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Classics

Contacts

Office: Building 110, Main Quad
Mail Code: 2145
Phone: (650) 723-0479
Email: classics@stanford.edu
Web Site: http://classics.stanford.edu

Courses offered by the Department of Classics are listed on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site under the subject code CLASSICS.

The study of Classics has traditionally centered on the literature and material culture of ancient Greece and Rome, including Greek and Latin language, literature, philosophy, history, art, and archaeology. At Stanford, Classics also explores connections with other ancient cultures and with the modern world, as well as specialized fields such as ancient economics, law, papyrology, and science. The department’s faculty approaches Classics from an interdisciplinary perspective that crosses geographical, temporal, and thematic territories. Studying ancient epic poetry can lead to looking at modern cinema afresh; ancient Athenian politics opens new perspectives on modern politics; and the study of Rome presents parallels with other empires just as Latin illuminates the history of English and the Romance languages. In short, Classics at Stanford is an interdisciplinary subject concerned not only with Greek and Roman civilization but also with the interaction of cultures and societies that influenced the ancient Mediterranean basin and continue to influence human society across the globe.

Mission of the Undergraduate Program in Classics

The mission of the undergraduate program in Classics is to provide students with a broad background centered on the literature and material culture of ancient Greece and Rome, including Greek and Latin language, literature, philosophy, history, art, and archaeology. At Stanford, students in the Classics program also explore the connections between ancient cultures and the modern world as well as specialized fields such as ancient economics, law, papyrology, and science. The program's faculty approaches Classics from an interdisciplinary perspective that crosses geographical, temporal and thematic territories. The program is concerned not only with Greek and Roman civilization but also with the interaction of cultures and societies that influenced the ancient Mediterranean basin and continue to influence human society across the globe.

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduate)

The department expects undergraduate majors in the program to be able to demonstrate the following learning outcomes. These learning outcomes are used in evaluating students and the department's undergraduate program. Students are expected to demonstrate:

  1. The ability to develop effective and nuanced lines of interpretation.
  2. Critical thinking skills using primary source materials.
  3. Facility with the methodologies and presuppositions underlying interpretive positions in secondary literature and in their own work.
  4. Well-developed analytical writing skills and close reading skills.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The purpose of the master's program is to further develop knowledge and skills in Classics and to prepare students for a professional career or doctoral studies. This is achieved through completion of courses, in the primary field as well as related areas, and experience with independent work and specialization.

The Ph.D. is conferred upon candidates who have demonstrated substantial scholarship and the ability to conduct independent research and analysis in Classics. Through completion of advanced course work and rigorous skills training, the doctoral program prepares students to make original contributions to the knowledge of Classics and to interpret and present the results of such research.

Course Numbering

CLASSICS courses are numbered according to level and area of study.

Digit Area
001-099Introductory Courses
001-030Beginning and Intermediate Language and Introductory Seminars
031-050General Topics
051-075Art And Archaeology
076-099Ancient History
100-199Undergraduate Language, Core, Electives, and Independent Study
100-110Advanced Language
111-150General Topics
151-175Art and Archaeology
176-196Ancient History
197-199Independent Study
200-299Graduate Language Surveys and Electives
200-210Language
211-250General Topics
251-275Art and Archaeology
276-297Ancient History
298-299Independent Study
300-399Graduate Seminars and Dissertation Research
300-310Workshops
311-350General Topics
351-375Art and Archaeology
376-398Ancient History
399Independent Study (dissertation research)

Bachelor of Arts in Classics

Those interested in majoring in Classics are encouraged to declare by spring of sophomore year, but are urged to discuss their plans with the undergraduate director as early as possible. Students who choose the Greek and Latin field of study (option 5 below) should begin the curriculum as soon as possible because it is difficult to complete the language requirements without an early start; those with no previous knowledge of Latin or Greek should begin study in the freshman year, in a summer program following freshman year, or at the beginning of the sophomore year.

To declare the major, a student must fill out the Declaration of Major on Axess and meet with the Director of Undergraduate Studies in the Department of Classics. At that time, the Director Undergraduate Studies assigns the student a department adviser. To build a mentoring relationship, students should meet with their adviser at least once a quarter. At the time of declaration, the student should also schedule an orientation with the Department of Classics' student services officer. Each student’s progress towards fulfillment of the major requirements is recorded in a file kept in the student services officer’s office. It is the student’s responsibility to work with the adviser and student services officer to keep this file up to date.

A letter grade is required for all courses taken for the major. No course receiving a grade lower than ‘C’ is counted toward fulfilling major requirements. Enrollment in an independent study section (CLASSICS 198 Directed Readings) requires the prior approval of the Director of Undergraduate Studies, and a maximum of three such enrollments for a maximum total of 10 units may be counted toward the major.  University credit earned by placement tests or advanced placement work in secondary school is not counted towards any major requirement in the department.  Work done at other universities or colleges is subject to department evaluation and the university's transfer credit process. Counting graduate courses or cognate courses towards the major requires advance approval by the Director of Undergraduate Studies. Students are encouraged to meet with the Director of Undergraduate Studies to discuss options for pursuing a period of study in the Mediterranean region (see Study Abroad below).

The B.A. degree may be earned by fulfilling the requirements for one of the following fields of study. These fields of study are declared on Axess; they appear on the transcript but not on the diploma. The fields of study are:

  • Classical Studies
  • Ancient History
  • Greek
  • Latin
  • Greek and Latin

The Philosophy and Literature focus described below may be added to some of the major plans. This focus is not declared on Axess, and does not appear on the transcript or diploma.

A. Classical Studies

This major is recommended for students who wish to study classical civilizations in depth but do not wish to study the languages to the extent required by the Greek, Latin or Greek and Latin options described below. It is not suitable for students who wish to do graduate work in Classics or to teach Latin or Greek in high school, as the language work is insufficient for these purposes.

