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Contacts
Office: McClatchy Hall, Building 120, Room 110
Mail Code: 94305-2050
Phone: (650) 723-1941
Web Site: http://comm.stanford.edu

Courses offered by the Department of Communication are listed under the subject code COMM on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

Stanford's Department of Communication focuses on media in all its forms. The department studies the processes and effects of mass communication: the nature and social role of the various media; their structure, function, and ethics; and their impact on the political system, culture, and society. In this context, it considers not only traditional mass media, such as newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and film, but also information technology, online media, virtual reality, and the Internet. Students are trained as social scientists who can study the media and as potential practitioners in the use of the media in journalism, mass communications, and digital media. The department combines theory and practice and fosters individual research opportunities for its students, employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches.

The Department of Communication engages in research in communication and offers curricula leading to the B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees. The M.A. degree prepares students for a career in journalism. The department also offers current Stanford University undergraduates a coterminal program with an M.A. emphasis in Media Studies. The Ph.D. degree leads to careers in university teaching and research-related specialties.

The John S. Knight Journalism Fellowships foster journalistic innovation, entrepreneurship, and leadership. JSK Fellows are outstanding journalists and journalism innovators from around the world who spend a year at Stanford to pursue and test their ideas for improving the quality of news and information reaching the public. The John S. and James L. Knight Foundation sponsors twelve U.S. Fellows. They are joined by six to eight International Fellows sponsored by other funds including the Lyle and Corrine Nelson International Fellowship Fund and the Knight Foundation.

Mission of the Undergraduate Program in Communication

The mission of the undergraduate program in Communication is to expose students to a broad-based understanding of communication theory and research. Students in this major are expected to become familiar with the fundamental concerns, theoretical approaches, and methods of the field, and to acquire advanced knowledge in one or more sub-areas of the discipline. This is accomplished by several levels of study: a core curriculum; intermediate-level electives; and optional internships. Majors also have the opportunity to do advanced research projects. The department is committed to providing students with analytical and critical skills needed for success in graduate programs, professional schools, or immediate career entry.

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduate)

The department expects undergraduate majors in the program to be able to demonstrate the following learning outcomes. These learning outcomes are used in evaluating students and the department's undergraduate program. Students are expected to demonstrate:

  1. an understanding of core knowledge within the discipline of communication.
  2. the ability to communicate ideas clearly and persuasively in writing.
  3. the ability to analyze a problem and draw correct inferences using qualitative and/or quantitative analysis.
  4. the ability to evaluate theory and critique research within the discipline of communication.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The purpose of the master's program is to further develop knowledge and skills in Communication and to prepare students for professional careers or doctoral studies. This is achieved through completion of courses in the primary field, as well as related areas, and experience with independent work and specialization.

The Ph.D. is conferred upon candidates who have demonstrated substantial scholarship and the ability to conduct independent research and analysis in Communication. Through completion of advanced coursework and rigorous training in research, the doctoral program prepares students to make original contributions to the knowledge of Communication and to interpret and present the results of such research.

Admission

Prospective Undergraduates: Applications are available at Undergraduate Admissions.

Prospective Coterminal Students: Applications are available online on the University Registrar's web site.

Prospective Graduate Students: Applications are available online at Graduate Admissions.

The department requires that applicants for graduate admission submit verbal, quantitative, and analytic scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). Admission to each graduate degree program is competitive and based on the pool of applicants each year rather than on standard criteria that can be stated in advance. See Communication Department admission procedures and requirements for detailed information about admission to the department.

Bachelor of Arts in Communication

Preparation

Before declaring the major, students must have completed or be concurrently enrolled in one of the following:

Units
COMM 1Introduction to Communication5
COMM 1AMass Media, Society, and Democracy5
COMM 1BMedia, Culture, and Society5
COMM 106Communication Research Methods5
COMM 108Media Processes and Effects5

Students interested in declaring the major should apply via Axess and meet with the student services administrator in Building 120, Room 110A, during scheduled office hours. Students are required to take at least 60 units (approximately 12 courses), not counting statistics, to complete the major.

Program of Study

The undergraduate curriculum is intended for liberal arts students who wish to develop an understanding of communication in society, drawing on the perspective of the social sciences. Undergraduates majoring in Communication are expected to become acquainted with the fundamental concerns, theoretical approaches and methods of the field, and to acquire advanced knowledge in one or more of the sub-areas of communication: institutions, processes, and effects.

While the department does not attempt to provide comprehensive practical training at the undergraduate level, the curriculum provides a diverse range of internship opportunities, including professional print journalism, some of which are funded by the department's Rebele Internship Program. The department is committed to providing students with analytical and critical skills for future success in graduate programs, professional schools, or immediate career entry.

The major is structured to provide several levels of study: a core curriculum intended to expose students to a broad-based understanding of communication theory and research, and a number of intermediate-level options and electives. Majors also have the opportunity to do advanced research in the form of an honors thesis.

All undergraduate majors are required to complete a set of core communication courses which include:

Units
COMM 1Introduction to Communication5
or COMM 1A Mass Media, Society, and Democracy
or COMM 1B Media, Culture, and Society
COMM 106Communication Research Methods5
COMM 108Media Processes and Effects5
COMM 104WReporting, Writing, and Understanding the News5
or COMM 120W Digital Media in Society
or COMM 137W The Dialogue of Democracy
or COMM 142W Media Economics
or COMM 143W Communication Policy and Regulation

COMM 104W, 120W, 137W, 142W, and 143W satisfy the WIM (Writing in the Major) requirement. Core courses are usually offered only once each year.

The department also requires completion of or concurrent registration in an introductory statistics course (STATS 60 Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus) when registering for COMM 106 Communication Research Methods in preparation for courses in methodology and advanced courses in communication processes and effects. It is recommended that this be done as soon as possible so as not to prevent registration in a course requiring statistical understanding. The statistics course does not count toward the 60 units to complete the Communication major.

In addition to the core courses and the statistics requirement, undergraduate majors select courses from the two areas described below. Many of the courses require core courses as prerequisites. Majors select a total of four area courses, taking at least one from each area.

Area I: Communication Processes and Effects

Area I emphasizes the ways in which communication scholars conduct research in, and consider the issues of, human communication. These studies aim to provide expert guidance for social policy makers and media professionals and include the following courses:

Units
COMM 121Behavior and Social Media5
COMM 124Lies, Trust, and Tech5
COMM 135Deliberative Democracy and its Critics3-5
COMM 137WThe Dialogue of Democracy5
COMM 160The Press and the Political Process5
COMM 162Campaigns, Voting, Media, and Elections5
COMM 164The Psychology of Communication About Politics in America4
COMM 166Virtual People5
COMM 172Media Psychology5
COMM 326Advanced Topics in Human Virtual Representation1-5

Area II: Communication Systems and Institutions

Area II considers the roles and interaction of institutions such as broadcasting, journalism, constitutional law, and business within communication and mass communication contexts and includes the following courses:

Units
COMM 104WReporting, Writing, and Understanding the News5
COMM 113Computational Methods in the Civic Sphere5
COMM 116Journalism Law5
COMM 120WDigital Media in Society5
COMM 125Perspectives on American Journalism5
COMM 131Media Ethics and Responsibility5
COMM 142WMedia Economics5
COMM 143WCommunication Policy and Regulation5
COMM 151The First Amendment: Freedom of Speech and Press5
COMM 152Constitutional Law3
COMM 153Political Campaigning in the Internet Age3
COMM 154The Politics of Algorithms5
COMM 157Information Control in Authoritarian Regimes5
COMM 177AComputational Journalism5
COMM 177IBecoming a Watchdog: Investigative Reporting Techniques5
COMM 177YSpecialized Writing and Reporting: Foreign Correspondence5

Additional Requirements

The remainder of the 60 required units may be fulfilled with any elective Communication courses or crosslisted courses in other departments.

To be recommended for the B.A. degree in Communication, the student must complete at least 60 units (approximately 12 courses) in the department. No more than 10 units of course work outside of the department or transfer credit may be applied to meet department requirements. Communication majors must receive a letter grade for all Communication courses unless they are offered only for satisfactory/no credit (S/NC), and must maintain a grade point average (GPA) of 2.0 (C) in courses towards the major. Only courses with a grade of 'C-' or above count towards the major. Therefore, majors who receive a grade of 'D+' or below in one of the core courses must repeat the course. 

Honors Program

The honors program provides Communication majors the opportunity to undertake a significant program of research in an individual professor/student mentoring relationship. The aim is to guide students through the process of research, analysis, drafting, rethinking, and redrafting, which is essential to excellence in scholarship. Working one-on-one with a faculty adviser, seniors earn 15 Communication units culminating in an honors thesis. In order to be eligible for the honors program, interested majors must have a GPA of 3.3 in Communication courses, completed the following requirements, and received a grade of 'B+' or better in COMM 106, Communication Research Methods:

  1. Core Requirements
    Units
    Complete the following core requirements:
    COMM 1Introduction to Communication5
    or COMM 1A Mass Media, Society, and Democracy
    or COMM 1B Media, Culture, and Society
    COMM 106Communication Research Methods (receive a grade of B+ or better)5
    COMM 108Media Processes and Effects5
    STATS 60/PSYCH 10Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus5
  2. Select an adviser; and
  3. Submit an application to the department by the end of their junior year. See the department's honors web site to download an application form.

Students are expected to make steady progress on their honors thesis throughout the year.

A final copy of the honors thesis must be read and approved by the adviser and submitted to the department by the eighth week of Spring Quarter (exact date to be arranged). It becomes part of a permanent record held by the department. Honors work may be used to fulfill Communication elective credit, but must be completed and a letter grade submitted prior to graduation. A student failing to fulfill all honors requirements may still receive independent study credit for work completed, which may be applied toward fulfilling major requirements.

The designation "with honors" is awarded by the Department of Communication to those graduating seniors who, in addition to having completed all requirements for the Communication major:

  1. complete an honors thesis;
  2. maintain a distinguished GPA in all Communication course work;
  3. are recommended by the Communication faculty.

Minor in Communication

Preparation

Before declaring the minor, students must have completed or be concurrently enrolled in one of the following:

Units
COMM 1Introduction to Communication5
COMM 1AMass Media, Society, and Democracy5
COMM 1BMedia, Culture, and Society5
COMM 106Communication Research Methods5
COMM 108Media Processes and Effects5

Students interested in declaring the minor should do so no later than Spring Quarter of their junior year by applying via Axess and meeting with the student services administrator in building 120, room 110A.

Program of Study

The minor is structured to provide a foundation for advanced course work in communication through a broad-based understanding of communication theory and research.

Students are required to take 35 units (approximately 7 courses), not counting statistics, to complete the minor. The curriculum consists of three introductory communication core courses that include:

Units
COMM 1Introduction to Communication5
or COMM 1A Mass Media, Society, and Democracy
or COMM 1B Media, Culture, and Society
COMM 106Communication Research Methods5
COMM 108Media Processes and Effects5

Core courses are usually offered only once each year. The department also requires completion of -- or concurrent registration in -- an introductory statistics course (STATS 60 Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus) when registering for COMM 106 Communication Research Methods in preparation for courses in methodology and advanced courses in communication processes and effects. It is recommended that this be done as soon as possible so as not to prevent registration in a course requiring statistical understanding. The statistics course does not count toward the 35 units to complete the Communication minor.

