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Classics

Contacts

Office: Building 110, Main Quad
Mail Code: 2145
Phone: (650) 723-0479
Email: classics@stanford.edu
Web Site: http://classics.stanford.edu

Courses offered by the Department of Classics are listed on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site under the subject codes CLASSART (Classics Art/Archaeology), CLASSGEN (Classics General), CLASSGRK (Classics Greek), CLASSHIS (Classics History), and CLASSLAT (Classics Latin).

The study of Classics has traditionally centered on the literature and material culture of ancient Greece and Rome, including Greek and Latin language, literature, philosophy, history, art, and archaeology. At Stanford, Classics also explores connections with other ancient cultures and with the modern world, as well as specialized fields such as ancient economics, law, papyrology, and science. The department’s faculty approaches Classics from an interdisciplinary perspective that crosses geographical, temporal, and thematic territories. Studying ancient epic poetry can lead to looking at modern cinema afresh; ancient Athenian politics opens new perspectives on modern politics; and the study of Rome presents parallels with other empires just as Latin illuminates the history of English and the Romance languages. In short, Classics at Stanford is an interdisciplinary subject concerned not only with Greek and Roman civilization but also with the interaction of cultures and societies that influenced the ancient Mediterranean basin and continue to influence human society across the globe.

Mission of the Undergraduate Program in Classics

The mission of the undergraduate program in Classics is to provide students with a broad background centered on the literature and material culture of ancient Greece and Rome, including Greek and Latin language, literature, philosophy, history, art, and archaeology. At Stanford, students in the Classics program also explore the connections between ancient cultures and the modern world as well as specialized fields such as ancient economics, law, papyrology, and science. The program's faculty approaches Classics from an interdisciplinary perspective that crosses geographical, temporal and thematic territories. The program is concerned not only with Greek and Roman civilization but also with the interaction of cultures and societies that influenced the ancient Mediterranean basin and continue to influence human society across the globe.

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduate)

The department expects undergraduate majors in the program to be able to demonstrate the following learning outcomes. These learning outcomes are used in evaluating students and the department's undergraduate program. Students are expected to demonstrate:

  1. The ability to develop effective and nuanced lines of interpretation.
  2. Critical thinking skills using primary source materials.
  3. Facility with the methodologies and presuppositions underlying interpretive positions in secondary literature and in their own work.
  4. Well-developed analytical writing skills and close reading skills.

The department offers the following fields of study for undergraduate degrees in Classics:

  • Classical Studies
  • Ancient History
  • Greek
  • Latin
  • Greek and Latin

The Classical Studies, Greek, and Latin fields of study may also be taken with a Philosophy and Literature focus. The Classics major can be completed in conjunction with a second major from the Schools of Humanities and Sciences, Earth Sciences, or Engineering.

The department also offers minors in: Classical Languages, Ancient History, Literature and Philosophy, and Classical Studies.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The purpose of the master's program is to further develop knowledge and skills in Classics and to prepare students for a professional career or doctoral studies. This is achieved through completion of courses, in the primary field as well as related areas, and experience with independent work and specialization.

The Ph.D. is conferred upon candidates who have demonstrated substantial scholarship and the ability to conduct independent research and analysis in Classics. Through completion of advanced course work and rigorous skills training, the doctoral program prepares students to make original contributions to the knowledge of Classics and to interpret and present the results of such research.

 

 

Bachelor of Arts in Classics

Those interested in majoring in Classics are encouraged to declare by spring of sophomore year, but are urged to discuss their plans with the undergraduate director as early as possible. Students who choose the Greek and Latin field of study (option 5 below) should begin the curriculum as soon as possible because it is difficult to complete the language requirements without an early start; those with no previous knowledge of Latin or Greek should begin study in the freshman year, in a summer program following freshman year, or at the beginning of the sophomore year.

To declare the major, a student must fill out the Declaration of Major on Axess and meet with the undergraduate director and student services officer in the Department of Classics. At that time, the undergraduate director assigns the student a department adviser. To build a mentoring relationship, students meet with their adviser at least once a quarter. The student should then schedule an orientation with the student services officer. Each student’s progress towards fulfillment of the major requirements is recorded in a file kept in the student services officer’s office. It is the student’s responsibility to work with the adviser and student services officer to keep this file up to date.

A letter grade is required for all courses taken for the major. No course receiving a grade lower than ‘C’ is counted toward fulfilling major requirements. Enrollment in an independent study section (CLASSGEN 160: Directed Reading) requires the prior approval of the undergraduate director, and a maximum of three such enrollments for a maximum total of 10 units may be counted toward the major.  University credit earned by placement tests or advanced placement work in secondary school is not counted towards any major requirement in the department.  Work done at other universities or colleges is subject to department evaluation and the university's transfer credit process.

The B.A. degree may be earned by fulfilling the requirements for one of the following fields of study. These fields of study are declared on Axess; they appear on the transcript but not on the diploma. The fields of study are:

  • Classical Studies
  • Ancient History
  • Greek
  • Latin
  • Greek and Latin

The Philosophy and Literature focus described below may be added to some of the major plans. This focus is not declared on Axess, and does not appear on the transcript or diploma.

A. Classical Studies

This major is recommended for students who wish to study classical civilizations in depth but do not wish to study the languages to the extent required by the Greek, Latin or Greek and Latin options described below. It is not suitable for students who wish to do graduate work in Classics or to teach Latin or Greek in high school, as the language work is insufficient for these purposes.

Students are encouraged to meet with the undergraduate director to discuss options for pursuing a period of study in the Mediterranean region.

Units
Students must complete at least 60 units of approved courses including:
CLASSGEN 176Majors Seminar5
at least two courses in Latin or Greek at the 100 level or higher 36-20
or one course in one of the languages at the 100 level or higher, plus the 1,2,3 series of the other language 3
remaining units from courses with the prefix CLASSART, CLASSGEN, CLASSHIS, CLASSLAT, or CLASSGRK 1,235-49
Total Units60

1

Up to 8 units of THINK 10, THINK 16, THINK 35/THINK 35A (please note that this is the same course), IHUM 39A,B, IHUM 69A, or SLE may be counted toward the major; note that IHUM courses are no longer offered.

2

Courses listed in the department's cognate course list may also count towards the major with prior written approval from the undergraduate director; written approval must be submitted to the student services officer for inclusion in the student's academic file prior to the end of the term in which the course is taken.

3

Language courses may be repeated for credit towards the degree only with advance written permission from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

B. Ancient History:

With the written approval of the instructor and the undergraduate director, students may substitute graduate seminars in ancient history for some of these courses. Students are also encouraged to meet with the undergraduate director to discuss options for pursuing a period of study in the Mediterranean region.

Units
Students must complete at least 60 units of approved courses and must satisfy four requirements:
CLASSGEN 176Majors Seminar (satisfies WIM requirement)5
Core Requirement (10)
Complete two survey courses in ancient history; some such courses offered this year include:10
The Romans
The Greeks
The Egyptians
Depth Requirement (33)
Complete at least 33 units of ancient history and civilization courses, drawn from courses with CLASSHIS, CLASSGEN and CLASSART subject code 1,233
Breadth Requirements (12)
Complete at least 4 units in each of the following three areas 3
1. Archaeology and art; suggested courses include: 44
Eight Great Archaeological Sites in Europe
Pompeii
Archaic Greek Art
Empire and Aftermath: Greek Art from the Parthenon to Praxiteles
The Body in Roman Art
Byzantine Art and Architecture, 300-1453 C.E.
Greek Art In and Out of Context
Ten Things: An Archaeology of Design
Art & Architecture in the Medieval Mediterranean
Architecture & Power: Engineering the Roman Empire
Hagia Sophia
Art and Religious Experience in Byzantium and Islam
Classical Archaeology Today: Ethical Issues of Excavation, Ownership, and Display
Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: Maritime Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean
Introduction to Prehistoric Archeology
History of Archaeological Thought
Museums and Collections
Archaeology as a Profession
Emergence of Chinese Civilization from Caves to Palaces
Archaeology of Food: production, consumption and ritual
Introduction to bioarchaeological Method and Theory
The Anthropology of Heritage: Concepts, Contexts and Critique
2. Comparative ancient civilizations: complete a course on the ancient world outside the Mediterranean and western Asia. Suggested courses include:4
Introduction to Prehistoric Archeology
Emergence of Chinese Civilization from Caves to Palaces
The Aztecs and Their Ancestors: Introduction to Mesoamerican Archaeology
Ancient Civilizations: Complexity and Collapse
Ancient Cities in the New World
Maya Mythology and the Popol Vuh
Maya Hieroglyphic Writing
3. Historical and social theory. Suggested courses include:4
Introduction to Cultural and Social Anthropology
Theory of Cultural and Social Anthropology
Social Theory in the Anthropological Sciences
Introduction to Sociology at Stanford
Introduction to Social Stratification
Sociology of Gender
Classics of Modern Social Theory
Culture, Evolution, and Society
Total Units60

1

 THINK 10, THINK 16, THINK 35A, IHUM 39A,B, or IHUM 69A, History of the World, may be counted toward this requirement. Note that IHUM courses are no longer offered.

2

 CLASSGRK and CLASSLAT courses may also count toward this requirement if approved by the undergraduate director.

3

The courses chosen must be approved in advance by the undergraduate director, and are normally chosen from the list of areas noted , although courses listed in the department's cognate course list may be substituted for one or more of these courses with prior written approval from the undergraduate director. Written approval must be submitted to the student services officer for inclusion in the student's academic file prior to the end of the term in which the course is taken.

4

IHUM 40B, may be counted toward this requirement. This course is no longer offered.

C. Greek

Relevant courses in other departments of the humanities may count towards the major with the consent of the undergraduate director. Students are encouraged to meet with the undergraduate director to discuss options for pursuing a period of study in the Mediterranean region.

Units
Students must complete at least 60 units of approved courses including:
CLASSGEN 176Majors Seminar5
At least 31 units of CLASSGRK courses at the 100-level or higher. It is recommended that these include CLASSGRK 175A/CLASSGRK 175B, though this series should not be taken until students have completed three years of Greek. 331
At least three courses with the prefix CLASSART, CLASSGEN, or CLASSHIS 1,29-15
Recommended additional coursework in Latin, Sanskrit, Biblical Greek or ancient history.
Beginning Latin: Vocabulary and Syntax
Beginning Latin
Beginning Latin
Biblical Greek
First-Year Sanskrit, First Quarter
First-Year Sanskrit, Second Quarter
The Greeks
Total Units60

1

Up to 8 units of THINK 10, THINK 16, THINK 35/THINK 35A (please note that this is the same course), IHUM 39A,B, IHUM 69A, or SLE may be counted toward the major; note that IHUM courses are no longer offered.

2

Courses listed in the department's cognate course list may also count towards the major with prior written approval from the undergraduate director; written approval must be submitted to the student services officer for inclusion in the student's academic file prior to the end of the term in which the course is taken.

3

Language courses may be repeated for credit towards the degree only with advance written permission from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

D. Latin

Relevant courses in other departments of the humanities may count towards the major with the consent of the undergraduate director. Students are encouraged to meet with the undergraduate director to discuss options for pursuing a period of study in the Mediterranean region. 

Units
Students must complete at least 60 units of approved courses including:
CLASSGEN 176Majors Seminar5
At least 31 units of CLASSLAT courses at the 100-level or higher. It is recommended that this include CLASSLAT 175A/CLASSLAT 175B, though this series should not be taken until students have completed three years of Latin. 331
At least three courses with the prefix CLASSART, CLASSGEN or CLASSHIS 1,29-15
Recommended additional coursework in Ancient Greek, Biblical Greek or ancient history
Beginning Greek
Beginning Greek
Beginning Greek
Biblical Greek
The Romans
Total Units:60

1

Up to 8 units of THINK 10, THINK 16, THINK 35/THINK 35A (please note that this is the same course), IHUM 39A,B, IHUM 69A, or SLE may be counted toward the major; note that IHUM courses are no longer offered.

2

Courses listed in the department's cognate course list may also count towards the major with prior written approval from the undergraduate director; written approval must be submitted to the student services officer for inclusion in the student's academic file prior to the end of the term in which the course is taken.

3

Language courses may be repeated for credit towards the degree only with advance written permission from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

E. Greek and Latin

Relevant courses in other departments of the humanities may count towards the major with the consent of the undergraduate director. Students are encouraged to meet with the undergraduate director to discuss options for pursuing a period of study in the Mediterranean region.