Units
Students must complete at least 60 units of approved courses including: +
CLASSICS 150Majors Seminar5
at least two courses in Latin or Greek at the intermediate-level or higher 26-20
Intermediate Latin: Introduction to Literature
Intermediate Latin: Plautus
Intermediate Latin: Cicero and Catullus
Advanced Latin
Advanced Latin: Livy
Advanced Latin: Latin Lovers
Intermediate Greek: Prose
Intermediate Greek: Herodotus - the father of history?
Intermediate Greek: Homer
Advanced Greek: Plato's Phaedrus
Advanced Greek: Lyric Poetry
Advanced Greek: Scientific Writing
or one course in one of the languages at the intermediate-level or higher, plus the beginning series of the other language 2
Beginning Latin
Beginning Latin
Beginning Latin
Beginning Greek
Beginning Greek
Beginning Greek
remaining units from your choice of CLASSICS courses 135-49
Total Units60
1

Up to 8 units of THINK 10, THINK 16, THINK 35/THINK 35A (note that this is the same course), IHUM 39A,B, IHUM 69A, the Autumn Quarter of SIMILE, or SLE may be counted toward the major; IHUM courses are no longer offered.

2

Language courses may be repeated for credit towards the degree only with advance written permission from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

+

Students enrolled in the CS+Classics joint major program must complete the Major's Seminar (5 units), all language courses (10 or 20 units), ePortfolio (2 units), senior capstone project (5 units), and additional CLASSICS courses for a total minimum of 55 units. See the Joint Major with CS tab for more information.

B. Ancient History:

Units
Students must complete at least 60 units of approved courses and must satisfy the following requirements: +
Writing in the Major (WIM)5
CLASSICS 150Majors Seminar5
Core Requirement6-10
Complete two survey courses in ancient history; some such courses offered this year include:
Ancient Empires: Near East
The Egyptians
The Greeks
The Romans
Depth Requirement33-37
Complete at least 33 units of ancient history and civilization courses, drawn from CLASSICS 31-99 and CLASSICS 110-197. 1,2
Breadth Requirements12-15
Complete at least 4 units in each of the following three areas 3
1. Archaeology and art; suggested courses include CLASSICS 51-75 and CLASSICS 151-175: (4) 44
Introduction to the Archaeology of Greece
Introduction to World Architecture
Ten Things: An Archaeology of Design
Ancient Urbanism
Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: Maritime Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean
Appropriations of Greek Art
Archaic Greek Art
Empire and Aftermath: Greek Art from the Parthenon to Scopas
Greek Art In and Out of Context
Engineering the Roman Empire
Archaeology of Britannia
2. Comparative ancient civilizations: complete a course on the ancient world outside the Mediterranean and western Asia. Suggested courses include: (4)4
Introduction to Prehistoric Archeology
Maya Hieroglyphic Writing
Lifeways of the Ancient Maya
The Aztecs and Their Ancestors: Introduction to Mesoamerican Archaeology
Ancient Civilizations: Complexity and Collapse
Ancient Cities in the New World
Incas and their Ancestors: Peruvian Archaeology
Peoples and Cultures of Ancient Mesoamerica
Maya Mythology and the Popol Vuh
Forgotten Africa: An Introduction to the Archaeology of Africa
Emergence of Chinese Civilization from Caves to Palaces
3. Historical and social theory. Suggested courses include: (64)4
Introduction to Cultural and Social Anthropology
Theory of Cultural and Social Anthropology
Social Theory in the Anthropological Sciences
Introduction to Sociology at Stanford
Introduction to Social Stratification
Sociology of Gender
Classics of Modern Social Theory
Culture, Evolution, and Society
Total Units60
1

4 units of THINK 10, THINK 16, THINK 35A, IHUM 39A or B, IHUM 69A, or Autumn Quarter of SIMILE may be counted toward this requirement (IHUM courses are no longer offered).

2

Latin and Ancient Greek courses may also count toward this requirement if approved by the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

3

The courses chosen must be approved in advance by the undergraduate director, and are normally chosen from the list of areas noted.

4

IHUM 40B may be counted toward this requirement (this course is no longer offered).

+

Students enrolled in the CS+Classics joint major program must complete the Major's Seminar (5 units), two history core courses (10 units), courses in ancient history and civilization (21 units), ancient history breadth courses (12 units), ePorfolio (2 units) and the senior capstone project (5 units) for a total minimum of 55 units. See the Joint Major with CS tab for more information.

C. Greek

Units
Students must complete at least 60 units of approved courses including: +
CLASSICS 150Majors Seminar5
At least 31 units of Ancient Greek courses at the intermediate-level or higher. It is recommended that these include CLASSICS 105A/B, though this series should not be taken until students have completed three years of Greek. 231
Intermediate Greek: Prose
Intermediate Greek: Herodotus - the father of history?
Intermediate Greek: Homer
Advanced Greek: Plato's Phaedrus
Advanced Greek: Lyric Poetry
Advanced Greek: Scientific Writing
At least three additional CLASSICS courses from CLASSICS 31-99 or 110-197 19-15
Recommended additional coursework in Latin, Sanskrit, Biblical Greek or ancient history.
Beginning Latin
Beginning Latin
Beginning Latin
Biblical Greek
Biblical Greek
First-Year Sanskrit, First Quarter
First-Year Sanskrit, Second Quarter
Ancient Empires: Near East
The Egyptians
The Greeks
The Romans
Total Units60
1

Up to 8 units of THINK 10, THINK 16, THINK 35/THINK 35A (note that this is the same course), IHUM 39A/B, IHUM 69A, the Autumn Quarter of SIMILE, or SLE may be counted toward the major (IHUM courses are no longer offered).

2

Language courses may be repeated for credit towards the degree only with advance written permission from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

+

 Students enrolled in the CS+Classics joint major program must complete the Major's Seminar (5 units), Greek courses at the intermediate-level or higher (31 units), additional CLASSICS courses (12 units),  ePorfolio (2 units) and the senior capstone project (5 units) for a total minimum of 55 units. See the Joint Major with CS tab for more information.