In addition to the three core courses and the statistics course, students are required to take one course in each of the two areas as specified below.

The remainder of the 35 required units may be fulfilled with any intermediate-level elective Communication courses or crosslisted courses in other departments. No more than 5 units of course work outside of the department or transfer credit may be applied to meet department requirements. Communication minors must receive a letter grade for all Communication courses unless they are offered only for satisfactory/no credit (S/NC), and must maintain a grade point average (GPA) of 2.0 (C) in courses towards the minor. Only courses with a grade of C- or above count towards the minor. Some courses are not offered every year. Refer to ExploreCourses for details.

Area I: Communication Processes and Effects

Units
Select one of the following:
COMM 121Behavior and Social Media5
COMM 124Lies, Trust, and Tech5
COMM 135Deliberative Democracy and its Critics5
COMM 137WThe Dialogue of Democracy5
COMM 160The Press and the Political Process5
COMM 162Campaigns, Voting, Media, and Elections5
COMM 164The Psychology of Communication About Politics in America5
COMM 166Virtual People5
COMM 172Media Psychology5
COMM 326Advanced Topics in Human Virtual Representation1-5

Area II: Communication Systems/Institutions

Units
Select one of the following:
COMM 104WReporting, Writing, and Understanding the News5
COMM 113Computational Methods in the Civic Sphere5
COMM 116Journalism Law5
COMM 120WDigital Media in Society5
COMM 125Perspectives on American Journalism5
COMM 131Media Ethics and Responsibility5
COMM 142WMedia Economics5
COMM 143WCommunication Policy and Regulation5
COMM 151The First Amendment: Freedom of Speech and Press5
COMM 152Constitutional Law3
COMM 153Political Campaigning in the Internet Age3
COMM 154The Politics of Algorithms5
COMM 157Information Control in Authoritarian Regimes5
COMM 177AComputational Journalism5
COMM 177IBecoming a Watchdog: Investigative Reporting Techniques5
COMM 177YSpecialized Writing and Reporting: Foreign Correspondence5

Elective courses

Totaling 10 units.

Master of Arts in Communication / Graduate Program in Journalism

University requirements for the master's degree are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

The department awards a terminal M.A. degree in Communication with a subplan in Journalism. This subplan prints on the transcript, but not on the diploma. Applicants for this program are evaluated for admission on different criteria. Work to fulfill graduate degree requirements must be in courses numbered 100 or above.

Stanford students who are completing an M.A. degree and who desire entry into the Ph.D. program must file a Graduate Program Authorization Petition in Axess. Such students are considered alongside all other doctoral applicants.

Journalism

Stanford's graduate program in Journalism focuses on the knowledge and skills required to report, analyze, and write authoritatively about public issues and digital media. The curriculum combines a sequence of specialized reporting and writing courses with seminars and courses devoted to deepening the students' understanding of the roles and responsibilities of American news media in their coverage of public issues.

The program emphasizes preparation for the practice of journalism and a critical perspective from which to understand it. The program's objective is twofold:

  1. to graduate talented reporters and writers to foster public understanding of the significance and consequences of public issues and the debates they engender; and
  2. to graduate thoughtful journalists to respond openly and eloquently when called upon to explain and defend the methods and quality of their reporting and writing.

Curriculum

The curriculum includes several required courses as shown below, including a master's project class:

Units
COMM 216Journalism Law4
COMM 225Perspectives on American Journalism4
COMM 273DPublic Affairs Data Journalism I4
COMM 274DPublic Affairs Data Journalism II4
COMM 275Multimedia Storytelling: Reporting and Production Using Audio, Still Images, and Video3-4
COMM 279News Reporting & Writing Fundamentals3-4
COMM 289PJournalism Thesis4

Additionally, students are usually required to take two specialized reporting courses, chosen from a list of about ten, and three approved electives from among graduate-level courses in the Department of Communication, or from among courses on campus that deal substantively with issues of public importance. The M.A. degree in Communication (Journalism) requires a minimum of 45 units. Coterminal journalism students may count coursework taken after Summer of freshman year towards the 45 units of unduplicated work with approval by the Director of the Graduate Program in Journalism. 

Except for COMM 289P Journalism Thesis, all courses must be taken for a letter grade. To remain in good academic standing, students must maintain a grade point average (GPA) of 3.0 or better. Graduation requires a GPA of 3.0 or better.

Journalism Project

The Journalism Thesis (COMM 289P), a requirement for graduation, is intended as an opportunity for students to showcase their talents as writers and reporters. It is also an opportunity to undertake an in-depth critique of an area of journalism in which the author has a special interest. Work on the project usually begins during Winter Quarter and continues through Spring Quarter in the form of the class Journalism Thesis (COMM 289P). Completed master's projects must be submitted to the project adviser no later than the last day of classes in the Spring Quarter.

The project represents a major commitment of time, research, and writing. Although it is not a requirement that the project be published, it must be judged by a member of the faculty to be of a quality acceptable for publication. At a minimum, the project should demonstrate the rigor and discipline required of good scholarship and good journalism; it should offer ample evidence of students' ability to gather, analyze, and synthesize information in a manner that goes beyond what ordinarily appears in daily news media. 

Coterminal Master's Program in Communication

The Department of Communication offers current Stanford University undergraduates the opportunity to apply for a one-year coterminal master's program with an M.A subplan in Media Studies or Journalism. This subplan prints on the transcript, but not on the diploma.

Admission

Applicants must submit their application and, if admitted, respond to the offer of admission no later than the quarter prior to the expected completion of their undergraduate degree. Applicants must have declared an undergraduate major and earned a minimum of 120 units toward graduation (UTG) as shown on the undergraduate unofficial transcript (including allowable advanced placement (AP) and transfer credit) and completed at least six academic quarters.

Applications must be submitted no later than February 2, 2017, for admission beginning in Spring Quarter 2016-17. Journalism track students may begin the program only in Spring Quarter of their senior year.

Requirements include:

  • Application for Admission to Coterminal Masters’ Program form
  • preliminary program proposal
  • statement of purpose
  • letters of recommendation and recommendation forms from Stanford professors (two for media studies, three for journalism track)
  • a written statement from a Communication professor agreeing to act as a graduate adviser (media studies track only)
  • three samples of writing (journalism track only)
  • a current unofficial Stanford transcript

GRE scores are not required.

Coterminal applications are submitted online.

University Coterminal Requirements

Coterminal master’s degree candidates are expected to complete all master’s degree requirements as described in this bulletin. University requirements for the coterminal master’s degree are described in the “Coterminal Master’s Program” section. University requirements for the master’s degree are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

After accepting admission to this coterminal master’s degree program, students may request transfer of courses from the undergraduate to the graduate career to satisfy requirements for the master’s degree. Transfer of courses to the graduate career requires review and approval of both the undergraduate and graduate programs on a case by case basis.

In this master’s program, courses taken during or after the first quarter of the sophomore year are eligible for consideration for transfer to the graduate career; the timing of the first graduate quarter is not a factor. No courses taken prior to the first quarter of the sophomore year may be used to meet master’s degree requirements.

Course transfers are not possible after the bachelor’s degree has been conferred.

The University requires that the graduate adviser be assigned in the student’s first graduate quarter even though the undergraduate career may still be open. The University also requires that the Master’s Degree Program Proposal be completed by the student and approved by the department by the end of the student’s first graduate quarter.

Degree Requirements

The coterminal master's program in Communication provides a broad introduction to scholarly literature in mass communication and offers a media studies and a journalism track.

Journalism track students may begin the program only in Spring Quarter of their senior year during which time one elective course is typically taken towards the master's program and any remaining requirements for the undergraduate degree are completed. In the following academic year, journalism track students follow the same curriculum as students in the Graduate Program in Journalism (see Master of Arts, Journalism section, above), less one elective course.

Media studies track students must satisfy the following four requirements:

  1. Required Units and GPA: students must complete a minimum of 45 units in Communication and related areas, including items 2 and 3 below. Courses must be taken for a letter grade if offered. Courses in related areas outside the department must be approved by the student's adviser. A minimum of 36 units must be in the Communication department. No more than two courses (not including the statistics prerequisite) may be at the 100 level. To remain in good academic standing students must maintain a grade point average (GPA) of 3.0 or better. Graduation requires a GPA of 3.0 or better.
  2. Core Requirements: students must complete COMM 206 Communication Research MethodsCOMM 208 Media Processes and Effects and an approved statistics course such as STATS 160 Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus. Other courses occasionally are approved as a substitute before the student is admitted to the program. The statistics course does not count toward the 45 units.
  3. Six Media Studies Courses: Students must complete a minimum of six additional Communication courses concerned with the study of media from the following list.  Not all the listed courses are offered every year and the list may be updated from one year to the next. In addition to the core requirements and a minimum of six courses listed below, students may choose additional courses from the list and any related course approved by the student's adviser.
Units
COMM 211Mass Media, Society, and Democracy4
COMM 213Computational Methods in the Civic Sphere4
COMM 216Journalism Law4
COMM 220Digital Media in Society4
COMM 224Lies, Trust, and Tech4
COMM 225Perspectives on American Journalism4
COMM 231Media Ethics and Responsibility4
COMM 235Deliberative Democracy and its Critics3-5
COMM 237The Dialogue of Democracy4
COMM 242Media Economics4
COMM 243Communication Policy and Regulation4
COMM 251The First Amendment: Freedom of Speech and Press4
COMM 252Constitutional Law3
COMM 253Political Campaigning in the Internet Age3
COMM 254The Politics of Algorithms4
COMM 257Information Control in Authoritarian Regimes4
COMM 260The Press and the Political Process4
COMM 262Campaigns, Voting, Media, and Elections4
COMM 264The Psychology of Communication About Politics in America4
COMM 266Virtual People4
COMM 272Media Psychology4
COMM 277AComputational Journalism4
or COMM 277C Specialized Writing and Reporting: Environmental Journalism
or COMM 277D Specialized Writing and Reporting: Narrative Journalism
or COMM 277E Specialized Writing and Reporting: Telling the Story
or COMM 277I Becoming a Watchdog: Investigative Reporting Techniques
or COMM 277S Specialized Writing and Reporting: Sports Journalism
or COMM 277Y Specialized Writing and Reporting: Foreign Correspondence
or COMM 271 Moving Pictures: How the Web, Mobile and Tablets are Revolutionizing Video Journalism
or COMM 275 Multimedia Storytelling: Reporting and Production Using Audio, Still Images, and Video
or COMM 276 Advanced Digital Media Production
COMM 324Language and Technology3-5
COMM 326Advanced Topics in Human Virtual Representation1-5

4.  The Media Studies M.A. Project: students following the media studies track enroll in COMM 290 Media Studies M.A. Project to complete a project over two consecutive quarters that must be preapproved and supervised by the adviser. The completed M.A. project must be submitted to the adviser no later than the last day of classes of the second consecutive quarter. Additional courses are chosen in consultation with an academic adviser.

