussed will include the nature of human networks, the state, the family, the body, personality or temperaments, stratagems, language, and the structure of the cosmos.
Same as: HISTORY 90.

HISTORY 191D. China: The Northern and Southern Dynasties. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 91D. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 191D.) Examines one of the most dynamic periods of Chinese history with the emergence of the institutional religions (Buddhism and Daoism), the development of the garden as an art form, the rise of landscape as a theme of verse and art, the invention of lyric poetry, and the real beginnings of the southward spread of Chinese civilization.

HISTORY 193. Late Imperial China. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 93. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 193.) A survey of Chinese history from the 11th century to the collapse of the imperial state in 1911. Topics include absolutism, gentry society, popular culture, gender and sexuality, steppe nomads, the Jesuits in China, peasant rebellion, ethnic conflict, opium, and the impact of Western imperialism.
Same as: FEMGEN 193.

HISTORY 194B. Japan in the Age of the Samurai. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 94B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 194B.) From the Warring States Period to the Meiji Restoration. Topics include the three great unifiers, Tokugawa hegemony, the samurai class, Neoconfucian ideologies, suppression of Christianity, structures of social and economic control, frontiers, the other and otherness, castle-town culture, peasant rebellion, black marketing, print culture, the floating world, National Studies, food culture, samurai activism, black ships, unequal treaties, anti-foreign terrorism, restorationism, millenarianism, modernization as westernization, Japan as imagined community.

HISTORY 195. Modern Korean History. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 95. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195.) This lecture course provides a general introduction to the history of modern Korea. Themes include the characteristics of the Chosôn dynasty, reforms and rebellions in the nineteenth century, Korean nationalism; Japan¿s colonial rule and Korean identities; decolonization and the Korean War; and the different state-building processes in North and South, South Korea¿s democratization in 1980s, and the current North Korean crisis.
Same as: HISTORY 395.

HISTORY 195C. Modern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 95C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195C.) Japan's modern transformation from the late 19th century to the present. Topics include: the Meiji revolution; industrialization and social dislocation; the rise of democracy and empire; total war and US occupation; economic miracle and malaise; Japan as soft power; and politics of memory. Readings and films focus on the lived experience of ordinary men and women across social classes and regions.

HISTORY 195X. Islam in India: Conflict and Accommodation. 4 Units.

This course will investigate the history of Islam in South Asia, particularly interactions between Muslims and Hindus, through the lenses of conflict and accommodation. This topic has become increasingly important in modern times as India and neighboring nations experience sectarian violence and simultaneously strive to engender the peaceful coexistence of multiple religious communities. In many ways the debate over South Asia¿s present and future is being played out in regards to interpretations of its past. In this course, students will gain a solid overview of the chronological development of Islam in India and its negotiations with other religious traditions on the subcontinent. We will think critically about the relevance of South Asia¿s past to its present and the crucial role of forms of Indian Islam in the broader context of Islamic cultures across the globe.
Same as: RELIGST 111.

HISTORY 196. Worlds of Gandhi. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 96. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 196.) Place the paradox of Gandhi in context of global convulsions of 20th century. Gandhi lived across continents; maturing in South Africa, struggling in India, attaining celebrity in Europe. As leader of masses, his method of Satyagraha was distinctively at odds with his times. Yet, he also privileged sacrifice, dying, even euthanasia. In a world beset by fear and war, Gandhi's complex theory of nonviolence is compelling. What kind of nonviolent politics did Gandhi envision after Fascism, Auschwitz, Hiroshima, and Pakistan?.

HISTORY 197. Southeast Asia: From Antiquity to the Modern Era. 5 Units.

The history of S.E. Asia, comprising Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia, and Laos, from antiquity to the present. The spread of Indian cultural influences, the rise of indigenous states, and the emergence of globally linked trade networks. European colonization, economic transformation, the rise of nationalism, the development of the modern state, and the impact of globalization.

HISTORY 198. History of Modern China. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 98. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 198.) This course charts major historical transformations in modern China, and will be of interest to those concerned with Chinese politics, culture, society, ethnicity, economy, gender, international relations, and the future of the world.

HISTORY 198G. Beijing, Shanghai, and the Structure of China. 3-5 Units.

China's modern history through the rivalry of its two most important cities. The course begins in the nineteenth century, contrasting Beijing, the classic imperial capital and a foreign foundation paradoxically celebrated as the embodiment of "traditional" China, with Shanghai, a treaty port and demographic/economic center of China, but identified as a "foreign" city. After following the cities' history through the warlord period, the "Shanghai decade" of Nationalist rule, and the Japanese occupation, the course examines the two cities' developments under Mao and Deng. The course concludes with a look at their current relations and roles, and the transformed nature of China's cities.

HISTORY 201. Introduction to Public History and Public Service. 4-5 Units.

Gateway course for the History and Public Service interdisciplinary track. Topics include the production, presentation, and practice of public history through narratives, exhibits, web sites, and events in museums, historical sites, parks, and public service settings in nonprofit organizations, government agencies, and educational institutions. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center).
Same as: AFRICAAM 102, CSRE 201, HISTORY 301.

HISTORY 201A. The Global Drug Wars. 4-5 Units.

Explores the global story of the struggle over drugs from the nineteenth century to the present. Topics include the history of the opium wars in China, controversies over wine and tobacco in Iran, narco-trafficking and civil war in Lebanon, the Afghan 'narco-state,' Andean cocaine as a global commodity, the politics of U.S.- Mexico drug trafficking, incarceration, drugs, and race in the U.S., and the globalization of the American 'war on drugs.'
Same as: HISTORY 301A.

HISTORY 201C. The U.S., U.N. Peacekeeping, and Humanitarian War. 5 Units.

The involvement of U.S. and the UN in major wars and international interventions since the 1991 Gulf War. The UN Charter's provisions on the use of force, the origins and evolution of peacekeeping, the reasons for the breakthrough to peacemaking and peace enforcement in the 90s, and the ongoing debates over the legality and wisdom of humanitarian intervention. Case studies include Croatia and Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda, Kosovo, East Timor, and Afghanistan.
Same as: INTNLREL 140C.

HISTORY 202. International History and International Relations Theory. 5 Units.

The relationship between history and political science as disciplines. Sources include studies by historians and political scientists on topics such as the origins of WW I, the role of nuclear weapons in international politics, the end of the Cold War, nongovernmental organizations in international relations, and change and continuity in the international system.
Same as: HISTORY 306E, POLISCI 216E, POLISCI 316.

HISTORY 202G. Peoples, Armies and Governments of the Second World War. 4-5 Units.

Clausewitz conceptualized war as always consisting of a trinity of passion, chance, and reason, mirrored, respectively, in the people, army and government. Following Clausewitz, this course examines the peoples, armies, and governments that shaped World War II. Analyzes the ideological, political, diplomatic and economic motivations and constraints of the belligerents and their resulting strategies, military planning and fighting. Explores the new realities of everyday life on the home fronts and the experiences of non-combatants during the war, the final destruction of National Socialist Germany and Imperial Japan, and the emerging conflict between the victors. How the peoples, armies and governments involved perceived their possibilities and choices as a means to understand the origins, events, dynamics and implications of the greatest war in history.
Same as: HISTORY 302G.

HISTORY 203. Premodern Economic Cultures. 5 Units.

A comparative survey of premodern economies and the value systems that supported them. Students will read and discuss theories of economic culture as well as historical monographs about specific regions. Discussions will focus on the comparison and conceptualization of premodern economic cultures. Students will be required to research the literature on a particular premodern society of their choosing, compile an annotated bibliography of that literature, and compose an essay analyzing the problems and possibilities presented therein.
Same as: HISTORY 303.

HISTORY 203C. History of Ignorance. 5 Units.

Scholars pay a lot of attention to knowledge--how it arises and impacts society--but much less attention has been given to ignorance, even though its impacts are equally profound. Here we explore the political history of ignorance, through case studies including: corporate denials of harms from particular products (tobacco, asbestos), climate change denialism, and creationist rejections of Darwinian evolution. Students will be expected to produce a research paper tracing the origins and impact of a particular form of ignorance.

HISTORY 203D. The Holocaust in Recent Memory: Conflicts - Commemorations - Challenges. 5 Units.

This course offers an in-depth approach to the study of the Holocaust as a historical point of reference for European memory, or for the memory cultures of European nations, where the international context in particular the USA and Israel will also be taken into consideration. The starting point is the transformations in Holocaust memory: after 1945, in the era of European postwar myths, the Holocaust was on the periphery of historical thinking, of scholarly and public interest. Today the Holocaust is acknowledged as a 'break in civilization', a watershed event in human history. This approach has only evolved since the 1980s.
Same as: HISTORY 303D, JEWISHST 283D, JEWISHST 383D.

HISTORY 203E. Global Catholicism. 5 Units.

The rise of Catholicism as a global phenomenon, and its multiple transformations as it spread to the Americas, Asia, and Africa. Topics include the Reformation, Tridentine reform and the Jesuits, the underground churches in England and the Dutch Republic, the missions to Asia, the Spanish conquest of Latin America, conversion and indigenous religions, missionary imperialism and new religious movements in the non-European world.
Same as: INTNLREL 103E.

HISTORY 204. What is History?. 5 Units.

An introduction to the discipline of history, designed for current or prospective History majors. Focusing on methods and theories of historical inquiry, students will learn how historians frame problems, collect and analyze evidence, and contribute to on-going debates. Through a series of case studies or exemplary works of historical study, the course will also explore different genres of historical writing (such as narrative, biography, social history) and different methodological approaches to history (such as Annales school, microhistory, and cultural history).

HISTORY 204E. Totalitarianism. 4-5 Units.

Modern revolutionary and totalitarian politics. Sources include monographs on the medieval, Reformation, French Revolutionary, and Great War eras. Topics: the essence of modern ideology, the concept of the body national, state terror, charismatic leadership, gender assignments, private and public spheres, and identities.
Same as: HISTORY 307E.

HISTORY 204G. War and Society. 5 Units.

How Western societies and cultures have responded to modern warfare. The relationship between its destructive capacity and effects on those who produce, are subject to, and must come to terms with its aftermath. Literary representations of WW I; destructive psychological effects of modern warfare including those who take pleasure in killing; changes in relations between the genders; consequences of genocidal ideology and racial prejudice; the theory of just war and its practical implementation; and how wars are commemorated.
Same as: HISTORY 304G.

HISTORY 205F. Digital History: Concepts, Methods, Problems. 5 Units.

Students will study the development of the relationship between the discipline of history and computing tools through a combination of theoretical and hands-on activities, and readings. Students will read leading critical works, examine seminal digital projects, and examine the works of leading digital humanities scholars. The course will introduce students to concepts and methods within digital history, including text analysis, spatial history, data visualization, and digital scholarship. The end product of the course will be a born-digital scholarly product.

HISTORY 205G. Creative Political Thinking: From Machiavelli to Madison. 4-5 Units.

How can we account for creativity and innovation in political thinking? Are these qualities simply a product of political expediency and rhetorical urgency, or do they also depend on qualities of mind and historical contingencies that have to be studied individually? This class will explore these questions with three noteworthy cases: Niccolo Machiavelli, John Locke, and James Madison. Extensive reading in both primary writings and secondary sources.
Same as: HISTORY 305G, POLISCI 235J, POLISCI 335J.

HISTORY 206A. City, Society, Literature- 19th Century Histories. 4 Units.

This course examines the rise of modern cities through an analysis of urban society and the imaginative literature of the 1800s.
Same as: HISTORY 306A, URBANST 106.

HISTORY 207. Biography and History. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between biographical and historical writing, primarily in Europe and America. Problems of methodology, evidence, dispassion, and empathy. Texts: biographies, critical literature on biographical work, and novels (A. S. Byatt's Possession, Bernard Malamud's Dubin's Lives) that illuminate the intellectual underpinnings of biographical labor.
Same as: HISTORY 308.

HISTORY 207B. Environment, Technology and Revolution in World History. 4-5 Units.

Exploration of historiographical and interdisciplinary methodologies and approaches to intersections among environmental, technological, and revolutionary social change in diverse geographical and temporal contexts. Readings include broad theoretical and synthetic works as well as case studies of American, French, Mexican, Russian, Chinese, and Hungarian revolutions.

HISTORY 207C. The Global Early Modern. 4-5 Units.

In what sense can we speak of "globalization" before modernity? What are the characteristics and origins of the economic system we know as "capitalism"? When and why did European economies begin to diverge from those of other Eurasian societies? With these big questions in mind, the primary focus will be on the history of Europe and European empires, but substantial readings deal with other parts of the world, particularly China and the Indian Ocean.
Same as: HISTORY 307C.

HISTORY 208. Private Lives, Public Stories: Autobiography in Women's History. 5 Units.

Changing contexts of women's lives and how women's actions have shaped and responded to those contexts.

HISTORY 208B. Women Activists' Response to War. 4-5 Units.

Theoretical issues, historical origins, changing forms of women's activism in response to war throughout the 20th century, and contemporary cases, such as the Russian Committee of Soldiers Mothers, Bosnian Mothers of Srebrenica, Serbian Women in Black, and the American Cindy Sheehan. Focus is on the U.S. and Eastern Europe, with attention to Israel, England, and Argentina.
Same as: FEMGEN 208B, HISTORY 308B.

HISTORY 208S. Facing the Past: The Politics of Retrospective Justice. 5 Units.

Forms of injustice in history including slavery, genocide, ethnic cleansing, mass rape, forced religious conversion, and torture of prisoners. Mechanisms developed over the last century to define, deter, and alleviate the effects of such offenses, including war crimes tribunals, truth commissions, national apologies, and monetary reparations. Case studies chart the international field of retrospective justice, exploring the legal, political, and moral implications of confronting traumatic pasts.

HISTORY 209B. The Idea of Politics. 4-5 Units.

Can we live without politics? Is politics indispensable for humanity and vice-versa? The idea of politics is that it must transform, through human action, conditions of collective life. But the 20th century produced colliding beliefs about what that life might be and what the human being itself might look like. Explore whether, after the century, we might still think of politics as an ethical idea and the "human" as foundational political category. Keywords: Civility, Cruelty, Friendship, Empire, Democracy, Humanism, Animals.
Same as: HISTORY 309B.

HISTORY 209C. Liberalism and Violence. 5 Units.

Does LIberalism have a theory of violence? What does modern political thought, in privileging humanity and rights, share with "terrorists" and "rogue states?" How is liberalism transformed by the use of religion and death for political ends? We read key thinkers of modern life- Adorno, Arendt, Agamben, Benjamin, Derrida, Fanon, Foucault, Gandhi, Heidegger, and Schmitt- to interrogate the relationship between religion, sacrifice, and democracy. At the center are connections between war and modern life, and between violence and non-violence.
Same as: HISTORY 309C.

HISTORY 209D. Postcolonialism and Universalism. 4-5 Units.

Key texts and motifs from postcolonial theory: empire, class, exile, suffering, textuality, archive in juxtaposition to 20th-century philosophical questions about universal history and the relevance of humanist inquiry.
Same as: HISTORY 309A.

HISTORY 209S. Research Seminar for Majors. 5 Units.

Required of History majors. How to conduct original, historical research and analysis, including methods such as using the libraries and archives at Stanford and elsewhere, and working collaboratively to frame topics, identify sources, and develop analyses. Autumn quarter focuses on European Lit and Arts; winter quarter on U.S. History and Colonialism; spring quarter on modern Europe, ancient China and early modern Europe.

HISTORY 212. Knights, Monks, and Nobles: Masculinity in the Middle Ages. 4-5 Units.

Same as: HISTORY 312.

HISTORY 214D. Mediterranean Crossroads: Power, Culture, and Religion in Medieval Sicily. 5 Units.

Sicily in the Middle Ages was a Mediterranean crossroads, a dynamic and diverse kingdom in which Muslim and Christian, Viking and African, European and Eastern Cultures all came together. Explores the life and times of Frederick II (1194-1250). He claimed universal authority as a Christian emperor, yet ruled multireligious Sicily as king. He promoted crusading, yet was accused of being a heretic and a crypto Muslim. He spoke six languages and actively patronized the arts and sciences. Topics include: structures and influences that made such a figure possible; how he managed the tensions of governing a diverse and disparate empire; how religion and cultural production created and maintained his authority; how contemporaries and later generations reacted to this enigmatic emperor; why has he continued to generate such polarizing reactions; and how did Frederick become a figure revered by Nazis and multiculturalists alike.
Same as: HISTORY 314D.