D. Latin

Units
Students must complete at least 60 units of approved courses including: +
CLASSICS 150Majors Seminar5
At least 31 units of Latin courses at the intermediate-level or higher. It is recommended that this include CLASSICS 104A/B, though this series should not be taken until students have completed three years of Latin. 231
Intermediate Latin: Introduction to Literature
Intermediate Latin: Plautus
Intermediate Latin: Cicero and Catullus
Advanced Latin
Advanced Latin: Livy
Advanced Latin: Latin Lovers
At least three additional CLASSICS courses from CLASSICS 31-99 or 110-197 19-15
Recommended additional coursework in Ancient Greek, Biblical Greek or ancient history
Beginning Greek
Beginning Greek
Beginning Greek
Biblical Greek
Biblical Greek
Ancient Empires: Near East
The Egyptians
The Greeks
The Romans
Total Units:60
1

Up to 8 units of THINK 10, THINK 16, THINK 35/THINK 35A (note that this is the same course), IHUM 39A/B, IHUM 69A, the Autumn Quarter of SIMILE, or SLE may be counted toward the major (IHUM courses are no longer offered).

2

Language courses may be repeated for credit towards the degree only with advance written permission from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

+

 Students enrolled in the CS+Classics joint major program will need to complete the Major's Seminar (5 units), Latin courses at the intermediate-level and above (31 units), additional CLASSICS courses (12 units), ePorfolio (2 units) and the senior capstone project (5 units) for a total minimum of 55 units. See the Joint Major with CS tab for more information.

E. Greek and Latin

Units
Students must complete at least 65 units of approved courses including: +
CLASSICS 150Majors Seminar5
At least 30 units of Latin courses at the intermediate-level and higher. 1, 230
OR at least 30 units of Latin at the beginning-level and higher, as long as Greek is at the intermediate-level and higher
Beginning Latin
Beginning Latin
Beginning Latin
Intermediate Latin: Introduction to Literature
Intermediate Latin: Plautus
Intermediate Latin: Cicero and Catullus
Advanced Latin
Advanced Latin: Livy
Advanced Latin: Latin Lovers
Latin Syntax
Latin Syntax
At least 30 units of Ancient Greek courses at the intermediate-level or higher. 1, 230
OR at least 30 units of Greek at the beginning-level and higher, as long as Latin is at the intermediate-level and higher
Beginning Greek
Beginning Greek
Beginning Greek
Intermediate Greek: Prose
Intermediate Greek: Herodotus - the father of history?
Intermediate Greek: Homer
Advanced Greek: Plato's Phaedrus
Advanced Greek: Lyric Poetry
Advanced Greek: Scientific Writing
Greek Syntax: Prose Composition
Greek Syntax: Prose Composition
Recommended additional coursework in Biblical Greek, Sanskrit or ancient history 3
First-Year Sanskrit, First Quarter
First-Year Sanskrit, Second Quarter
Second-Year Sanskrit, First Quarter
Second-Year Sanskrit, Second Quarter
Second-Year Sanskrit, Third Quarter
Biblical Greek
Biblical Greek
Ancient Empires: Near East
The Egyptians
The Greeks
The Romans
Total Units:60
1

Language courses may be repeated for credit towards the degree only with advance written permission from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

2

It is recommended that this include CLASSICS 104A and CLASSICS 104B (for Latin); and CLASSICS 105A and CLASSICS 105B (for Greek). But this series should not be taken until completion of advanced-level course work in the relevant language.

3

Sanskrit is only allowed if both Greek and Latin requirements are fulfilled with course work at the intermediate-level and above.

+

Students enrolled in the CS+Classics joint major program must complete the Major's Seminar (5 units), Latin courses (24 units), Greek courses (24 units), ePorfolio (2 units) and the senior capstone project (5 units) for a total minimum of 60 units. See the Joint Major with CS tab for more information.

F. Philosophy and Literature Focus:

Students who wish to add a Philosophy and Literature focus to the Classical Studies, Greek, Latin, or Greek and Latin majors should also take the courses listed below:

Units
PHIL 81Philosophy and Literature5
PHIL 80Mind, Matter, and Meaning5
One course in each of the following areas:
1. aesthetics, ethics, and social and political philosophy3-5
Ethical Theory
Trust and Trustworthiness
2. philosophy of language, mind, metaphysics, and epistemology3-5
Metaphysics
Realism, Anti-Realism, Irrealism, Quasi-Realism
3. history of philosophy (course with prefix PHIL at the 100-level or above)3-5
Two related courses in Classics or Philosophy. Students may double count a Classics course in Philosophy or ancient science for one of the two related courses provided that this course fulfills the Philosophy and Literature requirements and is approved by a member of the committee in Philosophy and Literature.6-10
One capstone seminar in consultation with the Director of Undergraduate Studies. This year's offerings are:3-5
The Poetry of Friedrich Holderlin
Getting Through Proust
Dante and Aristotle
Montaigne

Honors Program

A minimum grade point average (GPA) of 3.6 within the major is required for students to enroll in the honors program. To be considered for honors in Classics, the student must select a professor who can supervise his or her honors thesis. A preliminary proposal, approved by the supervisor, is due April 15 of the junior year, and a final version is due at the beginning of the senior year. The proposal must outline the project in detail, list relevant courses that have been taken, and name the supervisor. The department gives approval only if a suitable faculty supervisor is available and if it is satisfied that the student has a sufficient basis of knowledge derived from department course work in the general areas the thesis covers, such as art, Greek, Latin, history, literature, or philosophy. If the proposal is approved, the student may sign up for CLASSICS 199 Undergraduate Thesis: Senior Research, during the senior year for a maximum of 6 units per term, up to an overall total of 10 units. These units may be counted towards fulfillment of the student’s major requirements if relevant. Honors are awarded only if the essay receives a grade of ‘B+’ or higher from the supervisor and a second reader, who is chosen by the department. In addition, students must graduate with a GPA of 3.6 or higher within the major to receive honors.