Doctor of Philosophy in Communication

University requirements for the Ph.D. are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin. The minimum number of academic units required for the Ph.D. at Stanford is 135, up to 45 of which can be transferred either from a master's degree at the University or from another accredited institution.

The department offers a Ph.D. in Communication, which focuses on theory and research. First-year students are required to complete introductory courses in communication theory and research, research methods, and statistics. These core courses, grounded in the social science literature, emphasize how people respond to media and how media institutions function. In addition, Ph.D. students must complete a minimum of three literature survey courses and related advanced seminars in Communication. Students also take significant course work outside the department in their area of interest. Each student builds a research specialty relating communication to current faculty interests in such areas as ethics, computational journalism, information processing, information technology, law, online communities, politics and voting, and virtual reality. Regardless of the area of specialization, the Ph.D. program is designed primarily for students interested in university research and teaching or other research or analyst positions.

Students must complete the following department requirements for the Ph.D. degree in Communication:

1.  Complete all departmental course requirements listed below with grades of 'B+' or above, with the exception of STATS 160 ('B' minimum) and an advanced methods course ('B-' minimum). Required courses:

Units
COMM 206Communication Research Methods4
COMM 208Media Processes and Effects4
COMM 301Communication Research, Curriculum Development and Pedagogy1
COMM 311Theory of Communication1-5
COMM 314Ethnographic Methods1-5
COMM 317The Philosophy of Social Science1-5
COMM 318Quantitative Social Science Research Methods1-5
STATS 160Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus5
One advanced methods course.

2.  Pass the general qualifying examinations by the end of the second academic year of study and pass a specialized area examination by the end of the fourth academic year of study.

3.  Demonstrate proficiency in tools required in the area of research specialization. Identified with the advice of the faculty, such tools may include detailed theoretical knowledge, advanced statistical methods, a foreign language, computer programming, or other technical skills.

4.  Complete at least two pre-dissertation research projects (the Major Project and the Minor Project) by the end of the student's 11th academic quarter.

5.  Teach or assist in teaching at least two courses offered by the Department of Communication, preferably two different courses, at least one of which is ideally a core undergraduate course:

Units
COMM 1Introduction to Communication5
COMM 1AMass Media, Society, and Democracy5
COMM 1BMedia, Culture, and Society5
COMM 106Communication Research Methods5
COMM 108Media Processes and Effects5

6.  Complete a dissertation proposal and proposal meeting approved by the dissertation committee.

7.  Apply for candidacy by the end of the first week of the student's sixth quarter.

8.  Complete a dissertation satisfactory to a reading committee of three or more faculty members in the Department of Communication and one faculty member outside of the Department of Communication.

9.  Pass the University oral examination, which is a defense of the dissertation.

Because the multifaceted nature of the department makes it possible for the Ph.D. student to specialize in areas that draw on different related disciplines, the plan of study is individualized and developed between the faculty adviser and the student.

Ph.D. candidacy is valid for five years.

Additional information is available on the Ph.D. program page of the department web site.

Ph.D. Minor in Communication

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in other departments who elect a minor in Communication are required to complete a minimum of 20 units of graduate courses in the Department of Communication, including a total of three theory or research methods courses, and are examined by a representative of the department. A department adviser in consultation with the individual student determines the particular communication theory and methods courses.

Joint Degree Program in Communication with the School of Law

J.D./PH.D.

The Department of Communication and the School of Law offer a joint degree program leading to a J.D. combined with a Ph.D. in Communication.

The J.D./Ph.D. degree program offers students the opportunity to pursue academic, public policy, and private practice careers at the intersection of a variety of cutting edge debates in theory and policy, including: legal and normative First Amendment theories of speech and the press; media and communications economy and policy issues; questions of the relationship between citizens and the state, especially regarding mass surveillance and big data; and cultural and normative questions about the implications of the shift to the digital realm.

Students interested in the joint degree program must apply and gain entrance separately to the School of Law and the Communication Ph.D. program, and, as an additional step, must secure permission from both academic units to pursue degrees in those units as part of a joint degree program. Interest in the joint degree program should be noted on the student's admission applications and may be considered by the admission committee of each program. Alternatively, an enrolled student in either program may apply for admission to the other program and for joint degree status in both academic units after commencing study in either program.

Joint degree students may elect to begin their course of study in either the School of Law or the Communication Ph.D. program. Faculty advisers from each academic unit participate in the planning and supervising of the student's joint program. Students must be enrolled full time in the Law School for the first year of Law School, and are required to be enrolled full time for the first year of the Ph.D. program in Communication. At all other times, enrollment may be in either academic unit, and students may choose courses from either program regardless of where enrolled. Students must satisfy the requirements for both the J.D. and the Ph.D. degrees as specified in this bulletin or by the School of Law. The sequencing and schedules for individual joint degree students may vary substantially depending on the student’s background and interests, and on the guidance of faculty advisers from both academic units.

No more than 54 quarter hours of approved courses may be counted toward both degrees, but no more than 36 quarter hours of courses that originate outside the Law School may count toward the Law degree. To the extent that courses under this joint degree program originate outside the Law School but count toward the Law degree, the Law School credits permitted under Section 17(1) of the Law School Regulations are reduced on a unit-per-unit basis, but not below zero. Students must complete 192 quarter units to complete both degrees.

Joint degree students are eligible for the same funding arrangements in both academic units, including scholarships and grants, as students who are not pursuing a joint degree plus one additional quarter of funding from the Communication Ph.D. Program.

Emeriti: (Professor) Donald F. Roberts; (Professor, Teaching) Marion Lewenstein

Chair: Fred Turner

Director, Doctoral Program in Communication: Jeremy Bailenson

Director, John S. Knight Journalism Fellowships: Dawn E. Garcia

Director, Journalism: James T. Hamilton

Director, Media Studies: Byron Reeves

Director, Undergraduate Studies: James T. Hamilton

Professors: Jeremy Bailenson, James S. Fishkin, Theodore L. Glasser, James T. Hamilton, Jeffrey T. Hancock, Shanto Iyengar, Jon Krosnick, Byron B. Reeves, Fred Turner

Assistant Professors: Angèle Christin, Jennifer Pan

Courtesy Professors: Jan Krawitz, Nathaniel Persily, Walter Powell, Kristine M. Samuelson

Lorry I. Lokey Visiting Professor in Professional Journalism: Geri Migielicz

Hearst Professionals in Residence: Daniel Nguyen, Cheryl Phillips

Carlos Kelly McClatchy Visiting Lecturer: Janine Zacharia

Lecturers: Glenn Kramon, Gary Pomerantz, Philip Taubman, James Wheaton

Overseas Studies Courses in Communication

The Bing Overseas Studies Program manages Stanford study abroad programs for Stanford undergraduates. Students should consult their department or program's student services office for applicability of Overseas Studies courses to a major or minor program.

The Bing Overseas Studies course search site displays courses, locations, and quarters relevant to specific majors.

For course descriptions and additional offerings, see the listings in the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses or Bing Overseas Studies.


Units
OSPBEIJ 20Communication, Culture, and Society: The Chinese Way4
OSPFLOR 49On-Screen Battles: Filmic Portrayals of Fascism and World War II5

Courses

COMM 1. Introduction to Communication. 5 Units.

Our world is being transformed by media technologies that change how we interact with one another and perceived the world around us. These changes are all rooted in communication practices, and their consequences touch on almost all aspects of life. In COMM 1 we will examine the effects of media technologies on psychological life, on industry, and on communities local and global through theorizing and demonstrations and critiques of a wide range of communication products and services.

COMM 1A. Mass Media, Society, and Democracy. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 211.) Open to non-majors. This course examines the role of the news media in contemporary society, with particular attention to cross-national variation in the relationships between journalists, politicians, and citizens. We further consider the potentially transforming effects of technology on the media-politics nexus.
Same as: COMM 211

COMM 1B. Media, Culture, and Society. 5 Units.

The institutions and practices of mass media, including television, film, radio, and digital media, and their role in shaping culture and social life. The media's shifting relationships to politics, commerce, and identity.
Same as: AMSTUD 1B

COMM 86SI. College Media Lab: digital and reporting skills for student journalists. 1-2 Unit.

Journalism, especially college journalism, is undergoing rapid change in the 21st century. As native digital users, we are uniquely positioned to create and innovate in the new media landscape. This class is designed to provide students with a hands-on education in digitally-fluent college media reporting. Topics include photo, video and data reporting, media rights and responsibilities, and communications careers outside of journalism. The 'basics' of writing, blogging, and reporting the news will be taught and applied throughout the quarter. Guest lectures from professional reporters, academics, and communications professionals. Work completed for this class can be submitted to The Stanford Daily for publication. Pizza provided.

COMM 101S. Growing up Digital: Technology's role in Cognitive and Social Development. 3 Units.

Interactive digital technology infiltrates homes, schools, and entertainment venues, changing how people think, and socialize. What is the impact of growing up with greater access? How might age influence its use? This course focuses on technology's role in cognitive and social development and how that impacts its design. Topics include brain development, social cognition, symbolic processing, media usage, and self-representation. Coursework includes interacting with digital technologies such as virtual reality and social networking websites and completing a design project.

COMM 104W. Reporting, Writing, and Understanding the News. 5 Units.

Techniques of news reporting and writing. The value and role of news in democratic societies. Gateway class to journalism. Prerequisite for all COMM 177/277 classes. Limited enrollment. Preference to COMM majors.

COMM 106. Communication Research Methods. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 206.) Conceptual and practical concerns underlying commonly used quantitative approaches, including experimental, survey, content analysis, and field research in communication. Pre- or corequisite: STATS 60 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 206

COMM 107S. Media, Culture, and the Politics of Gender. 3 Units.

This course aims to provide a survey of various media and their role in the discursive construction of gender in and through culture. The first three weeks serve as an introduction to the historical and sociopolitical dimensions of gender, its intersection with media, and theoretical approaches to understanding it and political approaches to challenging it. Beginning with historical constructions of the gender binary, Foucault's Herculine Barbin an unearthed diary of a French hermaphrodite who lived an adolescent life in a Catholic orphanage for girls from about 1860-1870, is reclassified as a man, and commits suicide ¿ provides a provocative look at the historical construction of gender binaries. nThe remainder of the course then tackles a range of media and examples of how they portray gender as well as examples of how they may be used to subvert oppressive gender roles or binaries, focusing on: the novel, film, music videos, news, and social media. Far from exhaustive, the readings and the topics covered are to provide a better, broader, but still-limited understanding of how media and culture construct gender, and how this also dramatically impacts the lives of queer and gender nonconforming individuals. For this reason, while the course does deal extensively with notions of masculinity, sexualization and objectification of, or the effects of sexism on, cisgendered women, a heavy focus of the course across many topics is on transgender individuals in media. These individuals, like Herculine in her time, unsettle this simplistic opposition through their very being and representation in public.

COMM 108. Media Processes and Effects. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 208.) The process of communication theory construction including a survey of social science paradigms and major theories of communication. Recommended: 1 or PSYCH 1.
Same as: COMM 208

COMM 109S. Psychology of Technology & Human-Technology Interaction. 3 Units.