HISTORY 216. Women and the Book: Scribes, Artists, and Readers from Late Antiquity through the Fourteenth Century. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the cultural worlds of medieval women through particular attention to the books that they owned, commissioned, and created. Beginning with the earliest Christian centuries, the course proceeds chronologically, charting women¿s book ownership, scribal and artistic activity, and patronage from Late Antiquity through the fourteenth century. In addition to examining specific manuscripts (in facsimile, or digitally), we will consider ancillary questions to do with women¿s authorship, education and literacy, reading patterns, devotional practices, and visual traditions and representation.
Same as: ARTHIST 206H, FEMGEN 216, HISTORY 316.

HISTORY 217S. Minorities In Medieval Europe. 5 Units.

This course examines attitudes towards outsider groups within medieval society and the treatment of these groups by medieval Christians. Heretics, Jews, Muslims, homosexuals, prostitutes and usurers occupied ambivalent and at time dangerous positions within a society that increasingly defined itself as Christian. Differences in the treatment of these various 'outcast' groups, their depiction in art, their legal segregation, and their presumed association with demonic activity are addressed through discussion, and readings from primary and secondary source material.
Same as: RELIGST 217X.

HISTORY 219C. Science, Technology, and Modernity in the Soviet Union. 5 Units.

Science and technology were integral to the Soviet claim to offer a vision of modernity superior to that of Western capitalism. Science and technology would flourish; society would develop on a scientific basis. The results were more complex than the vision. Topics to be covered: science and Marxism-Leninism; the Lysenko affair; the R&D system; the role of the secret police; the atomic project; the space race; missile development; Andrei Sakharov; technology and innovation.
Same as: HISTORY 319C.

HISTORY 221A. Men, Women, and Power in Early Modern Russia, 1500-1800. 5 Units.

Social values, gender relations, and social change in an era of rapid change; challenges to established norms by new constructions of deviance (witchcraft, religious reform, and revolt) and new standards of civility; encounters with non-Russians and the construction of national consciousness. Social values as political ethos: patrimonial autocracy and the reality of female rule in the late 17th and 18th century.

HISTORY 221B. The 'Woman Question' in Modern Russia. 5 Units.

Russian radicals believed that the status of women provided the measure of freedom in a society and argued for the extension of rights to women as a basic principle of social progress. The social status and cultural representations of Russian women from the mid-19th century to the present. The arguments and actions of those who fought for women's emancipation in the 19th century, theories and policies of the Bolsheviks, and the reality of women's lives under them. How the status of women today reflects on the measure of freedom in post-Communist Russia.
Same as: FEMGEN 221B.

HISTORY 222. Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe and Russia. 5 Units.

Explores criminal law in early modern Europe and Russia, ca 1500-1800, in law and in practice. Engages debates about use of exemplary public executions as tactic of governance, and about gradual decline in "violence" in Europe over this time. Explores practice of accusatory and inquisitory judicial procedures, judicial torture, forms of punishment, concepts of justice.

HISTORY 223. Art and Ideas in Imperial Russia. 4-5 Units.

Poetry, novels, symphonic music, theater, opera, painting, design, and architecture: what they reveal about the politics and culture of tsarist Russia.
Same as: HISTORY 323.

HISTORY 224A. The Soviet Civilization. 4-5 Units.

Socialist visions and practices of the organization of society and messianic politics; the Soviet understanding of mass violence, political and ethnic; and living space. Primary and secondary sources. Research paper or historiographical essay.
Same as: HISTORY 424A, REES 224A.

HISTORY 224C. Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Traces the history of genocide in the 20th century and the question of humanitarian intervention to stop it, a topic that has been especially controversial since the end of the Cold War. The pre-1990s discussion begins with the Armenian genocide during the First World War and includes the Holocaust and Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s. Coverage of genocide and humanitarian intervention since the 1990s includes the wars in Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo, the Congo and Sudan.
Same as: HISTORY 324C, PEDS 224.

HISTORY 225. The Soviet Civilization, Part 2. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 224A/424A
Same as: HISTORY 424B.

HISTORY 226E. Famine in the Modern World. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Examines the major famines of modern history, the controversies surrounding them, and the reasons that famine persists in our increasingly globalized world. Focus is on the relative importance of natural, economic, and political factors as causes of famine in the modern world. Case studies include the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s; the Bengal famine of 1943-44; the Soviet famines of 1921-22 and 1932-33; China's Great Famine of 1959-61; the Ethiopian famines of the 1970s and 80s, and the Somalia famines of the 1990s and of 2011.
Same as: HISTORY 326E, PEDS 226.

HISTORY 228. Circles of Hell: Poland in World War II. 5 Units.

Looks at the experience and representation of Poland's wartime history from the Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939) to the aftermath of Yalta (1945). Examines Nazi and Soviet ideology and practice in Poland, as well as the ways Poles responded, resisted, and survived. Considers wartime relations among Polish citizens, particularly Poles and Jews. In this regard, interrogates the traditional self-characterization of Poles as innocent victims, looking at their relationship to the Holocaust, thus engaging in a passionate debate still raging in Polish society.
Same as: HISTORY 328, JEWISHST 282, JEWISHST 382.

HISTORY 230A. The Witness in Modern History: Memoir, Reportage, Image. 5 Units.

The rise of the witness as icon and debates about its reliability as a historical source. The power of eyewitness accounts to convict accused criminals, inspire indignation about war and genocide, and attract attention to humanitarian crises. Their notorious unreliability due to exaggeration and misapprehension. Sources include reportage, photography, and documentary film. Case studies include criminal cases, war, poverty, and natural disasters.

HISTORY 230D. Europe in the World, 1789-Present. 4-5 Units.

The European conquest of parts of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific by European merchants, missionaries, armies, and administrators had significant, and often cataclysmic, effects on indigenous political alliances, cultural practices, and belief systems. But were the effects of expansion entirely one-sided? What impact did the experiences of colonialism have on European politics, culture,and Europe's relations with the rest of the world? Explores how interaction between Europe and the rest of the world redefined the political, racial, sexual, and religious boundaries of both Europe and its colonies and gave rise to the more "globalized' society we live in today.
Same as: HISTORY 330D.

HISTORY 230F. Surveillance in Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

We will investigate the role of surveillance in modern societies -- the motives, pressures, and consequences of informal and formal systems of control from the French Revolution to the present day. Students will encounter a variety of sources and situations, analyzing the tensions between social stability and individual pursuits, and the circumstances under which these tensions can lead to state repression and violence.
Same as: HISTORY 330F.

HISTORY 231C. The Great War: WWI in Literature, Film, Art, and Memory. 3-5 Units.

This course concerns how writers, artists, and other cultural producers understood and represented the traumas of the First World War and its aftermath. Rather than tracing a political or military history of the conflict, we¿ll focus on how the horrors of War (both in the trenches and on the home front) fostered broader social and cultural shifts, as people questioned the very foundations of European civilization. Most specifically, we'll explore the connections between the War and the emergence of post-War modernist movements, as writers and artists created new works to help them make sense of the catastrophe and the new world it wrought. Though France provides our starting point, we'll also travel beyond the Hexagon to incorporate other views and major works. Course readings will be in English, though students may elect to read works in French if they wish.
Same as: FRENCH 258.

HISTORY 231E. Paper, Printing, and Digital Revolutions: Transformations of the Book. 4-5 Units.

What is a book? This seminar explores the conceptual implications of approximately two millennia of transformations in the physical and material properties of books. How have the meaning and authority we assign the written word changed as technologies of book production and dissemination have evolved, and how have they remained continuous? Topics covered include the rise of the medieval manuscript codex, the emergence of print culture in early modern Europe, and current debates over the nature of text in the digital age.
Same as: HISTORY 331E.

HISTORY 232B. Heretics, Prostitutes and Merchants: The Venetian Empire. 5 Units.

Between 1200-1600, Venice created a powerful empire at the boundary between East and West that controlled much of the Mediterranean, with a merchant society that allowed social groups, religions, and ethnicities to coexist. Topics include the features of Venetian society, the relationship between center and periphery, order and disorder, orthodoxy and heresy, the role of politics, art, and culture in the Venetian Renaissance, and the empire's decline as a political power and reinvention as a tourist site and living museum.
Same as: ITALIAN 232B.

HISTORY 232D. Rome: The City and the World, 1350-1750. 4-5 Units.

What lies beyond the ruins of an ancient city? The history of Rome from the Renaissance to the age of the grand tour. Topics include: the political, diplomatic, and religious history of the papacy; society and cultural life; the everyday world of Roman citizens; the relationship between the city and the surrounding countryside; the material transformation of Rome as a city; and its meaning for foreigners.
Same as: HISTORY 332D.

HISTORY 232F. The Scientific Revolution. 5 Units.

Was there a scientific revolution in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? How did modern science emerge as a distinctive kind of knowledge and practices? Explores changing ideas of nature and knowledge during the age of Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, and Newton. Examines the contexts in which western science emerged, issues of scientific methodology (e.g. induction, deduction, probability, and the rise of experimentation), the development of scientific institutions, and the emergence of the scientist as a historical figure.

HISTORY 233C. Two British Revolutions. 4-5 Units.

Current scholarship on Britain,1640-1700, focusing on political and religious history. Topics include: causes and consequences of the English civil war and revolution; rise and fall of revolutionary Puritanism; the Restoration; popular politics in the late 17th century; changing contours of religious life; the crisis leading to the Glorious Revolution; and the new order that emerged after the deposing of James II.
Same as: HISTORY 333C.

HISTORY 233F. Political Thought in Early Modern Britain. 5 Units.

1500 to 1700. Theorists include Hobbes, Locke, Harrington, the Levellers, and lesser known writers and schools. Foundational ideas and problems underlying modern British and American political thought and life.

HISTORY 233G. Catholic Politics in Europe, 1789-1992. 5 Units.

What led to the creation of a specifically Catholic mass politics? How did these parties and movements interact with the Vatican and the wider Church? What accounts for political Catholicism's involvement in clerical-fascist states and its important role in shaping the EU? Sources focus on monographs. Research paper using primary sources.

HISTORY 233K. The Invention of the Modern Republic. 4-5 Units.

Examines the history of republican thinking in the Atlantic World from the Renaissance to the French Revolution.
Same as: HISTORY 333K.

HISTORY 234. The Enlightenment. 3-5 Units.

The Enlightenment as a philosophical, literary, and political movement. Themes include the nature and limits of philosophy, the grounds for critical intellectual engagement, the institution of society and the public, and freedom, equality and human progress. Authors include Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Hume, Diderot, and Condorcet.
Same as: DLCL 324, HISTORY 334, HISTORY 432A, HUMNTIES 324.

HISTORY 234G. Narrating the British Empire. 4-5 Units.

This course will explore the historical and cultural reality of the British Empire in a global and comparative context, through works of fiction and non-fiction, history, memoir and a range of cultural chronicles. What relationship did British colonialism have with modernity and the European Enlightenment, and with neoliberalism and globalization that followed decolonization? Texts: CLR James's Beyond a Boundary,, Jamaica Kincaid's A Small Place, Nirad Chaudhuri's The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian, Alan Paton's Cry, The Beloved Country, Witi Ihimaera's Dear Miss Mansfield.
Same as: ENGLISH 234G, HISTORY 334G.

HISTORY 235. The Renaissance of War: Politics, Technology, and War in Late Medieval and Renaissance Italy. 5 Units.

The dynamic societies of the Italian Peninsula of the 14th to 16th centuries "prosperous, astonishingly creative, politically fractious, and endemically violent" produced sweeping, deeply consequential changes. Among these were new developments in the theory and practice of war, politics, and diplomacy that laid the foundations for the modern state system and European military power. The class covers: new diplomatic practice; the Military Revolution; state-building; war finance; court culture; and the intersection of these with the shimmering brilliance of Renaissance culture.

HISTORY 235C. Readings in the Supernatural. 4-5 Units.

Class will read and discuss a selection of monographs, scholarly essays, and primary sources on the rich supernatural world of early modern Europe. We will discuss how fairies, werewolves, nightmares, and trolls all became witches, how the binary of angels and demons figured in European thought, and how the marginalized imaginary was reconstituted in theatre and fiction.
Same as: HISTORY 335C.

HISTORY 236. The Ethics of Imperialism. 5 Units.

Can a commitment to liberty, progress, and universal rights be reconciled with imperialism? The ethical underpinnings of empire; how modern Europeans provided ethical and political justifications for colonial expansion. How European ideals were used to defend and justify inequality, violence, and genocide. The ethics of American-driven globalization and humanitarianism. Texts include primary sources, philosophical treatises, and historical studies.

HISTORY 236B. Hobbes to Habermas: The Idea of Society in Modern Thought. 4-5 Units.

Classic texts in social theory from the seventeenth century to the present. Readings include Locke, Smith, Hegel, Comte, and Durkheim, and Weber.
Same as: HISTORY 336B.

HISTORY 236F. The End of the World As They Knew It: Culture, Cafés, and Crisis in Europe, 1880-1918. 5 Units.

The years stretching from roughly 1880 to end of the First World War were marked by profound social upheaval and an intense burst of creativity. This seminar will focus on the major cultural movements and big ideas of the period. Topics covered include the rise of mass culture and cinema, the origins of psychoanalysis, anti-Semitism and Zionism, new anxieties about sexuality and the ¿New Woman,¿ anarchism, decadence, degeneration, and Dada ¿ with cameos from Bernhardt, Freud, Klimt, Nietzsche, Toulouse-Lautrec, Wilde, Zola, and other luminaries of the age.

HISTORY 237K. Speed and Power in Twentieth-Century Europe. 4-5 Units.

Europeans living in the 20th century witnessed an unprecedented (and, to many observers, frightening) acceleration in the pace of everyday life, wrought by the introduction of a host of new travel technologies. Focusing on the metropolises of Europe, this seminar will explore the various ways that trains, planes, and automobiles have shaped modern urban life. We'll also look at how 20th-century artists and writers have treated the interrelated themes of speed and power in their work.
Same as: HISTORY 337K.

HISTORY 238E. European Legal History. 5 Units.

(Same as LAW 441.) This seminar will explore major topics in European legal history from ancient Rome through the present: Roman law, canon law, feudalism, sixteenth- and seventeenth-century constitutionalism, modern natural law, the age of absolutism and the rise of the centralized, administrative state, the structure of Old Regime law and society and the radical changes brought about by revolution, the German historical school of jurisprudence, and the rise of the European Union and a new culture of international human rights. In exploring these topics, we will focus on certain core, recurring themes that continue profoundly to shape the world in which we live. These include the sources and nature of law (positive law vs. custom), the relationship between law and society, and the relationship between law and history. Classroom discussion will focus on selected primary- and secondary-source texts that we will read as a group. nnThis course is cross-listed with LAW441. The course will be limited to 12 SLS students with 10 additional slots held for students enrolling in HISTORY338E.
Same as: HISTORY 338E.

HISTORY 238G. Ethnography of the Late Middle Ages: Social history and popular culture in the age of the plague. 4-5 Units.

During the late Middle Ages, as Europe was recovering from the devastation of the Black Death, political reorganization contributed to a burst of archival documentation that allows historians richly detailed glimpses of societies in transition. We will be reading selected scholarly articles and monographs covering such topics as persecution, prechristian cultural remnants, folk theologies, festival cultures, peasant revolts, heresy, and the advent of the diabolic witch.
Same as: HISTORY 338G.

HISTORY 239E. Paris: The Making of a Modern Icon. 3-5 Units.

Few places have been as heavily romanticized and mythologized as Paris. To many observers, Paris and its attractions serve as icons of modernity itself. By engaging with fiction, film, journalism, painting, photography, poetry, song, and other media, we¿ll trace how different people at different times have used Paris as both backdrop and main protagonist, and we'll consider how the city itself has incorporated and rebelled against such representations. The scope of our inquiry will stretch from the late 18th century to the present, covering a host of topics, figures, and sites: from the French Revolution to the protests of May '68, from Baudelaire to Hemingway, from the Impressionists to the Situationists. Taught in English
Same as: FRENCH 227.