Study Abroad

Classics students may travel for several reasons: to complete accredited coursework (typically language courses or history surveys) for transfer towards the degree, to participate in archaeological digs of ancient sites, and to perform independent travel-research related to an honors project or independent study.  Students considering academic programs sponsored by other institutions are encouraged to review Stanford's policies on transfer credit and to discuss possible programs with the Director of Undergraduate Studies before applying.  Students seeking archaeological dig experience should inquire for opportunities through the Classics Department and through the Stanford Archaeology Center (http://archaeology.stanford.edu).  Students who would like to construct an independent travel-research project should discuss their goals and itinerary with the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

While Classics-specific coursework is not always available through the Bing Overseas Program, students sometimes find Classics faculty at Bing campuses who are willing to provide independent instruction for credit.  Pre-approval of courses and independent study syllabi by the Director of Undergraduate Studies is required for credit towards the major or minor.

Some departmental funding is available for summer language programs in the United States, and departmental funds are also available for travel and study in the Mediterranean.  Students are encouraged to seek out multiple sources of funding, including offerings from UAR, to supplement their departmental applications. After discussing their plans with the Director of Undergraduate Study, applicants submit a departmental research grant application that includes expenses, a statement of purpose, and an endorsement by the student's faculty adviser. Food expenses are not normally reimbursed. Limited funding is available each year; preference is shown to majors and students with strong records.

Joint Major Program: Classics and Computer Science

The joint major program (JMP), authorized by the Academic Senate for a pilot period of six years, permits students to major in both Computer Science and one of ten Humanities majors. See the "Joint Major Program" section of this bulletin for a description of University requirements for the JMP. See also the Undergraduate Advising and Research JMP web site and its associated FAQs.

Students completing the JMP receive a B.A.S. (Bachelor of Arts and Sciences).

Because the JMP is new and experimental, changes to procedures may occur; students are advised to check the relevant section of the bulletin periodically.

Classics Major Requirements in the Joint Major Program

See the "Computer Science Joint Major Program" section of this bulletin for details on Computer Science requirements.

Students majoring in the joint major program in Classics and Computer Science complete the degree requirements for Classics with the following changes:

  1. Completion of 5 less overall units than a usual Classics major. The + footnote on each track describes where the unit relief may be taken. 
  2. ePortfolio course (2 units): The ePortfolio is preparation for the capstone project, and as such, must be taken by Spring quarter of the Junior year. The ePortfolio will reflect on the intersections (and possible disjunctions) between Computer Science and Classics. This may be an independent study or group seminar class. Topics might center on critical review of existing projects that join Computer Science and Classics, including analyses and reflections on two-to-three different digital humanities projects in the field of Classics. It might also include a commentary from a Classicist perspective on work in foundational Computer Science courses, an analysis of the implications of computational technology for historical or literary study in Classics, or the application of Classicists' methodologies to technological problems or issues. 
  3. Senior capstone project (5 units): The capstone project will be an original and integrative research project, guided by advisers in both departments, drawing on knowledge and skills in both areas, and counting towards the joint major on the Classics side. This will likely be independent study with Classics faculty or a course with a required project. It is also possible for honors thesis work in Classics to count towards this requirement, if the thesis project has a significant computational component. Projects might include analysis of archaeological or historical data, digital editions of texts, analyses of ancient corpora, digital representations and engagements with historical problems in the study of the ancient world, study of natural language processing as applied to literary analysis of ancient texts. 
All ePortfolio and senior capstone projects must be approved by the Director of Undergraduate Studies. 

Declaring a Joint Major Program

To declare the joint major, students must first declare each major through Axess, and then submit the Declaration or Change of Undergraduate Major, Minor, Honors, or Degree Program. The Major-Minor and Multiple Major Course Approval Form is required for graduation for students with a joint major.

Dropping a Joint Major Program

Information about dropping a joint major program is still being developed. This bulletin will be updated when that information is available. Student may consult the Student Services Center with questions concerning dropping the joint major.

Transcript and Diploma

Students completing a joint major graduate with a B.A.S. degree. The two majors are identified on one diploma separated by a hyphen. There will be a notation indicating that the student has completed a "Joint Major".  The two majors are identified on the transcript with a notation indicating that the student has completed a "Joint Major".

Minor in Classics

The Director of Undergraduate Studies meets with each student who opts for the minor to discuss curriculum choices and assigns the student an adviser in the relevant field. Students are required to work closely with their advisers to create a cohesive curriculum within each area. Students who minor in Classics are required to take CLASSICS 150 Majors Seminar, which is writing intensive. Completion of the minor requires a minimum of 20 units.

Students may choose among four fields of study for the minor in Classics:

  • Classical Languages
  • Ancient History
  • Literature and Philosophy
  • Classical Studies

These fields of study are declared on Axess; they do not appear on the transcript or the diploma.

I. Classical Languages

Students are required to take a minimum of five courses in Greek or in Latin. In addition to the five required courses, students must take CLASSICS 150 Majors Seminar. Students wishing to combine Greek and Latin may only do so if courses for one of the two languages are all intermediate level or above. Choose from the following courses this year:

Units
CLASSICS 1LBeginning Latin5
CLASSICS 2LBeginning Latin5
CLASSICS 3LBeginning Latin5
CLASSICS 11LIntermediate Latin: Introduction to Literature5
CLASSICS 12LIntermediate Latin: Plautus5
CLASSICS 13LIntermediate Latin: Cicero and Catullus5
CLASSICS 101LAdvanced Latin3-5
CLASSICS 102LAdvanced Latin: Livy4-5
CLASSICS 103LAdvanced Latin: Latin Lovers3-5
CLASSICS 1GBeginning Greek5
CLASSICS 2GBeginning Greek5
CLASSICS 3GBeginning Greek5
CLASSICS 11GIntermediate Greek: Prose5
CLASSICS 12GIntermediate Greek: Herodotus - the father of history?5
CLASSICS 13GIntermediate Greek: Homer5
CLASSICS 101GAdvanced Greek: Plato's Phaedrus3-5
CLASSICS 102GAdvanced Greek: Lyric Poetry3-5
CLASSICS 103GAdvanced Greek: Scientific Writing3-5