Products of design surround us, and shape our lives. This course will explore the human relationship with technology from a psychological point of view, and probe how technology can be designed to work in concert with those who use it. To survey this vast space, the course will cover seminal readings in the areas of human factors, human-computer interaction, product design, and psychology. The course will also delve into the area of design, with a collaborative final project integrating design and psychology.

COMM 110S. Social Media and Information Sharing. 3 Units.

Social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and Myspace, are used as platforms to share information about oneself and others. These new media provide a variety of novel ways to share information (e.g. 'Like', 'Re-tweet', 'Share', etc.) and change the way individuals maintain and create relationships. The goal of this course is to understand emotional and motivational aspects of social media use and examine its potential consequences on individuals' opinions and preferences. In the first half of the course, students will be introduced to theories in communication and psychology to have the foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying media use. In the second half of the course, students will develop original research ideas and have group discussions to further explore and refine those ideas. At the end of the course, students will demonstrate their knowledge of psychological and emotional processes underlying media use and be able to evaluate the individual/social implications of social media use.

COMM 112S. Welcome to Cyberspace. 3 Units.

This class is designed to interrogate the spatial metaphors often used to describe the Internet. What is "cyberspace" and where do we go when we go "offline"? What is gained through thinking of the Internet as a space and what opportunities are missed? What does this have to do with our physical bodies, capitalism, and the government? During this course we will use historical and contemporary academic writing and literature to interrogate the Internet as a space and a communication technology, and think through the meaning of digital spaces in American culture, business and government.

COMM 113. Computational Methods in the Civic Sphere. 4-5 Units.

The widespread availability of public data provides a rich opportunity for those who can efficiently filter, interpret, and visualize information. Course develops necessary technical skills for data collection, analysis, and publication, including data mining and web visualization, with a focus on civic affairs and government accountability. Open to all majors and a range of technical skill levels. Involves tackling new tools and technical concepts in the pursuit of engaging, public-facing projects. (Graduate students enroll in 213). Prerequisite COMM 273D, CS 106A, or CS 106B.
Same as: COMM 213

COMM 114S. Media and Identities in the Globalizing Era. 3 Units.

Globalization, as an imperfect but veritable buzzword, has been used both popularly and academically to describe how the world has become increasingly interconnected in multiple ways. As the Canadian media scholar Marshall McLuhan's famous coined phrase--the "Global Village"-- suggests, the advancement of media technology revolutionizes the ways human beings connect and communicate with one another. By the word "globalizing" (in the title), the course construes trends of globalization both as on-going and deepening processes, and as an ensemble of powerful cultural, economic and social forces productively shaping our lived experiences. With the booming circulation of media/cultural products worldwide and the surging mobility of populations across boundaries, new questions arise: to what extent is the globalization of media production and consumption molded in the Western, especially American, culture? How do non-Western audience consume, interpret and appropriate American products? How do transnational migrants/diaspora negotiate their identities in relation to media representations? What role do new media and digital technology play in the deepening of the globalization processes?nnThrough a critical/cultural examination of the relevant literature and cases, the course helps students better understand topics and issues related to media and identities in the globalizing era. The first half of the course will concentrate on the globalization/localization of media production, the transnational media flows and cultural consumption. The interlocking economic, cultural and political factors that drive these processes are unpacked. The latter half of the course will be devoted to issues about cultural identities, migration and diaspora as well as media representation in multicultural societies. Throughout the course, the roles of both old and new media will be studied in the transnational and global contexts.

COMM 116. Journalism Law. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for 216.) Laws and regulation impacting journalists. Topics include libel, privacy, news gathering, protection sources, fair trial and free press, theories of the First Amendment, and broadcast regulation. Prerequisite: Journalism M.A. student or advanced Communication major.
Same as: COMM 216

COMM 117S. Machines as Media. 3-4 Units.

Technological change has always been surrounded by two competing narratives: that of opportunity and human flourishing, versus that of displacement and alienation. This course explores the idea that machines themselves are media in terms of which people - to use the words of James Carey - represent, maintain, adapt, and share their hopes and fears about the world. By the end of the course, students will have developed a vocabulary for thinking about technology's role in the ways that people have made sense of utopia and dystopia. Readings will include a mix of theory and historical case studies. From the first category, possible authors include Jacques Ellul, Leo Marx, Norman O. Brown, Martin Heidegger, Walter Benjamin, and Jessica Riskin. From the second category, possible topics include 18th-century automata, the English and French Luddite movements, the American Machine Breakers movement, Taylorism and technocracy. Note: preparation and participation in discussion are the primary course requirements. Enrollment at 3 units requires a short final paper, while a more substantial paper is required at 4 units.

COMM 119S. Social Psychology of Large-Scale Media Interventions. 3 Units.

As Internet use continues to increase around the globe, social and entertainment media are quickly becoming the preferred modes of communication among the new generation of learners. A growing body of literature suggests that leveraging the psychologically powerful elements of these new forms of media and relevant content can be an effective way to motivate positive behavior and attitude change. Theory-based examples of using media for positive change can be found in areas such as energy consumption, health maintenance, driving safety, and classroom performance. Many other potential applications of this approach have also been identified.nThrough a review of social psychology and media effects literature, this course will provide an introduction to the social science of new media and its potential to affect positive change on a large scale. The first half of the course will be spent exploring psychological processes and associated media effects research to equip students with a fundamental understanding of how humans process interactive media. The second half of the course will leverage this foundation to explore highly social new media and innovative applications of this technology for positive social change. The course will conclude with a group project and presentation that discusses the possibility of using new media to address critical issues in society. Along the way, we will compare different theoretical approaches to media psychology, varying concepts of what constitutes a psychological intervention, and how social media might be used to overcome weaknesses in historical social systems.

COMM 120W. Digital Media in Society. 4-5 Units.

Contemporary debates concerning the social and cultural impact of digital media. Topics include the historical origins of digital media, cultural contexts of their development and use, and influence of digital media on conceptions of self, community, and state. Priority to juniors, seniors, and graduate students.
Same as: AMSTUD 120, COMM 220

COMM 121. Behavior and Social Media. 5 Units.

This course examines behavioral approaches to understanding social media. The course will begin by discussing the design factors that shape behavior online, considering research in human-computer interaction that reflects and reveals communication practices and contexts. Next, the course will examine the psychological aspects of computer-mediated communication and virtual collaboration, including impression formation and management, deception, audience and social networks. Finally, the course will explore the ways in which human behavior is situated inside of social and institutional structures and cultural formations; and with that in mind, it will examine the complex interactions between behavior, society, and information technology.

COMM 121S. The Human Relationship with Machines. 3 Units.

This course will survey ways in which people have thought about machines, in social and moral terms, from the late 18th century to the mid-20th century. Students will read mostly primary and secondary historical sources, originally published among industrial countries including France, Holland, England, Germany, and the United States, that illustrate major points of contention between actors brought into contact with one another through machine technologies. By the end of the course, students will have a greater understanding of the particular stances taken toward machines throughout modernity, how communication between people during this period has been shaped and occasioned by machines, the variety of forms taken by that communication, and what this history could mean for the role played by machines in our own lives. Topics include the censorship of Julien Offray de la Mettrie, automata and industrialization in 18th century England, the English and French Luddite movements, the literary dystopias of Samuel Butler and Charles Dickens, the American machine breakers movement, Taylorism and technocracy, and the post-war perspectives of Norbert Wiener and Martin Heidegger.

COMM 124. Lies, Trust, and Tech. 4-5 Units.

Deception is one of the most significant and pervasive social phenomena of our age. Lies range from the trivial to the very serious, including deception between friends and family, in the workplace, and in security and intelligence contexts. At the same time, information and communication technologies have pervaded almost all aspects of human communication, from everyday technologies that support interpersonal interactions to, such as email and instant messaging, to more sophisticated systems that support organization-level interactions. Given the prevalence of both deception and communication technology in our personal and professional lives, an important set of questions have recently emerged about how humans adapt their deceptive practices to new communication and information technologies, including how communication technology affects the practice of lying and the detection of deception, and whether technology can be used to identify deception.
Same as: COMM 224

COMM 125. Perspectives on American Journalism. 4-5 Units.

An examination of American journalism, focusing on how news is produced, distributed, and financially supported. Emphasis on current media controversies and puzzles, and on designing innovations in discovering and telling stories. (Graduate students register for COMM 225.).
Same as: AMSTUD 125, COMM 225

COMM 127X. The Ethics of Anonymity. 1 Unit.

When is it ethical to conceal your identity or to permit another to remain anonymous? What is the value to remaining unknown, and what might be the cost? Does anonymity free you to think, act, or be in ways you wouldn't otherwise? What else might it allow or constrain? How might your answers differ depending on the circumstances or context? In this one-unit lunchtime seminar, guest speakers will discuss topics that might include: anonymous sources in journalism; anonymity online; the history of anonymous authorship and attribution; whistleblowers and confidential informants; anonymous egg or sperm donors and birth parents; anonymity vs. confidentiality for research participants; anonymity and art; technology and anonymity.
Same as: CSRE 127X, ETHICSOC 2

COMM 130N. The idea of a free press. 3-4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. An examination of the meaning of freedom of the press, tied to but not bound by various Supreme Court rulings on the scope and purpose of the First Amendment's speech and press clauses. Discussions will include a look at the recent and rapid computerization of communication and what it portends for the future of a free press.

COMM 131. Media Ethics and Responsibility. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 231.) The development of professionalism among American journalists, emphasizing the emergence of objectivity as a professional and the epistemological norm. An applied ethics course where questions of power, freedom, and truth autonomy are treated normatively so as to foster critical thinking about the origins and implications of commonly accepted standards of responsible journalism.
Same as: COMM 231

COMM 133. Need to Know: The Tension between a Free Press and National Security Decision Making. 4-5 Units.

This seminar examines the dynamic interaction at the highest levels of government and the media when news coverage of secret national security policy and operations impinges on United States defense, diplomatic and intelligence activities and decision making and affects the American political system. Prime examples: intelligence information about Russian hacking operations during the 2016 presidential election campaign, the unverified intelligence dossier on Donald Trump's Russian connections, the torrent of secret NSA programs disclosed by Edward Snowden. Students explore attitudes, practices, and actions by the media and the government through a series of case studies and simulations. Former editors, reporters, and government officials appear as guest speakers, including Michael Hayden, former director of the NSA and CIA. The goal of the course is to inform students about the vital but often fraught relationship between a free press and the government in a democratic society. For advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Application for enrollment required. The instructor is a former Washington bureau chief of The New York Times. Email Kiley Roache (kiley@stanford.edu) to request an application. Completed applications are due by 6pm (pacific) on March 25, 2017. Early applications welcome.
Same as: COMM 233

COMM 135. Deliberative Democracy and its Critics. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the theory and practice of deliberative democracy and engages both in a dialogue with critics. Can a democracy which emphasizes people thinking and talking together on the basis of good information be made practical in the modern age? What kinds of distortions arise when people try to discuss politics or policy together? The course draws on ideas of deliberation from Madison and Mill to Rawls and Habermas as well as criticisms from the jury literature, from the psychology of group processes and from the most recent normative and empirical literature on deliberative forums. Deliberative Polling, its applications, defenders and critics, both normative and empirical, will provide a key case for discussion.
Same as: AMSTUD 135, COMM 235, COMM 335, POLISCI 234P, POLISCI 334P

COMM 137W. The Dialogue of Democracy. 4-5 Units.