HISTORY 239F. Empire and Information. 4-5 Units.

How do states see? How do they know what they know about their subjects, citizens, economies, and geographies? How does that knowledge shape society, politics, identity, freedom, and modernity? Focus is on the British imperial state activities in S. Asia and Britain: surveillance technologies and information-gathering systems, including mapping, statistics, cultural schemata, and intelligence systems, to render geographies and social bodies legible, visible, and governable.
Same as: HISTORY 339F.

HISTORY 239H. Colonialism and Empire in Modern Europe. 5 Units.

To better understand the history of modern Europe within a global context, explores the following questions: What impact did more than a century of colonialism have on the social lives, cultural attitudes, political loyalties, and intellectual world views of European women and men during the nineteenth century? What accounts for the resiliency of empire during a period of rapid global change that witnessed the rise of modern democracy, economic liberalism, ethnic nationalism, and international socialism?.

HISTORY 239K. Revolutionary Moments in French Thought. 3-5 Units.

French intellectual and political culture has often been associated with revolutionary attempts to break free from the hold of tradition. Indeed, the concept of "revolution" has itself become a French tradition of sorts. Over the last 500 years, these revolutions have taken place in a number of arenas. In philosophy, René Descartes challenged all traditional learning and defined new principles that were central to the so-called ¿Revolution of the Mind.¿ In religion, Enlightenment thinkers not only advocated the toleration of different faiths but also questioned the veracity of Christianity and of all theistic worldviews. In politics, the French Revolution redefined the very concept of a political revolution and set the stage for modern conceptions of sovereignty. French socialist thinkers of the 19th century, in turn, reshaped the ways their contemporaries thought about socio-economic arrangements. Finally, 20th-century existentialists have attempted to rethink the very purpose of human existence. In this course, we will explore these and other seminal revolutionary moments that not only transformed French society, but that also had implications for European and, indeed, global culture. Taught in English, readings in English.
Same as: FRENCH 128.

HISTORY 240. The History of Evolution. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the history of evolutionary biology from its emergence around the middle of the eighteenth century. We will consider the continual engagement of evolutionary theories of life with a larger, transforming context: philosophical, political, social, economic, institutional, aesthetic, artistic, literary. Our goal will be to achieve a historical rich and nuanced understanding of how evolutionary thinking about life has developed to its current form.
Same as: HISTORY 340.

HISTORY 243G. Tobacco and Health in World History. 4-5 Units.

Cigarettes are the world's leading cause of death--but how did we come into this world, where 6 trillion cigarettes are smoked every year? Here we explore the political, cultural, and technological origins of the cigarette and cigarette epidemic, using the tobacco industry's 80 million pages of secret documents. Topics include the history of cigarette advertising and cigarette design, the role of the tobacco industry in fomenting climate change denial, and questions raised by the testimony of experts in court.
Same as: HISTORY 343G.

HISTORY 243S. Human Origins: History, Evidence, and Controversy. 4-5 Units.

Research seminar. Debates and controversies include: theories of human origins; interpretations of fossils, early art, and the oldest tools; the origin and fate of the Neanderthals; evolutionary themes in literature and film; visual rhetoric and cliché in anthropological dioramas and phyletic diagrams; the significance of hunting, gathering, and grandmothering; climatological theories and neocatastrophic geologies; molecular anthropology; the impact of racial theories on human origins discourse. Background in human evolution not required.
Same as: HISTORY 443A.

HISTORY 244. Egyptomania! The Allure of Ancient Egypt Over the Past 3,500 Years. 5 Units.

Why does Egypt fascinate us? From Napoleon¿s invasion to Katy Perry¿s latest music video, we have interpreted ancient Egyptian history and mythology for centuries; in fact, this obsession dates back to the Egyptians themselves. This seminar explores Egyptomania from the Pharaonic period to the 20th century. Topics include: ancient Egypt, Greek historians, medieval Arabic scholars, hieroglyphic decipherment, 19th century travel, 20th century pop culture, and how historians have interpreted this past over the centuries.

HISTORY 244C. The History of the Body in Science, Medicine, and Culture. 4-5 Units.

The human body as a natural and cultural object, historicized. The crosscultural history of the body from the 18th century to the present. Topics include: sciences of sex and race; medical discovery of particular body parts; human experimentation, foot binding, veiling, and other bodily coverings; thinness and obesity; notions of the body politic.
Same as: HISTORY 444C.

HISTORY 245. Violence and Identity in the African Great Lakes Region. 5 Units.

Untangles current crises through exploring debates on migration, autochthony, ethnicity and nationalism from the pre-colonial era to the present. While the majority of the course focuses on the region's `center' (Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo), we will also examine continuities and differences within the larger geographic region. Topics include the historical roots and perspectives that inform genocide, gender based violence, mineral exploitation, reconciliation, development and controversies around homosexuality in Uganda and the wider region.

HISTORY 248S. Colonial States and African Societies, Part I. 4-5 Units.

Colonialism set in motion profound transformations of African societies. These transformations did not occur immediately following military conquest, nor did they occur uniformly throughout the continent. This research seminar will focus directly on the encounter between the colonial state and African societies. The seminar will examine problems of social transformation, the role of the colonial state, and the actions of Africans. Following four weeks of collloquim style discussion, students then embark on independent research on the encounter between one colonial state and its constituent African societies.
Same as: HISTORY 448A.

HISTORY 249S. Colonial States and African Societies, Part II. 4-5 Units.

Second part of the research seminar offered in the Winter. Students continue their research and present their penultimate drafts in week 8.
Same as: HISTORY 448B.

HISTORY 250A. History of California Indians. 5 Units.

Demographic, political, and economic history of California Indians, 1700s-1950s. Processes and events leading to the destruction of California tribes, and their effects on the groups who survived. Geographic and cultural diversity. Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo-American periods. The mission system.
Same as: CSRE 117S.

HISTORY 250E. Taxing America: From the Puritans to Prop. 13. 5 Units.

Taxes have shaped American society and politics since before the Revolution. And they've been extremely controversial just as long. In this course we'll try to understand American society and government by looking at the politics of taxation from the colonial period to the twentieth century. Topics include the legitimacy of taxation, the constitution, economic development, inequality, gender, and race.

HISTORY 252B. Diplomacy on the Ground: Case Studies in the Challenges of Representing Your Country. 5 Units.

The tragic death of Ambassador Chris Stevens has recently highlighted the dangers of diplomacy in the modern era. This class will look at how Americans in embassies have historically confronted questions such as authoritarian rule, human rights abuses, violent changes of government, and covert action. Case studies will include the Berlin embassy in the 1930s, Tehran in 1979, and George Kennan's experiences in Moscow, among others. Recommended for students contemplating careers in diplomatic service.
Same as: INTNLREL 174.

HISTORY 254. Popular Culture and American Nature. 5 Units.

Despite John Muir, Aldo Leopold, and Rachel Carson, it is arguable that the Disney studios have more to do with molding popular attitudes toward the natural world than politicians, ecologists, and activists. Disney as the central figure in the 20th-century American creation of nature. How Disney, the products of his studio, and other primary and secondary texts see environmentalism, science, popular culture, and their interrelationships.

HISTORY 254D. Law, Slavery, and Race. 5 Units.

(Same as LAW 747.) This course will explore the interaction of law, slavery and race in the United States, as well as from a comparative perspective. We will read original documents, including excerpts of trial transcripts, appellate opinions, treatises, codes, and first-person narratives. We will study the way law, politics and culture interacted to shape the institution of slavery and the development of modern conceptions of race. Course lectures and discussions will focus on questions such as: Did different legal regimes (Spanish, French, British) foster different systems of race and slavery in the Americas? How did/does law work "on the ground" to shape the production of racial hierarchy and creation of racial identities? In what ways did slavery influence the U.S. Constitution? How has race shaped citizenship in the U.S., and how can we compare it to other constitutional regimes? The course will begin with the origins of New World slavery, race and racism, and move chronologically to the present day.
Same as: HISTORY 354.

HISTORY 254G. The Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution. 5 Units.

Why did Britain's North American colonies declare independence from an empire they had long revered? What did the American Revolution mean for the people who experienced it? In this course we will explore the explosive origins of the American republic. Topics: revolutionary ideology, empire, the federal constitution, slavery, social conflict, and the international consequences of the American Revolution.

HISTORY 255. Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Social Gospel and the Struggle for Justice. 5 Units.

The religious and political thought of Martin Luther King, Jr., using the documentary resources of the King Institute at Stanford. His social gospel Christianity and prophetic message of radical social transformation. Readings include the forthcoming The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., Volume VI: Advocate of the Social Gospel.

HISTORY 255E. Education, Race, and Inequality in African American History, 1880-1990. 3-5 Units.

Seminar. The relationship among race, power, inequality, and education from the 1880s to the 1990s. How schools have constructed race, the politics of school desegregation, and ties between education and the late 20th-century urban crisis.
Same as: AFRICAAM 116, CSRE 216X, EDUC 216.

HISTORY 256. America- China Relations. 4-5 Units.

The history of turbulent relations, military conflict, and cultural clashes between the U.S. and China, and the implications for the domestic lives of these increasingly interconnected countries. Diplomatic, political, social, cultural, and military themes from early contact to the recent past.
Same as: AMSTUD 256, HISTORY 356.

HISTORY 256G. Constructing Race and Religion in America. 4-5 Units.

This seminar focuses on the interrelationships between social constructions of race, and social interpretations of religion in America. How have assumptions about race shaped religious worldviews? How have religious beliefs shaped racial attitudes? How have ideas about religion and race contributed to notions of what it means to be "American"? We will look at primary and secondary sources, and at the historical development of ideas and practices over time.
Same as: CSRE 246, HISTORY 356G, RELIGST 246, RELIGST 346.

HISTORY 257C. LGBT/Queer Life in the United States. 4-5 Units.

An introductory course on LGBT social, cultural, and political history in the United States. This course explores how categories of sexuality have changed over time, with particular emphasis on the relationship among homosexuality, heterosexuality, and transgenderism. Students will analyze how the intersections of race, class, and sexuality influenced the constitution of these categories and the politics of social relations. Historical and literary sources will be used to examine changes in LGBT experiences and identities, primarily in the twentieth century.
Same as: FEMGEN 140D, FEMGEN 240D.

HISTORY 258. Topics in the History of Sexuality: Sexual Violence in America. 4-5 Units.

This undergraduate/graduate colloquium explores recent historical interpretations of the history of sexuality, with a focus on sexual violence. The readings cover changing definitions and laws, cultural representations, and the role of gender, race, and age in the construction of rape and other forms of sexual violence. Topics include slavery; incest, seduction, and statutory rape reform; the racialization of rape and the anti-lynching movement; street harassment; men and boys as victims; war and conquest; and feminist responses to rape.
Same as: AMSTUD 258, CSRE 192E, FEMGEN 258, FEMGEN 358, HISTORY 358.

HISTORY 258E. History of School Reform: Origins, Policies, Outcomes, and Explanations. 3-5 Units.

Required for students in the POLS M.A. program; others welcome. Focus is on 20th-century U.S. Intended and unintended patterns in school change; the paradox of reform that schools are often reforming but never seem to change much; rhetorics of reform and factors that inhibit change. Case studies emphasize the American high school.nnThis course is required for POLS students pursuing the PreK-12 concentration.
Same as: EDUC 220D.

HISTORY 259A. Poverty and Homelessness in America. 4-5 Units.

Service learning. Students participate in a two quarter internship at a local shelter for homeless individuals or families. Readings include historical, social science, and social commentary literature. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center).

HISTORY 260. California's Minority-Majority Cities. 4-5 Units.

Historical development and the social, cultural, and political issues that characterize large cities and suburbs where communities of color make up majority populations. Case studies include cities in Los Angeles, Santa Clara, and Monterey counties. Comparisons to minority-majority cities elsewhere in the U.S. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center).
Same as: CSRE 260.

HISTORY 261. Race, Gender, and Class in Jim Crow America. 5 Units.

How African American life and labor were redefined from 1890-1954. Topics include family life, work, leisure patterns, transnational relations, cultural expressions emphasizing literature and music, resistance and social activisim. Primary sources including visual materials, literature, and film; historical interpretations of the period.

HISTORY 261G. Presidents and Foreign Policy in Modern History. 5 Units.

Nothing better illustrates the evolution of the modern presidency than the arena of foreign policy. This class will examine the changing role and choices of successive presidential administrations over the past century, examining such factors as geopolitics, domestic politics, the bureaucracy, ideology, psychology, and culture. Students will be encouraged to think historically about the institution of the presidency, while examining specific case studies, from the First World War to the conflicts of the 21st century.
Same as: INTNLREL 173.

HISTORY 264G. Madness in American Society: The Social History of Mental Illness in the United States. 5 Units.

(Formerly HPS 158.) Explores the variety of meanings of mental illness in the past, and the diagnostic, therapeutic, cultural and policy challenges historically posed by mental illness. Focus is on the U.S. but is not limited to it. How has mental illness been defined in history? How has the mind been medicalized and managed? Topics include the rise of institutions for the mentally ill, the growth of the psychiatric profession and the relationship between psychiatry, deviance and anti-psychiatry,and gender and psychiatric norms.

HISTORY 265. Writing Asian American History. 5 Units.

Recent scholarship in Asian American history, with attention to methodologies and sources. Topics: racial ideologies, gender, transnationalism, culture, and Asian American art history. Primary research paper.
Same as: AMSTUD 265, ASNAMST 265, HISTORY 365.

HISTORY 266C. The Cold War: An International History. 5 Units.

Though it ended twenty years ago, we still live in a world shaped by the Cold War. Beginning with its origins in the mid-1940s, this course will trace the evolution of the global struggle, until its culmination at the end of the 1980s. Students will be asked to ponder the fundamental nature of the Cold War, what kept it alive for nearly fifty years, how it ended, and its long term legacy for the world.
Same as: INTNLREL 154.

HISTORY 267E. Martin Luther King, Jr. - His Life, Ideas, and Legacy. 5 Units.

Using the unique documentary resources and publications of Stanford's King Research and Education Institute, this course will provide a general introduction to King's life, visionary ideas, and historical significance. In addition to lectures and discussions, the course will include presentations of documentaries such as Eyes on the Prize. Students will be expected to read the required texts, participate in class discussions, and submit a research paper or an audio-visual project developed in consultation with the professor.
Same as: AMSTUD 267E.

HISTORY 271. Mexicans in the United States. 5 Units.

This course explores the lives and experiences of Mexicans living in the United States, from 1848 to the present. Themes and topics include: the legacies of colonialism, the Mexican-American War, transnational migration, the effects of economic stratification, race and racialization, and the impact of sexual and gender ideologies on the lives of Mexicans residing north of the border.
Same as: AMSTUD 271, CHILATST 171, CSRE 171H.

HISTORY 272E. Theories of Citizenship and Sovereignty in a Transnational Context. 4-5 Units.

This course explores the multiple meanings of citizenship and the ways in which they change when examined using different geographic scales (from the local to the transnational). The course will pair theoretical readings on citizenship with case studies that focus on North America. Topics include: definitions of citizenship; the interrelation of ideas of citizenship with those of race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality; the relationship between sovereignty and territoriality; human and civil rights; and immigration.
Same as: AMSTUD 272E, CHILATST 172, CSRE 172H, HISTORY 372E.

HISTORY 273. The European Expansion. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between European monarchies and their colonial domains from the 16th-18th centuries. Reasons for expansion, methods, and results. Case studies include the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English domains in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Readings include primary and secondary sources.
Same as: HISTORY 373A.

HISTORY 274. Mexico Since 1876: History of a "Failed State"?. 5 Units.

This course is an introduction to the history and diverse peoples of modern Mexico from 1876 to the present. Through discussions, primary and secondary readings, short documentaries, and written assignments, students will critically explore and analyze the multiplicity of historical processes, events and trends that shaped and were shaped by Mexicans over the course of a century. The course will cover some of the social and political dimensions of rural social change, urbanization and industrialization, technological innovation and misuse, environmental degradation and conservation, education, ideology, culture and media, migration, and the drug trade.

HISTORY 274E. Urban Poverty and Inequality in Latin America. 5 Units.

We examine historical issues of social inequality, poverty, crime, industrialization, globalization, and environment in major Latin American cities.

HISTORY 278S. The Ethical Challenges of Climate Change. 4-5 Units.