II. Ancient History

Students are required to take a minimum of five courses in history, art history, and archaeology (any course within CLASSICS 51-99 or CLASSICS 151-197). Courses taken outside of the department may be substituted for one or more of these courses with prior, written approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies. In addition to the five required courses, students must take CLASSICS 150 Majors Seminar. Courses offered in Latin and Greek that focus on historical topics or authors may count toward this minor with prior, written approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies. Students may count up to 4 units of IHUM 69A or the fall quarter of SIMILE towards the breadth requirement; note that IHUM courses are no longer offered. Choose from the following courses this year:

Units
CLASSICS 51Introduction to the Archaeology of Greece3-5
CLASSICS 52Introduction to Roman Archaeology3-5
CLASSICS 54Introduction to World Architecture5
CLASSICS 81Ancient Empires: Near East4-5
CLASSICS 82The Egyptians3-5
CLASSICS 83The Greeks4-5
CLASSICS 84The Romans3-5
CLASSICS 88Origins of History in Greece and Rome4-5
CLASSICS 151Ten Things: An Archaeology of Design3
CLASSICS 153Ancient Urbanism5
CLASSICS 154Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: Maritime Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean3-4
CLASSICS 159Appropriations of Greek Art4-5
CLASSICS 161Archaic Greek Art4
CLASSICS 162Empire and Aftermath: Greek Art from the Parthenon to Scopas4
CLASSICS 163Greek Art In and Out of Context4-5
CLASSICS 168Engineering the Roman Empire4-5
CLASSICS 169Archaeology of Britannia3-4

III. Literature and Philosophy

Students are required to take a minimum of five courses in classical literature or philosophy, including classical science. Courses taken outside of the department (for instance, from the Philosophy department) may be substituted for one or more of these courses with prior, written approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies. In addition to the five required courses, students must take CLASSICS 150 Majors Seminar. Courses offered in Latin and Greek that focus on philosophical or literary topics or authors may count toward the minor. Choose from the following courses this year:

Units
CLASSICS 16NSappho: Erotic Poetess of Lesbos4-5
CLASSICS 35Becoming Like God: An Introduction to Greek Ethical Philosophy3-5
CLASSICS 42Philosophy and Literature5
CLASSICS 121Ecology in Philosophy and Literature3-5
CLASSICS 136The Greek Invention of Mathematics3-5
CLASSICS 181Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought4-5

IV. Classical Studies

Students are required to take a minimum of five courses in Classics plus CLASSICS 150 Majors Seminar. Students may count up to 4 units of THINK 10, THINK 16, THINK 35 (no longer offered), IHUM 39A, IHUM 69A (IHUM courses no longer offered), SLE or fall quarter of SIMILE towards the breadth requirement.

Master of Arts in Classics

University requirements for the master’s degree are described in the “Graduate Degrees” section of this bulletin.

I and II. Language and Literature, and Philosophy Fields of Study

Students who have completed an undergraduate major in Classics (Greek, Latin, or Greek and Latin fields of study) or equivalent may be accepted as candidates for the M.A. degree in Classics and may expect to complete the program in twelve months (usually three quarters of course work plus three months study for the thesis or examination). Students with an undergraduate major in Classics (Ancient History or Classical Studies fields of study) or without an undergraduate major in Classics may also be accepted as candidates, though they may require a longer period of study before completing the requirements for the degree. These requirements are:

  1. Attaining a standard of scholarship such as would be reached by three quarters of study in the department after fulfilling the requirements for an undergraduate major in the department. Normally, this means completing at least 25 units of graduate courses and 20 units of work at the 100 level or higher.
  2. Completion of one Greek language course at the 100 level (if the undergraduate major field of study was Latin) or one Latin language course at the 100 level (if the undergraduate major field of study was Greek). This requirement is waived for students with an undergraduate major in Classics (Greek and Latin field of study).
  3. Passing an examination testing the candidate’s ability to translate into English from a selected list of Greek and/or Latin authors.  This exam is a minimum of two hours, requiring a grade of "B" or higher to pass.
  4. Completion of the syntax sequence in at least one language.  For Latin, this is CLASSICS 204A Latin Syntax and CLASSICS 204B Latin Syntax.  For Greek, this is CLASSICS 205A Greek Syntax: Prose Composition and CLASSICS 205B Greek Syntax: Prose Composition.
  5. Writing a thesis, or passing of an examination on a particular author or topic, or having written work accepted by the graduate committee as an equivalent. Three completed and satisfactory seminar papers are normally an acceptable equivalent, provided each paper has earned the grade of B+ or higher.
  6. Students must pass a reading exam in one of the following languages: German, French or Italian. In exceptional circumstances, the Graduate Committee will permit a different language, e.g. Modern Greek or Russian, to be substituted in keeping with research plans. As of September 2014, modern language exams will be based on individualized reading lists: five academic monographs or equivalent, chosen by the student in consultation with the Director of Graduate Studies and agreed in writing at least two months in advance. Students will be allowed to use paper and online dictionaries. Exams will be offered twice a year: at the start of the Fall term and the end of the Spring term.  Incoming graduates may choose to be tested as early as the Fall term exam. The department strongly encourages students to take modern language exams as early as possible in the program.  If the first attempt to pass the exam is unsuccessful, the student will be allowed to retake the test only once. Failing the second examination will mean automatic dismissal from the program. A grade of B- or higher is required to pass.
  7. Completion and approval of a Program Proposal for a Master’s Degree form during the first quarter of enrollment, at least five days prior to the Final Study List deadline.

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics may also, on the recommendation of the department, become candidates for the M.A. degree. In this case, requirement 5 above is waived provided that the student has completed some work beyond the course requirements listed under requirements 1 and 2 above. Current Stanford graduate students in other degree programs may be considered for the M.A. degree, but must be admitted into the program and must complete all requirements listed above.