Units
Students must complete at least 60 units of approved courses including:
CLASSGEN 176Majors Seminar (WIM)5
At least 30 units of CLASSLAT courses at the 100-level or higher. It is recommended that this include CLASSLAT 175A,B, although this series should not be taken until completion of three years of Latin. 130
Intermediate Latin: Introduction to Literature
Intermediate Latin: Ovid and Apuleius
Intermediate Latin: Vergil and Caesar
Advanced Latin: Livy
Advanced Latin: Seneca
Advanced Latin: Tacitus, Rome's Greatest Historian
Latin Syntax
Latin Syntax
At least 30 units of CLASSGRK courses at the 100-level or higher. It is recommended that this include CLASSGRK 175A,B, although this series should not be taken until completion of three years of Greek. 130
Intermediate Greek: Prose
Intermediate Greek: Greek Erotic Poetry and Prose
Intermediate Greek: Homer's Iliad
Advanced Greek: Euripides' Medea
Advanced Greek: Attic Oratory
Advanced Greek: Scientific Writing
Greek Syntax: Prose Composition
Greek Syntax: Prose Composition
Recommended additional coursework in Biblical Greek, Sanskrit or ancient history
First-Year Sanskrit, First Quarter
First-Year Sanskrit, Second Quarter
Biblical Greek
The Romans
The Greeks
Total Units:60

1

Language courses may be repeated for credit towards the degree only with advance written permission from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.


 

F. Philosophy and Literature Focus:

Students who wish to add a Philosophy and Literature focus to the Classical Studies, Greek, Latin, or Greek and Latin majors should also take the courses listed below:

Units
PHIL 81Philosophy and Literature4-5
PHIL 80Mind, Matter, and Meaning5
One course in each of the following areas:
1. aesthetics, ethics, and social and political philosophy3-5
Ethical Theory
Trust and Trustworthiness
2. philosophy of language, mind, metaphysics, and epistemology3-5
Metaphysics
Realism, Anti-Realism, Irrealism, Quasi-Realism
3. history of philosophy (course with prefix PHIL at the 100-level or above)3-5
Two related courses in Classics or Philosophy. Students may double count a Classics course in Philosophy or ancient science for one of the two related courses provided that this course fulfills the Philosophy and Literature requirements and is approved by a member of the committee in Philosophy and Literature.6-10
One capstone seminar3-5
Borges and Philosophy
Metaphor

Honors Program

A minimum grade point average (GPA) of 3.6 within the major is required for students to enroll in the honors program. To be considered for honors in Classics, the student must select a professor who can supervise his or her honors thesis. A preliminary proposal, approved by the supervisor, is due April 15 of the junior year, and a final version is due at the beginning of the senior year. The proposal must outline the project in detail, list relevant courses that have been taken, and name the supervisor. The department gives approval only if a suitable faculty supervisor is available and if it is satisfied that the student has a sufficient basis of knowledge derived from department course work in the general areas the thesis covers, such as art, Greek, Latin, history, literature, or philosophy. If the proposal is approved, the student may sign up for CLASSGEN 199 Undergraduate Thesis: Senior Research, during the senior year for a maximum of 6 units per term, up to an overall total of 10 units. These units may be counted towards fulfillment of the student’s majors requirements if relevant. Honors are awarded only if the essay receives a grade of ‘B+’ or higher from the supervisor and a second reader, who is chosen by the department. In addition, students must graduate with a GPA of 3.6 or higher within the major to receive honors.

Study Abroad

Classics students may travel for several reasons: to complete accredited coursework (typically language courses or history surveys) for transfer towards the degree, to participate in archaeological digs of ancient sites, and to perform independent travel-research related to an honors project or independent study.  Students considering academic programs sponsored by other institutions are encouraged to review Stanford's policies on transfer credit and to discuss possible programs with the Director of Undergraduate Studies before applying.  Students seeking archaeological dig experience should inquire for opportunities through the Classics Department and through the Stanford Archaeology Center (http://archaeology.stanford.edu).  Students who would like to construct an independent travel-research project should discuss their goals and itinerary with the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

While Classics-specific coursework is not always available through the Bing Overseas Program, students sometimes find Classics faculty at Bing campuses who are willing to provide independent instruction for credit.  Pre-approval of courses and independent study syllabi by the Director of Undergraduate Studies is required for credit towards the major or minor.

Some departmental funding is available for summer language programs in the United States, and departmental funds are also available for travel and study in the Mediterranean.  (Students who wish to travel elsewhere are encouraged to apply for funding from the UAR.)  After discussing their plans with the Director of Undergraduate Study, applicants submit a departmental research grant application that includes expenses, a statement of purpose, and an endorsement by the student's faculty adviser. Food expenses are not normally reimbursed. Limited funding is available each year; preference is shown to majors and students with strong records.

Minor in Classics

The undergraduate director meets with each student who opts for the minor to discuss curriculum choices and assigns the student an adviser in the relevant field. Students are required to work closely with their advisers to create a cohesive curriculum within each area. Students who minor in Classics are required to take CLASSGEN 176 Majors Seminar, which is writing intensive. Completion of the minor a minimum of 20 units.

Students may choose among four fields of study for the minor in Classics:

  • Classical Languages
  • Ancient History
  • Literature and Philosophy
  • Classical Studies

These fields of study are declared on Axess; they do not appear on the transcript or the diploma.

I. Classical Languages

Students are required to take a minimum of five courses in Greek or in Latin. In addition to the five required courses, students must take CLASSGEN 176 Majors Seminar. Students wishing to combine Greek and Latin may only do so if courses for one of the two languages are all above the 100 level; for example:

Units
Available courses this year:
CLASSGRK 1Beginning Greek5
CLASSGRK 2Beginning Greek5
CLASSGRK 3Beginning Greek5
CLASSGRK 101Intermediate Greek: Prose3-5
CLASSGRK 102Intermediate Greek: Greek Erotic Poetry and Prose4-5
CLASSGRK 103Intermediate Greek: Homer's Iliad3-5
CLASSGRK 111Advanced Greek: Euripides' Medea3-5
CLASSGRK 112Advanced Greek: Attic Oratory3-5
CLASSGRK 113Advanced Greek: Scientific Writing3-5
CLASSLAT 1Beginning Latin: Vocabulary and Syntax5
CLASSLAT 2Beginning Latin5
CLASSLAT 3Beginning Latin5
CLASSLAT 101Intermediate Latin: Introduction to Literature3-5
CLASSLAT 102Intermediate Latin: Ovid and Apuleius3-5
CLASSLAT 103Intermediate Latin: Vergil and Caesar3-5
CLASSLAT 111Advanced Latin: Livy3-5
CLASSLAT 112Advanced Latin: Seneca3-5
CLASSLAT 113Advanced Latin: Tacitus, Rome's Greatest Historian3-5

II. Ancient History

Students are required to take a minimum of five courses in history, art history, and archaeology with the prefix CLASSHIS or CLASSART. Courses taken outside of the department may be substituted for one or more of these courses with prior, written approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies. In addition to the five required courses, students must take CLASSGEN 176 Majors Seminar. Courses offered in Latin and Greek that focus on historical topics or authors may count toward this minor with prior, written approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies. Students may count up to 4 units of IHUM 69A towards the breadth requirement; note that IHUM courses are no longer offered.

Units
Available courses this year:
CLASSART 21QEight Great Archaeological Sites in Europe3-5
CLASSART 42Pompeii3-5
CLASSART 101Archaic Greek Art4
CLASSART 102Empire and Aftermath: Greek Art from the Parthenon to Praxiteles4
CLASSART 105The Body in Roman Art4-5
CLASSART 106Byzantine Art and Architecture, 300-1453 C.E.4
CLASSART 109Greek Art In and Out of Context4-5
CLASSART 110Appropriations of Greek Art4-5
CLASSART 113Ten Things: An Archaeology of Design3-5
CLASSART 115Art & Architecture in the Medieval Mediterranean4
CLASSART 117Architecture & Power: Engineering the Roman Empire3
CLASSART 139Art and Religious Experience in Byzantium and Islam5
CLASSART 143Classical Archaeology Today: Ethical Issues of Excavation, Ownership, and Display3
CLASSART 145Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: Maritime Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean3
CLASSHIS 24NThe Roman Empire: Its Grandeur and Fall4
CLASSHIS 60The Romans3-5
CLASSHIS 101The Greeks4-5
CLASSHIS 105The Egyptians3-5
CLASSHIS 114Economy and Economics of Ancient Greece5
CLASSHIS 117Origins of History in Greece and Rome4-5
CLASSHIS 133Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought4-5

III. Literature and Philosophy

Students are required to take a minimum of five courses in classical literature or philosophy, including classical science, with the prefix CLASSGEN. Courses taken outside of the department (for instance, from the Philosophy department) may be substituted for one or more of these courses with prior, written approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies. In addition to the five required courses, students must take CLASSGEN 176 Majors Seminar. Courses offered in Latin and Greek that focus on philosophical or literary topics or authors may count toward the minor.

Units
Available courses this year:
CLASSGEN 24NSappho: Erotic Poetess of Lesbos4-5
CLASSGEN 81Philosophy and Literature5
CLASSGEN 116Ecology in Philosophy and Literature3-5
CLASSGEN 139Ancient Medicine3-4

IV. Classical Studies

Students are required to take a minimum of five courses in Classics (CLASSART, CLASSGEN, CLASSGRK, CLASSHIS, CLASSLAT) plus CLASSGEN 176 Majors Seminar. Students may count up to 4 units of THINK 10, THINK 16, THINK 35 (no longer offered), IHUM 39A, IHUM 69A, or SLE towards the breadth requirement; note that IHUM courses are no longer offered.

Master of Arts in Classics

University requirements for the master’s degree are described in the “Graduate Degrees” section of this bulletin.

I and II. Language and Literature, and Philosophy Fields of Study

Students who have completed an undergraduate major in Classics (Greek, Latin, or Greek and Latin fields of study) or equivalent may be accepted as candidates for the M.A. degree in Classics and may expect to complete the program in twelve months (usually three quarters of course work plus three months study for the thesis or examination). Students with an undergraduate major in Classics (Ancient History or Classical Studies fields of study) or without an undergraduate major in Classics may also be accepted as candidates, though they may require a longer period of study before completing the requirements for the degree. These requirements are:

  1. Attaining a standard of scholarship such as would be reached by three quarters of study in the department after fulfilling the requirements for an undergraduate major in the department. Normally, this means completing at least 25 units of graduate courses and 20 units of work at the 100 level or higher.
  2. Completion of one Greek language course at the 100 level (if the undergraduate major field of study was Latin) or one Latin language course at the 100 level (if the undergraduate major field of study was Greek). This requirement is waived for students with an undergraduate major in Classics (Greek and Latin field of study).
  3. Passing an examination testing the candidate’s ability to translate into English from a selected list of Greek and/or Latin authors.
  4. Completion of the syntax sequence in at least one language (CLASSLAT 175A/CLASSLAT 175B or CLASSGRK 175A/CLASSGRK 175B)
  5. Writing a thesis, or passing of an examination on a particular author or topic, or having written work accepted by the graduate committee as an equivalent. Three completed and satisfactory seminar papers are normally an acceptable equivalent.
  6. A reading examination in French or German. Opportunities to take these exams are given at the beginning of each quarter.
  7. Completion and approval of a Program Proposal for a Master’s Degree form during the first quarter of enrollment, at least five days prior to the Final Study List deadline.

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics may also, on the recommendation of the department, become candidates for the M.A. degree. In this case, requirement 5 above is waived provided that the student has completed some work beyond the course requirements listed under requirements 1 and 2 above. Current Stanford graduate students in other degree programs may be considered for the M.A. degree, but must be admitted into the program and must complete all requirements listed above.

III. Classical Archaeology

Students who have completed an undergraduate major in Classics with a Classical Archaeology field of study, or in a closely related field, may be accepted as candidates for the M.A. degree in Classics with a Classical Archaeology field of study, and may expect to complete the program in twelve months (usually three quarters of course work plus three months study for the thesis or examination). Students without an undergraduate major in Classics with a Classical Archaeology field of study may also be accepted as candidates, though they may require a longer period of study before completing the requirements for the degree. These requirements are:

  1. Attaining a standard of scholarship such as would be reached by three quarters of study in the department after fulfilling the requirements for an undergraduate major in the department. Normally, this means completing at least 25 units of graduate courses and 20 additional units of work at the 100 level or higher.
  2. Completion with a grade of ‘B’ or higher of at least 15 units of graduate-level courses in classical archaeology, not including CLASSART 302: Classical Archaeology (see 3).
  3. Passing an examination designed to test the candidate’s ability to translate into English from either ancient Greek or Latin.
  4. Completion with a grade of ‘B’ or higher of CLASSART 302, Classical Archaeology, or an equivalent course on the history of thought in classical archaeology approved by the Classics department’s graduate committee.
  5. Writing a thesis, or passing an exam on a particular topic, or having written work accepted by the graduate committee as an equivalent. Three completed and satisfactory seminar papers are normally an acceptable equivalent.
  6. Passing a reading examination in French, German, or Italian. Opportunities to take these exams are given at the beginning of each quarter.
  7. Completion and approval of a Program Proposal for a Master’s Degree form during the first quarter of enrollment, at least five days prior to the Final Study List deadline.

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree may also, on the recommendation of the department, become candidates for the M.A. degree. In their case, requirement 5 above is waived provided that the student has completed some work beyond the course requirements listed under requirements 1 and 2 above. Current Stanford graduate students in other degree programs may be considered for the M.A. degree, but must be admitted into the program and must complete all requirements listed above.