This course explores the ethical challenges of climate change from historical, social, economic, political, cultural and scientific perspectives. These include the discovery of global warming over two centuries, the rise of secular and religious denialism and skepticism toward the scientific consensus on it, the dispute between developed and developing countries over how to forge a binding global agreement to mitigate it, and the ¿role morality¿ of various actors (scientists, politicians, fossil fuel companies, the media and ordinary individuals) in the US in assessing ethical responsibility for the problem and its solutions.
Same as: HISTORY 478.

HISTORY 279. Latin American Development: Economy and Society, 1800-2014. 4-5 Units.

The newly independent nations of Latin America began the 19th century with economies roughly equal to the U.S. and Canada. What explains the economic gap that developed since 1800? Why are some Latin American nations rich and others poor and how have societies changed over time? Marxist, dependency, neoclassical, and institutionalist interpretive frameworks are explored. The effects of globalization on Latin American economic growth, autonomy, and potential for social justice are examined and debated.
Same as: HISTORY 379.

HISTORY 279D. Modern Brazil: Economy, Society & Culture. 4-5 Units.

This course addresses the history of modern Brazil from independence in 1822 to the present day. The class focuses on theories of economic development, social structure and change, and cultural life in Brazil's diverse regions.
Same as: HISTORY 379D.

HISTORY 281A. Twentieth-Century Iraq: A Political and Social History. 5 Units.

The colonial experience, creation of the modern Iraqi state, and transition to military dictatorship. Political movements, religious and tribal elements, and their relation to the state. Geopolitical context.

HISTORY 282. The United States and the Middle East since 1945. 4-5 Units.

Since the end of WW II, U.S. interests in the Middle East have traditionally been defined as access to oil at a reasonable price, trade and markets, containing the influence of the Soviet Union, and the security of Israel. Is this the full range of U.S. interests? How has the pursuit of these interests changed over time? What forces have shaped U.S. policy? What is the impact of U.S. policy on the region itself?
Same as: HISTORY 382.

HISTORY 282F. History of Modern Turkey. 5 Units.

Social, political and cultural history of Modern Turkey from the last decades of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century until Today. Themes include transformation from a multi-national empire to a national republic; Islam, secularism and radical modernism; military, bureaucracy and democratic experience; economic development, underdevelopment and class; Istanbul, Ankara and provincial Turkey; socialism, conservatism(s), and Kurdish challenge; Turkey in Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia; gender, sexuality and family; recent political crises.

HISTORY 283. The New Global Economy, Oil and Origins of the Arab Spring. 4-5 Units.

The integration of the Middle East into the world capitalist market on a subordinate basis and the impact on economic development, class formation, and politics. Alternative theoretical perspectives on the rise and expansion of the international capitalist market combined with case studies of Egypt, Iraq, and Palestine.
Same as: HISTORY 383.

HISTORY 284F. Empires, Markets and Networks: Early Modern Islamic World and Beyond, 1500-1800. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on political regimes, economic interactions and sociocultural formations in the early modern Balkans and Middle East to Central and South Asia. Topics include complex political systems of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires; experiences of various Muslim, Christian, Jewish and Hindu, as well as urban, rural and nomadic communities; consolidation of transregional commerce and cultural exchange; incorporation of the Islamic world in the global economy; transimperial networks of the Muslim and Non-Muslim merchants, scholars and sufis.
Same as: HISTORY 384F.

HISTORY 286. Jews Among Muslims in Modern Times. 4-5 Units.

The history of Jewish communities in the lands of Islam and their relations with the surrounding Muslim populations from the time of Muhammad to the 20th century. Topics: the place of Jews in Muslim societies, Jewish communal life, variation in the experience of communities in different Muslim lands, the impact of the West in the Modern period, the rise of nationalisms, and the end of Jewish life in Muslim countries.
Same as: HISTORY 386, JEWISHST 286, JEWISHST 386.

HISTORY 287C. Zionism and its Critics. 4-5 Units.

Zionism from its genesis in the 1880s up until the establishment of the state of Israel in May, 1948, exploring the historical, ideological and political dimensions of Zionism. Topics include: the emergence of Zionist ideology in connection to and as a response to challenges of modernity; emancipation; Haskalah (Jewish enlightenment); other national and ideological movements of the period; the ideological crystallization of the movement; and the immigration waves to Palestine.

HISTORY 288. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. 4-5 Units.

This course examines some salient issues of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict from the late 19th century to the present. At the end of the course you should be able to articulate the positions of the major parties to the conflict, with the understanding that there is no single, unified Zionist (or Jewish) or Palestinian (or Arab) position. One quarter does not allow sufficient time to cover even all of the important topics comprehensively (for example, the role of the Arab states, the USA and the USSR, and the internal history of Israel receive less attention than is desirable). Some prior knowledge of Middle East history is desirable, but not required. Vigorous debate and criticism are strongly encouraged. Criticism and response expressed in a civil tone is an important way to get a fuller and more truthful picture of something. This is not only a fundamental democratic right and a basic citizenship skill, but it is essential to interpreting information and making good policy. Rights not used are easily lost.
Same as: JEWISHST 288, JEWISHST 388.

HISTORY 291A. Archaeology and Modernity in Asia: The Excavation of Ancient Civilizations in Modern Times. 4-5 Units.

The interplay in Asia between antiquity and modernity, civilization and nation state, and national versus colonial science. The recent excavation of artifacts and places associated with Asian civilization such as the terracotta warriors in China and Angkor Wat in Cambodia. How Asian states have grappled with modernity and colonialism as they simultaneously dug up their ancient pasts.
Same as: HISTORY 391A.

HISTORY 292D. Japan in Asia, Asia in Japan. 4-5 Units.

How Japan and Asia mutually shaped each other in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Focus is on Japanese imperialism in Asia and its postwar legacies. Topics include: pan-Asianism and orientalism; colonial modernization in Korea and Taiwan; collaboration and resistance; popular imperialism in Manchuria; total war and empire; comfort women and the politics of apology; the issue of resident Koreans; and economic and cultural integration of postwar Asia.
Same as: HISTORY 392D.

HISTORY 292F. Culture and Religions in Korean History. 4-5 Units.

This colloquium explores the major themes of Korean history before 1800 and the role of culture and religions in shaping the everyday life of Chosôn-dynasty Koreans. Themes include the aristocracy and military in the Koryô dynasty, Buddhism and Confucianism in the making of Chosôn Korea, kingship and court culture, slavery and women, family and rituals, death and punishment, and the Korean alphabet (Hangûl) and print culture.
Same as: HISTORY 392F.

HISTORY 293B. Queer History in Comparative Perspective. 4-5 Units.

Comparative history of homoerotic desire, relations, and identity through scholarship on different historical periods and parts of the world: the classical Mediterranean, early modern European cities, late imperial and modern China, Tokugawa and modern Japan, and the U.S.
Same as: FEMGEN 293B, HISTORY 393B.

HISTORY 293D. Global Intellectual History. 4-5 Units.

Ideas have circulated globally for millennia but relatively recently have thinkers begun to conceptualize the global. Like "humanity" and "universalism," or what Marx called "international," the "global" too has complex genealogies. It is associated, often simultaneously, with empire and freedom, war and equality, commitment and treason, piracy and justice, homelessness and cosmopolitanism. Working with key 20th century texts from Italy, Britain, India, Israel, Palestine, Germany, France, and Algeria, course explores how thinking "globally" impacts the very foundations of modern political thought.
Same as: HISTORY 393D.

HISTORY 293E. Female Divinities in China. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the fundamental role of powerful goddesses in Chinese religion. It covers the entire range of imperial history and down to the present. It will look at, among other questions, what roles goddesses played in the spirit world, how this is related to the roles of human women, and why a civilization that excluded women from the public sphere granted them a dominant place, in the religious sphere. It is based entirely on readings in English.
Same as: HISTORY 393E, RELIGST 257X, RELIGST 357X.

HISTORY 295F. Race and Ethnicity in East Asia. 4-5 Units.

Intensive exploration of major issues in the history of race and ethnicity in China, Japan, and Korea from the early modern period to the present day.
Same as: ASNAMST 295F, HISTORY 395F.

HISTORY 295J. Chinese Women's History. 5 Units.

The lives of women in the last 1,000 years of Chinese history. Focus is on theoretical questions fundamental to women's studies. How has the category of woman been shaped by culture and history? How has gender performance interacted with bodily disciplines and constraints such as medical, reproductive, and cosmetic technologies? How relevant is the experience of Western women to women elsewhere? By what standards should liberation be defined?
Same as: CHINLIT 295J, FEMGEN 295J.

HISTORY 296. Communism and Revolution in China. 5 Units.

From the formation of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1921 through the 1949 founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Topics include: early theories of socialism in China; the relationship between Chinese communism and the Communist International and Soviet Union; agrarian reformulation of communism by Mao; the communist-nationalist civil war; the Communist Revolution of 1949; and the consolidation of communist power in the PRC.

HISTORY 296F. Short Stories from India and Pakistan. 3-5 Units.

The course introduces the main periods and trends of 20th- and 21st-century Urdu short story: Progressive Writers' Movement, Partition literature, Modernism, contemporary fiction. Classes include close reading and discussion of selected short stories, with special focus on prominent themes such as social problems; personal loss, exile, displacement, alienation, and questions of identity; gender and sexuality; history, memory, and nostalgia; myth and imagination. Readings include: Premchand, Manto, Ismat Chughtai, Qurratulain Hyder, Intizar Husain, Naiyer Masud. All readings are in English.
Same as: ICA 296F.

HISTORY 297. The Cold War and East Asia. 5 Units.

Explores how East Asia negotiated superpower rivalry and global ideological competition during the Cold War. Considers the ways in which China, Japan, and Korea were more than battlegrounds for US-Soviet contestation and played active roles in defining the nature and dynamics of the conflict. Re-examines conventional narratives and periodizations against alternative conceptual models and interpretive frameworks highlighting the constructed nature of the struggle as well as the role of historical and cultural factors in shaping the East Asian experience.
Same as: HISTORY 397.

HISTORY 299A. Senior Research I. 1-5 Unit.

HISTORY 299B. Senior Research II. 1-5 Unit.

HISTORY 299C. Senior Research III. 1-5 Unit.

HISTORY 299D. Tooling Up for Digital Humanities. 1 Unit.

What are the digital humanities? The twenty-first century presents new opportunities in the humanities, such as unprecedented access to millions upon millions of digitized sources along with powerful technological tools to study those sources. Yet it also raises new challenges, such as the responsible and effective use of technology, and defining the nature of digital scholarship and communication. This workshop offers an introduction to fundamental concepts, methods, and issues within the growing field of digital humanities, including managing your online identity, digitizing sources, managing databases, text mining, spatial analysis, visualization, and pedagogy.

HISTORY 299H. Junior Honors Colloquium. 1 Unit.

Required of junior History majors planning to write a History honors thesis during senior year. Meets four times during the quarter.

HISTORY 299M. Undergraduate Directed Research: Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute. 1-4 Unit.

May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 299S. Undergraduate Directed Research and Writing. 1-5 Unit.

May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 299X. Preparing for International Field Work: Public Service or Research. 1 Unit.

Explores issues crucial to working abroad: ethical concerns, Human Subjects Protocol, networking, personal safety and gender issues, confronting cultural differences. Exposes students to key research methods: case studies, interviewing, working in libraries and archives, ethnographic participant observation.
Same as: HISTORY 399A.

HISTORY 301. Introduction to Public History and Public Service. 4-5 Units.

Gateway course for the History and Public Service interdisciplinary track. Topics include the production, presentation, and practice of public history through narratives, exhibits, web sites, and events in museums, historical sites, parks, and public service settings in nonprofit organizations, government agencies, and educational institutions. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center).
Same as: AFRICAAM 102, CSRE 201, HISTORY 201.

HISTORY 301A. The Global Drug Wars. 4-5 Units.

Explores the global story of the struggle over drugs from the nineteenth century to the present. Topics include the history of the opium wars in China, controversies over wine and tobacco in Iran, narco-trafficking and civil war in Lebanon, the Afghan 'narco-state,' Andean cocaine as a global commodity, the politics of U.S.- Mexico drug trafficking, incarceration, drugs, and race in the U.S., and the globalization of the American 'war on drugs.'
Same as: HISTORY 201A.

HISTORY 302G. Peoples, Armies and Governments of the Second World War. 4-5 Units.

Clausewitz conceptualized war as always consisting of a trinity of passion, chance, and reason, mirrored, respectively, in the people, army and government. Following Clausewitz, this course examines the peoples, armies, and governments that shaped World War II. Analyzes the ideological, political, diplomatic and economic motivations and constraints of the belligerents and their resulting strategies, military planning and fighting. Explores the new realities of everyday life on the home fronts and the experiences of non-combatants during the war, the final destruction of National Socialist Germany and Imperial Japan, and the emerging conflict between the victors. How the peoples, armies and governments involved perceived their possibilities and choices as a means to understand the origins, events, dynamics and implications of the greatest war in history.
Same as: HISTORY 202G.

HISTORY 303. Premodern Economic Cultures. 5 Units.

A comparative survey of premodern economies and the value systems that supported them. Students will read and discuss theories of economic culture as well as historical monographs about specific regions. Discussions will focus on the comparison and conceptualization of premodern economic cultures. Students will be required to research the literature on a particular premodern society of their choosing, compile an annotated bibliography of that literature, and compose an essay analyzing the problems and possibilities presented therein.
Same as: HISTORY 203.

HISTORY 303C. History of Ignorance. 4-5 Units.

Scholars pay a lot of attention to knowledge--how it arises and impacts society--but much less attention has been given to ignorance, even though its impacts are equally profound. Here we explore the political history of ignorance, through case studies including: corporate denials of harms from particular products (tobacco, asbestos), climate change denialism, and creationist rejections of Darwinian evolution. Students will be expected to produce a research paper tracing the origins and impact of a particular form of ignorance.

HISTORY 303D. The Holocaust in Recent Memory: Conflicts - Commemorations - Challenges. 5 Units.

This course offers an in-depth approach to the study of the Holocaust as a historical point of reference for European memory, or for the memory cultures of European nations, where the international context in particular the USA and Israel will also be taken into consideration. The starting point is the transformations in Holocaust memory: after 1945, in the era of European postwar myths, the Holocaust was on the periphery of historical thinking, of scholarly and public interest. Today the Holocaust is acknowledged as a 'break in civilization', a watershed event in human history. This approach has only evolved since the 1980s.
Same as: HISTORY 203D, JEWISHST 283D, JEWISHST 383D.

HISTORY 303F. Words and Things in the History of Classical Scholarship. 4-5 Units.

How have scholars used ancient texts and objects since the revival of the classical tradition? How did antiquarians study and depict objects and relate them to texts and reconstructions of the past? What changed and what stayed the same as humanist scholarship gave way to professional archaeologists, historians, and philologists? Focus is on key works in the history of classics, such as Erasmus and Winckelmann, in their scholarly, cultural, and political contexts, and recent critical trends in intellectual history and the history of disciplines.
Same as: CLASSICS 331.

HISTORY 304. Approaches to History. 5 Units.

Required of first-year History Ph.D. students. This course explores ideas and debates that have animated historical discourse and shaped historiographical practice over the past half-century or so. The works we will be discussing raise fundamental questions about how historians imagine the past as they try to write about it, how they constitute it as a domain of study, how they can claim to know it, and how (and why) they argue about it.

HISTORY 304G. War and Society. 5 Units.

How Western societies and cultures have responded to modern warfare. The relationship between its destructive capacity and effects on those who produce, are subject to, and must come to terms with its aftermath. Literary representations of WW I; destructive psychological effects of modern warfare including those who take pleasure in killing; changes in relations between the genders; consequences of genocidal ideology and racial prejudice; the theory of just war and its practical implementation; and how wars are commemorated.
Same as: HISTORY 204G.

HISTORY 305. Graduate Pedagogy Workshop. 1 Unit.

Required of first-year History Ph.D. students. Perspectives on pedagogy for historians: course design, lecturing, leading discussion, evaluation of student learning, use of technology in teaching lectures and seminars. Addressing today's classroom: sexual harassment issues, integrating diversity, designing syllabi to include students with disabilities.