III. Classical Archaeology

Students who have completed an undergraduate major in Classics with a Classical Archaeology field of study, or in a closely related field, may be accepted as candidates for the M.A. degree in Classics with a Classical Archaeology field of study, and may expect to complete the program in twelve months (usually three quarters of course work plus three months study for the thesis or examination). Students without an undergraduate major in Classics with a Classical Archaeology field of study may also be accepted as candidates, though they may require a longer period of study before completing the requirements for the degree. These requirements are:

  1. Attaining a standard of scholarship such as would be reached by three quarters of study in the department after fulfilling the requirements for an undergraduate major in the department. Normally, this means completing at least 25 units of graduate courses and 20 additional units of work at the 100 level or higher.
  2. Completion with a grade of ‘B’ or higher of at least 15 units of graduate-level courses in classical archaeology, in addition to CLASSICS 331 Words and Things in the History of Classical Scholarship. (see 4).
  3. Passing an examination testing the candidate’s ability to translate into English from a selected list of Greek and/or Latin authors.  This exam is a minimum of two hours, requiring a grade of "B" or higher to pass.
  4. Completion with a grade of ‘B’ or higher of CLASSICS 331 Words and Things in the History of Classical Scholarship, or an equivalent course on the history of thought in classical archaeology approved by the Classics department’s graduate committee.
  5. Writing a thesis, or passing an exam on a particular topic, or having written work accepted by the graduate committee as an equivalent. Three completed and satisfactory seminar papers are normally an acceptable equivalent, provided each paper has earned the grade of B+ or higher.
  6. Students must pass a reading exam in one of the following languages: German, French or Italian. In exceptional circumstances, the Graduate Committee will permit a different language, e.g. Modern Greek or Russian, to be substituted in keeping with research plans. As of September 2014, modern language exams will be based on individualized reading lists: five academic monographs or equivalent, chosen by the student in consultation with the Director of Graduate Studies and agreed in writing at least two months in advance. Students will be allowed to use paper and online dictionaries. Exams will be offered twice a year: at the start of the Fall term and the end of the Spring term.  Incoming graduates may choose to be tested as early as the Fall term exam. The department strongly encourages students to take modern language exams as early as possible in the program.  If the first attempt to pass the exam is unsuccessful, the student will be allowed to retake the test only once. Failing the second examination will mean automatic dismissal from the program. A grade of B- or higher is required to pass.
  7. Completion and approval of a Program Proposal for a Master’s Degree form during the first quarter of enrollment, at least five days prior to the Final Study List deadline.

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree may also, on the recommendation of the department, become candidates for the M.A. degree. In their case, requirement 5 above is waived provided that the student has completed some work beyond the course requirements listed under requirements 1 and 2 above. Current Stanford graduate students in other degree programs may be considered for the M.A. degree, but must be admitted into the program and must complete all requirements listed above.

IV. Ancient History

Students who have completed an undergraduate major in Classics with an Ancient History field of study, or in a closely related field may be accepted as candidates for the M.A. degree in Classics with an Ancient History field of study, and may expect to complete the program in twelve months (usually three quarters of course work plus three months study for the thesis or examination). Students without an undergraduate major in Classics with an Ancient History field of study may also be accepted as candidates, though they may require a longer period of study before completing the requirements for the degree. These requirements are:

  1. Attaining a standard of scholarship such as would be reached by three quarters of study in the department after fulfilling the requirements for an undergraduate major in the department. Normally, this means completing 30 units of graduate courses and 15 additional units of work at the 100 level or higher.
  2. Satisfactory completion of 20 units of graduate-level courses in Classics and of 10 units of graduate-level courses in other programs.
  3. Satisfactory completion of 15 additional units of courses in either ancient Greek or Latin at the 100 level or higher.
  4. Writing a thesis, or passing an exam on a particular topic, or having written work accepted by the Graduate Committee as an equivalent. Three completed and satisfactory seminar papers are normally an acceptable equivalent, provided each paper has earned the grade of B+ or higher.
  5. Students must pass a reading exam in one of the following languages: German, French or Italian. In exceptional circumstances, the Graduate Committee will permit a different language, e.g. Modern Greek or Russian, to be substituted in keeping with research plans. As of September 2014, modern language exams will be based on individualized reading lists: five academic monographs or equivalent, chosen by the student in consultation with the Director of Graduate Studies and agreed in writing at least two months in advance. Students will be allowed to use paper and online dictionaries. Exams will be offered twice a year: at the start of the Fall term and the end of the Spring term.  Incoming graduates may choose to be tested as early as the Fall term exam. The department strongly encourages students to take modern language exams as early as possible in the program.  If the first attempt to pass the exam is unsuccessful, the student will be allowed to retake the test only once. Failing the second examination will mean automatic dismissal from the program. A grade of B- or higher is required to pass.
  6. Completion and approval of a Program Proposal for a Master’s Degree form during the first quarter of enrollment, at least five days prior to the Final Study List deadline.

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree may also (on the recommendation of the department) become candidates for the M.A. degree. In their case, requirement 4 above is waived provided that they have completed some work beyond the course requirements listed under requirements 1 and 2 above. Current Stanford graduate students in other degree programs may be considered for the M.A. degree, but must be admitted into the program and must complete all requirements listed above.

Coterminal Bachelor's and Master's Degree in Classics

Stanford students in any undergraduate major who wish to pursue graduate work in Classics may apply for Stanford's coterminal master's program. Students considering a co-term are encouraged to consult with the Director of Undergraduate Studies and the department's student services officer about their plans before filing an application. No courses used to satisfy the undergraduate requirements (either as General Education Requirements or department requirements) may be applied toward the M.A. No courses taken more than two quarters prior to the first quarter of the master's program may be applied toward the M.A. Applicants must have a minimum GPA of 3.7 in the major, and no Incomplete grades on record. Undergraduate course work in Greek and Latin and one of the required modern languages is normally a prerequisite for graduate-level work.