IV. Ancient History

Students who have completed an undergraduate major in Classics with an Ancient History field of study, or in a closely related field may be accepted as candidates for the M.A. degree in Classics with an Ancient History field of study, and may expect to complete the program in twelve months (usually three quarters of course work plus three months study for the thesis or examination). Students without an undergraduate major in Classics with an Ancient History field of study may also be accepted as candidates, though they may require a longer period of study before completing the requirements for the degree. These requirements are:

  1. Attaining a standard of scholarship such as would be reached by three quarters of study in the department after fulfilling the requirements for an undergraduate major in the department. Normally, this means completing 30 units of graduate courses and 15 additional units of work at the 100 level or higher.
  2. Satisfactory completion of 20 units of graduate-level courses in Classics and of 10 units of graduate-level courses in other programs.
  3. Satisfactory completion of 15 additional units of courses in either ancient Greek or Latin.
  4. Writing a thesis, or passing an exam on a particular topic, or having written work accepted by the Graduate Committee as an equivalent. Three completed and satisfactory seminar papers are normally an acceptable equivalent.
  5. Passing a reading examination in French, German, or Italian. Opportunities to take these exams are given at the beginning of each quarter.
  6. Completion and approval of a Program Proposal for a Master’s Degree form  during the first quarter of enrollment, at least five days prior to the Final Study List deadline.

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree may also (on the recommendation of the department) become candidates for the M.A. degree. In their case, requirement 4 above is waived provided that they have completed some work beyond the course requirements listed under requirements 1 and 2 above. Current Stanford graduate students in other degree programs may be considered for the M.A. degree, but must be admitted into the program and must complete all requirements listed above.

Coterminal Bachelor's and Master's Degree in Classics

Stanford students in any undergraduate major who are interested in graduate work in Classics may apply for Stanford's coterminal master's program. Students considering a co-term are encouraged to consult with the Director of Undergraduate Studies and/or the department's student services officer about their plans before filing an application. No courses used to satisfy the undergraduate requirements (either as General Education Requirements or department requirements) may be applied toward the M.A. No courses taken more than two quarters prior to the first quarter of the master's program may be applied toward the M.A. Applicants must have a minimum GPA of 3.7 in the major, and no Incomplete grades on record. Undergraduate course work in Greek and Latin and one of the required modern languages is normally a prerequisite for graduate-level work.

To apply, students submit the Application for Admission to Coterminal Master's Program form, two letters of recommendation from Classics faculty, a sealed, official copy of their undergraduate transcript, a 1-3 page statement of purpose and a 10-15 page writing sample to the student services officer. GRE scores are not required. Applications are due in early January of your intended graduation year for your undergraduate degree; please see the departmental website for the specific deadline.

University requirements for the coterminal M.A. are described in the "Coterminal Bachelor's and Master's Degrees" section of this bulletin. For University coterminal degree program rules and University application forms, see the Stanford Undergrad Coterm Guide.

Doctor of Philosophy in Classics

University requirements for the Ph.D. are described in the “Graduate Degrees” section of this bulletin. There are four specializations within the Classics Ph.D. program: language and literature; classical archaeology; ancient history; and ancient philosophy.

I. Language and Literature

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics with specialization in language and literature must fulfill the following requirements:

  1. Complete 135 units of academic credit or equivalent in study beyond the bachelor’s degree no later than the end of the fourth year. These must include the following courses:
    Units
    CLASSGEN 207ASurvey of Greek and Latin Literature: Literature of the Roman Republic3-5
    CLASSGEN 207BSurvey of Greek and Latin Literature: Augustan Age Latin3-5
    CLASSGEN 207CSurvey of Greek and Latin Literature: Imperial Latin4-5
    CLASSGEN 208ASurvey of Greek and Latin Literature: Archaic Greek3-5
    CLASSGEN 208BSurvey of Greek and Latin Literature: Classical Greek3-5
    CLASSGEN 208CSurvey of Greek and Latin Literature: Hellenistic and Late Greek3-5
    CLASSGRK 275AGreek Syntax: Prose Composition (begins halfway through Win Qtr)2
    CLASSGRK 275BGreek Syntax: Prose Composition5
    CLASSLAT 275ALatin Syntax5
    CLASSLAT 275BLatin Syntax (ends halfway through Win Qtr)2
    CLASSGEN 205AThe Semantics of Grammar2
    CLASSGEN 205BThe Semantics of Grammar2
    Plus twelve graduate seminars, nine of which must be Classics seminars, and one of the remaining three of which must be outside the department. The other two seminars may be in Classics, from other departments (with the graduate director’s approval), and/or directed readings. 1,236-60

    1

    No more than two directed readings may be counted towards this requirement.

    2

    Classics seminars are sometimes offered for a spread of units (3, 4 or 5).  In some cases, instructors allow a student to complete a seminar for less units without requiring a written paper but with completion of all other requirements.

  2. Maintain satisfactory progress throughout the degree program.  The Classics department sets a higher standard for satisfactory progress than the University minimum requirements.  To maintain that standard, students are expected to:
    • Maintain good grades (within the Classics department, this normally means grades in the A range; an accumulation of grades of B+ or lower may indicate problems).
    • pass all required exams by the required deadlines
    • write a minimum of three seminar papers per year in the first three years
    • demonstrate high quality research and writing
    • take no more than one incomplete grade at a time (unless given special permission by the Director of Graduate Studies)
    • take incomplete grades only occassionally and finish any incompletes in a timely manner
    • demonstrate effective teaching when serving as a Teaching Assistant or Teaching Fellow
  3. Students must apply and be approved to advance to candidacy by the end of Summer Quarter of their second year.
  4. Examinations:
    • As soon as students arrive, they must take diagnostic exams in Greek and Latin. Depending on performance, students may be required to enroll in undergraduate language classes in that language to improve their skills to the level required for graduate work.
    • Students must take Greek and Latin translation exams at the end of each survey sequence (the end of the first and second years). Students are exempted from the final exam in Spring Quarter Survey in order to prepare for these translations exams. These exams are based on the Greek and Latin reading lists available on the Classics Department web site. Greek and Latin survey courses cover less than half of the material on which the translation exams test, and students need to prepare much of the work on their own. It is possible to take both exams in the first year if the student chooses. However, the student cannot choose to delay the first year exam to take both in the second year. The exam consists of a choice of six of eight passages, and students are allowed three hours. A grade of ‘B-’ or higher, on every passage, is required to pass. If a student does not attain a ‘B-’, the exam must be retaken and passed later in the summer before registering for the Autumn Quarter, in order to continue in the program. In order to retake an exam during Summer Quarter, a student must be registered at Stanford at his or her own expense; the department does not cover tuition in these instances. The exam can only be retaken once.
    • Students must pass modern language translation exams in both German and French; Italian or modern Greek may be substituted in place of French, with consent of the graduate director. Students arrange with the student services officer to take the exam. One modern language exam must be passed by the end of the second year, the other by the end of the third year. These examinations are administered once each quarter. A grade of B- or higher is required to pass.
    • At the beginning of Autumn Quarter of the third year, students must take general examinations in Greek literature and Latin literature, and choose two more exams from the following fields: Ancient Philosophy, Greek history, Roman history, Greek archaeology and Roman archaeology. Students must select the remaining two fields in consultation with the graduate director no later than June of the second year of graduate study. Candidates must have taken at least one course at Stanford in each of the chosen fields (in the case of ancient philosophy, a seminar or its equivalent); students need to confer with the professor overseeing the exam. General examinations are administered during the first two to three weeks of Autumn Quarter.
    • The University oral examination, which is a defense of the candidate’s dissertation. In order to take this exam, a significant portion of the dissertation must be completed and approved by the dissertation adviser(s), the exam committee must have been established and approved by the Chair, and a date and time must have been arranged with the department.  The exam consists of a public presentation with question and answer period (no longer than an hour), followed by a private examination between the student and the exam committee (also no longer than an hour).
  5. The graduate director assigns a dissertation proposal director to each candidate who has passed the general examination. During the third year, the candidate, in consultation with the dissertation proposal director, prepares a dissertation proposal which is examined by the dissertation proposal defense committee (set up by the dissertation proposal director and consisting of the dissertation proposal director and two other faculty members, one of whom may be from outside the department), no later than the end of the first quarter of the fourth year. If the proposal is deemed unsatisfactory, this proposal examination is repeated in the following quarter and must be passed. Subsequently, each candidate, in consultation with the graduate director and the dissertation proposal director, selects a dissertation director who must be a member of the Academic Council. The candidate, the dissertation director, and the graduate committee collaborate to select an appropriate dissertation reading committee. Two of the three members of the reading committee, including the chair, must be members of the Academic Council.
  6.  Students are required to undertake the equivalent of four one-quarter courses of teaching under department supervision. This teaching requirement is normally completed during the second and third years of study. Summer teaching does not satisfy this requirement.

II. Classical Archaeology

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics with a specialization in classical archaeology must fulfill the requirements following below.

Students are encouraged to enroll in or audit other undergraduate courses that may fill gaps in their undergraduate training. All students are expected to take part in archaeological fieldwork in the classical world areas. At least three consecutive quarters of course work must be taken at Stanford.

  1. Complete 135 units of academic credit or equivalent in study beyond the bachelor’s degree at the end of the candidate’s fourth year, including:
  2. Units
    CLASSGEN 241Words and Things in the History of Classical Scholarship 14-5
    At least three graduate (200 or 300) level courses in Latin and/or Greek literature 2,39-15
    Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Literature of the Roman Republic
    Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Augustan Age Latin
    Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Imperial Latin
    Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Archaic Greek
    Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Classical Greek
    Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Hellenistic and Late Greek
    The interdepartmental graduate core sequence in archaeology. The Archaeology Center announces the courses which fulfill this requirement. The core sequence currently comprises a seminar in archaeology theory and a course on archaeological methods.
    Introduction to Archaeological Theory
    Archaeological Methods
    At least one further course outside the Classics department. 23-5
    At least five graduate seminars in classical archaeology. Suggested courses: 215-25
    Archaic Greek Art
    Ten Things: An Archaeology of Design
    At least three graduate seminars in ancient history. Suggested courses: 29-15
    Early Empires: Han and Rome

    1

    Must be take as early as possible in the candidate's Stanford career.

    2

    Students may petition to count independent study courses in place of up to two required courses, but no more.

    3

    Students who enter the program with only one ancient language at the level needed for graduate study are strongly encouraged to take additional course work to reach graduate (200 and above) level in another language.

  3. Maintain satisfactory progress throughout the degree program.  The Classics department sets a higher standard for satisfactory progress than the University minimum requirements.  To maintain that standard, students are expected to:
    • Maintain good grades (within the Classics department, this normally means grades in the A range; an accumulation of grades of B+ or lower may indicate problems).
    • pass all required exams by the required deadlines
    • write a minimum of three seminar papers per year in the first three years
    • demonstrate high quality research and writing
    • take no more than one incomplete grade at a time (unless given special permission by the Director of Graduate Studies)
    • take incomplete grades only occassionally and finish any incompletes in a timely manner
    • demonstrate effective teaching when serving as a Teaching Assistant or Teaching Fellow
  4. Students must apply and be approved to advance to candidacy by the end of Summer Quarter of their second year.
  5. Examinations:
    • As soon as students arrive, they must take diagnostic exams in Greek and Latin. Depending on performance, students may be required to enroll in undergraduate language classes in that language to improve their skills to the level required for graduate work.
    • Reading examinations in two of the following languages: French, German, Italian, and modern Greek. Candidates may petition to substitute a different modern language for one of these, if their area of specialization requires it. One modern language exam must be passed by the end of the second year, the other by the end of the third year. These examinations are administered once each quarter. A grade of B- or higher is required to pass.
    • Students must demonstrate graduate-level competency with an ancient language in one of two ways:
      1. Option 1: A translation examination from Latin or Greek into English. This examination must be taken either at the end of the first year or at the end of the second year. A grade of ‘B-’ or higher on every passage is required to pass. If a student does not meet that standard, the exam must be retaken and passed later in the summer before registering for Autumn Quarter, in order to continue in the program. In order to retake an exam during Summer Quarter, a student must be registered at Stanford at his or her own expense; the department does not cover tuition in these instances. The exam can only be retaken once.
      2. Option 2: Students must complete the course and take the final offered at the end of each quarter of Greek or Latin survey. Students must earn a 'B-' or higher on each final to pass.
    • At the beginning of Autumn Quarter of the third year, students must take general examinations in Greek archaeology and Roman archaeology, and choose two more exams from the following fields: Ancient Philosophy, Greek history, Roman history, Greek literature and Latin literature. Students must select the remaining two fields in consultation with the graduate director no later than June of the second year of graduate study. Candidates must have taken at least one course at Stanford in each of the chosen fields (in the case of ancient philosophy, a seminar or its equivalent); students need to confer with the professor overseeing the exam. General examinations are administered during the first two to three weeks of Autumn Quarter.
    • The University oral examination, which is a defense of the candidate’s dissertation. In order to take this exam, a significant portion of the dissertation must be completed and approved by the dissertation adviser(s), the exam committee must have been established and approved by the Chair, and a date and time must have been arranged with the department.  The exam consists of a public presentation with question and answer period (no longer than an hour), followed by a private examination between the student and the exam committee (also no longer than an hour).
  6. The graduate director assigns a dissertation proposal director to each candidate who has passed the general examination. During the third year, the candidate, in consultation with the dissertation proposal director, prepares a dissertation proposal which is examined by the dissertation proposal defense committee (set up by the dissertation proposal director and consisting of the dissertation proposal director and two other faculty members, one of whom may be from outside the department), no later than the end of the first quarter of the fourth year. If the proposal is deemed unsatisfactory, this proposal examination is repeated in the following quarter and must be passed. Subsequently, each candidate, in consultation with the graduate director and the dissertation proposal director, selects a dissertation director who must be a member of the Academic Council. The candidate, the dissertation director, and the graduate committee collaborate to select an appropriate dissertation reading committee. Two of the three members of the reading committee, including the chair, must be members of the Academic Council.
  7. Students are required to undertake the equivalent of four one quarter courses of teaching under department supervision. This teaching requirement is normally completed during the second and third years of study. Summer teaching does not satisfy this requirement.