All forms of democracy require some kind of communication so people can be aware of issues and make decisions. This course looks at competing visions of what democracy should be and different notions of the role of dialogue in a democracy. Is it just campaigning or does it include deliberation? Small scale discussions or sound bites on television? Or social media? What is the role of technology in changing our democratic practices, to mobilize, to persuade, to solve public problems? This course will include readings from political theory about democratic ideals - from the American founders to J.S. Mill and the Progressives to Joseph Schumpeter and modern writers skeptical of the public will. It will also include contemporary examinations of the media and the internet to see how those practices are changing and how the ideals can or cannot be realized.
Same as: AMSTUD 137, COMM 237, POLISCI 232T, POLISCI 332T

COMM 138. Deliberative Democracy Practicum: Applying Deliberative Polling. 3-5 Units.

In this course, students will work directly on a real-world deliberative democracy project using the method of Deliberative Polling. Students in this course will work in partnership with the Center for Deliberative Democracy at Stanford, a research center devoted to the research in democracy and public opinion around the world. This unique practicum will allow students to work on an actual Deliberative Polling project on campus. In just one quarter, the students will prepare for, implement, and analyze the results for an Deliberative Polling project. This is a unique opportunity that allows students to take part in the entire process of a deliberative democracy project. Through this practicum, students will apply quantitative and qualitative research methods in a local community or local high school and subsequently, analyze the relevant quantitative and qualitative data. Students will explore the underlying challenges and complexities of what it means to actually do community-engaged research in the real world. As such, this course will provide students with skills and experience in research design in deliberative democracy, community and stakeholder engagement, and the practical aspects of working in local communities. This practicum is a collaboration between the Center for Deliberative Democracy, the Bill Lane Center for the American West and the Haas Center for Public Service.nnCDD website: http://cdd.stanford.edunBill Lane Center website: http://west.stanford.edunHass Center website: https://haas.stanford.edu.
Same as: COMM 238, CSRE 38

COMM 142W. Media Economics. 4-5 Units.

Uses economics to examine the generation and consumption of information in communication markets. Covers concepts that play a large role in information economics, including public goods, economies of scale, product differentiation, and externalities. Looks at individuals¿ information demands as consumers, producers, audience members, and voters. Topics include economics of Internet, sustainability of accountability journalism, and marketplace of ideas.
Same as: COMM 242

COMM 143W. Communication Policy and Regulation. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on the development, implementation, and evaluation of policies affecting communication markets. Policy issues include universal service, digital divide, Internet regulation, intellectual property, privacy, television violence, content diversity, media ownership, antitrust, and impact of news on government accountability. Examines political economy of communication policy and the evolution of policies across time.
Same as: COMM 243

COMM 151. The First Amendment: Freedom of Speech and Press. 4-5 Units.

Introduction to the constitutional protections for freedom of speech, press, and expressive association. All the major Supreme Court cases dealing with issues such as incitement, libel, hate speech, obscenity, commercial speech, and campaign finance. There are no prerequisites, but a basic understanding of American government would be useful. In addition to a final and midterm exam, students participate in a moot court on a hypothetical case. (Grad students register for COMM 251).
Same as: COMM 251, POLISCI 125P

COMM 152. Constitutional Law. 3 Units.

This course covers Supreme Court case law concerning governmental powers, equal protection, and certain fundamental rights. The course investigates the constitutional foundation for democratic participation in the United States, covering topics such as the Fourteenth Amendment's protections against discrimination on grounds of race, gender, and other classifications, as well as the individual rights to voting and intimate association, and an introduction to First Amendment rights of free speech and press. Students will be evaluated on class participation, a midterm moot court with both a written and oral component, and a take-home final exam. Lectures will be twice per week and a discussion section once per week.
Same as: COMM 252, POLISCI 126P

COMM 153. Political Campaigning in the Internet Age. 3 Units.

This course will acquaint students with the changing environment for campaigns posed by the rise of the Internet. So much of the traditional way analysts have understood campaigns has revolved around television as the primary mode of campaign communication. The rise of the Internet, nonlinear television programming, and mobile communication enables new forms of campaigning. This course will examine the relevant social science on these topics, while at the same time bringing in guest lecturers from industry, campaigns, and media. Requirements: Students will be required to complete a 25 page research paper on a topic relevant to the course.
Same as: COMM 253

COMM 153A. Policy, Politics, and the Presidency: Understanding the 2016 Campaign from Start to Finish. 2 Units.

(Same as LAW 7057). In 2016, Americans will once again go to the polls to select a new president. But what will actually happen behind-the-scenes between now and then is largely a mystery to most. This course will introduce students to the nuts-and-bolts of a presidential campaign. Each week, we will explore a different topic related to running for the presidency -- policy formation, communications, grassroots strategy, digital outreach, campaign finance -- and feature high-profile guest speakers who have served in senior roles on both Democratic and Republican campaigns. Students, guests, and faculty will also participate in discussions on how these topics will relate to the 2016 presidential contest, which will begin in earnest over the course of the quarter.
Same as: COMM 253A, POLISCI 72, PUBLPOL 146, PUBLPOL 246

COMM 154. The Politics of Algorithms. 4-5 Units.

Algorithms have become central actors in today's digital world. In areas as diverse as social media, journalism, education, healthcare, and policing, computing technologies increasingly mediate communication processes. This course will provide an introduction to the social and cultural forces shaping the construction, institutionalization, and uses of algorithms. In so doing, we will explore how algorithms relate to political issues of modernization, power, and inequality. Readings will range from social scientific analyses to media coverage of ongoing controversies relating to Big Data. Students will leave the course with a better appreciation of the broader challenges associated with researching, building, and using algorithms.
Same as: COMM 254, SOC 154

COMM 157. Information Control in Authoritarian Regimes. 4-5 Units.

Does information help autocrats and dictators stay in power? Or does information help topple authoritarian regimes? This course will examine how authoritarian regimes try to control information through surveillance, propaganda, and censorship, what influences the effectiveness of these information control measures, and how changes in technology (Internet, social media, mobile) affect the dynamics of information control.
Same as: COMM 257, COMM 357

COMM 160. The Press and the Political Process. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 260.) The role of mass media and other channels of communication in political and electoral processes.
Same as: COMM 260, POLISCI 323R

COMM 162. Campaigns, Voting, Media, and Elections. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the theory and practice of American campaigns and elections. First, we will attempt to explain the behavior of the key players -- candidates, parties, journalists, and voters -- in terms of the institutional arrangements and political incentives that confront them. Second, we will use current and recent election campaigns as "laboratories" for testing generalizations about campaign strategy and voter behavior. Third, we examine selections from the academic literature dealing with the origins of partisan identity, electoral design, and the immediate effects of campaigns on public opinion, voter turnout, and voter choice. As well, we'll explore issues of electoral reform and their more long-term consequences for governance and the political process.
Same as: COMM 262, POLISCI 120B

COMM 164. The Psychology of Communication About Politics in America. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on how politicians and government learn what Americans want and how the public's preferences shape government action; how surveys measure beliefs, preferences, and experiences; how poll results are criticized and interpreted; how conflict between polls is viewed by the public; how accurate surveys are and when they are accurate; how to conduct survey research to produce accurate measurements; designing questionnaires that people can understand and use comfortably; how question wording can manipulate poll results; corruption in survey research.
Same as: COMM 264, POLISCI 124L, PSYCH 170

COMM 166. Virtual People. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 266.) The concept of virtual people or digital human representations; methods of constructing and using virtual people; methodological approaches to interactions with and among virtual people; and current applications. Viewpoints including popular culture, literature, film, engineering, behavioral science, computer science, and communication.
Same as: COMM 266

COMM 171. Moving Pictures: How the Web, Mobile and Tablets are Revolutionizing Video Journalism. 3-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for 271.) Examine the emerging role of video journalism across web, tablet and mobile platforms. What are the specific needs of these platforms? How can new reporting tools be integrated to efficiently produce video news content? We'll examine case studies and hear from guest speakers about innovations in video journalism on these platforms. Students will produce video journalism pieces using mobile tools, optimized for viewing on mobile devices. Prerequisite: Journalism MA student or instructor's consent.
Same as: COMM 271

COMM 172. Media Psychology. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 272.) The literature related to psychological processing and the effects of media. Topics: unconscious processing; picture perception; attention and memory; emotion; the physiology of processing media; person perception; pornography; consumer behavior; advanced film and television systems; and differences among reading, watching, and listening.
Same as: COMM 272

COMM 176. Advanced Digital Media Production. 4-5 Units.

In-depth reporting and production using audio, images and video. Focus on an in-depth journalism project with appropriate uses of digital media: audio, photography, graphics, and video. Topics include advanced field techniques and approaches (audio, video, still) and emphasis on creating a non-fiction narrative arc in a multimedia piece of 10-12 minutes. Prerequisite: COMM 275 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 276

COMM 177A. Computational Journalism. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on using data and algorithms to lower the cost of discovering stories or telling stories in more engaging and personalized ways. Project based assignments based on real-world challenges faced in newsrooms. Prior experience in journalism or computational thinking helpful. Prerequisite: COMM 273D, COMM 113/213, or the consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 277A

COMM 177C. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Environmental Journalism. 4-5 Units.

Advanced reporting and writing course in the specific practices and standards of environmental journalism. This course begins with the assumption that students already know how to research and relay the essential facts of almost any environmental story. Students will go beyond the basics of journalistic practice, both as reporters and storytellers. Emphasis on magazine-style writing, with the goal of producing stories that stand on fact but move like fiction, that have protagonists and antagonists, that create suspense, that reveal character through dialogue and action, and that pay off with resonant finales. Limited enrollment: preference to students in the Earth Systems Master of Arts, Environmental Communication Program and the Graduate Journalism Program. Prerequisite: COMM 104, or EARTHSYS 191, or consent of instructor. Admission by application only, available from thayden@stanford.edu. Applications due Nov. 30, 2016. (Meets Earth Systems WIM requirement.).
Same as: COMM 277C, EARTHSYS 177C, EARTHSYS 277C

COMM 177D. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Narrative Journalism. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 277D.) How to report, write, edit, and read long-form narrative nonfiction, whether for magazines, news sites or online venues. Tools and templates of story telling such as scenes, characters, dialogue, and narrative arc. How the best long-form narrative stories defy or subvert conventional wisdom and bring fresh light to the human experience through reporting, writing, and moral passion. Prerequisite: 104 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 277D

COMM 177E. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Telling the Story. 4-5 Units.