To apply, students submit the Application for Admission to Coterminal Master's Program form, two letters of recommendation from Classics faculty, a sealed, official copy of their undergraduate transcript, a 1-3 page statement of purpose and a 10-15 page writing sample to the student services officer. GRE scores are not required. Applications are due in early January of the intended graduation year for the undergraduate degree; please see the departmental website for the specific deadline.

University requirements for the coterminal M.A. are described in the "Coterminal Bachelor's and Master's Degrees" section of this bulletin. For University coterminal degree program rules and University application forms, see the Stanford Undergrad Coterm Guide.

Doctor of Philosophy in Classics

University requirements for the Ph.D. are described in the “Graduate Degrees” section of this bulletin. There are four specializations within the Classics Ph.D. program: language and literature; classical archaeology; ancient history; and the joint program in ancient philosophy. These specializations will appear on the transcript and the diploma.

I. Language and Literature

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics with specialization in language and literature must fulfill the following requirements:

  1. Complete 135 units of academic credit or equivalent in study beyond the bachelor’s degree no later than the end of the fourth year. These must include the following courses:
    Units
    CLASSICS 201LSurvey of Latin Literature: Literature of the Roman Republic3-5
    CLASSICS 202LSurvey of Latin Literature: Augustan Age Latin3-5
    CLASSICS 203LSurvey of Latin Literature: Imperial Latin3-5
    CLASSICS 201GSurvey of Greek Literature: Archaic Greek3-5
    CLASSICS 202GSurvey of Greek Literature: Classical Greek3-5
    CLASSICS 203GSurvey of Greek Literature: Hellenistic and Late Greek3-5
    CLASSICS 204ALatin Syntax4
    CLASSICS 204BLatin Syntax2
    CLASSICS 205AGreek Syntax: Prose Composition2
    CLASSICS 205BGreek Syntax: Prose Composition4
    CLASSICS 206AThe Semantics of Grammar2
    CLASSICS 206BThe Semantics of Grammar2
    Plus twelve graduate seminars, nine of which must be Classics seminars, and one of the remaining three of which must be outside the department. The other two seminars may be in Classics, from other departments (with the graduate director’s approval), and/or directed readings. 1,2
     
    1

    No more than two directed readings may be counted towards this requirement.

    2

    Classics seminars are sometimes offered for a spread of units (3, 4 or 5).  In some cases, instructors allow a student to complete a seminar for less units without requiring a written paper but with completion of all other requirements.

  2. Maintain satisfactory progress throughout the degree program.  The Classics department sets a higher standard for satisfactory progress than the University minimum requirements.  To maintain that standard, students are expected to:
    • Maintain good grades (within the Classics department, this normally means grades in the A range; an accumulation of grades of B+ or lower may indicate problems).
    • pass all required exams by the required deadlines
    • write a minimum of three seminar papers per year in the first three years
    • demonstrate high quality research and writing
    • take no more than one incomplete grade at a time (unless given special permission by the Director of Graduate Studies)
    • take incomplete grades only occasionally and finish any Incompletes in a timely manner
    • demonstrate effective teaching when serving as a Teaching Assistant or Teaching Fellow
    Students who fail to maintain satisfactory progress will have travel and discretionary funds withheld until the situation is redressed.
  3. Students must apply and be approved to advance to candidacy by the end of Summer Quarter of their second year.
  4. Examinations:
    • As soon as students arrive, they must take diagnostic exams in Greek and Latin. Depending on performance, students may be required to enroll in undergraduate language classes in that language to improve their skills to the level required for graduate work.
    • Students must take Greek and Latin translation exams at the end of each survey sequence (Spring Quarter of the first and second years). Students are exempted from the final exam in Spring Quarter Survey in order to prepare for these translations exams. These exams are based on the Greek and Latin reading lists available on the Classics Department web site. Greek and Latin survey courses cover less than half of the material on which the translation exams test, and students need to prepare much of the work on their own. It is possible to take both exams in the first year if the student chooses. However, the student cannot choose to delay the first year exam to take both in the second year. The exam consists of a choice of six of eight passages, and students are allowed three hours. A grade of ‘B-’ or higher, on every passage, is required to pass. If a student does not attain a ‘B-’, the exam must be retaken and passed later in the summer before registering for the Autumn Quarter, in order to continue in the program. The exam can only be retaken once.
    • Students must pass two modern language translation exams: (1) German and (2) French or Italian. In exceptional circumstances, the Graduate Committee will permit a different language, e.g. Modern Greek or Russian, to be substituted for (2), in keeping with dissertation research plans. As of September 2014, modern language exams will be based on individualized reading lists: five academic monographs or equivalent, chosen by the student in consultation with the Director of Graduate Studies and agreed in writing at least two months in advance. Students will be allowed to use paper and online dictionaries. Exams will be offered twice a year: at the start of the Fall term and the end of the Spring term.  Incoming graduates may choose to be tested as early as the Fall term exam. The department strongly encourages students to take modern language exams as early as possible in the program (at least one modern language by the end of the first year), and certainly after any summer language courses they may have taken.  Students will have two opportunities to the pass the modern language examinations.  Failing the second opportunity will mean automatic dismissal from the program. At the latest, students are required to pass the first modern language exam by the end of the second year, and the second modern language exam by the end of the third year, in order to maintain satisfactory progress. A grade of B- or higher is required to pass.
    • Students must take general examinations in Greek literature and Latin literature, and choose two more exams from the following fields: Ancient Philosophy, Greek history, Roman history, Greek archaeology and Roman archaeology. Students must select the remaining two fields in consultation with the graduate director no later than June of the second year of graduate study. Candidates must have taken at least one course at Stanford in each of the chosen fields (in the case of ancient philosophy, a seminar or its equivalent); exceptions must be granted by the Director of Graduate Studies. Students need to prepare by conferring with the professor overseeing the exam. One general examination (and a second if approved by the graduate director) must be taken in the first two to three weeks of the student's second year, Autumn Quarter. Remaining exams will be taken during the first two to three weeks of the third year, Autumn Quarter.
    • The University oral examination, which is a defense of the candidate’s dissertation. In order to take this exam, a significant portion of the dissertation must be completed and approved by the dissertation adviser(s), the exam committee must have been established and approved by the Chair, and a date and time must have been arranged with the department.  The exam consists of a public presentation with question and answer period (no longer than an hour), followed by a private examination between the student and the exam committee (also no longer than an hour).
  5. During the third year, the candidate, in consultation with the dissertation proposal director, prepares a dissertation proposal which is examined by the dissertation proposal defense committee (set up by the dissertation proposal director and consisting of the dissertation proposal director and two other faculty members, one of whom may be from outside the department), no later than the end of the first quarter of the fourth year. If the proposal is deemed unsatisfactory, this proposal examination is repeated in the following quarter and must be passed. Failure to pass this re-examination results in dismissal. Subsequently, each candidate, in consultation with the graduate director and the dissertation proposal director, selects a dissertation director who must be a member of the Academic Council. The candidate and the dissertation director collaborate to select an appropriate dissertation reading committee in accordance with University rules.
  6.  Students are required to undertake the equivalent of four one-quarter courses of teaching under department supervision. This teaching requirement is normally completed during the second and third years of study. Under certain circumstances, summer teaching may satisfy this requirement.