HISTORY 305C. Graduate Workshop Series. 1 Unit.

This is a 1-credit course for which only regular attendance is required, and graduate students may audit any or all of the sessions as they find useful. The majority of the course addresses questions of research, grant writing, and professionalization, while the last few sessions offer general guidance on preparing for the job market.

HISTORY 305G. Creative Political Thinking: From Machiavelli to Madison. 4-5 Units.

How can we account for creativity and innovation in political thinking? Are these qualities simply a product of political expediency and rhetorical urgency, or do they also depend on qualities of mind and historical contingencies that have to be studied individually? This class will explore these questions with three noteworthy cases: Niccolo Machiavelli, John Locke, and James Madison. Extensive reading in both primary writings and secondary sources.
Same as: HISTORY 205G, POLISCI 235J, POLISCI 335J.

HISTORY 306A. City, Society, Literature- 19th Century Histories. 4 Units.

This course examines the rise of modern cities through an analysis of urban society and the imaginative literature of the 1800s.
Same as: HISTORY 206A, URBANST 106.

HISTORY 306D. World History: Graduate Colloquium. 4 Units.

How do historians engage the global scale in the classroom as well as in research? The world history canon including Toynbee, McNeill, Braudel, Wolf, and Wallerstein; contrasting approaches, recent research, and resources for teaching. Recommended: concurrent enrollment in HISTORY 306K.

HISTORY 306E. International History and International Relations Theory. 5 Units.

The relationship between history and political science as disciplines. Sources include studies by historians and political scientists on topics such as the origins of WW I, the role of nuclear weapons in international politics, the end of the Cold War, nongovernmental organizations in international relations, and change and continuity in the international system.
Same as: HISTORY 202, POLISCI 216E, POLISCI 316.

HISTORY 306F. Identities and Identification in the Atlantic World. 4-5 Units.

How identities and processes of identification changed in Europe, Africa, and the Americas during the early modern period and as a result of the engagement of the inhabitants of these three continents in the Atlantic world.

HISTORY 306G. Colonial Law. 4-5 Units.

Examines the relationship between law and colonialism in Latin America, Africa and Asia during both the early modern and the modern period. By reading some of the seminal works that have been published on this issue, we will seek to understand how law both facilitated and limited colonialism and how colonialism, in turn, had modified the legal systems that had existed previously. Attention will also be given to law an an acculturating agent and to the legal arena as a sphere for conflict resolution, negotiation,and identity formation.

HISTORY 306K. World History Pedagogy Workshop. 1 Unit.

Students draft a syllabus and create a curriculum module for use in a world history lecture course. Corequisite: HISTORY 306D, recommended.

HISTORY 307A. Legal History Workshop. 4-5 Units.

(Same as LAW 372.) The Legal History Workshop is designed as a forum in which faculty and students from both the Law School and the History Department can discuss some of the best work now being done in the field of legal history. Every other week, an invited speaker will present his or her current research for discussion. This year the theme of the Workshop will be Conservative Legal Movements from 1950 to the Present. Speakers will include Reva Siegel, the Nicholas deB. Katzenbach Professor of Law at Yale Law School, and Thomas Sugrue, the David Boies Professor of History and Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania, as well several other scholars of law, the social sciences and humanities writing about this topic. In the week prior to a given speaker's presentation, the class will meet as a group to discuss secondary literature relevant to understanding and critiquing the speaker's research. Students will then read the speaker's paper in advance of the following week's workshop presentation. Special Instructions: Students are required to write a brief response to each speaker's paper. There will be a total of four speakers, and thus four papers. Guidance will be provided concerning how to frame these response papers, which will be due every two weeks - i.e., on the day before speaker presents and students will receive "W" writing credit. Students taking the course to receive "R" research credit are required to write a research paper on a legal history topic that they choose (in consultation with the professor). After the term begins, students accepted into the course can transfer from section (01) into section (02), which meets the R requirement, with consent of the instructor. Students taking the course for R credit can take the course for either 2 or 3 units, depending on the paper length. Elements used in grading: Class participation, attendance, assignments and final paper. This course is open to first-year Law School students. Writing (W) credit is for students entering prior to Autumn 2012.

HISTORY 307C. The Global Early Modern. 4-5 Units.

In what sense can we speak of "globalization" before modernity? What are the characteristics and origins of the economic system we know as "capitalism"? When and why did European economies begin to diverge from those of other Eurasian societies? With these big questions in mind, the primary focus will be on the history of Europe and European empires, but substantial readings deal with other parts of the world, particularly China and the Indian Ocean.
Same as: HISTORY 207C.

HISTORY 307E. Totalitarianism. 4-5 Units.

Modern revolutionary and totalitarian politics. Sources include monographs on the medieval, Reformation, French Revolutionary, and Great War eras. Topics: the essence of modern ideology, the concept of the body national, state terror, charismatic leadership, gender assignments, private and public spheres, and identities.
Same as: HISTORY 204E.

HISTORY 308. Biography and History. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between biographical and historical writing, primarily in Europe and America. Problems of methodology, evidence, dispassion, and empathy. Texts: biographies, critical literature on biographical work, and novels (A. S. Byatt's Possession, Bernard Malamud's Dubin's Lives) that illuminate the intellectual underpinnings of biographical labor.
Same as: HISTORY 207.

HISTORY 308B. Women Activists' Response to War. 4-5 Units.

Theoretical issues, historical origins, changing forms of women's activism in response to war throughout the 20th century, and contemporary cases, such as the Russian Committee of Soldiers Mothers, Bosnian Mothers of Srebrenica, Serbian Women in Black, and the American Cindy Sheehan. Focus is on the U.S. and Eastern Europe, with attention to Israel, England, and Argentina.
Same as: FEMGEN 208B, HISTORY 208B.

HISTORY 309A. Postcolonialism and Universalism. 4-5 Units.

Key texts and motifs from postcolonial theory: empire, class, exile, suffering, textuality, archive in juxtaposition to 20th-century philosophical questions about universal history and the relevance of humanist inquiry.
Same as: HISTORY 209D.

HISTORY 309B. The Idea of Politics. 4-5 Units.

Can we live without politics? Is politics indispensable for humanity and vice-versa? The idea of politics is that it must transform, through human action, conditions of collective life. But the 20th century produced colliding beliefs about what that life might be and what the human being itself might look like. Explore whether, after the century, we might still think of politics as an ethical idea and the "human" as foundational political category. Keywords: Civility, Cruelty, Friendship, Empire, Democracy, Humanism, Animals.
Same as: HISTORY 209B.

HISTORY 309C. Liberalism and Violence. 5 Units.

Does LIberalism have a theory of violence? What does modern political thought, in privileging humanity and rights, share with "terrorists" and "rogue states?" How is liberalism transformed by the use of religion and death for political ends? We read key thinkers of modern life- Adorno, Arendt, Agamben, Benjamin, Derrida, Fanon, Foucault, Gandhi, Heidegger, and Schmitt- to interrogate the relationship between religion, sacrifice, and democracy. At the center are connections between war and modern life, and between violence and non-violence.
Same as: HISTORY 209C.

HISTORY 309E. History Meets Geography. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on developing competence in GIS computer applications and applying it to historical problems. Previous experience with GIS not required. Recommended: complete the GIS tutorial in Branner Library before the course starts.

HISTORY 309F. Historical Geography Colloquium: Maps in the Early Modern World. 4-5 Units.

The significance of cartographic enterprise across the early modern world. Political, economic, and epistemological imperatives that drove the proliferation of nautical charts, domain surveys, city plans, atlases, and globes; the types of work such artifacts performed for their patrons, viewers, and subjects. Contributions of indigenous knowledge to imperial maps; the career of the map in commerce, surveillance, diplomacy, conquest, and indoctrination. Sources include recent research from Asia, Europe, and the Americas.

HISTORY 309G. Paleography of Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts. 3-5 Units.

Introductory course in the history of writing and of the book, from the late antique period until the advent of printing. Opportunity to learn to read and interpret medieval manuscripts through hands-on examination of original materials in Special Collections of Stanford Libraries as well as through digital images. Offers critical training in the reading of manuscripts for students from departments as diverse as Classics, History, Philosophy, Religious Studies, English, and the Division of Languages Cultures and Literatures.
Same as: CLASSICS 215, DLCL 209, RELIGST 204.

HISTORY 311A. Family, Gender, and Production in Ancient Rome. 4-5 Units.

Seminar. The household as the basic unit of production in Rome in the context of family relations and ideologies of gender. Methodological challenges of doing social and economic history from literary, epigraphic, and literary texts. Demography of family and kinship in ancient Rome. Ideologies of gender and family roles and their influence on economic production. Economic theories of the family and human capital.

HISTORY 311G. Big Ancient History. 4-5 Units.

How the shift away from thinking about European history in terms of a western civilization model toward embedding it in stories of how global history affects research and teaching on ancient Greece and Rome. Conventional, evolutionary, and global history narratives of the past 5,000 to 15,000 years and some new ideas about how Greco-Roman history might fit into different storylines.

HISTORY 312. Knights, Monks, and Nobles: Masculinity in the Middle Ages. 4-5 Units.

Same as: HISTORY 212.

HISTORY 314D. Mediterranean Crossroads: Power, Culture, and Religion in Medieval Sicily. 5 Units.

Sicily in the Middle Ages was a Mediterranean crossroads, a dynamic and diverse kingdom in which Muslim and Christian, Viking and African, European and Eastern Cultures all came together. Explores the life and times of Frederick II (1194-1250). He claimed universal authority as a Christian emperor, yet ruled multireligious Sicily as king. He promoted crusading, yet was accused of being a heretic and a crypto Muslim. He spoke six languages and actively patronized the arts and sciences. Topics include: structures and influences that made such a figure possible; how he managed the tensions of governing a diverse and disparate empire; how religion and cultural production created and maintained his authority; how contemporaries and later generations reacted to this enigmatic emperor; why has he continued to generate such polarizing reactions; and how did Frederick become a figure revered by Nazis and multiculturalists alike.
Same as: HISTORY 214D.

HISTORY 315. Advanced Paleography. 5 Units.

This course will train students in the transcription and editing of original Medieval and Early Modern textual materials from c. 1000 to 1600, written principally in Latin and English (but other European languages are possible, too). Students will hone their archival skills, learning how to describe, read and present a range of manuscripts and single-leaf documents, before turning their hand to critical interpretation and editing. Students, who must already have experience of working with early archival materials, will focus on the full publication of one individual fragment or document as formal assessment.
Same as: CLASSICS 216, ENGLISH 300A, RELIGST 329X.

HISTORY 316. Women and the Book: Scribes, Artists, and Readers from Late Antiquity through the Fourteenth Century. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the cultural worlds of medieval women through particular attention to the books that they owned, commissioned, and created. Beginning with the earliest Christian centuries, the course proceeds chronologically, charting women¿s book ownership, scribal and artistic activity, and patronage from Late Antiquity through the fourteenth century. In addition to examining specific manuscripts (in facsimile, or digitally), we will consider ancillary questions to do with women¿s authorship, education and literacy, reading patterns, devotional practices, and visual traditions and representation.
Same as: ARTHIST 206H, FEMGEN 216, HISTORY 216.

HISTORY 319B. Secularity. 4-5 Units.

Classic theories of secularity. Is a secular world possible? How does, historically seen, the notion of the secular emerge, impose itself, and get challenged? Readings include Max Weber, E. Durkheim, R.A. Markus, Carl Schmitt, and Hans Blumenberg, and studies bearing on the Middle Ages, English monastic secularization, the French Revolution, and 20th-century political religions.

HISTORY 319C. Science, Technology, and Modernity in the Soviet Union. 5 Units.

Science and technology were integral to the Soviet claim to offer a vision of modernity superior to that of Western capitalism. Science and technology would flourish; society would develop on a scientific basis. The results were more complex than the vision. Topics to be covered: science and Marxism-Leninism; the Lysenko affair; the R&D system; the role of the secret police; the atomic project; the space race; missile development; Andrei Sakharov; technology and innovation.
Same as: HISTORY 219C.

HISTORY 321A. State, Society and Nation in Modern Russian Historiography. 4-5 Units.

Main trends of Russian intellectual history as seen through major historians' treatment of Muscovy: Romanticism, Slavophilism, Hegelianism, Populism, Social Democracy, New Idealism, and Marxism-Leninism.

HISTORY 321B. Imperial Russian Historiography. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 323. Art and Ideas in Imperial Russia. 4-5 Units.

Poetry, novels, symphonic music, theater, opera, painting, design, and architecture: what they reveal about the politics and culture of tsarist Russia.
Same as: HISTORY 223.

HISTORY 323B. Research Methodologies in Early Modern Russian History. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 324C. Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Traces the history of genocide in the 20th century and the question of humanitarian intervention to stop it, a topic that has been especially controversial since the end of the Cold War. The pre-1990s discussion begins with the Armenian genocide during the First World War and includes the Holocaust and Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s. Coverage of genocide and humanitarian intervention since the 1990s includes the wars in Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo, the Congo and Sudan.
Same as: HISTORY 224C, PEDS 224.

HISTORY 324F. The Caucasus and the Muslim World. 4-5 Units.

The linkages connecting the societies of the Caucasus to Muslim communities in Iran, Russia, the Ottoman Empire and Turkey, S. Asia, and the Middle East.

HISTORY 326A. Modern Europe: Society and Politics. 5 Units.

The goal of this course is to introduce graduate students to major works of history and literature in the field of nineteenth and early-twentieth century history. A colloquia will be given in tandem with a research seminar.

HISTORY 326C. Graduate Colloquium on Balkan History. 4-5 Units.

Designed for History Ph.D. students to develop competence in the history and historiography of the modern Balkans, from the French Revolution to the present. Areas of study include the influence of empires on the region, the rise of nationalism and nation states, the dilemmas of independence, the emergence and decline of communism in the region, and the recurrence of war and ethnic conflict.

HISTORY 326E. Famine in the Modern World. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Examines the major famines of modern history, the controversies surrounding them, and the reasons that famine persists in our increasingly globalized world. Focus is on the relative importance of natural, economic, and political factors as causes of famine in the modern world. Case studies include the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s; the Bengal famine of 1943-44; the Soviet famines of 1921-22 and 1932-33; China's Great Famine of 1959-61; the Ethiopian famines of the 1970s and 80s, and the Somalia famines of the 1990s and of 2011.
Same as: HISTORY 226E, PEDS 226.

HISTORY 328. Circles of Hell: Poland in World War II. 5 Units.

Looks at the experience and representation of Poland's wartime history from the Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939) to the aftermath of Yalta (1945). Examines Nazi and Soviet ideology and practice in Poland, as well as the ways Poles responded, resisted, and survived. Considers wartime relations among Polish citizens, particularly Poles and Jews. In this regard, interrogates the traditional self-characterization of Poles as innocent victims, looking at their relationship to the Holocaust, thus engaging in a passionate debate still raging in Polish society.
Same as: HISTORY 228, JEWISHST 282, JEWISHST 382.

HISTORY 330. Core Colloquium on Early Modern Europe: Ancien Regime. 4-5 Units.

Topics in the social, political, and religious history of Western Europe, 1550-1789, with an emphasis on France. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 330A. EARLY MODERN COLLOQUIUM. 4-5 Units.

Historiographical survey from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment. Topics include Renaissance, Reformation, European expansion, state and nation building, printing, military, and scientific revolutions, origins of Enlightenment. Designed to prepare students doing either a primary or secondary graduate field in early modern European history.

HISTORY 330D. Europe in the World, 1789-Present. 4-5 Units.

The European conquest of parts of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific by European merchants, missionaries, armies, and administrators had significant, and often cataclysmic, effects on indigenous political alliances, cultural practices, and belief systems. But were the effects of expansion entirely one-sided? What impact did the experiences of colonialism have on European politics, culture,and Europe's relations with the rest of the world? Explores how interaction between Europe and the rest of the world redefined the political, racial, sexual, and religious boundaries of both Europe and its colonies and gave rise to the more "globalized' society we live in today.
Same as: HISTORY 230D.

HISTORY 330F. Surveillance in Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

We will investigate the role of surveillance in modern societies -- the motives, pressures, and consequences of informal and formal systems of control from the French Revolution to the present day. Students will encounter a variety of sources and situations, analyzing the tensions between social stability and individual pursuits, and the circumstances under which these tensions can lead to state repression and violence.
Same as: HISTORY 230F.