III. Ancient History

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics with specialization in ancient history must fulfill the following requirements:

  1. Complete 135 units of academic credit or equivalent in study beyond the bachelor’s degree at the end of the fourth year. These must include:
  2. Units
    HISTORY 304Approaches to History4-5
    Two proseminars. These introduce students to primary sources of evidence for ancient history that require special training: papyrology, epigraphy, paleography, numismatics, and archaeology. 1, 28-10
    Three skills courses relevant to the individual student’s chosen research approach. For example, a student could take classes in economics, demography, legal history, or anthropology. Courses can also be used to learn other ancient or modern languages, either by course work or directed reading. 19-15
    Ten graduate seminars (200-level or above). At least five of these seminars must be taken in the department. 2,330-50

    1

    Students must consult their advisers and the graduate director to determine the appropriate coursework.

    2

    With the approval of their advisers and graduate director, students may take seminars outside of the department or at another university with which Stanford has an exchange agreement to fulfill this requirement.

    3

    Two of these seminars may be replaced by directed readings with adviser and graduate director approval.

  3. The range and sequence of other courses to be taken depend on which of the following two options the student selects within the Ancient History track.
    1. Option 1: Students focus more on one ancient language by completing the following courses:
    2. Units
      CLASSGEN 205AThe Semantics of Grammar2
      CLASSGEN 205BThe Semantics of Grammar2
      Take 15 units of one ancient language series, and 5 units of the alternate series:20
      Latin Series
      Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Literature of the Roman Republic
      Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Augustan Age Latin
      Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Imperial Latin
      Greek Series
      Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Archaic Greek
      Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Classical Greek
      Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Hellenistic and Late Greek
      Select a syntax series that coincides with your 15-unit ancient language survey:7
      Latin Syntax
      Latin Syntax
      Latin Syntax
      Greek Syntax
      Greek Syntax: Prose Composition
      Greek Syntax: Prose Composition
    3. Option 2: Students emphasize broader linguistic skills. This requires students to take both ancient language surveys:
    4. Units
      CLASSGEN 207ASurvey of Greek and Latin Literature: Literature of the Roman Republic5
      CLASSGEN 207BSurvey of Greek and Latin Literature: Augustan Age Latin5
      CLASSGEN 207CSurvey of Greek and Latin Literature: Imperial Latin5
      CLASSGEN 208ASurvey of Greek and Latin Literature: Archaic Greek5
      CLASSGEN 208BSurvey of Greek and Latin Literature: Classical Greek5
      CLASSGEN 208CSurvey of Greek and Latin Literature: Hellenistic and Late Greek5
  4. Maintain satisfactory progress throughout the degree program.  The Classics department sets a higher standard for satisfactory progress than the University minimum requirements.  To maintain that standard, students are expected to:
    • Maintain good grades (within the Classics department, this normally means grades in the A range; an accumulation of grades of B+ or lower may indicate problems).
    • pass all required exams by the required deadlines
    • write a minimum of three seminar papers per year in the first three years
    • demonstrate high quality research and writing
    • take no more than one incomplete grade at a time (unless given special permission by the Director of Graduate Studies)
    • take incomplete grades only occassionally and finish any incompletes in a timely manner
    • demonstrate effective teaching when serving as a Teaching Assistant or Teaching Fellow
  5. Students must apply and be approved to advance to candidacy by the end of Summer Quarter of their second year.
  6. Examinations:
    • As soon as students arrive, they must take diagnostic exams in Greek and Latin, as well as Greek and Roman history. Depending on performance, students may be required to enroll in undergraduate language classes in that language to improve their skills to the level required for graduate work. The history exams are mainly on narrative history, especially important names, dates, and events. Depending on performance, students may be asked to sit in on the undergraduate history courses and take directed reading or a graduate survey if offered.
    • Students must take the final offered at the end of each quarter of Greek or Latin survey (for Option 1 above) or both Greek and Latin surveys (for Option 2 above). Students must earn a ‘B-’ or higher on each final to pass.
    • Students must pass modern language translation exams in both German and French; Italian or modern Greek may be substituted in place of French with consent of the graduate director. One modern language exam must be passed by the end of the second year, the other by the end of the third year. These examinations are administered once each quarter.
    • At the beginning of Autumn Quarter of the third year, students must take general examinations in Greek history and Roman history, and choose two more exams from the following fields: Ancient Philosophy, Greek literature, Latin literature, Greek archaeology and Roman archaeology. Students must select the remaining two fields in consultation with the graduate director no later than June of the second year of graduate study. Candidates must have taken at least one course at Stanford in each of the chosen fields (in the case of ancient philosophy, a seminar or its equivalent); students need to confer with the professor overseeing the exam. General examinations are administered during the first two to three weeks of Autumn Quarter. In preparing for the general examinations, candidates are expected to make full use of relevant secondary material in modern languages. They should therefore plan to satisfy the requirements in French and German as soon as possible, preferably before the translation examinations.
    • The University oral examination, which is a defense of the candidate’s dissertation. In order to take this exam, a significant portion of the dissertation must be completed and approved by the dissertation adviser(s), the exam committee must have been established and approved by the Chair, and a date and time must have been arranged with the department.  The exam consists of a public presentation with question and answer period (no longer than an hour), followed by a private examination between the student and the exam committee (also no longer than an hour).
  7. The graduate director assigns a dissertation proposal director to each candidate who has passed the general examination. During the third year, the candidate, in consultation with the dissertation proposal director, prepares a dissertation proposal which is examined by the dissertation proposal defense committee (set up by the dissertation proposal director and consisting of the dissertation proposal director and two other faculty members, one of whom may be from outside the department), no later than the end of the first quarter of the fourth year. If the proposal is deemed unsatisfactory, this proposal examination is repeated in the following quarter and must be passed. Subsequently, each candidate, in consultation with the graduate director and the dissertation proposal director, selects a dissertation director who must be a member of the Academic Council. The candidate, the dissertation director, and the graduate committee collaborate to select an appropriate dissertation reading committee. Two of the three members of the reading committee, including the chair, must be members of the Academic Council.
  8. Candidates are required to undertake the equivalent of four one quarter courses of teaching under department supervision. This teaching requirement is normally completed during the second and third years of study. Summer teaching does not satisfy this requirement.

IV. Joint Program in Ancient Philosophy

This specialization is jointly administered by the departments of Classics and Philosophy and is overseen by a joint committee composed of members of both departments. It provides students with the training, specialist skills, and knowledge needed for research and teaching in ancient philosophy while producing scholars who are fully trained as either philosophers or classicists.

Graduate students admitted by the Classics department receive their Ph.D. from the Classics department. This specialization includes training in ancient and modern philosophy. Each student in the program is advised by a committee consisting of one professor from each department.

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics with specialization in ancient philosophy must fulfill the following requirements:

  1. Complete 135 units of academic credit or equivalent in study beyond the bachelor’s degree at the end of the fourth year. This includes all the requirements listed for the language and literature specialization in the graduate program in Classics (see above).  Students must also take the below courses focusing on philosophy.  All courses taken in the Philosophy department count for seminar credit (i.e., as contributing to the 12-seminar requirement in the Language and Literature track in the Classics department).
  2. Units
    Students must take three courses in the Philosophy department 19-15
    One course in logic which can be fulfilled at the 100-level or higher
    One course in aesthetics, ethics, or political philosophy (200-level or higher)
    One course in metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, or philosophy of science.
    At least three courses in ancient philosophy at the 200 level or above, one of which must be in the Philosophy department. 19-15
  3. Examinations: The requirements are the same as those listed in the language and literature specialization, except that one of the four areas of general examination must be taken in ancient philosophy in addition to the exams in Greek literature and Latin literature.
  4. Dissertation Proposal: The requirements are the same as those listed in the language and literature specialization.
  5. Teaching: The requirements are the same as those listed in the language and literature specialization.

Classics and a Minor Field

The Ph.D. in Classics may be combined with a minor in another field, such as anthropology, history, humanities, or classical linguistics. Requirements for the minor field vary, but can include about six graduate-level courses in the field and one written examination, plus a portion of the University oral exam (dissertation defense). Students must consult with the department in which the minor is offered for exact requirements. Students who pursure this are expected to take five years. The department encourages such programs for especially able and well prepared students. See the department Graduate Handbook for more information. The following timetable would be typical for a five-year program:

  • First Year: course work, almost entirely in Classics. One translation exam taken in June. One or both modern language exams taken.
  • Second Year: course work, both in Classics and the minor field. Second translation exam completed. French and German exams completed.
  • Third Year: course work, both in Classics and the minor field. General examinations in Classics.
  • Fourth Year: remaining course work, both in Classics and the minor field. General examination in the minor field. Preparation for dissertation.
  • Fifth Year: dissertation, University oral examination.

Ph.D. Minor in Classics

For a graduate minor, the department recommends at least 20 units in Latin or Greek at the 100 level or above, and at least one course at the graduate (200) level.  Students interested in this minor must discuss their proposed course plan with the Director of Graduate Studies as well as their Ph.D. department before obtaining Classics department approval.

Emeriti: (Professors) Mark W. Edwards, Marsh H. McCall, Jr.,* Susan Treggiari, Michael Wigodsky

Chair: Walter Scheidel

Graduate Director: Grant Parker

Undergraduate Director: Giovanna Ceserani

Professors: Alessandro Barchiesi (on leave), Andrew M. Devine, Richard P. Martin, Ian Morris (Classics, History; on leave), Reviel Netz, Andrea Nightingale, Josiah Ober (Classics, Political Science; on leave), Anastasia-Erasmia Peponi, M. Rush Rehm (Classics, Drama), Richard Saller (Classics, History), Walter Scheidel (Classics, History), Michael Shanks, Susan A. Stephens

Associate Professors: Giovanna Ceserani, Christopher B. Krebs, Jody Maxmin (Art and Art History, Classics), Grant Parker, Jennifer Trimble

Assistant Professor: Justin Leidwanger

Courtesy Professors: Chris Bobonich (Philosophy), Alan Code (Philosophy), Charlotte Fonrobert (Religious Studies), Ian Hodder (Anthropology), Bissera Pentcheva (Art and Art History), Steven P. Weitzman (Religious Studies), Caroline Winterer (History), Yiqun Zhou (East Asian Languages and Cultures)

Visiting Professor: Anne Kolb

Lecturers: Maud Gleason, John Klopacz, Peter O'Connell

* Recalled to active duty.

Classics Art/Archaeology Courses

CLASSART 21Q. Eight Great Archaeological Sites in Europe. 3-5 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Focus is on excavation, features and finds, arguments over interpretation, and the place of each site in understanding the archaeological history of Europe. Goal is to introduce the latest archaeological and anthropological thought, and raise key questions about ancient society. The archaeological perspective foregrounds interdisciplinary study: geophysics articulated with art history, source criticism with analytic modeling, statistics interpretation. A web site with resources about each site, including plans, photographs, video, and publications, is the basis for exploring.

CLASSART 42. Pompeii. 3-5 Units.

The Roman town of Pompeii, buried by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 C.E., provides information about the art and archaeology of ancient social life, urban technology and production, and ancient spatial patterns and experience. Its fame illustrates modern relationships to the ancient past, from Pompeii's importance on the Grand Tour, to plaster casts of vaporized bodies, to debates about reconstruction, preservation, and archaeological methods.
Same as: ARCHLGY 42.

CLASSART 81. Introduction to Roman Archaeology. 3-5 Units.

Introduction to the archaeology of the ancient Roman empire. From Rome to Pompeii, Masada to Vindolanda, we look at Roman warfare and imperialism, cities and religion, households and everyday life. Key themes include the interactions of social structure with built space and objects. Students will learn to analyze archaeological evidence, evaluate arguments, explore political uses of the ancient past, and draw on material data to built broader insights.
Same as: ARCHLGY 81.

CLASSART 101. Archaic Greek Art. 4 Units.

The development of Greek art and culture from protogeometric beginnings to the Persian Wars, 1000-480 B.C.E. The genesis of a native Greek style; the orientalizing phase during which contact with the Near East and Egypt transformed Greek art; and the synthesis of East and West in the 6th century B.C.E.
Same as: ARTHIST 101, ARTHIST 301, CLASSART 201.