This workshop will offer secrets to good storytelling, and constructive feedback every step of the way on a significant piece of journalism you want to publish. The instructor, a senior editor who has helped New York Times reporters win 10 Pulitzer Prizes, will teach the course along with some of those reporters as well as other journalists with expertise in various aspects of storytelling. The sessions will include 1) elements of a great story; 2) finding a great story; 3) reporting a story; 4) writing the proposal; 5) making a story come alive online; 6) giving feedback on and editing a story; 7) assuring your story gets maximum readership online. Your piece could be one you conceive for this class, or one you have already begun reporting. Prerequisite: COMM 104 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 277E

COMM 177I. Becoming a Watchdog: Investigative Reporting Techniques. 4-5 Units.

Graduate students register for COMM 277I.) Learn how to apply an investigative and data mindset to journalism, from understanding how to background an individual or entity using online databases to compiling or combining disparate sets of information in ways that unveil wrongdoing or mismanagement. Focuses on mining texts, tracking associations, and using visualizations. Stories produced apply investigative techniques to beat reporting, breaking news, and long form journalism. Prerequisite: COMM 104W, or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 277I

COMM 177S. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Sports Journalism. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 277S.) Workshop. An examination of American sports writing from the 1920's Golden Age of Sports to present. Students become practitioners of the sports writing craft in an intensive laboratory. Hones journalistic skills such as specialized reporting, interviewing, deadline writing, creation of video projects, and conceptualizing and developing stories for print and online. Prerequisite: 104 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 277S

COMM 177Y. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Foreign Correspondence. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 277Y.) Study how being a foreign correspondent has evolved and blend new communication tools with clear narrative to tell stories from abroad in a way that engages a diversifying American audience in the digital age. Prerequisite: COMM 104W, COMM 279, or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 277Y

COMM 195. Honors Thesis. 5 Units.

Qualifies students to conduct communication research. Student must apply for department honors thesis program during Spring Quarter of junior year.

COMM 199. Individual Work. 1-5 Unit.

For students with high academic standing. May be repeated for credit.

COMM 206. Communication Research Methods. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 206.) Conceptual and practical concerns underlying commonly used quantitative approaches, including experimental, survey, content analysis, and field research in communication. Pre- or corequisite: STATS 60 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 106

COMM 208. Media Processes and Effects. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 208.) The process of communication theory construction including a survey of social science paradigms and major theories of communication. Recommended: 1 or PSYCH 1.
Same as: COMM 108

COMM 211. Mass Media, Society, and Democracy. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 211.) Open to non-majors. This course examines the role of the news media in contemporary society, with particular attention to cross-national variation in the relationships between journalists, politicians, and citizens. We further consider the potentially transforming effects of technology on the media-politics nexus.
Same as: COMM 1A

COMM 212. Models of Democracy. 3-5 Units.

Ancient and modern varieties of democracy; debates about their normative and practical strengths and the pathologies to which each is subject. Focus is on participation, deliberation, representation, and elite competition, as values and political processes. Formal institutions, political rhetoric, technological change, and philosophical critique. Models tested by reference to long-term historical natural experiments such as Athens and Rome, recent large-scale political experiments such as the British Columbia Citizens' Assembly, and controlled experiments.
Same as: COMM 312

COMM 213. Computational Methods in the Civic Sphere. 4-5 Units.

The widespread availability of public data provides a rich opportunity for those who can efficiently filter, interpret, and visualize information. Course develops necessary technical skills for data collection, analysis, and publication, including data mining and web visualization, with a focus on civic affairs and government accountability. Open to all majors and a range of technical skill levels. Involves tackling new tools and technical concepts in the pursuit of engaging, public-facing projects. (Graduate students enroll in 213). Prerequisite COMM 273D, CS 106A, or CS 106B.
Same as: COMM 113

COMM 216. Journalism Law. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for 216.) Laws and regulation impacting journalists. Topics include libel, privacy, news gathering, protection sources, fair trial and free press, theories of the First Amendment, and broadcast regulation. Prerequisite: Journalism M.A. student or advanced Communication major.
Same as: COMM 116

COMM 220. Digital Media in Society. 4-5 Units.

Contemporary debates concerning the social and cultural impact of digital media. Topics include the historical origins of digital media, cultural contexts of their development and use, and influence of digital media on conceptions of self, community, and state. Priority to juniors, seniors, and graduate students.
Same as: AMSTUD 120, COMM 120W

COMM 224. Lies, Trust, and Tech. 4-5 Units.

Deception is one of the most significant and pervasive social phenomena of our age. Lies range from the trivial to the very serious, including deception between friends and family, in the workplace, and in security and intelligence contexts. At the same time, information and communication technologies have pervaded almost all aspects of human communication, from everyday technologies that support interpersonal interactions to, such as email and instant messaging, to more sophisticated systems that support organization-level interactions. Given the prevalence of both deception and communication technology in our personal and professional lives, an important set of questions have recently emerged about how humans adapt their deceptive practices to new communication and information technologies, including how communication technology affects the practice of lying and the detection of deception, and whether technology can be used to identify deception.
Same as: COMM 124

COMM 225. Perspectives on American Journalism. 4-5 Units.

An examination of American journalism, focusing on how news is produced, distributed, and financially supported. Emphasis on current media controversies and puzzles, and on designing innovations in discovering and telling stories. (Graduate students register for COMM 225.).
Same as: AMSTUD 125, COMM 125

COMM 231. Media Ethics and Responsibility. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 231.) The development of professionalism among American journalists, emphasizing the emergence of objectivity as a professional and the epistemological norm. An applied ethics course where questions of power, freedom, and truth autonomy are treated normatively so as to foster critical thinking about the origins and implications of commonly accepted standards of responsible journalism.
Same as: COMM 131

COMM 233. Need to Know: The Tension between a Free Press and National Security Decision Making. 4-5 Units.

This seminar examines the dynamic interaction at the highest levels of government and the media when news coverage of secret national security policy and operations impinges on United States defense, diplomatic and intelligence activities and decision making and affects the American political system. Prime examples: intelligence information about Russian hacking operations during the 2016 presidential election campaign, the unverified intelligence dossier on Donald Trump's Russian connections, the torrent of secret NSA programs disclosed by Edward Snowden. Students explore attitudes, practices, and actions by the media and the government through a series of case studies and simulations. Former editors, reporters, and government officials appear as guest speakers, including Michael Hayden, former director of the NSA and CIA. The goal of the course is to inform students about the vital but often fraught relationship between a free press and the government in a democratic society. For advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Application for enrollment required. The instructor is a former Washington bureau chief of The New York Times. Email Kiley Roache (kiley@stanford.edu) to request an application. Completed applications are due by 6pm (pacific) on March 25, 2017. Early applications welcome.
Same as: COMM 133

COMM 235. Deliberative Democracy and its Critics. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the theory and practice of deliberative democracy and engages both in a dialogue with critics. Can a democracy which emphasizes people thinking and talking together on the basis of good information be made practical in the modern age? What kinds of distortions arise when people try to discuss politics or policy together? The course draws on ideas of deliberation from Madison and Mill to Rawls and Habermas as well as criticisms from the jury literature, from the psychology of group processes and from the most recent normative and empirical literature on deliberative forums. Deliberative Polling, its applications, defenders and critics, both normative and empirical, will provide a key case for discussion.
Same as: AMSTUD 135, COMM 135, COMM 335, POLISCI 234P, POLISCI 334P

COMM 237. The Dialogue of Democracy. 4-5 Units.

All forms of democracy require some kind of communication so people can be aware of issues and make decisions. This course looks at competing visions of what democracy should be and different notions of the role of dialogue in a democracy. Is it just campaigning or does it include deliberation? Small scale discussions or sound bites on television? Or social media? What is the role of technology in changing our democratic practices, to mobilize, to persuade, to solve public problems? This course will include readings from political theory about democratic ideals - from the American founders to J.S. Mill and the Progressives to Joseph Schumpeter and modern writers skeptical of the public will. It will also include contemporary examinations of the media and the internet to see how those practices are changing and how the ideals can or cannot be realized.
Same as: AMSTUD 137, COMM 137W, POLISCI 232T, POLISCI 332T

COMM 238. Deliberative Democracy Practicum: Applying Deliberative Polling. 3-5 Units.

In this course, students will work directly on a real-world deliberative democracy project using the method of Deliberative Polling. Students in this course will work in partnership with the Center for Deliberative Democracy at Stanford, a research center devoted to the research in democracy and public opinion around the world. This unique practicum will allow students to work on an actual Deliberative Polling project on campus. In just one quarter, the students will prepare for, implement, and analyze the results for an Deliberative Polling project. This is a unique opportunity that allows students to take part in the entire process of a deliberative democracy project. Through this practicum, students will apply quantitative and qualitative research methods in a local community or local high school and subsequently, analyze the relevant quantitative and qualitative data. Students will explore the underlying challenges and complexities of what it means to actually do community-engaged research in the real world. As such, this course will provide students with skills and experience in research design in deliberative democracy, community and stakeholder engagement, and the practical aspects of working in local communities. This practicum is a collaboration between the Center for Deliberative Democracy, the Bill Lane Center for the American West and the Haas Center for Public Service.nnCDD website: http://cdd.stanford.edunBill Lane Center website: http://west.stanford.edunHass Center website: https://haas.stanford.edu.
Same as: COMM 138, CSRE 38

COMM 242. Media Economics. 4-5 Units.

Uses economics to examine the generation and consumption of information in communication markets. Covers concepts that play a large role in information economics, including public goods, economies of scale, product differentiation, and externalities. Looks at individuals¿ information demands as consumers, producers, audience members, and voters. Topics include economics of Internet, sustainability of accountability journalism, and marketplace of ideas.
Same as: COMM 142W

COMM 243. Communication Policy and Regulation. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on the development, implementation, and evaluation of policies affecting communication markets. Policy issues include universal service, digital divide, Internet regulation, intellectual property, privacy, television violence, content diversity, media ownership, antitrust, and impact of news on government accountability. Examines political economy of communication policy and the evolution of policies across time.
Same as: COMM 143W

COMM 251. The First Amendment: Freedom of Speech and Press. 4-5 Units.

Introduction to the constitutional protections for freedom of speech, press, and expressive association. All the major Supreme Court cases dealing with issues such as incitement, libel, hate speech, obscenity, commercial speech, and campaign finance. There are no prerequisites, but a basic understanding of American government would be useful. In addition to a final and midterm exam, students participate in a moot court on a hypothetical case. (Grad students register for COMM 251).
Same as: COMM 151, POLISCI 125P

COMM 252. Constitutional Law. 3 Units.

This course covers Supreme Court case law concerning governmental powers, equal protection, and certain fundamental rights. The course investigates the constitutional foundation for democratic participation in the United States, covering topics such as the Fourteenth Amendment's protections against discrimination on grounds of race, gender, and other classifications, as well as the individual rights to voting and intimate association, and an introduction to First Amendment rights of free speech and press. Students will be evaluated on class participation, a midterm moot court with both a written and oral component, and a take-home final exam. Lectures will be twice per week and a discussion section once per week.
Same as: COMM 152, POLISCI 126P

COMM 253. Political Campaigning in the Internet Age. 3 Units.