HISTORY 331D. Core Colloquium on Modern Europe: Intellectual History. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 331E. Paper, Printing, and Digital Revolutions: Transformations of the Book. 4-5 Units.

What is a book? This seminar explores the conceptual implications of approximately two millennia of transformations in the physical and material properties of books. How have the meaning and authority we assign the written word changed as technologies of book production and dissemination have evolved, and how have they remained continuous? Topics covered include the rise of the medieval manuscript codex, the emergence of print culture in early modern Europe, and current debates over the nature of text in the digital age.
Same as: HISTORY 231E.

HISTORY 332B. Heretics, Prostitutes and Merchants: The Venetian Empire. 4-5 Units.

Between 1200-1600, Venice created a powerful empire at the boundary between East and West that controlled much of the Mediterranean, with a merchant society that allowed social groups, religions, and ethnicities to coexist. Topics include the features of Venetian society, the relationship between center and periphery, order and disorder, orthodoxy and heresy, the role of politics, art, and culture in the Venetian Renaissance, and the empire's decline as a political power and reinvention as a tourist site and living museum.
Same as: ITALIAN 332B.

HISTORY 332D. Rome: The City and the World, 1350-1750. 4-5 Units.

What lies beyond the ruins of an ancient city? The history of Rome from the Renaissance to the age of the grand tour. Topics include: the political, diplomatic, and religious history of the papacy; society and cultural life; the everyday world of Roman citizens; the relationship between the city and the surrounding countryside; the material transformation of Rome as a city; and its meaning for foreigners.
Same as: HISTORY 232D.

HISTORY 332F. The Scientific Revolution. 5 Units.

What do people know and how do they know it? What counts as scientific knowledge? In the 16th and 17th centuries, understanding the nature of knowledge engaged the attention of individuals and institutions including Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Newton, the early Royal Society, and less well-known contemporaries. New meanings of observing, collecting, experimenting, and philosophizing, and political, religious, and cultural ramifications in early modern Europe.

HISTORY 332G. When Worlds Collide: The Trial of Galileo. 4-5 Units.

In 1633, the Italian mathematician Galileo was tried and condemned for advocating that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the cosmos. The Catholic Church did not formally admit that Galileo was right until 1992. Examines the many factors that led to the trial of Galileo and looks at multiple perspectives on this signal event in the history of science and religion. Considers the nature and definition of intellectual heresy in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and examines the writings of Galileo's infamous predecessor Giordano Bruno (burned at the stake in 1600). Looks closely at documents surrounding the trial and related literature on Renaissance and Reformation Italy in order to understand the perspectives of various participants in this famous event. Focal point of seminar involves the examination of the many different histories that can be produced from Galileo's trial. What, in the end, were the crimes of Galileo?.

HISTORY 333C. Two British Revolutions. 4-5 Units.

Current scholarship on Britain,1640-1700, focusing on political and religious history. Topics include: causes and consequences of the English civil war and revolution; rise and fall of revolutionary Puritanism; the Restoration; popular politics in the late 17th century; changing contours of religious life; the crisis leading to the Glorious Revolution; and the new order that emerged after the deposing of James II.
Same as: HISTORY 233C.

HISTORY 333K. The Invention of the Modern Republic. 4-5 Units.

Examines the history of republican thinking in the Atlantic World from the Renaissance to the French Revolution.
Same as: HISTORY 233K.

HISTORY 334. The Enlightenment. 3-5 Units.

The Enlightenment as a philosophical, literary, and political movement. Themes include the nature and limits of philosophy, the grounds for critical intellectual engagement, the institution of society and the public, and freedom, equality and human progress. Authors include Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Hume, Diderot, and Condorcet.
Same as: DLCL 324, HISTORY 234, HISTORY 432A, HUMNTIES 324.

HISTORY 334F. Science, Technology, and Empire. 4-5 Units.

How modern Europe came to be connected to thennwider world through repeated cycles of expansion, circulation, andnnexchange from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Using weeklynnthemes and in-depth discussions of ¿watershed¿ moments, nnthe roles played by colonialism, migration, commerce, warfare,nntelecommunications, and popular culture in redefining the place ofnnEurope in a changing global landscape will be explored.

HISTORY 334G. Narrating the British Empire. 4-5 Units.

This course will explore the historical and cultural reality of the British Empire in a global and comparative context, through works of fiction and non-fiction, history, memoir and a range of cultural chronicles. What relationship did British colonialism have with modernity and the European Enlightenment, and with neoliberalism and globalization that followed decolonization? Texts: CLR James's Beyond a Boundary,, Jamaica Kincaid's A Small Place, Nirad Chaudhuri's The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian, Alan Paton's Cry, The Beloved Country, Witi Ihimaera's Dear Miss Mansfield.
Same as: ENGLISH 234G, HISTORY 234G.

HISTORY 335C. Readings in the Supernatural. 4-5 Units.

Class will read and discuss a selection of monographs, scholarly essays, and primary sources on the rich supernatural world of early modern Europe. We will discuss how fairies, werewolves, nightmares, and trolls all became witches, how the binary of angels and demons figured in European thought, and how the marginalized imaginary was reconstituted in theatre and fiction.
Same as: HISTORY 235C.

HISTORY 336. Modern France. 4-5 Units.

(Daughton).

HISTORY 336B. Hobbes to Habermas: The Idea of Society in Modern Thought. 4-5 Units.

Classic texts in social theory from the seventeenth century to the present. Readings include Locke, Smith, Hegel, Comte, and Durkheim, and Weber.
Same as: HISTORY 236B.

HISTORY 336E. Humanities+Design: Visualizing the Grand Tour. 4-5 Units.

Study of the eighteenth-century Grand Tour of Italy through visualization tools of the digital age. Critical readings in both visual epistemology and current Grand Tour studies; interrogating the relationship between quantitative and qualitative approaches in digital humanities; what new insights in eighteenth-century British travel to Italy does data visualization offer us? Students will transform traditional texts and documents into digital datasets, developing individual data analysis projects using text mining, data capture and visualization techniques.
Same as: CLASSICS 396, DLCL 396.

HISTORY 337. The Holocaust. 4-5 Units.

The emergence of modern racism and radical anti-Semitism. The Nazi rise to power and the Jews. Anti-Semitic legislation in the 30s. WW II and the beginning of mass killings in the East. Deportations and ghettos. The mass extermination of European Jewry.
Same as: HISTORY 137, JEWISHST 183, JEWISHST 383.

HISTORY 337C. Street History: Learning the Past in School and Out. 3-5 Units.

Interdisciplinary. Since Herodotus, history and memory have competed to shape minds: history cultivates doubt and demands interpretation; memory seeks certainty and detests that which thwarts its aims. History and memory collide in modern society, often violently. How do young people become historical amidst these forces; how do school, family, nation, and mass media contribute to the process?
Same as: EDUC 356.

HISTORY 337K. Speed and Power in Twentieth-Century Europe. 4-5 Units.

Europeans living in the 20th century witnessed an unprecedented (and, to many observers, frightening) acceleration in the pace of everyday life, wrought by the introduction of a host of new travel technologies. Focusing on the metropolises of Europe, this seminar will explore the various ways that trains, planes, and automobiles have shaped modern urban life. We'll also look at how 20th-century artists and writers have treated the interrelated themes of speed and power in their work.
Same as: HISTORY 237K.

HISTORY 338A. Graduate Colloquium in Modern British History, Part I. 4-5 Units.

Influential approaches to problems in British, European, and imperial history. The 19th-century British experience and its relationship to Europe and empire. National identity, the industrial revolution, class formation, gender, liberalism, and state building. Goal is to prepare specialists and non-specialists for oral exams.

HISTORY 338E. European Legal History. 5 Units.

(Same as LAW 441.) This seminar will explore major topics in European legal history from ancient Rome through the present: Roman law, canon law, feudalism, sixteenth- and seventeenth-century constitutionalism, modern natural law, the age of absolutism and the rise of the centralized, administrative state, the structure of Old Regime law and society and the radical changes brought about by revolution, the German historical school of jurisprudence, and the rise of the European Union and a new culture of international human rights. In exploring these topics, we will focus on certain core, recurring themes that continue profoundly to shape the world in which we live. These include the sources and nature of law (positive law vs. custom), the relationship between law and society, and the relationship between law and history. Classroom discussion will focus on selected primary- and secondary-source texts that we will read as a group. nnThis course is cross-listed with LAW441. The course will be limited to 12 SLS students with 10 additional slots held for students enrolling in HISTORY338E.
Same as: HISTORY 238E.

HISTORY 338G. Ethnography of the Late Middle Ages: Social history and popular culture in the age of the plague. 4-5 Units.

During the late Middle Ages, as Europe was recovering from the devastation of the Black Death, political reorganization contributed to a burst of archival documentation that allows historians richly detailed glimpses of societies in transition. We will be reading selected scholarly articles and monographs covering such topics as persecution, prechristian cultural remnants, folk theologies, festival cultures, peasant revolts, heresy, and the advent of the diabolic witch.
Same as: HISTORY 238G.

HISTORY 339F. Empire and Information. 4-5 Units.

How do states see? How do they know what they know about their subjects, citizens, economies, and geographies? How does that knowledge shape society, politics, identity, freedom, and modernity? Focus is on the British imperial state activities in S. Asia and Britain: surveillance technologies and information-gathering systems, including mapping, statistics, cultural schemata, and intelligence systems, to render geographies and social bodies legible, visible, and governable.
Same as: HISTORY 239F.

HISTORY 339H. Modern European History in a Global Age. 4-5 Units.

How scholars can write the history of modern Europe in a way that integrates global and transnational perspectives. Discussed the methodological challenges and merits of various approaches and reviews relevant theoretical and interdisciplinary models for how this can best be done. Topics include globalization, migration, internationalism, colonialism, post-colonialism, modern warfare, and the media.

HISTORY 340. The History of Evolution. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the history of evolutionary biology from its emergence around the middle of the eighteenth century. We will consider the continual engagement of evolutionary theories of life with a larger, transforming context: philosophical, political, social, economic, institutional, aesthetic, artistic, literary. Our goal will be to achieve a historical rich and nuanced understanding of how evolutionary thinking about life has developed to its current form.
Same as: HISTORY 240.

HISTORY 342. Darwin in the History of Life. 4-5 Units.

Origins and impact of evolutionary theory from the nineteenth century to the present. Early theories of fossils, the discovery of deep time and uniformitarian geology, debates over evolution vs. extinction, the origin of life, and human origins; the rise of anthropology and racial theory; the changing challenge of creationism, the abuse of evolution in eugenics and Nazi racial hygiene; and new discoveries in the realm of extreme life, evo-devo, neocatastrophism, and the new technological frontier of biomimicry. Attendance at the lectures of HISTORY 142 is required.

HISTORY 343G. Tobacco and Health in World History. 4-5 Units.

Cigarettes are the world's leading cause of death--but how did we come into this world, where 6 trillion cigarettes are smoked every year? Here we explore the political, cultural, and technological origins of the cigarette and cigarette epidemic, using the tobacco industry's 80 million pages of secret documents. Topics include the history of cigarette advertising and cigarette design, the role of the tobacco industry in fomenting climate change denial, and questions raised by the testimony of experts in court.
Same as: HISTORY 243G.

HISTORY 344. Narrative Knowing. 1-2 Unit.

Philosophers and historians have been debating the status of narrative explanation for well over 50 years. Until quite recently, a supposed dichotomy between natural science and history has shaped the discussion. Beginning from the origins, history, and limitations of the dichotomy, this seminar will explore how claims for narrative understanding and explanation have come to occupy an increasingly important role in the natural sciences as well as the social sciences. Some classic contributors are Hempel, Danto, Mink, Kuhn, White, Ricouer, Geertz, and Ginzburg. Current authors include Roth, Rheinberger, Kitcher, Beatty, Morgan, and (yes) Wise.
Same as: PHIL 344.

HISTORY 345A. Africa in the Era of the Slave Trade. 4-5 Units.

The slave trade, including the trans-Saharan, Indian Ocean, and trans-Atlantic trades, constituted nearly a millennium of interaction with the wider world and set in motion transformations in African societies, polities, and cultures. Topics include the debates about slavery in Africa, the impact of the slave trade on African societies, state formation, economic change, religious change, and household change in the period before the scramble for Africa in the late 19th century.

HISTORY 345B. African Encounters with Colonialism. 4-5 Units.

This colloquium is a broad sweep of some of the main themes in the history of the colonial period for Africa. A course of this nature can not help but be a selective sample of the field. For example, topics on the end of slavery in Africa, on the social history of law in colonial Africa, Islam and religious conversion, nationalism and decolonization are not included here because they are covered by more specialized courses. This course is designed to let students sample different approaches to the history of the colonial period.

HISTORY 346. The Dynamics of Change in Africa. 4-5 Units.

Crossdisciplinary colloquium; required for the M.A. degree in African Studies. Open to advanced undergraduates and PhD students. Addresses critical issues including patterns of economic collapse and recovery; political change and democratization; and political violence, civil war, and genocide. Focus on cross-cutting issues including the impact of colonialism; the role of religion, ethnicity, and inequality; and Africa's engagement with globalization.
Same as: AFRICAST 301A, POLISCI 246P, POLISCI 346P.

HISTORY 351A. Core in American History, Part I. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 351B. Core in American History, Part II. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 351C. Core in American History, Part III. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 351D. Core in American History, Part IV. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 351E. Core in American History, Part V. 4-5 Units.

Required of all first-year United States History Ph.D. students. Topics in Twentieth Century United States History.

HISTORY 351F. Core in American History, Part VI. 4-5 Units.

Required of all first-year Ph.D. students in U.S. History.

HISTORY 352B. History of American Law. 5 Units.

(Same as LAW 318.) Modern history of American law, legal thought, legal institutions and the legal profession. Topics include law and regulation of corporate organizations and labor relations in the age of enterprise, law of race relations in the South and North, development of classical legalism, critiques of classical legalism, modern administrative state, organized legal profession, New Deal legal thought and legislation, legal order of the 50s, expansion of enterprise liability, civil rights movements from 1940, rights revolution of the Warren Court and Great Society.
Same as: HISTORY 152.

HISTORY 353D. Approaches to American Legal History. 4-5 Units.

(Same as LAW 651.) Legal history may once have been primarily devoted to exploring legal doctrines and key judicial opinions, and thus to be of interest mainly to legal scholars and lawyers. Now, the best writing in legal history resembles historical writing more generally, and the study of legal ideas and practices is increasingly integrated with social, intellectual, cultural, and political history. Examines recent writings in American legal history, ranging broadly across time and space to ask how the field reflects developments in historical writing more generally, and how the use of legal materials affects our understanding of major aspects of American history.

HISTORY 354. Law, Slavery, and Race. 5 Units.

(Same as LAW 747.) This course will explore the interaction of law, slavery and race in the United States, as well as from a comparative perspective. We will read original documents, including excerpts of trial transcripts, appellate opinions, treatises, codes, and first-person narratives. We will study the way law, politics and culture interacted to shape the institution of slavery and the development of modern conceptions of race. Course lectures and discussions will focus on questions such as: Did different legal regimes (Spanish, French, British) foster different systems of race and slavery in the Americas? How did/does law work "on the ground" to shape the production of racial hierarchy and creation of racial identities? In what ways did slavery influence the U.S. Constitution? How has race shaped citizenship in the U.S., and how can we compare it to other constitutional regimes? The course will begin with the origins of New World slavery, race and racism, and move chronologically to the present day.
Same as: HISTORY 254D.

HISTORY 355. Decision Making in International Crises: The A-Bomb, the Korean War, and the Cuban Missile Crisis. 4-5 Units.

For advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Primary documents and secondary literature. Topics include: the decision to use the atomic bomb on Japan, the Korean War, and the Cuban missile crisis.

HISTORY 356. America- China Relations. 4-5 Units.

The history of turbulent relations, military conflict, and cultural clashes between the U.S. and China, and the implications for the domestic lives of these increasingly interconnected countries. Diplomatic, political, social, cultural, and military themes from early contact to the recent past.
Same as: AMSTUD 256, HISTORY 256.

HISTORY 356G. Constructing Race and Religion in America. 4-5 Units.