CLASSART 102. Empire and Aftermath: Greek Art from the Parthenon to Praxiteles. 4 Units.

The course explores the art and architecture of the Athenian Empire in the age of Pericles, and then considers the effects of civil war and plague on Greek art and society in the later 5th and early 4th centuries.
Same as: ARTHIST 102, ARTHIST 302.

CLASSART 105. The Body in Roman Art. 4-5 Units.

Ancient and modern ideas about the body as ideal and site of lived experience. Themes include representation, portrayal, power, metamorphosis, and replication. Works that exemplify Roman ideas of heroism and power versus works portraying nude women, erotic youth, preserved corpses, and suffering enemies. Recommended: background in ancient Mediterranean art, archaeology, history, or literature. May be repeated for credit.

CLASSART 106. Byzantine Art and Architecture, 300-1453 C.E.. 4 Units.

This course and its study trip to the Getty (Los Angeles) to view the new Byzantine exhibition explores the art and architecture of the Eastern Mediterranean: Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, Damascus, Thessaloniki, and Palermo, 4th-15th centuries. Applying an innovative approach, we will probe questions of phenomenology and aesthetics, focusing our discussion on the performance and appearance of spaces and objects in the changing diurnal light, in the glitter of mosaics and in the mirror reflection and translucency of marble.
Same as: ARTHIST 106, ARTHIST 306, CLASSART 206.

CLASSART 108. Architecture, Acoustics and Ritual in Byzantium. 1-3 Unit.

Onassis Seminar "Icons of Sound: Architecture, Acoustics and Ritual in Byzantium". This year-long seminar explores the creation and operations of sacred space in Byzantium by focusing on the intersection of architecture, acoustics, music, and ritual. Through the support of the Onassis Foundation (USA), nine leading scholars in the field share their research and conduct the discussion of their pre-circulated papers. The goal is to develop a new interpretive framework for the study of religious experience and assemble the research tools needed for work in this interdisciplinary field.
Same as: ARTHIST 208C, ARTHIST 408C, CLASSART 208, MUSIC 208C, MUSIC 408C, REES 208C, REES 408C, RELIGST 208C, RELIGST 308C.

CLASSART 109. Greek Art In and Out of Context. 4-5 Units.

The cultural contexts in which art served religious, political, commercial, athletic, sympotic, and erotic needs of Greek life.
Same as: ARTHIST 203.

CLASSART 110. Appropriations of Greek Art. 4-5 Units.

Upper division seminar. The history of the appropriation of Greek art by Rome, the Renaissance, Lord Elgin, and Manet. Enrollment limited to 6. Prerequisite: ARTHIST 102 or consent of instructor.

CLASSART 113. Ten Things: An Archaeology of Design. 3-5 Units.

Connections among science, technology, society and culture by examining the design of a prehistoric hand axe, Egyptian pyramid, ancient Greek perfume jar, medieval castle, Wedgewood teapot, Edison's electric light bulb, computer mouse, Sony Walkman, supersonic aircraft, and BMW Mini. Interdisciplinary perspectives include archaeology, cultural anthropology, science studies, history and sociology of technology, cognitive science, and evolutionary psychology.
Same as: CLASSART 213.

CLASSART 115. Art & Architecture in the Medieval Mediterranean. 4 Units.

Chronological survey of Byzantine, Islamic, and Western Medieval art and architecture from the early Christian period to the Gothic age. Broad art-historical developments and more detailed examinations of individual monuments and works of art. Topics include devotional art, court and monastic culture, relics and the cult of saints, pilgrimage and crusades, and the rise of cities and cathedrals.
Same as: ARTHIST 105, ARTHIST 305, CLASSART 215.

CLASSART 117. Architecture & Power: Engineering the Roman Empire. 3-4 Units.

Roman monumental space was designed to impress. This class will explore the interrelated aesthetics and mechanics of construction that led to one of the most extensive building programs undertaken by a pre-modern state. Through case studies ranging from bridges, domes and machines to road networks, hydraulic engineering and landscape modification, we will investigate not only the materials, methods, and knowledge behind Roman architectural innovation, but the communication of imperial messages through aesthetics of space.
Same as: ARCHLGY 118.

CLASSART 118. Hagia Sophia. 5 Units.

By employing a methodology based in psychoacoustics, semiotics, and phenomenology, this course explores the relationship among sound, water, marble, meaning, and religious experience in the sixth-century church of HagianSophia built by emperor Justinian in Constantinople. We will read medieval sources describing the interior and ritual, make short movies exploring the shimmer of marble in buildings on campus, and study the acoustics of domed buildings through computer auralization done at Stanford's CCRMA (Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics)
Same as: ARTHIST 208.

CLASSART 139. Art and Religious Experience in Byzantium and Islam. 5 Units.

This course presents a comparative study of Christian and Islamic paradigms (sixth to the thirteenth centuries) in the construction of religious experience through the material fabric of the building, the interior decor, objects, and rituals. We will read medieval ekphrastic texts and poetry, which stirred the viewer/participant to experience the building/object as animate. Among the sites we will study are: Hagia Sophia, the Ka'ba, the Dome of teh Rock, the Mosque at Damascus and at Cordoba. We will read Byzantine and Arabic writers such as Paul the Silentiary, Patriarch Germanos, Maximus Confessor, Shahrawardi, and Ibn Arabi.
Same as: ARTHIST 209, ARTHIST 309.

CLASSART 143. Classical Archaeology Today: Ethical Issues of Excavation, Ownership, and Display. 3-5 Units.

While Classical archaeology engages with material remains from the Greco-Roman past, it is embedded within and inseparable from contemporary practice. Through an examination of case studies, legal statutes, professional codes, and disciplinary practices, this seminar discusses ethical dilemmas raised by Classical archaeology in the 21st century. We will focus on broad issues ranging from ownership, looting, reconstruction, and collecting to nationalism, religion, tourism, and media, with an eye toward defining ethical ¿best practices¿ for Classical archaeology.
Same as: ARCHLGY 143.

CLASSART 145. Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: Maritime Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean. 3-4 Units.

Why do we care about shipwrecks? What can sunken sites tell us about our past? Focusing primarily on the archaeological record of shipwrecks and harbors, along with literary evidence and contemporary theory, this course examines how and why ancient mariners crossed the ¿wine-dark seas¿ for travel, warfare, pilgrimage, and especially commerce. We will explore interdisciplinary approaches to the development of maritime contacts and communication from the Bronze Age through the Roman era, engaging also with practical techniques of underwater archaeology.
Same as: ARCHLGY 145.

CLASSART 201. Archaic Greek Art. 4 Units.

The development of Greek art and culture from protogeometric beginnings to the Persian Wars, 1000-480 B.C.E. The genesis of a native Greek style; the orientalizing phase during which contact with the Near East and Egypt transformed Greek art; and the synthesis of East and West in the 6th century B.C.E.
Same as: ARTHIST 101, ARTHIST 301, CLASSART 101.

CLASSART 206. Byzantine Art and Architecture, 300-1453 C.E.. 4 Units.

This course and its study trip to the Getty (Los Angeles) to view the new Byzantine exhibition explores the art and architecture of the Eastern Mediterranean: Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, Damascus, Thessaloniki, and Palermo, 4th-15th centuries. Applying an innovative approach, we will probe questions of phenomenology and aesthetics, focusing our discussion on the performance and appearance of spaces and objects in the changing diurnal light, in the glitter of mosaics and in the mirror reflection and translucency of marble.
Same as: ARTHIST 106, ARTHIST 306, CLASSART 106.

CLASSART 208. Architecture, Acoustics and Ritual in Byzantium. 1-3 Unit.

Onassis Seminar "Icons of Sound: Architecture, Acoustics and Ritual in Byzantium". This year-long seminar explores the creation and operations of sacred space in Byzantium by focusing on the intersection of architecture, acoustics, music, and ritual. Through the support of the Onassis Foundation (USA), nine leading scholars in the field share their research and conduct the discussion of their pre-circulated papers. The goal is to develop a new interpretive framework for the study of religious experience and assemble the research tools needed for work in this interdisciplinary field.
Same as: ARTHIST 208C, ARTHIST 408C, CLASSART 108, MUSIC 208C, MUSIC 408C, REES 208C, REES 408C, RELIGST 208C, RELIGST 308C.

CLASSART 213. Ten Things: An Archaeology of Design. 3-5 Units.

Connections among science, technology, society and culture by examining the design of a prehistoric hand axe, Egyptian pyramid, ancient Greek perfume jar, medieval castle, Wedgewood teapot, Edison's electric light bulb, computer mouse, Sony Walkman, supersonic aircraft, and BMW Mini. Interdisciplinary perspectives include archaeology, cultural anthropology, science studies, history and sociology of technology, cognitive science, and evolutionary psychology.
Same as: CLASSART 113.

CLASSART 215. Art & Architecture in the Medieval Mediterranean. 4 Units.

Chronological survey of Byzantine, Islamic, and Western Medieval art and architecture from the early Christian period to the Gothic age. Broad art-historical developments and more detailed examinations of individual monuments and works of art. Topics include devotional art, court and monastic culture, relics and the cult of saints, pilgrimage and crusades, and the rise of cities and cathedrals.
Same as: ARTHIST 105, ARTHIST 305, CLASSART 115.

CLASSART 232. Lost and found: Roman Coinage. 4-5 Units.

New trends in Roman numismatics (from the late Republic to the early Empire, 3rd-c. BCE-1st-c. CE). Archaeology from coins. Barter, money, and coinage. The introduction of coinage in Rome and the provinces. Making money (coin production), using money (monetary, non-monetary and ritual uses), losing money (coin circulation, hoards, single finds): contextual interpretations. Monetary systems: coins from Rome and coins from the provinces. Coinage and identity. False coinage.
Same as: ARCHLGY 142, ARCHLGY 242.

CLASSART 305. Art, Ekphrasis, and Music in Byzantium and Islam. 5 Units.

Focus is on the interrelation of art, architecture, verbal description, poetry, and music, including the singing of psalms and recitation of the Qur'an. How ekphrasis, the style of writing vividly intended to transform the listeners into spectators, structures the perception of and response to artistic production be it an art object, building, or a musical performance. The role of ekphrasis in animating the inanimate and the importance of breath and spirit, which become manifest in visual, acoustic, olfactory, and gustatory terms. Religious and courtly settings: Hagia Sophia, the Great Palace of Constantinople, the Dome of the Rock, the palaces of Baghdad and Samarra, the mosque at Cordoba, Medinat al-Zahra and the Alhambra. Greek and Arabic writers on ekphrasis in translation, juxtaposing the medieval material to the ancient theories of ekphrasis and modern scholarship.
Same as: ARTHIST 405.

CLASSART 311. Animation, Performance, Presence in Medieval Art. 5 Units.

This course will explore concepts of animacy, performance, and presence in the art of Byzantium, focusing on the concept of image understood as the living bodies of the saints, the space of Hagia Sophia and its Eucharist ritual, the polymorphism of the mixed-media icon, and the interaction with these objects in prayer and recitation of epigrams.
Same as: ARTHIST 411.

CLASSART 327. Doing Business in Classical Antiquity: Mediterranean Exchange. 3-5 Units.

Exchange was everywhere in the Mediterranean, from the individual household to the state. Yet the specific models by which goods changed hands were as varied as the ideas and values that moved alongside them. This seminar will explore theoretical approaches to commercial and non-commercial exchange, drawing primarily on the crucial but uneven bodies of archaeological evidence and historical sources in an effort to investigate the simple but hardly straightforward question of how business was undertaken in the Greco-Roman world.
Same as: ARCHLGY 327.

CLASSART 335. Models in Archaeology. 3-5 Units.

This seminar explores how we can use archaeological sources to build models of Graeco-Roman antiquity. A model is defined as a systematic and schematic representation of the way the ancient world worked, and particularly by using social and cultural theory. We will take in classic works of Marx and Weber, as well as contemporary approaches. A key objective is for class members to connect this most important aspect of social science to their own research project.
Same as: ARCHLGY 335.

CLASSART 342. Archaeology of Roman Slavery. 4-5 Units.

The archaeological study of Roman slavery has been severely limited by a focus on identifying the traces of slaves in the material record. This seminar explores a range of newer and more broadly conceived approaches to understanding slavery and slaves' experiences, including spatial analysis, bioarchaeology, epigraphy, visual imagery, and comparative archaeologies of slavery. Students will learn about the current state of research, work with different kinds of evidence and a range of methodologies, and develop original research projects of their own.
Same as: ARCHLGY 342.

Classics General Courses

CLASSGEN 6N. To Die For: Antigone and Political Dissent. 4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Tensions inherent in the democracy of ancient Athens; how the character of Antigone emerges in later drama, film, and political thought as a figure of resistance against illegitimate authority; and her relevance to contemporary struggles for women's and workers' rights and national liberation. Readings and screenings include versions of Antigone by Sophocles, Anouilh, Brecht, Fugard/Kani/Ntshona, Paulin, Glowacki, Gurney, and von Trotta.
Same as: TAPS 12N.

CLASSGEN 17. Gender and Power in Ancient Greece. 3-4 Units.