This course will acquaint students with the changing environment for campaigns posed by the rise of the Internet. So much of the traditional way analysts have understood campaigns has revolved around television as the primary mode of campaign communication. The rise of the Internet, nonlinear television programming, and mobile communication enables new forms of campaigning. This course will examine the relevant social science on these topics, while at the same time bringing in guest lecturers from industry, campaigns, and media. Requirements: Students will be required to complete a 25 page research paper on a topic relevant to the course.
Same as: COMM 153

COMM 253A. Policy, Politics, and the Presidency: Understanding the 2016 Campaign from Start to Finish. 2 Units.

(Same as LAW 7057). In 2016, Americans will once again go to the polls to select a new president. But what will actually happen behind-the-scenes between now and then is largely a mystery to most. This course will introduce students to the nuts-and-bolts of a presidential campaign. Each week, we will explore a different topic related to running for the presidency -- policy formation, communications, grassroots strategy, digital outreach, campaign finance -- and feature high-profile guest speakers who have served in senior roles on both Democratic and Republican campaigns. Students, guests, and faculty will also participate in discussions on how these topics will relate to the 2016 presidential contest, which will begin in earnest over the course of the quarter.
Same as: COMM 153A, POLISCI 72, PUBLPOL 146, PUBLPOL 246

COMM 254. The Politics of Algorithms. 4-5 Units.

Algorithms have become central actors in today's digital world. In areas as diverse as social media, journalism, education, healthcare, and policing, computing technologies increasingly mediate communication processes. This course will provide an introduction to the social and cultural forces shaping the construction, institutionalization, and uses of algorithms. In so doing, we will explore how algorithms relate to political issues of modernization, power, and inequality. Readings will range from social scientific analyses to media coverage of ongoing controversies relating to Big Data. Students will leave the course with a better appreciation of the broader challenges associated with researching, building, and using algorithms.
Same as: COMM 154, SOC 154

COMM 257. Information Control in Authoritarian Regimes. 4-5 Units.

Does information help autocrats and dictators stay in power? Or does information help topple authoritarian regimes? This course will examine how authoritarian regimes try to control information through surveillance, propaganda, and censorship, what influences the effectiveness of these information control measures, and how changes in technology (Internet, social media, mobile) affect the dynamics of information control.
Same as: COMM 157, COMM 357

COMM 260. The Press and the Political Process. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 260.) The role of mass media and other channels of communication in political and electoral processes.
Same as: COMM 160, POLISCI 323R

COMM 262. Campaigns, Voting, Media, and Elections. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the theory and practice of American campaigns and elections. First, we will attempt to explain the behavior of the key players -- candidates, parties, journalists, and voters -- in terms of the institutional arrangements and political incentives that confront them. Second, we will use current and recent election campaigns as "laboratories" for testing generalizations about campaign strategy and voter behavior. Third, we examine selections from the academic literature dealing with the origins of partisan identity, electoral design, and the immediate effects of campaigns on public opinion, voter turnout, and voter choice. As well, we'll explore issues of electoral reform and their more long-term consequences for governance and the political process.
Same as: COMM 162, POLISCI 120B

COMM 264. The Psychology of Communication About Politics in America. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on how politicians and government learn what Americans want and how the public's preferences shape government action; how surveys measure beliefs, preferences, and experiences; how poll results are criticized and interpreted; how conflict between polls is viewed by the public; how accurate surveys are and when they are accurate; how to conduct survey research to produce accurate measurements; designing questionnaires that people can understand and use comfortably; how question wording can manipulate poll results; corruption in survey research.
Same as: COMM 164, POLISCI 124L, PSYCH 170

COMM 266. Virtual People. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 266.) The concept of virtual people or digital human representations; methods of constructing and using virtual people; methodological approaches to interactions with and among virtual people; and current applications. Viewpoints including popular culture, literature, film, engineering, behavioral science, computer science, and communication.
Same as: COMM 166

COMM 271. Moving Pictures: How the Web, Mobile and Tablets are Revolutionizing Video Journalism. 3-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for 271.) Examine the emerging role of video journalism across web, tablet and mobile platforms. What are the specific needs of these platforms? How can new reporting tools be integrated to efficiently produce video news content? We'll examine case studies and hear from guest speakers about innovations in video journalism on these platforms. Students will produce video journalism pieces using mobile tools, optimized for viewing on mobile devices. Prerequisite: Journalism MA student or instructor's consent.
Same as: COMM 171

COMM 272. Media Psychology. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 272.) The literature related to psychological processing and the effects of media. Topics: unconscious processing; picture perception; attention and memory; emotion; the physiology of processing media; person perception; pornography; consumer behavior; advanced film and television systems; and differences among reading, watching, and listening.
Same as: COMM 172

COMM 273D. Public Affairs Data Journalism I. 4 Units.

Even before the ubiquity of Internet access and high-powered computers, public accountability reporting relied on the concerted collection of observations and analytical problem-solving. We study the methods, and the data, used to discover leads and conduct in-depth reporting on public affairs, including election finance and safety regulations. Students gain practical experience with the digital tools and techniques of computer-assisted reporting. Prerequisite: Journalism M.A. student.

COMM 274D. Public Affairs Data Journalism II. 4 Units.

Learn how to find, create and analyze data to tell news stories with public service impact. Uses relational databases, advanced queries, basic statistics, and mapping to analyze data for storytelling. Assignments may include stories, blog posts, and data visualizations, with at least one in-depth project based on data analysis. Prerequisites: COMM 273D or Journalism M.A. student.

COMM 275. Multimedia Storytelling: Reporting and Production Using Audio, Still Images, and Video. 3-4 Units.

Multimedia assignments coordinated with deadline reporting efforts in COMM 273 from traditional news beats using audio, still photography, and video. Use of digital audio recorders and audio production to leverage voice-over narration, interviews, and natural sound; use of digital still cameras and audio to produce audio slideshows; and the combination of these media with video in post-production with Final Cut Pro. Prerequisite: Journalism M.A. student. Corequisite: COMM 273.

COMM 276. Advanced Digital Media Production. 4-5 Units.

In-depth reporting and production using audio, images and video. Focus on an in-depth journalism project with appropriate uses of digital media: audio, photography, graphics, and video. Topics include advanced field techniques and approaches (audio, video, still) and emphasis on creating a non-fiction narrative arc in a multimedia piece of 10-12 minutes. Prerequisite: COMM 275 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 176

COMM 277A. Computational Journalism. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on using data and algorithms to lower the cost of discovering stories or telling stories in more engaging and personalized ways. Project based assignments based on real-world challenges faced in newsrooms. Prior experience in journalism or computational thinking helpful. Prerequisite: COMM 273D, COMM 113/213, or the consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 177A

COMM 277C. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Environmental Journalism. 4-5 Units.

Advanced reporting and writing course in the specific practices and standards of environmental journalism. This course begins with the assumption that students already know how to research and relay the essential facts of almost any environmental story. Students will go beyond the basics of journalistic practice, both as reporters and storytellers. Emphasis on magazine-style writing, with the goal of producing stories that stand on fact but move like fiction, that have protagonists and antagonists, that create suspense, that reveal character through dialogue and action, and that pay off with resonant finales. Limited enrollment: preference to students in the Earth Systems Master of Arts, Environmental Communication Program and the Graduate Journalism Program. Prerequisite: COMM 104, or EARTHSYS 191, or consent of instructor. Admission by application only, available from thayden@stanford.edu. Applications due Nov. 30, 2016. (Meets Earth Systems WIM requirement.).
Same as: COMM 177C, EARTHSYS 177C, EARTHSYS 277C

COMM 277D. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Narrative Journalism. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 277D.) How to report, write, edit, and read long-form narrative nonfiction, whether for magazines, news sites or online venues. Tools and templates of story telling such as scenes, characters, dialogue, and narrative arc. How the best long-form narrative stories defy or subvert conventional wisdom and bring fresh light to the human experience through reporting, writing, and moral passion. Prerequisite: 104 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 177D

COMM 277E. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Telling the Story. 4-5 Units.

This workshop will offer secrets to good storytelling, and constructive feedback every step of the way on a significant piece of journalism you want to publish. The instructor, a senior editor who has helped New York Times reporters win 10 Pulitzer Prizes, will teach the course along with some of those reporters as well as other journalists with expertise in various aspects of storytelling. The sessions will include 1) elements of a great story; 2) finding a great story; 3) reporting a story; 4) writing the proposal; 5) making a story come alive online; 6) giving feedback on and editing a story; 7) assuring your story gets maximum readership online. Your piece could be one you conceive for this class, or one you have already begun reporting. Prerequisite: COMM 104 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 177E

COMM 277I. Becoming a Watchdog: Investigative Reporting Techniques. 4-5 Units.

Graduate students register for COMM 277I.) Learn how to apply an investigative and data mindset to journalism, from understanding how to background an individual or entity using online databases to compiling or combining disparate sets of information in ways that unveil wrongdoing or mismanagement. Focuses on mining texts, tracking associations, and using visualizations. Stories produced apply investigative techniques to beat reporting, breaking news, and long form journalism. Prerequisite: COMM 104W, or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 177I

COMM 277S. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Sports Journalism. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 277S.) Workshop. An examination of American sports writing from the 1920's Golden Age of Sports to present. Students become practitioners of the sports writing craft in an intensive laboratory. Hones journalistic skills such as specialized reporting, interviewing, deadline writing, creation of video projects, and conceptualizing and developing stories for print and online. Prerequisite: 104 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 177S

COMM 277Y. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Foreign Correspondence. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 277Y.) Study how being a foreign correspondent has evolved and blend new communication tools with clear narrative to tell stories from abroad in a way that engages a diversifying American audience in the digital age. Prerequisite: COMM 104W, COMM 279, or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 177Y

COMM 278. Journalism and Imaginative Writing in America. 5 Units.

Walt Whitman spent twenty-five years as a journalist before publishing his first book of poems. Mark Twain was a journalist for twenty years before publishing his first novel. Topics include examination of how writers¿ backgrounds in journalism shaped the poetry or fiction for which they are best known; study of recent controversies surrounding writers who blurred the line between journalism and fiction. Writers include Whitman, Fanny Fern, Twain, Pauline Hopkins, Theodore Dreiser, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Ernest Hemingway, Meridel LeSueur.
Same as: AMSTUD 257

COMM 279. News Reporting & Writing Fundamentals. 3-4 Units.

Learn beat reporting and writing skills including source development, interviewing, and story structure for news and features. Emphasis on developing news judgment, clear writing skills, and an ability to execute stories on deadline. Exercises and assignments mimic a newsroom. Students pursue local beats with a focus on public issues and complement written pieces with relevant data analyses and multimedia components. Prerequisite: Journalism M.A. student. Corequisite: COMM 275.

COMM 280. Virtual Reality Journalism in the Public Sphere. 4 Units.

The immersive space (cinematic VR and virtual reality) is journalism's newest and most exciting reporting and storytelling tool. We survey best practices and methods in this emerging medium and learn 360-degree video production and postproduction. Teams will illuminate issues and provoke conversation in the public sphere. Prerequisite: Preference to Journalism M.A. students.