This seminar focuses on the interrelationships between social constructions of race, and social interpretations of religion in America. How have assumptions about race shaped religious worldviews? How have religious beliefs shaped racial attitudes? How have ideas about religion and race contributed to notions of what it means to be "American"? We will look at primary and secondary sources, and at the historical development of ideas and practices over time.
Same as: CSRE 246, HISTORY 256G, RELIGST 246, RELIGST 346.

HISTORY 358. Topics in the History of Sexuality: Sexual Violence in America. 4-5 Units.

This undergraduate/graduate colloquium explores recent historical interpretations of the history of sexuality, with a focus on sexual violence. The readings cover changing definitions and laws, cultural representations, and the role of gender, race, and age in the construction of rape and other forms of sexual violence. Topics include slavery; incest, seduction, and statutory rape reform; the racialization of rape and the anti-lynching movement; street harassment; men and boys as victims; war and conquest; and feminist responses to rape.
Same as: AMSTUD 258, CSRE 192E, FEMGEN 258, FEMGEN 358, HISTORY 258.

HISTORY 362G. The Pivotal Decade in U.S. History: 1960's or 1970's?. 4-5 Units.

Which had more lasting impact, the civil war of the 1960s or the conservative revolt of the 1970s? Should the 1970s supersede the 1960s as a pivotal moment when something happened of considerable importance to historians? Considers this debate of the decades comparatively and thematically, addressing topics including civil rights, foreign policy, electoral politics, popular culture, law, economics, labor, and social movement organizing.

HISTORY 365. Writing Asian American History. 5 Units.

Recent scholarship in Asian American history, with attention to methodologies and sources. Topics: racial ideologies, gender, transnationalism, culture, and Asian American art history. Primary research paper.
Same as: AMSTUD 265, ASNAMST 265, HISTORY 265.

HISTORY 366B. Immigration Debates in America, Past and Present. 3-5 Units.

Examines the ways in which the immigration of people from around the world and migration within the United States shaped American nation-building and ideas about national identity in the twentieth century. Focuses on how conflicting ideas about race, gender, ethnicity, and citizenship with respect to particular groups led to policies both of exclusion and integration. Part One begins with the ways in which the American views of race and citizenship in the colonial period through the post-Reconstruction Era led to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 and subsequently to broader exclusions of immigrants from other parts of Asia, Southern and Eastern Europe, and Mexico. Explores how World War II and the Cold War challenged racial ideologies and led to policies of increasing liberalization culminating in the passage of the 1965 Immigration Act, which eliminated quotas based on national origins and opened the door for new waves of immigrants, especially from Asia and Latin America. Part Two considers new immigration patterns after 1965, including those of refugees, and investigates the contemporary debate over immigration and immigration policy in the post 9/11 era as well as inequalities within the system and the impact of foreign policy on exclusions and inclusions.
Same as: CSRE 166B, HISTORY 166B.

HISTORY 370. Graduate Colloquium on Colonial Latin American History. 4-5 Units.

Sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. Indigenous cultures. The arrival of Europeans and its impact on native and European societies. Culture, religion and institutions, and everyday life. The independence period and the formation of new nations.

HISTORY 372A. Mexico: From Colony to Nation or the History of an Impossible Republic?. 5 Units.

Was a republican form of government even possible in 19th-century Mexico after 300 years of colonial rule under the Spanish monarchy? Was the Spanish colonial heritage a positive or a negative legacy according to 19th-century Mexican politicians? How were they to forge a new national identity with so many ethnically and culturally diverse peoples throughout the territory? Just how ¿traditional¿ was, in fact, the colonial period? These are some of the questions we will explore in this course. Journeying from the late colonial period (c.1700) to the 35-year dictatorship known as El Porfiriato (1876-1911) we will examine how Mexico¿s diverse indigenous peoples adapted to both colonial and postcolonial rule, how they actively participated in politics and political discourse to preserve their cultures, customs and colonial privileges, and how after independence in 1821, a new republican political culture was forged. Mexico was not an impossible republic, but rather another kind of republic.

HISTORY 372E. Theories of Citizenship and Sovereignty in a Transnational Context. 4-5 Units.

This course explores the multiple meanings of citizenship and the ways in which they change when examined using different geographic scales (from the local to the transnational). The course will pair theoretical readings on citizenship with case studies that focus on North America. Topics include: definitions of citizenship; the interrelation of ideas of citizenship with those of race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality; the relationship between sovereignty and territoriality; human and civil rights; and immigration.
Same as: AMSTUD 272E, CHILATST 172, CSRE 172H, HISTORY 272E.

HISTORY 373A. The European Expansion. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between European monarchies and their colonial domains from the 16th-18th centuries. Reasons for expansion, methods, and results. Case studies include the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English domains in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Readings include primary and secondary sources.
Same as: HISTORY 273.

HISTORY 374. Mexico Since 1876: History of a "Failed State"?. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 174.) This course is an introduction to the history and diverse peoples of modern Mexico from 1876 to the present. Through lectures, discussions, primary and secondary readings, short documentaries, and written assignments, students will critically explore and analyze the multiplicity of historical processes, events and trends that shaped and were shaped by Mexicans over the course of a century. The course will cover some of the social and political dimensions of rural social change, urbanization and industrialization, technological innovation and misuse, environmental degradation and conservation, education, ideology, culture and media, migration, and the drug trade.

HISTORY 375B. Borders and Borderlands in Modern Mexico. 4-5 Units.

Surveys the history of Mexico's borders and borderlands from the nineteenth century to the present. Examines theoretical conceptualizations of the borderlands as well as the historical development of identities and geographic borders within and around Mexico. Topics include the legacies of war, map making, the construction of lo Mexicano, the politics of culture, and migrations to, from, and through Mexico. Analyzes the prevailing trends in Mexicanist historiography.

HISTORY 376. Modern Brazil. 4-5 Units.

From independence in 1822 to the present. Social and cultural history. Literary and historical sources.

HISTORY 378A. The Logic of Authoritarian Government, Ancient and Modern. 5 Units.

If authoritarianism is less economically efficient than democracy, and if authoritarianism is a less stable form of political organization than democracy, then why are there more authoritarian governments than democracies? To address this paradox, focus is on theoretical and empirical literature on authoritarian governments, and related literatures on the microeconomic analysis of property rights and credible commitments.

HISTORY 379. Latin American Development: Economy and Society, 1800-2014. 4-5 Units.

The newly independent nations of Latin America began the 19th century with economies roughly equal to the U.S. and Canada. What explains the economic gap that developed since 1800? Why are some Latin American nations rich and others poor and how have societies changed over time? Marxist, dependency, neoclassical, and institutionalist interpretive frameworks are explored. The effects of globalization on Latin American economic growth, autonomy, and potential for social justice are examined and debated.
Same as: HISTORY 279.

HISTORY 379D. Modern Brazil: Economy, Society & Culture. 4-5 Units.

This course addresses the history of modern Brazil from independence in 1822 to the present day. The class focuses on theories of economic development, social structure and change, and cultural life in Brazil's diverse regions.
Same as: HISTORY 279D.

HISTORY 381. Economic and Social History of the Modern Middle East. 4-5 Units.

The integration of the Middle East into the world capitalist market on a subordinate basis and the impact on economic development, class formation, and politics. Alternative theoretical perspectives on the rise and expansion of the international capitalist market are combined with possible case studies of Egypt, Iraq, and Palestine.

HISTORY 382. The United States and the Middle East since 1945. 4-5 Units.

Since the end of WW II, U.S. interests in the Middle East have traditionally been defined as access to oil at a reasonable price, trade and markets, containing the influence of the Soviet Union, and the security of Israel. Is this the full range of U.S. interests? How has the pursuit of these interests changed over time? What forces have shaped U.S. policy? What is the impact of U.S. policy on the region itself?
Same as: HISTORY 282.

HISTORY 382F. History of Modern Turkey. 4-5 Units.

Social, political and cultural history of Modern Turkey from the last decades of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century until Today. Themes include transformation from a multi-national empire to a national republic; Islam, secularism and radical modernism; military, bureaucracy and democratic experience; economic development, underdevelopment and class; Istanbul, Ankara and provincial Turkey; socialism, conservatism(s), and Kurdish challenge; Turkey in Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia; gender, sexuality and family; popular culture, soccer, and film industry; Post-Modernism, Neo-Ottomanism, and the New-Turkey; The class also include reading works of Turkish literature and watching movies by Turkish directors.

HISTORY 382G. Israel from the Margins. 4-5 Units.

Although secular, European Jews form a minority of the population of the State of Israel, and its history is typically narrated and interpreted from that perspective. Israel looks like a rather different place if it is seen and understood from the point of view of Middle Eastern and North African Jews,including those indigenous to the country before the advent of the modern Zionist movement, orthodox and ultra-orthodox Jews, Palestinian Arabs (nearly twenty percent of Israel's population today), migrant workers (about 200,000), and women. This course does not suggest that their perspectives are necessarily more real or true, only that an understanding of Israel that does not adequately consider them is necessarily false.

HISTORY 383. The New Global Economy, Oil and Origins of the Arab Spring. 4-5 Units.

The integration of the Middle East into the world capitalist market on a subordinate basis and the impact on economic development, class formation, and politics. Alternative theoretical perspectives on the rise and expansion of the international capitalist market combined with case studies of Egypt, Iraq, and Palestine.
Same as: HISTORY 283.

HISTORY 384F. Empires, Markets and Networks: Early Modern Islamic World and Beyond, 1500-1800. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on political regimes, economic interactions and sociocultural formations in the early modern Balkans and Middle East to Central and South Asia. Topics include complex political systems of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires; experiences of various Muslim, Christian, Jewish and Hindu, as well as urban, rural and nomadic communities; consolidation of transregional commerce and cultural exchange; incorporation of the Islamic world in the global economy; transimperial networks of the Muslim and Non-Muslim merchants, scholars and sufis.
Same as: HISTORY 284F.

HISTORY 385A. Core Colloquium in Jewish History, 17th-19th Centuries. 4-5 Units.

Same as: JEWISHST 385A.

HISTORY 385B. Core in Jewish History, 20th Century. 4-5 Units.

Instructor consent required.
Same as: JEWISHST 385B.

HISTORY 385K. History of Modern Antisemitism: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. 4-5 Units.

The articulations of anti-Jewish hatred from the advent of Jewish emancipation in Europe. The legacy of premodern Christian demonization and its modern protean transformations as they penetrated and annexed new currents of ideology, notions of identity (social, national, racial), taste, and aesthetics. A history of ideas, representations, and stereotypes, and their relation to historical experience, action, and mobilization. Europe is the focus; case studies also include the Middle East and elsewhere.

HISTORY 386. Jews Among Muslims in Modern Times. 4-5 Units.

The history of Jewish communities in the lands of Islam and their relations with the surrounding Muslim populations from the time of Muhammad to the 20th century. Topics: the place of Jews in Muslim societies, Jewish communal life, variation in the experience of communities in different Muslim lands, the impact of the West in the Modern period, the rise of nationalisms, and the end of Jewish life in Muslim countries.
Same as: HISTORY 286, JEWISHST 286, JEWISHST 386.

HISTORY 386B. The Ottoman Empire in the Age of Revolutions, 1750-1850. 4-5 Units.

Investigates the Ottoman World (the Balkans and the Middle East under the Ottoman Empire) in the Age of Revolutions in the global context. While the Ottoman World is the primary interest, developments in Europe, India and China are also discussed in a comparative perspective. Topics include military and fiscal transformation; regionalism; urban life and formations of public spheres; political crisis, social disturbances and political violence; transformation in the ethnoreligious structures, gender relations and family life; protonationalism in the Balkans and Egypt.

HISTORY 387C. Zionism and Its Critics. 4-5 Units.

Zionism from its genesis in the 1880s up until the establishment of the state of Israel in May, 1948, exploring the historical, ideological and political dimensions of Zionism. Topics include: the emergence of Zionist ideology in connection to and as a response to challenges of modernity; emancipation; Haskalah (Jewish enlightenment); other national and ideological movements of the period; the ideological crystallization of the movement; and the immigration waves to Palestine.

HISTORY 387K. Gentlemen and Jews: History of the Jews of England. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on key chapters in the cultural and political histories of Britain and itsnnJews, between 1650 and 1950 and examines the advantages, as well as possible difficulties, that emerge when connecting Anglo-Jewish history to mainstream British history. What is unique about Jewish emancipation in England, and what are its connections to the formation of British national identity? Is there unique path in which Jewish Enlightenment developed in England? What was the contribution of Jews to British Imperialism? Is there a cultural affinity betweennnEnglish philosemitism and liberalism?.

HISTORY 390. Han Chinese and the Global White: The Production of Ethnoracial Majorities, East and West. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 390A. Major Topics in Modern Chinese History: Qing/Republican Transition. 4-5 Units.

Continuities and discontinuities in society, economy, politics, culture, and thought during the transition from the Qing dynasty to the republic. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 391. East Asia in the Early Buddhist Age. 4-5 Units.

Evolution of cities in imperial China through early imperial, medieval, and early modern periods. Topics include physical structure, social order, cultural forms, economic roles, relations to rural hinterlands, and the contrast between imperial capitals and other cities. Comparative examination of cases from European history.

HISTORY 391A. Archaeology and Modernity in Asia: The Excavation of Ancient Civilizations in Modern Times. 4-5 Units.

The interplay in Asia between antiquity and modernity, civilization and nation state, and national versus colonial science. The recent excavation of artifacts and places associated with Asian civilization such as the terracotta warriors in China and Angkor Wat in Cambodia. How Asian states have grappled with modernity and colonialism as they simultaneously dug up their ancient pasts.
Same as: HISTORY 291A.

HISTORY 391B. The City in Imperial China. 5 Units.

The evolution of cities in the early imperial, medieval, and early modern periods. Topics include physical structure, social order, cultural forms, economic roles, relations to rural hinterlands, and the contrast between imperial capitals and other cities. Comparative cases from European history. Readings include primary and secondary sources, and visual materials.

HISTORY 391C. Early Imperial China. 4-5 Units.

The first millennium of imperial China, what endured over the centuries, and the major changes that took place in the political, social, and intellectual realms. Topics include the evolving geographic and environmental background, cities, the countryside, kinship, relations with the outer world, religion, philosophy,and literature. Also examines the nature of empire as a distinctive political form.

HISTORY 392B. Law and Society in Late Imperial China. 4-5 Units.

(Same as LAW 773.) Connections between legal and social history. Ideology and practice, center and periphery, and state-society tensions and interactions. Readings introduce the work of major historians on concepts and problems in Ming-Qing history.
Same as: CHINLIT 392B.

HISTORY 392D. Japan in Asia, Asia in Japan. 4-5 Units.

How Japan and Asia mutually shaped each other in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Focus is on Japanese imperialism in Asia and its postwar legacies. Topics include: pan-Asianism and orientalism; colonial modernization in Korea and Taiwan; collaboration and resistance; popular imperialism in Manchuria; total war and empire; comfort women and the politics of apology; the issue of resident Koreans; and economic and cultural integration of postwar Asia.
Same as: HISTORY 292D.

HISTORY 392E. The Historical Roots of Modern East Asia. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on China and Japan before and during their transition to modernity. The populous, urbanized, economically advanced, and culturally sophisticated Ming empire and Muromachi shogunate in the 16th century when Europeans first arrived. How the status quo had turned on its head by the early 20th century when European and American steamships dominated the Pacific, China was in social and political upheaval, and Japan had begun its march to empire.
Same as: HISTORY 92A.

HISTORY 392F. Culture and Religions in Korean History. 4-5 Units.

This colloquium explores the major themes of Korean history before 1800 and the role of culture and religions in shaping the everyday life of Chosôn-dynasty Koreans. Themes include the aristocracy and military in the Koryô dynasty, Buddhism and Confucianism in the making of Chosôn Korea, kingship and court culture, slavery and women, family and rituals, death and punishment, and the Korean alphabet (Hangûl) and print culture.
Same as: HISTORY 292F.

HISTORY 392G. Modern Korea. 4-5 Units.

Examines seminal works and major historical debates in the study of modern Korea. Topics include the state and society in the Choson dynasty, reform and rebellion in the nineteenth century, colonization, gender and colonial modernity, national identity and assimilation, wartime colonial Korea, decolonization and the North Korean revolution, the Korean War and its aftermath, the Pak Chung Hee regime and labor relations, and democratization.