Introduction to the sex-gender system of ancient Greece, with comparative material from modern America. How myths, religious rituals, athletics, politics and theater reinforced gender stereotypes and sometimes undermined them. Skills: finding clues, identifying patterns and making connections amongst the components of a strange and beautiful culture very different from our own. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: FEMGEN 17.

CLASSGEN 18. Greek Mythology. 3-5 Units.

The heroic and divine in the literature, mythology, and culture of archaic Greece. Interdisciplinary approach to the study of individuals and society. Illustrated lectures. Readings in translation of Homer, Hesiod, Herodotus, and the poets of lyric and tragedy. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.

CLASSGEN 19SI. Greek Mythology and Popular Culture. 2 Units.

This course will explore the relationship between Greek mythology and popular culture, using God of War III as an outline for the class and as the foundation on which we will perform our analyses. The myths and characters encountered in every chapter of the game will be highlighted each week and discussed in the context of the game as well as in the context of relevant popular cultures examples from comic books, television, music, and film.

CLASSGEN 20N. Mapping the Mediterranean. 4-5 Units.

A sample of premodern material from among the various ways the Mediterranean sea and adjacent lands have been represented over the centuries. This will involve both maps in the conventional sense and also texts and documents (inscriptions and papyri). Much of the material involves actual travel. What kinds of power dynamics have been implicated in such representations? Texts will include extracts from Homer's Odyssey; the Hebrew Bible; ancient Egyptian literature; and the Hereford Mappa Mundi.

CLASSGEN 24N. Sappho: Erotic Poetess of Lesbos. 4-5 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Sappho's surviving fragments in English; traditions referring to or fantasizing about her disputed life. How her poetry and legend inspired women authors and male poets such as Swinburne, Baudelaire, and Pound. Paintings inspired by Sappho in ancient and modern times, and composers who put her poetry to music.

CLASSGEN 34. Ancient Athletics. 3-4 Units.

How the Olympic Games developed and how they were organized. Many other Greek festivals featured sport and dance competitions, including some for women, and showcased the citizen athlete as a civic ideal. Roman athletics in contrast saw the growth of large-scale spectator sports and professional athletes. Some toured like media stars; others regularly risked death in gladiatorial contests and chariot-racing. We will also explore how large-scale games were funded and how they fostered the development of sports medicine. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required; enroll in sections on coursework.

CLASSGEN 61N. Classical California. 4 Units.

California's collections of Greco-Roman antiquities present several opportunities: to learn about ancient Greek and Roman societies via their artifacts; to trace the microhistories of particular collections; to gain a sense of how those specific narratives reflect more general patterns of Californian and US pasts; and finally to reflect on the nature of collecting and the ethics involved. This course will combine visits to collections on campus and field trips farther afield (San Francisco, San Simeon and Malibu) with classroom discussion.

CLASSGEN 66. Herodotus. 4-5 Units.

For Ancient History field of study majors; others by consent of instructor. Close reading technique. Historical background to the Greco-Persian Wars; ancient views of empire, culture, and geography; the wars and their aftermath; ancient ethnography and historiography, including the first narrative of ancient Egypt.

CLASSGEN 81. Philosophy and Literature. 5 Units.

Required gateway course for Philosophical and Literary Thought; crosslisted in departments sponsoring the Philosophy and Literature track: majors should register in their home department; non-majors may register in any sponsoring department. Introduction to major problems at the intersection of philosophy and literature. Issues may include authorship, selfhood, truth and fiction, the importance of literary form to philosophical works, and the ethical significance of literary works. Texts include philosophical analyses of literature, works of imaginative literature, and works of both philosophical and literary significance. Authors may include Plato, Montaigne, Nietzsche, Borges, Beckett, Barthes, Foucault, Nussbaum, Walton, Nehamas, Pavel, and Pippin. Taught in English.
Same as: COMPLIT 181, ENGLISH 81, FRENCH 181, GERMAN 181, ITALIAN 181, PHIL 81, SLAVIC 181.

CLASSGEN 86. Exploring the New Testament. 4 Units.

The New Testament is many things to many people. Around the globe, it is and has been for two millennia a source of culture, law, and faith. It has been used both to undergird battles for civil rights and to fight against them. It has been used both to justify wars and to argue that all war is unjust. Yet, many people haven¿t read the New Testament and still more haven¿t looked at it from historical, sociological, comparative and literary frameworks. This course will provide you the opportunity to read the New Testament and to study it closely. We will ask questions of the New Testament about the early Jesus movement, how it fits into its historical context and how it developed. We will look at the range of opinions and views about Jesus present in this literature. We will explore the different genres used by early Christians. We will examine how this set of Early Christian texts came to be considered the canon.
Same as: RELIGST 86.

CLASSGEN 106. Priests, Prophets, and Kings: Religion and Society in Late Antique Iran. 4-5 Units.

From India to the Levant and from the Caspian Sea to the Arabian Peninsula, the Sasanian Empire (224-651 CE) was the dominant power in the Middle East till the advent of Islam. Diverse religious institutions and social practices of the Zoroastrians, Manicheans, Jews, and Christians in late antique Iran. Complex relationships between the Zoroastrian priesthood, the Sasanian monarchs, and these minority religions within the context of imperial rule. Profound religious and social changes that occurred with the Islamic conquests of Iran as well as examine the rich cultural continuities that survived from the Pre-Islamic past.
Same as: CLASSGEN 206, RELIGST 209, RELIGST 309.

CLASSGEN 109. Emperor, Explorer, and God: Alexander the Great in the Global Imagination. 3 Units.

This course will survey the changing image of Alexander the Great from the Hellenistic world to the contemporary. We shall study the appropriation of his life and legend in a variety of cultures both East and West and discuss his reception as both a divine and a secular figure by examining a variety of media including texts (primary and secondary) and images (statues, coins, mosaics, illuminated manuscripts, film, and TV) in the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Jewish, Islamic, Medieval, Renaissance, and Early Modern contexts. In concluding the quarter, students will evaluate contemporary representations in film and popular culture, such as Alexander directed by Oliver Stone and Pop Art in order to better appreciate his enduring legacy.
Same as: RELIGST 109.

CLASSGEN 110. Introduction to Greek Tragedy. 4 Units.

Gods and heroes, fate and free choice, gender conflict, the justice or injustice of the universe: these are just some of the fundamental human issues that we will explore in about ten of the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.
Same as: TAPS 167.

CLASSGEN 116. Ecology in Philosophy and Literature. 3-5 Units.

The basic principles of ecological thinking, exploring the ways that different writers represent and relate to the natural world. Some key questions: What is nature, and where do humans fit in the natural world? How exactly do humans differ from other animals? Do these differences make us superior beings? What are our ethical responsibilities towards the earth and its inhabitants? In what ways have the technologies of writing, television, and computers affected humankind's relationship to the natural world?.

CLASSGEN 117. The Language of Homer. 4-5 Units.

A linguistic introduction to the history of the Greek language by way of focussed readings and intensive analysis of Homeric poetry. Attention will be given to problems of diachronic change, including developments in morphology tied to the demands of the hexameter; phenomena related to loss of digamma, vowel contractions, and diectasis; particle usage; development of the definite article; preposed relative clauses; and the dialect mix represented in the Homeric Kunstsprache. In addition to 80-100 pages of densely-packed handbook reading each week in English, students will be expected to complete weekly reading assignments in either French or German, and required reading of appx. 300 lines of Greek per session.

CLASSGEN 123. Urban Sustainability: Long-Term Archaeological Perspectives. 3-5 Units.

Comparative and archaeological view of urban design and sustainability. How fast changing cities challenge human relationships with nature. Innovation and change, growth, industrial development, the consumption of goods and materials. Five millennia of city life including Near Eastern city states, Graeco-Roman antiquity, the Indus Valley, and the Americas.
Same as: CLASSGEN 223, URBANST 115.

CLASSGEN 126B. Jewish-Christian Relations in Antiquity. 1-2 Unit.

Constructions of identity, community, ethnicity: these nnconsiderations frame the investigation of ancient Christian rhetoric nnand theology contra Iudaeos. This historical project will be set nnwithin the larger intellectual and cultural context of a) learned nnGraeco-Roman traditions of ethnic stereotyping; b) forensic nnrhetoric; and c) philosophical paideia; and these nntraditions will be considered within their larger social context of the Mediterranean nncity (I-III). Specifically, various Christian, and especially Latin nntraditions contra Iudaeos (IV-VI) will be studied.
Same as: RELIGST 226D.

CLASSGEN 132. Early Christian Gospels. 4 Units.

An exploration of Christian gospels of the first and second century. Emphasis on the variety of images and interpretations of Jesus and the good news, the broader Hellenistic and Jewish contexts of the gospels, the processes of developing and transmitting gospels, and the creation of the canon. Readings include the Gospel of John, the Gospel of Mark, the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Mary and other canonical and non-canonical gospels.
Same as: RELIGST 132D.

CLASSGEN 139. Ancient Medicine. 3-4 Units.

Contemporary medical practice traces its origins to the creation of scientific medicine by Greek doctors such as Hippocrates and Galen. Is this something of which modern medicine can be proud? The scientific achievements and ethical limitations of ancient medicine when scientific medicine was no more than another form of alternative medicine. Scientific medicine competed in a marketplace of ideas where the boundaries between scientific and social aspects of medicine were difficult to draw.

CLASSGEN 149. Ancient and Modern Medicine. 3-4 Units.

Imagine a world where the Universe has a built-in purpose and point. How would this belief impact man's place in nature? Imagine a world where natural substances have "powers." How might this impact diet and pharmacology? Magical vs. scientific healing: a clear divide? Disease and dehumanization: epilepsy, rabies. Physical and mental health: black bile and melancholy. The ethical and scientific assumptions hidden in medical language and imagery. How ancient medicine and modern medicine (especially alternative medicine) illuminate each other.

CLASSGEN 153. Images of Women in Ancient China and Greece. 4 Units.

Representation of women in ancient Chinese and Greek texts. How men viewed women and what women had to say about themselves and their societies. Primary readings in poetry, drama, and didactic writings. Relevance for understanding modern concerns; use of comparison for discovering historical and cultural patterns.
Same as: CHINGEN 143, CHINGEN 243, CLASSGEN 253.

CLASSGEN 159. Winged Bulls and Sun Disks: Religion and Politics in the Persian Empire. 3-5 Units.

Since Herodotus in the 5th century BCE, the Persian Empire has been represented as the exemplar of oriental despotism and imperial arrogance, a looming presence and worthy foil for the West and Greek democracy. History of the Achaemenid Empire, beginning with the rise of the Medes in the 7th century BCE to the fall of the Achaemenids to Alexander the Great's armies in 331 BCE. Focus on the intimate relationship between religion and empire and will also survey the diverse cultural institutions and religious practices found within the Empire. Evaluate contemporary representations of the Persians in politics and popular culture, such as the recent film "300" and the graphic novel on which it is based, in an attempt to better appreciate the enduring cultural legacy of the Greco-Persian wars.
Same as: CLASSGEN 259, RELIGST 229, RELIGST 329.

CLASSGEN 160. Directed Readings. 1-15 Unit.

May be repeated for credit.
Same as: Undergraduate.

CLASSGEN 176. Majors Seminar. 5 Units.

Required of Classics majors and minors in junior or senior year; students contemplating honors should take this course in junior year. Advanced skills course involving close reading, critical thinking, editing, and writing. In-class and take-home writing and revising exercises. Final paper topic may be on any subject related to Classics. Fulfills WIM requirement for Classics.

CLASSGEN 189. Imperishable Heroes and Unblemished Goddesses: Myth, Ritual, and Epic in Ancient Iran. 3-5 Units.

Designed as a broad introduction to the world of ancient Iran, students will be introduced to the Indo-European inheritance in ancient Iranian culture; the shared world of ritual, religion, and mythology between Zoroastrianism in Iran and Vedic Hinduism in India; and to the contours of early Zoroastrian religious thought. We will also survey mythoepic literature in translation from the archaic Avesta through the late antique Zoroastrian Middle Persian corpus to the early medieval national epic of Iran, the Book of Kings of Ferdowsi.
Same as: CLASSGEN 289, RELIGST 209E, RELIGST 309E.

CLASSGEN 199. Undergraduate Thesis: Senior Research. 2-10 Units.

CLASSGEN 205A. The Semantics of Grammar. 2 Units.

Supplements CLASSLAT/CLASSGRK 275. 205A: Tense, Aspect, Argument Structure, Location. 205B: Quantification, Plurality, Modification, Negation, Modality.

CLASSGEN 205B. The Semantics of Grammar. 2 Units.

Supplements CLASSLAT/CLASSGRK 275. 205A: Tense, Aspect, Argument Structure, Location. 205B: Quantification, Plurality, Modification, Negation, Modality.

CLASSGEN 206. Priests, Prophets, and Kings: Religion and Society in Late Antique Iran. 4-5 Units.