COMM 281. Exploring Computational Journalism. 3 Units.

This course will explore the evolving field of computational journalism. Students will research and discuss the state of field in five areas where computation is affecting journalism: AI, Data Science, and Info Viz; Emerging Hardware Tech, including Drones, Sensors, and VR; Audience Participation and Diverse Viewpoints; Free Speech and Democracy; and News Ecosystems and Business Models. Admission by application; please email James Hamilton at jayth@stanford.edu to request an application.
Same as: CS 206

COMM 289P. Journalism Thesis. 4 Units.

MA thesis course. Focuses on development of in-depth journalism project, culminating in work of publishable quality.

COMM 290. Media Studies M.A. Project. 1-2 Unit.

Individual research for coterminal Media Studies students.

COMM 291. Graduate Journalism Seminar. 1 Unit.

Required of students in the graduate program in Journalism. Forum for current issues in the practice and performance of the press. The seminar frequently features Bay Area Journalists as guest speakers. May be repeated for credit.

COMM 299. Individual Work. 1-4 Unit.

.

COMM 301. Communication Research, Curriculum Development and Pedagogy. 1 Unit.

Designed to prepare students for teaching and research in the Department of Communication. Students will be trained in developing curriculum and in pedagogical practices, and will also be exposed to the research programs of various faculty members in the department. Required of all Ph.D. students.

COMM 307. Summer Institute in Political Psychology. 3 Units.

Lectures, discussion groups, and workshops addressing many applications of psychology to the analysis of political behavior. Public opinion, international relations, political decision-making, attitudes and beliefs, prejudice, social influence and persuasion, terrorism, news media influence, foreign policy, socialization, social justice.

COMM 308. Graduate Seminar in Political Psychology. 1-3 Unit.

For students interested in research in political science, psychology, or communication. Methodological techniques for studying political attitudes and behaviors. May be repeated for credit.
Same as: POLISCI 324

COMM 311. Theory of Communication. 1-5 Unit.

Basic communication theory for first-year Ph.D. students in the Department of Communication. Introduction to basic writings and concepts in communication research. The goal is an introduction to issues in the field that are common in communication research. First half of the class will emphasize classic literature about field organization, history and theory. Second half will emphasize contemporary theory in areas that students select.

COMM 312. Models of Democracy. 3-5 Units.

Ancient and modern varieties of democracy; debates about their normative and practical strengths and the pathologies to which each is subject. Focus is on participation, deliberation, representation, and elite competition, as values and political processes. Formal institutions, political rhetoric, technological change, and philosophical critique. Models tested by reference to long-term historical natural experiments such as Athens and Rome, recent large-scale political experiments such as the British Columbia Citizens' Assembly, and controlled experiments.
Same as: COMM 212

COMM 314. Ethnographic Methods. 1-5 Unit.

This course offers an introduction to the practice and politics of ethnographic fieldwork. It provides a "how to" of ethnographic research, in which students will conduct an ethnographic project of their own, complemented by weekly readings and discussions. In the process, we will discuss the theory and epistemology of fieldwork, along with the practicalities and politics of fieldwork in different domains. We will examine different stages of ethnographic research (entering the field, conducting and recording fieldwork, exiting the field and writing it up), different methods (observations, interviews, "going along"), as well as distinct styles of ethnographic work (virtual ethnography, organizational ethnography, narrative ethnography, etc.). The course will serve as a participative workshop for students to exchange field notes, share practical advice, and consolidate their research interests. Prerequisite: Communication Ph.D. student, or consent of instructor.
Same as: SOC 319

COMM 317. The Philosophy of Social Science. 1-5 Unit.

Approaches to social science research and their theoretical presuppositions. Readings from the philosophy of the social sciences. Research design, the role of experiments, and quantitative and qualitative research. Cases from communication and related social sciences. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

COMM 318. Quantitative Social Science Research Methods. 1-5 Unit.

An introduction to a broad range of social science research methods that are widely used in PhD work. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

COMM 320G. Advanced Topics in New Media and American Culture. 1-5 Unit.

This course deals with advanced issues in computing and American cultural history since World War II. Primarily for Ph.D. students. Prerequisite: 220 or consent of instructor.

COMM 324. Language and Technology. 3-5 Units.

In this course we develop a model of how language reflects social and psychological dynamics in social media and other technologically-mediated contexts. The course lays out the main stages of analyzing language to understand social dynamics, including using theory to identify key discourse features, feature extraction, and classification and prediction. The course will draw on action-oriented language approaches to understand how people use language (e.g., grounding and joint action models), and then build on this approach to understand how discourse features from natural language can be used to answer questions from a wide range of social science questions, and ultimately, to the design of new technologies.

COMM 325G. Comparative Studies of News and Journalism. 1-5 Unit.

Focus is on topics such as the roles and responsibilities of journalists, news as a genre of popular literature, the nexus between press and state, and journalism's commitment to political participation.

COMM 326. Advanced Topics in Human Virtual Representation. 1-5 Unit.

Topics include the theoretical construct of person identity, the evolution of that construct given the advent of virtual environments, and methodological approaches to understanding virtual human representation. Prerequisite: PhD student or consent of instructor.

COMM 331G. Communication and Media Ethics. 1-5 Unit.

Limited to Ph.D. students. Advanced topics in press ethics and responsibility. Prerequisite: 231 or consent of instructor.

COMM 335. Deliberative Democracy and its Critics. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the theory and practice of deliberative democracy and engages both in a dialogue with critics. Can a democracy which emphasizes people thinking and talking together on the basis of good information be made practical in the modern age? What kinds of distortions arise when people try to discuss politics or policy together? The course draws on ideas of deliberation from Madison and Mill to Rawls and Habermas as well as criticisms from the jury literature, from the psychology of group processes and from the most recent normative and empirical literature on deliberative forums. Deliberative Polling, its applications, defenders and critics, both normative and empirical, will provide a key case for discussion.
Same as: AMSTUD 135, COMM 135, COMM 235, POLISCI 234P, POLISCI 334P

COMM 339. Questionnaire Design for Surveys and Laboratory Experiments: Social and Cognitive Perspectives. 4 Units.

The social and psychological processes involved in asking and answering questions via questionnaires for the social sciences; optimizing questionnaire design; open versus closed questions; rating versus ranking; rating scale length and point labeling; acquiescence response bias; don't-know response options; response choice order effects; question order effects; social desirability response bias; attitude and behavior recall; and introspective accounts of the causes of thoughts and actions.
Same as: POLISCI 421K, PSYCH 231

COMM 350. New Media and Journalism. 1-5 Unit.

New media technologies are transforming how people create and consume information. In this course, we study journalism as an organized field of practice to examine what digital technologies change -- and what they don't change -- about production, diffusion, and reception of news around the globe. The course will cover topics such as changing professional boundaries in a networked environment; the decentralization of news production with social media platforms; the changes in editorial judgement related to automation; the construction of algorithmic audiences; and the promises and challenges associated with data journalism. Moving beyond simplistic analyses of the internet as a universal explanation for all changes in journalism, this course explores how new technologies interact with existing practices, representations, and institutions.
Same as: SOC 326

COMM 357. Information Control in Authoritarian Regimes. 4-5 Units.

Does information help autocrats and dictators stay in power? Or does information help topple authoritarian regimes? This course will examine how authoritarian regimes try to control information through surveillance, propaganda, and censorship, what influences the effectiveness of these information control measures, and how changes in technology (Internet, social media, mobile) affect the dynamics of information control.
Same as: COMM 157, COMM 257

COMM 360G. Political Communication. 1-5 Unit.

An overview of research in political communication with particular reference to work on the impact of the mass media on public opinion and voting behavior. Limited to Ph.D. students. Prerequisite: 260 or consent of instructor.
Same as: POLISCI 425

COMM 361. Law of Democracy. 3-5 Units.

Combined with LAW 7036 (formerly Law 577). This course is intended to give students a basic understanding of the themes in the legal regulation of elections and politics. We will cover all the major Supreme Court cases on topics of voting rights, reapportionment/redistricting, ballot access, regulation of political parties, campaign finance, and the 2000 presidential election controversy. The course pays particular attention to competing political philosophies and empirical assumptions that underlie the Court's reasoning while still focusing on the cases as litigation tools used to serve political ends. Elements used in grading: Class participation and one day take home final exam. (POLISCI 327C; LAW 577).
Same as: POLISCI 327C

COMM 362. Topics in Political Communication: Media Bias, Selective Exposure, and Political Polarization. 1-5 Unit.

This course surveys theories of media bias, biased processing of information, and the empirical challenges facing researchers attempting to link changes in the composition of audiences to attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. (Limited to PhD students).
Same as: POLISCI 425S

COMM 372G. Seminar in Psychological Processing. 1-5 Unit.

Limited to Ph.D. students. Advanced topics. Prerequisite: 272 or consent of instructor.

COMM 380. Curriculum Practical Training. 1-5 Unit.

Practical experience in the communication industries. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Meets requirements for Curricular Practical Training for students on F-1 visas. (Staff).

COMM 382. Big Data and Causal Inference. 1-5 Unit.

Massive datasets of text, images, video, so-called big data, are increasingly available for research because of the pervasive adoption of new information communication technologies such as social media. These data represent new opportunities for social science research, but prominent examples of big data and data science bear little resemblance to the research designs of social scientific inquiry for causal inference. In this course, we harness the power of big data for causal inference by using machine learning and statistical tools on large-scale digital media datasets to answer social science questions of cause and effect. Familiarity with Python recommended. Enrollment limited to PhD students in COMM or Social Science who have completed or are currently taking graduate quantitative methods sequences in Economics, Political Science, Sociology, or Statistics. Contact blazzari@stanford.edu for a permission number to enroll.

COMM 384. Media Technology Theory. 3-5 Units.

This course surveys major theoretical approaches to the study of media technologies, including Frankfurt School critical theory, media archaeology, actor network theory, science and technology studies, platform studies and theories of critical making. By the end of the course, students should have a rich familiarity with the literature in this area, as well as with exemplary empirical studies conducted within each tradition. Preference to Ph.D. students in Communication and Art and Art History. Consent of instructor required for non-PhD students.
Same as: ARTHIST 465

COMM 386. Media Cultures of the Cold War. 3-5 Units.

The intersection of politics, aesthetics, and new media technologies in the U.S. between the end of WW II and the fall of the Berlin Wall. Topics include the aesthetics of thinking the unthinkable in the wake of the atom bomb; abstract expressionism and 'modern man' discourse; game theory, cybernetics, and new models of art making; the rise of television, intermedia, and the counterculture; and the continuing influence of the early cold war on contemporary media aesthetics. Readings from primary and secondary sources in art history, communication, and critical theory.
Same as: ARTHIST 475

COMM 397. Minor Research Project. 1-6 Unit.

Individual research for Ph.D. candidates. Course may be repeated for credit.

COMM 398. Major Research Project. 1-6 Unit.

Individual research for Ph.D. candidates.

COMM 399. Advanced Individual Work. 1-9 Unit.

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COMM 801. TGR Project. 0 Units.

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COMM 802. TGR Dissertation. 0 Units.

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