HISTORY 393B. Queer History in Comparative Perspective. 4-5 Units.

Comparative history of homoerotic desire, relations, and identity through scholarship on different historical periods and parts of the world: the classical Mediterranean, early modern European cities, late imperial and modern China, Tokugawa and modern Japan, and the U.S.
Same as: FEMGEN 293B, HISTORY 293B.

HISTORY 393C. Late Imperial China. 4-5 Units.

A survey of Chinese history from the 11th century to the collapse of the imperial state in 1911. Topics include absolutism, gentry society, popular culture, gender and sexuality, steppe nomads, the Jesuits in China, peasant rebellion, ethnic conflict, opium, and the impact of Western imperialism.

HISTORY 393D. Global Intellectual History. 4-5 Units.

Ideas have circulated globally for millennia but relatively recently have thinkers begun to conceptualize the global. Like "humanity" and "universalism," or what Marx called "international," the "global" too has complex genealogies. It is associated, often simultaneously, with empire and freedom, war and equality, commitment and treason, piracy and justice, homelessness and cosmopolitanism. Working with key 20th century texts from Italy, Britain, India, Israel, Palestine, Germany, France, and Algeria, course explores how thinking "globally" impacts the very foundations of modern political thought.
Same as: HISTORY 293D.

HISTORY 393E. Female Divinities in China. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the fundamental role of powerful goddesses in Chinese religion. It covers the entire range of imperial history and down to the present. It will look at, among other questions, what roles goddesses played in the spirit world, how this is related to the roles of human women, and why a civilization that excluded women from the public sphere granted them a dominant place, in the religious sphere. It is based entirely on readings in English.
Same as: HISTORY 293E, RELIGST 257X, RELIGST 357X.

HISTORY 395. Modern Korean History. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 95. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195.) This lecture course provides a general introduction to the history of modern Korea. Themes include the characteristics of the Chosôn dynasty, reforms and rebellions in the nineteenth century, Korean nationalism; Japan¿s colonial rule and Korean identities; decolonization and the Korean War; and the different state-building processes in North and South, South Korea¿s democratization in 1980s, and the current North Korean crisis.
Same as: HISTORY 195.

HISTORY 395F. Race and Ethnicity in East Asia. 4-5 Units.

Intensive exploration of major issues in the history of race and ethnicity in China, Japan, and Korea from the early modern period to the present day.
Same as: ASNAMST 295F, HISTORY 295F.

HISTORY 395J. Gender and Sexuality in Chinese History. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 396D. Modern Japan. 4-5 Units.

Introduces students to the major historical problems and historiographic trends in the study of modern Japan from the Meiji period to the present. Themes include approaches to late Meiji culture and politics, the formation of imperial subjects and citizens, agrarian society and politics, gender in modern Japan, empire and modernity, total war and transwar state and society, U.S. occupation, and postwar Japan.

HISTORY 397. The Cold War and East Asia. 5 Units.

Explores how East Asia negotiated superpower rivalry and global ideological competition during the Cold War. Considers the ways in which China, Japan, and Korea were more than battlegrounds for US-Soviet contestation and played active roles in defining the nature and dynamics of the conflict. Re-examines conventional narratives and periodizations against alternative conceptual models and interpretive frameworks highlighting the constructed nature of the struggle as well as the role of historical and cultural factors in shaping the East Asian experience.
Same as: HISTORY 297.

HISTORY 398. Major Topics in Modern Chinese History. 4-5 Units.

Advanced graduate colloquium in modern Chinese history.

HISTORY 399A. Preparing for International Field Work: Public Service or Research. 1 Unit.

Explores issues crucial to working abroad: ethical concerns, Human Subjects Protocol, networking, personal safety and gender issues, confronting cultural differences. Exposes students to key research methods: case studies, interviewing, working in libraries and archives, ethnographic participant observation.
Same as: HISTORY 299X.

HISTORY 399E. Preparing for International Field Research: Public Svc or Research, Electronic Version. 1 Unit.

Restricted to students studying at a Stanford Overseas Studies campus; same course content as HISTORY 299X. Problems involved in research abroad: ethical issues; safety; security and conduct; human subjects protocol. Methodologies of research: interviewing, networking, case studies, participant observation, large surveys. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

HISTORY 399W. Graduate Directed Reading. 1-10 Unit.

HISTORY 401A. Spatial History: Concepts, Methods, Problems. 4-5 Units.

Technical training in GIS, with modules taught by Stanford Spatial History Lab staff; conceptual work in the use of these techniques in spatial historical analysis. Students develop their own spatial history projects and produce beta versions of dynamic visualizations.

HISTORY 401B. Spatial History, Part II. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: 401A.

HISTORY 406. Graduate Research Seminar on Colonial Law. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 306G.

HISTORY 414A. Medieval History. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 414B. Medieval History. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 421A. Early Modern Russia. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 422A. Research Seminar on the History of the Russian Empire. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 422B. Research Seminar in Imperial Russia. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 424A. The Soviet Civilization. 4-5 Units.

Socialist visions and practices of the organization of society and messianic politics; the Soviet understanding of mass violence, political and ethnic; and living space. Primary and secondary sources. Research paper or historiographical essay.
Same as: HISTORY 224A, REES 224A.

HISTORY 424B. The Soviet Civilization, Part 2. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 224A/424A
Same as: HISTORY 225.

HISTORY 424C. The End of Communism in Europe. 4-5 Units.

Causes, course, and consequences.

HISTORY 430. Graduate Research Seminar: Early Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: Students wishing to take this seminar must enroll in HISTORY 332B in Winter 2015. Students may research any aspect of late medieval, Renaissance, and early modern history, 1300-1800.

HISTORY 430A. Graduate Research Seminar: Early Modern Europe. 3-5 Units.

Students will begin a research project on any aspect of early modern European history, 1400-1800, by taking HISTORY 430A in winter quarter as the first quarter of this two-quarter sequence. Enrollment by permission of instructor.

HISTORY 431. Early Modern Things. 4-5 Units.

How do objects reveal their histories? What can be learned about the past by studying things? The material culture of early modern Europe, ca 1450-1750. Recent work on the circulation, use, and consumption of things, starting with the Columbian exchange which expanded the material horizons of the early modern world in the late 15th century, exploring challenges to the meaning of things in the age of the Reformation and Scientific Revolution, and ending with the birth of consumer society in the 18th century How did the meaning of things and people's relationships to them change over these centuries? What objects, ordinary and extraordinary, secular and sacred, natural and man-made, came to define the emerging features of the early modern world?.

HISTORY 432A. The Enlightenment. 3-5 Units.

The Enlightenment as a philosophical, literary, and political movement. Themes include the nature and limits of philosophy, the grounds for critical intellectual engagement, the institution of society and the public, and freedom, equality and human progress. Authors include Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Hume, Diderot, and Condorcet.
Same as: DLCL 324, HISTORY 234, HISTORY 334, HUMNTIES 324.

HISTORY 432B. Grad Research Seminar: The Enlightenment, Pt. II. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: Completion of HISTORY 234, 334 or 432A.

HISTORY 433A. Modern Europe: Society and Politics. 5 Units.

The goal of this course is to introduce graduate students to major works of history and literature in the field of nineteenth and early-twentieth century history. A colloquia will be given in tandem with a research seminar. nMay be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 433B. European History. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 433A.

HISTORY 438. European History Workshop. 1 Unit.

All European history graduate students in residence register for this weekly workshop, at which dissertation chapters and prospectuses, papers, and grant proposals by students and faculty are read and discussed.

HISTORY 439A. Graduate Research Seminar: Modern Britain and the British Empire. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 439B. Graduate Research Seminar: Modern Britain and the British Empire II. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 443A. Human Origins: History, Evidence, and Controversy. 4-5 Units.

Research seminar. Debates and controversies include: theories of human origins; interpretations of fossils, early art, and the oldest tools; the origin and fate of the Neanderthals; evolutionary themes in literature and film; visual rhetoric and cliché in anthropological dioramas and phyletic diagrams; the significance of hunting, gathering, and grandmothering; climatological theories and neocatastrophic geologies; molecular anthropology; the impact of racial theories on human origins discourse. Background in human evolution not required.
Same as: HISTORY 243S.

HISTORY 444. Graduate Research Seminar: Gender in Science, Medicine, and Engineering. 5 Units.

Theory and practice of gender in STEM. 1. "Fix the Numbers of Women" focuses on increasing women's participation; 2. "Fix the Institutions" promotes gender equality in careers through structural change in research organizations; 3. "Fix the Knowledge" or "gendered innovations" stimulates excellence in science and technology by integrating gender analysis into research. Seminar explores harnessing the creative power of gender analysis to enhance knowledge and spark innovation.
Same as: FEMGEN 444.

HISTORY 444C. The History of the Body in Science, Medicine, and Culture. 4-5 Units.

The human body as a natural and cultural object, historicized. The crosscultural history of the body from the 18th century to the present. Topics include: sciences of sex and race; medical discovery of particular body parts; human experimentation, foot binding, veiling, and other bodily coverings; thinness and obesity; notions of the body politic.
Same as: HISTORY 244C.

HISTORY 445A. Research Seminar in African History. 4-5 Units.

Primary sources such as government records and missionary archives. Students present work in progress. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

HISTORY 445B. Research Seminar in African History. 4-5 Units.

Primary sources such as government records and missionary archives. Students present work in progress. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

HISTORY 448A. Colonial States and African Societies, Part I. 4-5 Units.

Colonialism set in motion profound transformations of African societies. These transformations did not occur immediately following military conquest, nor did they occur uniformly throughout the continent. This research seminar will focus directly on the encounter between the colonial state and African societies. The seminar will examine problems of social transformation, the role of the colonial state, and the actions of Africans. Following four weeks of collloquim style discussion, students then embark on independent research on the encounter between one colonial state and its constituent African societies.
Same as: HISTORY 248S.

HISTORY 448B. Colonial States and African Societies, Part II. 4-5 Units.

Second part of the research seminar offered in the Winter. Students continue their research and present their penultimate drafts in week 8.
Same as: HISTORY 249S.

HISTORY 459A. Grad Research Seminar in U.S. History. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 460. America in the World. 4-5 Units.

Ways to place American history in an international context. Comparative, transnational, diplomatic, and world systems are approaches to complete a research paper based on research into primary materials. Historical methodologies, research strategies, and essay projects. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 461A. Research Seminar on the Histories of Women, the Family, and Sexuality. 4-5 Units.

Research design, research methods, and historical writing on topics in the histories of women, the family, or sexuality in the U.S. Prepares graduate students for dissertation work. Workshop model involves exchanging preliminary prospectus, outline, writing sample, and draft for peer responses. Article-length original paper based on primary sources, to be completed by the end of Spring Quarter.

HISTORY 461B. Research Seminar on the Histories of Women, the Family, and Sexuality, Part II. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: 461A.

HISTORY 464E. Research in History and Social Science Education. 3-5 Units.

For doctoral students. Literature on historical learning and teaching and corresponding social sciences research designs, assessment, and curriculum evaluation.
Same as: EDUC 496.

HISTORY 470. Graduate Colloquium: Explorations in Latin American Social History. 4-5 Units.

How to use primary sources such as government records, estate inventories, and parish records for social history.

HISTORY 471A. Environmental History of Latin America. 5 Units.

What role did the natural environment play in the emergence of Latin America as a distinct geographical and socio-cultural world region? How do we analyze the historical relationship between the regions rich and seemingly abundant natural resources and its status as underdeveloped? What historical consequences did this relationship have and what alternative, more sustainable developmental paths can we envision for the future in light of the past that we will study? In this course, students will become familiar with the historiography on Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Cuba and Honduras that has explored these questions through a variety of approaches, methodologies and points of view.

HISTORY 471B. Environmental History of Latin America. 5 Units.

What role did the natural environment play in the emergence of Latin America as a distinct geographical and socio-cultural world region? How do we analyze the historical relationship between the region's rich and seemingly abundant natural resources and its status as 'underdeveloped'? What historical consequences did this relationship have and what alternative, more sustainable developmental paths can we envision for the future in light of the past that we will study? In this course, students will become familiar with the historiography on Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Cuba and Honduras that has explored these questions through a variety of approaches, methodologies and points of view.

HISTORY 477. Transnational Latina/o History. 4-5 Units.

The course explores the major trends in Latin American migration to the United States. We examine the impact of transnational migration on identity formation, economic relations, and policy debates in Latin America and the United States. Topics include citizenship debates, struggles over immigration reform, transnational identity formation, refugee migration and Cold War politics, Latino alliances in the United States, and the effects of gender and sexuality on Latina/o communities.

HISTORY 478. The Ethical Challenges of Climate Change. 4-5 Units.

This course explores the ethical challenges of climate change from historical, social, economic, political, cultural and scientific perspectives. These include the discovery of global warming over two centuries, the rise of secular and religious denialism and skepticism toward the scientific consensus on it, the dispute between developed and developing countries over how to forge a binding global agreement to mitigate it, and the ¿role morality¿ of various actors (scientists, politicians, fossil fuel companies, the media and ordinary individuals) in the US in assessing ethical responsibility for the problem and its solutions.
Same as: HISTORY 278S.

HISTORY 481. Research Seminar in Middle East History. 4-5 Units.

Student-selected research topics.
Same as: JEWISHST 287S, JEWISHST 481.

HISTORY 481A. Research Seminar in Middle East History. 4-5 Units.

HISTORY 486A. Graduate Research Seminar in Jewish History. 4-5 Units.

Same as: JEWISHST 486A.

HISTORY 486B. Graduate Research Seminar in Jewish History. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 486A.
Same as: JEWISHST 486B.

HISTORY 491A. Modern Korea Research Seminar. 4-5 Units.

This graduate seminar prepares students to undertake research using Korean-language sources on a variety of themes in modern Korea. Students will identify characteristics of major online and offline archives in Korean studies, learn essential skills in investigating primary sources, and analyze selected sample documents in class.

HISTORY 491B. Modern Korea Research Seminar. 4-5 Units.

This graduate seminar prepares students to undertake research using Korean-language sources on a variety of themes in modern Korea. Students will identify characteristics of major online and offline archives in Korean studies, learn essential skills in investigating primary sources, and analyze selected sample documents in class.

HISTORY 492B. Origins of Technical Medicine in the Han Dynasty. 4-5 Units.

How medicine as a technical, text-based art monopolized by specialists was established under the Han Dynasty in competition with practices aimed at nourishing life and securing longevity.

HISTORY 493. Graduate Seminar on South Asia. 4-5 Units.

A series of texts and documents that form the heart of what Marx and Engels called "the colonial question". Discussions center on specific themes relating to each student's research topic and/or interests. The seminar will be organized around a set of core common readings and weekly discussions, supplemented by a designed list of secondary texts and primary materials. Themes include: secularism, religion, state, capital, empire, anticolonialism, gender, democracy, textual and print cultures, cinema, political and legal theory, and history of economic thought. 400-level options allows students to do a two-quarter sequence, with the Summer devoted to writing up the research paper.

HISTORY 495A. Qing Legal Documents. 4-5 Units.

How to use Qing legal documents for research. Winter: sample documents that introduce the main genres including: the Qing code and commentaries; magistrates' handbooks and published case collections; and case records from Chinese archives. Spring: class meets occasionally; students complete research papers. Prerequisite: advanced reading ability in Chinese.

HISTORY 497A. Maps and Gazetteers as Sources for East Asian History. 4-5 Units.

For graduate students of early modern or modern East Asia. Includes weekend workshop on Chinese historical GIS with Harvard's Peter Bol. Students work with the Stanford Spatial History Lab to develop analytical techniques. Prerequisite: background in GIS.

HISTORY 497B. Maps and Gazetters as Sources for East Asian History, Part 2. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 497A.

HISTORY 498D. Japanese Imperial Archives, Part 2. 4-5 Units.

Second part of a two-quarter research graduate seminar on Japanese imperialism in Asia. Students complete research papers based on research conducted for History 498C; the class meets occasionally to report on progress and discuss working drafts. Prerequisite: History 498C.

HISTORY 499X. Graduate Research. 1-10 Unit.

Units by arrangement. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 802. TGR Dissertation. 0 Units.

Units by arrangement.