From India to the Levant and from the Caspian Sea to the Arabian Peninsula, the Sasanian Empire (224-651 CE) was the dominant power in the Middle East till the advent of Islam. Diverse religious institutions and social practices of the Zoroastrians, Manicheans, Jews, and Christians in late antique Iran. Complex relationships between the Zoroastrian priesthood, the Sasanian monarchs, and these minority religions within the context of imperial rule. Profound religious and social changes that occurred with the Islamic conquests of Iran as well as examine the rich cultural continuities that survived from the Pre-Islamic past.
Same as: CLASSGEN 106, RELIGST 209, RELIGST 309.

CLASSGEN 207A. Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Literature of the Roman Republic. 3-5 Units.

First course in a required two-year sequence. Focus is on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years. Focus is on translation, textual criticism, genre, the role of Greece in shaping Roman literature, and oral versus written discourse.

CLASSGEN 207B. Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Augustan Age Latin. 3-5 Units.

Required two-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Texts of Augustan literature required by the graduate syllabus, emphasizing poetry and major authors.

CLASSGEN 207C. Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Imperial Latin. 3-5 Units.

Required two-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years.

CLASSGEN 208A. Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Archaic Greek. 3-5 Units.

Required two-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years.

CLASSGEN 208B. Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Classical Greek. 3-5 Units.

Required two-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years.

CLASSGEN 208C. Survey of Greek and Latin Literature: Hellenistic and Late Greek. 3-5 Units.

Required two-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years.

CLASSGEN 219. Introduction to Latin Epigraphy. 2-3 Units.

How to engage with epigraphic evidence through translation and contextualization of inscriptions. The materiality of inscriptions, geographical variation, and current scholarly debates in scholarship. How to use this evidence in research.

CLASSGEN 223. Urban Sustainability: Long-Term Archaeological Perspectives. 3-5 Units.

Comparative and archaeological view of urban design and sustainability. How fast changing cities challenge human relationships with nature. Innovation and change, growth, industrial development, the consumption of goods and materials. Five millennia of city life including Near Eastern city states, Graeco-Roman antiquity, the Indus Valley, and the Americas.
Same as: CLASSGEN 123, URBANST 115.

CLASSGEN 229. Classical Epic and the English Renaissance. 3-5 Units.

The reception of Greek and Latin epics in 16th- and 17th-century England. How were the ancient epics read and interpreted? What kinds of commentary were being used and written? The creative appropriation of the ancient epics in new poems: Spenser and Milton set against the background of less well-known epics of the period, with focus on civil war epics.

CLASSGEN 241. Words and Things in the History of Classical Scholarship. 4-5 Units.

How have scholars used ancient texts and objects since the revival of the classical tradition? How did antiquarians study and depict objects and relate them to texts and reconstructions of the past? What changed and what stayed the same as humanist scholarship gave way to professional archaeologists, historians, and philologists? Focus is on key works in the history of classics, such as Erasmus and Winckelmann, in their scholarly, cultural, and political contexts, and recent critical trends in intellectual history and the history of disciplines.
Same as: HISTORY 303F.

CLASSGEN 243. Second Sophistic Science. 3-4 Units.

Scientific works from the Roman Empire. Focus is on how such works can be understood within the wider context of the Greco-Roman civilization of the Roman Empire, not only of Roman imperial science but also of Roman imperial civilization as a whole. Readings depend on student interests but may begin with Vitruvius, Nicomachus, Galen, and Ptolemy. Readings in translation.

CLASSGEN 253. Images of Women in Ancient China and Greece. 4 Units.

Representation of women in ancient Chinese and Greek texts. How men viewed women and what women had to say about themselves and their societies. Primary readings in poetry, drama, and didactic writings. Relevance for understanding modern concerns; use of comparison for discovering historical and cultural patterns.
Same as: CHINGEN 143, CHINGEN 243, CLASSGEN 153.

CLASSGEN 259. Winged Bulls and Sun Disks: Religion and Politics in the Persian Empire. 3-5 Units.

Since Herodotus in the 5th century BCE, the Persian Empire has been represented as the exemplar of oriental despotism and imperial arrogance, a looming presence and worthy foil for the West and Greek democracy. History of the Achaemenid Empire, beginning with the rise of the Medes in the 7th century BCE to the fall of the Achaemenids to Alexander the Great's armies in 331 BCE. Focus on the intimate relationship between religion and empire and will also survey the diverse cultural institutions and religious practices found within the Empire. Evaluate contemporary representations of the Persians in politics and popular culture, such as the recent film "300" and the graphic novel on which it is based, in an attempt to better appreciate the enduring cultural legacy of the Greco-Persian wars.
Same as: CLASSGEN 159, RELIGST 229, RELIGST 329.

CLASSGEN 260. Directed Reading in Classics. 1-15 Unit.

Same as: Graduate Students.

CLASSGEN 289. Imperishable Heroes and Unblemished Goddesses: Myth, Ritual, and Epic in Ancient Iran. 3-5 Units.

Designed as a broad introduction to the world of ancient Iran, students will be introduced to the Indo-European inheritance in ancient Iranian culture; the shared world of ritual, religion, and mythology between Zoroastrianism in Iran and Vedic Hinduism in India; and to the contours of early Zoroastrian religious thought. We will also survey mythoepic literature in translation from the archaic Avesta through the late antique Zoroastrian Middle Persian corpus to the early medieval national epic of Iran, the Book of Kings of Ferdowsi.
Same as: CLASSGEN 189, RELIGST 209E, RELIGST 309E.

CLASSGEN 300A. Gateways to Classics. 1 Unit.

This seminar focuses on skills involved in the detailed study of Greek and Latin texts. Emphasis on methodologies and approaches, with attention both to histories of the disciplines and to new developments. Assignments provide hands-on experience of research skills. Taught by various faculty members; readings to be assigned by faculty, meets five times per quarter.

CLASSGEN 300B. Gateways to Classics. 1 Unit.

This seminar focuses on skills involved in the detailed study of Greek and Latin texts. Emphasis on methodologies and approaches, with attention both to histories of the disciplines and to new developments. Assignments provide hands-on experience of research skills. Taught by various faculty members; readings to be assigned by faculty. Meets five times per quarter.

CLASSGEN 311. Paleography of Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts. 3-5 Units.

Introductory course in the history of writing and of the book, from the late antique period until the advent of printing. Opportunity to learn to read and interpret medieval manuscripts through hands-on examination of original materials in Special Collections of Stanford Libraries as well as through digital images. Offers critical training in the reading of manuscripts for students from departments as diverse as Classics, History, Philosophy, Religious Studies, English, and the Division of Languages Cultures and Literatures.
Same as: DLCL 209, ENGLISH 209, HISTORY 309G, RELIGST 204.

CLASSGEN 312. The Ancient Sciences of Geography. 3-5 Units.

What could ancient geography achieve? What could it not? And why the gap between the two? Focus is on understanding the goals and techniques of the ancient geographical sciences, spanning the spectrum between literature and mathematics. In ancient culture, how did space matter?.

CLASSGEN 335. Collecting in Antiquity. 3-5 Units.

What is at stake with the phenomenon of collecting? Selected Latin texts provide the starting point: Cicero's "Verrine orations", the Elder Pliny's "Natural History" and Martial's 'Epigrams" (books 13 and 14). Is Cicero's prosecution of Verres really the origin of the modern debate about cultural property? (Miles, "Art as Plunder") In the second part of the course we shall consider some modern collections of ancient art (early modern "Wunderkammer"; Cantor Art Center; Getty Villa).

CLASSGEN 336. Augustine on Memory, Time, and the Self. 4-5 Units.

This course examines Augustine's "Confessions" as an autobiographical discourse. It investigates his theories of memory and of time and address different theories of the "self." How does memory and the passing of time affect the notion of the self? Does Augustine's "subjective" theory of time offer an identifiable self? Is the self constructed by narratives? We will locate these issues in their cultural context by investigating Christian and pagan discourses and practices in Late Antiquity.

CLASSGEN 338. Aristotle and the Object of Mathematical Reasoning. 4 Units.

The concept of definition plays a central role in Aristotle's treatment of both philosophical and scientific inquiry, as well as explanation. A definition is an account of what something is, and some definitions are used to guide causal inquiry whereas others function as explanatory starting points. In this course we will examine texts from his logic, natural science and metaphysics in order to see what the different kinds of definition are, how they obtained, and how they are capture the nature or essence of a definable object. Particular attention will be given to the role of matter in the definition of the form of a natural substance, state, process or activity. For instance, what role does a specification of physiological processes play in the definitions of emotions such as anger? No knowledge of Greek is required. May be repeat for credit.
Same as: PHIL 318.

CLASSGEN 339. Workshop on Teaching Classics in the Digital Age. 2-4 Units.

An interactive exploration and assessment of digital resources available for teaching language and lecture-based Classical subjects. Classes will alternate between presentations by experienced users or designers of digital media and hands-on experience and evaluation by students. Topics include interactive websites, multi-media presentation tools, wikis and blogs, teaching with e-texts, working with audio and video, learning assessment and feedback loops, copyright and intellectual property issues. Assessment scaled for unit load: design of a course integrating three or more digital features.

CLASSGEN 354. Social Power: The Law and the State, a Comparative Study of Ancient Legal Systems. 3-5 Units.

For ancient history majors and those interested in the history of law. Ancient Mediterranean legal systems, from ancient Egypt and the Near East to Greece and Rome. Focus is on ancient documents including the Code of Hammurabi, Egyptian sale contracts, as well as analysis of ancient law such as Maine's Ancient Law, and Weber. The development of the law; solutions in ancient societies to the common problems of crime, contract, inheritance, marriage, and the family; and the enforcement of property rights.

CLASSGEN 359. Master's Thesis Research. 1-15 Unit.

CLASSGEN 360. Dissertation Research in Classics. 1-10 Unit.

CLASSGEN 801. TGR M.A. Project. 0 Units.

CLASSGEN 802. TGR Ph.D. Dissertation. 0 Units.

Classics Greek Courses

CLASSGRK 1. Beginning Greek. 5 Units.

No knowledge of Greek is assumed. Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language.

CLASSGRK 2. Beginning Greek. 5 Units.

Continuation of CLASSGRK 1. Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language.

CLASSGRK 3. Beginning Greek. 5 Units.

Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. Prerequisite: CLASSGRK 2 or equivalent placement. CLASSGRK 3 fulfills University language requirement.

CLASSGRK 5. Biblical Greek. 3-5 Units.

This is a one term intensive class in Biblical Greek. After quickly learning the basics of the language, we will then dive right into readings from the New Testament and the Septuagint, which is the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. By the end of the term everyone will be able to read the Greek Bible with ease. No previous knowledge of Greek required.
Same as: JEWISHST 5, RELIGST 171A.

CLASSGRK 5B. Biblical Greek II. 3-5 Units.

This is a continuation of the Winter Quarter Biblical Greek Course. We will be reading selections primarily from the New Testament (both Gospels and Epistles) as well as focusing on knowledge of key vocabulary and grammar needed to read the Greek Bible with ease. Readings will be supplemented with sections from the Septuagint and Early Christian texts (Apostolic Fathers and Early Creeds). Pre-requisite: CLASSGRK 5 or a similar introductory course in Ancient Greek.
Same as: RELIGST 5B.

CLASSGRK 101. Intermediate Greek: Prose. 3-5 Units.

Introduction to reading continuous Greek prose (Plato, Lucian, Herodotus). Prose style, reading fluency, vocabulary building, and grammar review.

CLASSGRK 102. Intermediate Greek: Greek Erotic Poetry and Prose. 3-5 Units.

Read and compare Xenophon's and Plato's approaches to desire. Then we will move to earlier poetry and read Sappho, Anacreon, Alcman, Ibycus, and other lyric poetry on eros. Review of grammar and vocabulary also included. Classics majors and minors may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSGRK 103. Intermediate Greek: Homer's Iliad. 3-5 Units.

Selections from Homer's Iliad in Greek, aimed at enabling students to master Homeric language in order to read the poetry with precision and pleasure. In addition, the class will read the entire Iliad in English; discussions will focus on Homeric style, narrative technique, world-view and the history of interpretation. Classics majors and minors must take for a letter grade and may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSGRK 111. Advanced Greek: Euripides' Medea. 3-5 Units.

The primary focus of this class will be Euripides' Medea. Accordingly, we will read the classic tragedy from cover to cover, in Greek. In order to facilitate discussion of (e.g.) prosody, meter, and interpretive problems, we will employ Mastronarde's excellent Cambridge commentary. In order to contextualize Euripides' particular version of the Medea-myth, we will also consider several alternatives (e.g. Neophron's or Pasolini's Medea, or the Policoro hydria). Classics majors and minors must take for a letter grade and may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.
Same as: CLASSGRK 211.

CLASSGRK 112. Advanced Greek: Attic Oratory. 3-5 Units.

The Athenians enjoyed their oratory¿a bit too much, according to Thucydides, who added some of the finest specimens himself. We will read in Greek a selection of speeches, mostly forensic ones by Antiphon and Lysias, but also one example each of the two other rhetoric genres. Our primary objective is to increase comprehension and enjoyment of Attic oratory, but we will also pay attention to Athenian history and culture.
Same as: CLASSGRK 212.

CLASSGRK 113. Advanced Greek: Scientific Writing. 3-5 Units.

Euclid and Archimedes. Reading texts from Greek science. The relationship between form and meaning in the presentation of scientific information, introduction to Greek Paleography. Classics majors and minors must take for a letter grade and may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSGRK 175A. Greek Syntax: Prose Composition. 2 Units.

(First-year graduate students register for 275A,B.) Review of Greek grammar and instruction in Greek prose composition skills. Begins sixth week of Winter Quarter and continues through Spring Quarter. Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Greek.
Same as: CLASSGRK 275A.

CLASSGRK 175B. Greek Syntax: Prose Composition. 4 Units.

(First-year graduate students register for 275A,B.) Review of Greek grammar and instruction in Greek prose composition skills. Begins sixth week of Winter Quarter and continues through Spring Quarter. Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Greek.
Same as: CLASSGRK 275B.

CLASSGRK 211. Advanced Greek: Euripides' Medea. 3-5 Units.

The primary focus of this class will be Euripides' Medea. Accordingly, we will read the classic tragedy from cover to cover, in Greek. In order to facilitate discussion of (e.g.) prosody, meter, and interpretive problems, we will employ Mastronarde's excellent Cambridge commentary. In order to contextualize Euripides' particular version of the Medea-myth, we will also consider several alternatives (e.g. Neophron's or Pasolini's Medea, or the Policoro hydria). Classics majors and minors must take for a letter grade and may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.
Same as: CLASSGRK 111.

CLASSGRK 212. Advanced Greek: Attic Oratory. 3-5 Units.

The Athenians enjoyed their oratory¿a bit too much, according to Thucydides, who added some of the finest specimens himself. We will read in Greek a selection of speeches, mostly forensic ones by Antiphon and Lysias, but also one example each of the two other rhetoric genres. Our primary objective is to increase comprehension and enjoyment of Attic oratory, but we will also pay attention to Athenian history and culture.
Same as: CLASSGRK 112.

CLASSGRK 275A. Greek Syntax: Prose Composition. 2 Units.

(First-year graduate students register for 275A,B.) Review of Greek grammar and instruction in Greek prose composition skills. Begins sixth week of Winter Quarter and continues through Spring Quarter. Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Greek.
Same as: CLASSGRK 175A.

CLASSGRK 275B. Greek Syntax: Prose Composition. 4 Units.

(First-year graduate students register for 275A,B.) Review of Greek grammar and instruction in Greek prose composition skills. Begins sixth week of Winter Quarter and continues through Spring Quarter. Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Greek.
Same as: CLASSGRK 175B.

CLASSGRK 312. Aristotle's Poetics. 3-5 Units.

We will perform a detailed reading of the Aristotelian text, including careful translation. Apart from issues relevant to textual transmission, discussion of varied commentaries and comparisons among different translations, we will also discuss the text in the context of fourth century BC poetic and philosophical discourses as well as performance practices. Reading of earlier poetic texts (with an emphasis on tragedy) will be included.

Classics History Courses

CLASSHIS 24N. The Roman Empire: Its Grandeur and Fall. 4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Explore themes on the Roman Empire and its decline from the 1st through the 5th centuries C.E.. What was the political and military glue that held this diverse, multi-ethnic empire together? What were the bases of wealth and how was it distributed? What were the possibilities and limits of economic growth? How integrated was it in culture and religion? What were the causes and consequences of the conversion to Christianity? Why did the Empire fall in the West? How suitable is the analogy of the U.S. in the 21st century?
Same as: HISTORY 11N.

CLASSHIS 60. The Romans. 3-5 Units.

How did a tiny village create a huge empire and shape the world, and why did it fail? Roman history, imperialism, politics, social life, economic growth, and religious change. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: HISTORY 102A.

CLASSHIS 101. The Greeks. 4-5 Units.

Greek history from the rise of the city state through Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia. Economics, society, culture, and technology. Competition and cooperation within and between states; the emergence of strong forms of citizenship along with chattel slavery and gender inequality; the origins and practices of democracy; and relations with non-Greek peoples. Focus is on ancient sources and archaeological remains. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: HISTORY 101.

CLASSHIS 105. The Egyptians. 3-5 Units.

Overview of ancient Egyptian pasts, from predynastic times to Greco-Roman rule, roughly 3000 BCE to 30 BCE. Attention to archaeological sites and artifacts; workings of society; and cultural productions, both artistic and literary. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: AFRICAAM 30.

CLASSHIS 114. Economy and Economics of Ancient Greece. 5 Units.

Cultural and political background for Athens of the 5th and 4th century BC. Athenian economy of the 4th century BC. Economic ideas of Plato, Aristotle, and Xenophon. Pros and Cons of utilitarianism in light of the ethical theories of Plato and Aristotle. Economy and economics of ancient Greece will be compared to the same of ancient China. There is an interesting parallel.
Same as: ECON 114.

CLASSHIS 117. Origins of History in Greece and Rome. 4-5 Units.

The beginnings and development of historical writing in the ancient world. Emphasis on major classical historians and various models of history they invented, from local to imperial, military, cultural, biographical, world history and church history. Focus on themes of power, war, loss, growth and decline, as put by the ancients into historical narrative forms and probed by way of historical questioning and explanation. Attention to how these models resonate still today. Readings in translation: Herodotus, Thucydides, Tacitus, Livy and others.
Same as: HISTORY 114.

CLASSHIS 133. Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought. 4-5 Units.

Political philosophy in classical antiquity, focusing on canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. Historical background. Topics include: political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; and law, civic strife, and constitutional change.
Same as: CLASSHIS 333, PHIL 176A, PHIL 276A, POLISCI 330A.

CLASSHIS 147. Before Globalization: Understanding Premodern World History. 3-5 Units.

This course covers the history of the world from 60,000 years ago until 1500 by asking big questions: Why did civilizations develop the way they did? What factors were responsible for similarities and differences between different parts of the world? What does this mean for our newly globalized world?
Same as: HISTORY 113.

CLASSHIS 332. High-Stakes Politics: Case Studies in Political Philosophy, Institutions, and Interests. 3-5 Units.

Normative political theory combined with positive political theory to better explain how major texts may have responded to and influenced changes in formal and informal institutions. Emphasis is on historical periods in which catastrophic institutional failure was a recent memory or a realistic possibility. Case studies include Greek city-states in the classical period and the northern Atlantic community of the 17th and 18th centuries including upheavals in England and the American Revolutionary era.
Same as: POLISCI 231.

CLASSHIS 333. Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought. 4-5 Units.

Political philosophy in classical antiquity, focusing on canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. Historical background. Topics include: political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; and law, civic strife, and constitutional change.
Same as: CLASSHIS 133, PHIL 176A, PHIL 276A, POLISCI 330A.

CLASSHIS 344. Early Empires: Han and Rome. 4-5 Units.

This course systematically compares the Han Empire and the Roman Empire in order to provide insight into the distinctive features of the empires as a political and social type. Topics examined will include geographic frames, the nature of the ruler, the role of the city, the form and function of military forces, religious aspects, legal codes, structures of kinship, and the relation of these states to the outside world.
Same as: HISTORY 494C.

Classics Latin Courses

CLASSLAT 1. Beginning Latin: Vocabulary and Syntax. 5 Units.

Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. No previous knowledge of Latin is assumed.
Same as: CLASSLAT 201.

CLASSLAT 2. Beginning Latin. 5 Units.

Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. Prerequisite: CLASSLAT 1 or equivalent placement.
Same as: CLASSLAT 202.

CLASSLAT 3. Beginning Latin. 5 Units.

Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. Prerequisite: CLASSLAT 2 or equivalent placement. CLASSLAT 3 fulfills the University language requirement.
Same as: CLASSLAT 203.

CLASSLAT 101. Intermediate Latin: Introduction to Literature. 3-5 Units.

Phonology, morphology, semantics, and syntax. Readings in prose and poetry. Analysis of literary language, including rhythm, meter, word order, narrative, and figures of speech. Classics majors and minors must take course for a letter grade.

CLASSLAT 102. Intermediate Latin: Ovid and Apuleius. 3-5 Units.

Readings are selections in Latin from Apuleius' "Metamorphoses" and book one of Ovid's "Amores". Emphasis will be placed on grammatical/morphological review, vocabulary building in unadapted Latin, and facilitating reading fluency in both poetry and prose. Classics majors and minors may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSLAT 103. Intermediate Latin: Vergil and Caesar. 3-5 Units.

Detailed description TBA. Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade and may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSLAT 111. Advanced Latin: Livy. 3-5 Units.

Livy in Book I of Ab Urbe Condita tells the story of the regal time of Rome, from the arrival of the Trojans in Italy, to the founding(s) of the city, to the banishment of the kings. Focus on this book which has some of the most famous episodes of Roman legendary history that have been looked back to through the centuries as ultimate definitions of Roman ideals and virtues. What makes Livy's story-telling so compelling? What kind of history did Livy think he was writing? What can be read in these legends about Roman values, self-definition, and possibly self-doubt? How differently have moderns understood these episodes in different period? Close attention to language, style, and narrative techniques. Readings in Latin. Classics majors and minors must take for a letter grade and may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSLAT 112. Advanced Latin: Seneca. 3-5 Units.

Systematic reading of one of Seneca's tragedies, with attention to literary style, dramaturgy, and political background. Evolving interpretation of the whole via the details. Exercise in developing translation skills. Overview of the full range of Seneca's writings, with some representative sampling. Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade. May be repeated for credit.

CLASSLAT 113. Advanced Latin: Tacitus, Rome's Greatest Historian. 3-5 Units.

Cornelius Tacitus¿ trenchant portrayals, political analyses, and sour moralism have fascinated readers, his effect on the seventeenth century being such that it is referred to as the era of ¿Tacitism.¿ Much of his impact is owed to his razor-sharp style. We will read in Latin his Agricola and Annales 4, with particular attention to his diabolic wit, and a selection of his other work in translation. We will also explore the ages of Tiberius and Domitian and review grammatical questions. Classics majors and minors must take course for a letter grade. May be repeated for credit.

CLASSLAT 175A. Latin Syntax. 4 Units.

(First-year graduate students register for 275A,B.) Intensive review of Latin syntax. Begins Autumn Quarter and continues through the fifth week of Winter Quarter. See CLASSGEN 205A,B for supplemental courses. Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Latin.
Same as: CLASSLAT 275A.

CLASSLAT 175B. Latin Syntax. 2 Units.

(First-year graduate students register for 275A,B.) Intensive review of Latin syntax. Began with 175A/275A in Autumn Quarter and continues through the fifth week of Winter Quarter. See CLASSGEN 205A,B for supplemental courses. Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Latin.
Same as: CLASSLAT 275B.

CLASSLAT 201. Beginning Latin: Vocabulary and Syntax. 5 Units.

Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. No previous knowledge of Latin is assumed.
Same as: CLASSLAT 1.

CLASSLAT 202. Beginning Latin. 5 Units.

Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. Prerequisite: CLASSLAT 1 or equivalent placement.
Same as: CLASSLAT 2.

CLASSLAT 203. Beginning Latin. 5 Units.

Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. Prerequisite: CLASSLAT 2 or equivalent placement. CLASSLAT 3 fulfills the University language requirement.
Same as: CLASSLAT 3.

CLASSLAT 210. Intensive Beginning Latin. 12 Units.

Equivalent to a year of beginning Latin (three quarters; CLASSLAT 1, 2 and 3), this course is designed to teach the fundamentals of the Latin language in eight weeks. We will focus primarily on acquiring the basics of Latin grammar, morphology, and vocabulary and developing basic reading skills. At the end of the course, students should be able to read easy Latin prose and poetry. We will be using Wheelock's Latin textbook and meeting three hours a day, four days a week. Grades will depend on class participation and on performance in weekly quizzes and in a final written exam. Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade. CLASSLAT 10 fulfills the University language requirement.

CLASSLAT 275A. Latin Syntax. 4 Units.

(First-year graduate students register for 275A,B.) Intensive review of Latin syntax. Begins Autumn Quarter and continues through the fifth week of Winter Quarter. See CLASSGEN 205A,B for supplemental courses. Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Latin.
Same as: CLASSLAT 175A.

CLASSLAT 275B. Latin Syntax. 2 Units.

(First-year graduate students register for 275A,B.) Intensive review of Latin syntax. Began with 175A/275A in Autumn Quarter and continues through the fifth week of Winter Quarter. See CLASSGEN 205A,B for supplemental courses. Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Latin.
Same as: CLASSLAT 175B.

CLASSLAT 327. Lucan and the poetics of civil war. 3-5 Units.

Lucan is joined by Homer and Virgil, among others, in the first circle of hell. He would have enjoyed their company; but what about Caesar¿s? We will read Lucan¿s Bellum Civile, the unfinished dark masterpiece of a 25-year-old, explore its relation-ship to Caesar and his texts as well as the epic tradition, and situate it in its historical context of the age of Nero.

CLASSLAT 331. The Fragmentary Roman Historians. 3-5 Units.

The republican Roman historians prior to Sallust have reached us in fragments only. But they reveal the fascinating early stages of the historical genre and have recently received a considerable amount of attention. The class reads a selection of them in Greek and Latin, relates them to their Greek predecessors and Roman successors, and reflects on philology and its methods in comparing three recent editions and commentaries of their works.