II. Classical Archaeology

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics with a specialization in classical archaeology must fulfill the requirements following below.

Students are encouraged to enroll in or audit other undergraduate courses that may fill gaps in their undergraduate training. All students are expected to take part in archaeological fieldwork in the classical world areas. At least three consecutive quarters of course work must be taken at Stanford.

  1. Complete 135 units of academic credit or equivalent in study beyond the bachelor’s degree at the end of the candidate’s fourth year, including:
    Units
    CLASSICS 331Words and Things in the History of Classical Scholarship 14-5
    At least three graduate (200 or 300) level courses in Latin and/or Greek literature 39-15
    Survey of Latin Literature: Literature of the Roman Republic
    Survey of Latin Literature: Augustan Age Latin
    Survey of Latin Literature: Imperial Latin
    Survey of Greek Literature: Archaic Greek
    Survey of Greek Literature: Classical Greek
    Survey of Greek Literature: Hellenistic and Late Greek
    The interdepartmental graduate core sequence in archaeology. The Archaeology Center announces the courses which fulfill this requirement. The core sequence currently comprises a seminar in archaeology theory and a course on archaeological methods.
    Introduction to Archaeological Theory
    Archaeological Methods
    At least one further course outside the Classics department. 23-5
    At least five graduate seminars in classical archaeology. Suggested courses this year include: 215-25
    Doing Business in Classical Antiquity: Mediterranean Exchange
    Archaeology: Post-Humanist Agendas
    Mediterranean Networks
    At least three graduate seminars in ancient history. Suggested courses this year include: 29-15
    Art, Ekphrasis, and Music in Byzantium and Islam
    Animation, Performance, Presence in Medieval Art
    Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought
    High-Stakes Politics: Case Studies in Political Philosophy, Institutions, and Interests
    Ancient Greek Economic Development
    Ancient Greek Economic Development
    Early Empires: Han and Rome
    Humanities+Design: Visualizing the Grand Tour
  2. 1

    Must be take as early as possible in the candidate's Stanford career.

    2

    Students may petition to count independent study courses in place of up to two required courses, but no more.

    3

    Students who enter the program with only one ancient language at the level needed for graduate study are strongly encouraged to take additional course work to reach graduate (200 and above) level in another language.

    Maintain satisfactory progress throughout the degree program.  The Classics department sets a higher standard for satisfactory progress than the University minimum requirements.  To maintain that standard, students are expected to:
    • Maintain good grades (within the Classics department, this normally means grades in the A range; an accumulation of grades of B+ or lower may indicate problems).
    • pass all required exams by the required deadlines
    • write a minimum of three seminar papers per year in the first three years
    • demonstrate high quality research and writing
    • take no more than one incomplete grade at a time (unless given special permission by the Director of Graduate Studies)
    • take incomplete grades only occasionally and finish any Incompletes in a timely manner
    • demonstrate effective teaching when serving as a Teaching Assistant or Teaching Fellow
    Students who fail to maintain satisfactory progress will have travel and discretionary funds withheld until the situation is redressed.
  3. Students must apply and be approved to advance to candidacy by the end of Summer Quarter of their second year.
  4. Examinations:
    • As soon as students arrive, they must take diagnostic exams in Greek and Latin. Depending on performance, students may be required to enroll in undergraduate language classes in that language to improve their skills to the level required for graduate work.
    • Students must pass two modern language translation exams: (1) German and (2) French or Italian. In exceptional circumstances, the Graduate Committee will permit a different language, e.g. Modern Greek or Russian, to be substituted for (2), in keeping with dissertation research plans. As of September 2014, modern language exams will be based on individualized reading lists: five academic monographs or equivalent, chosen by the student in consultation with the Director of Graduate Studies and agreed in writing at least two months in advance. Students will be allowed to use paper and online dictionaries. Exams will be offered twice a year: at the start of the Fall term and the end of the Spring term.  Incoming graduates may choose to be tested as early as the Fall term exam. The department strongly encourages students to take modern language exams as early as possible in the program (at least one modern language by the end of the first year), and certainly after any summer language courses they may have taken. Students will have two opportunities to the pass the modern language examinations.  Failing the second opportunity will mean automatic dismissal from the program. At the latest, students are required to pass the first modern language exam by the end of the second year, and the second modern language exam by the end of the third year, in order to maintain satisfactory progress. A grade of B- or higher is required to pass.
    • Students must demonstrate graduate-level competency with an ancient language in one of two ways:
      1. Option 1: A translation examination from Latin or Greek into English. This examination must be taken Spring Quarter of the first year or Spring Quarter of the second year. A grade of ‘B-’ or higher on every passage is required to pass. If a student does not meet that standard, the exam must be retaken and passed later in the summer before registering for Autumn Quarter, in order to continue in the program. The exam can only be retaken once.
      2. Option 2: Students must complete the course and take the final offered at the end of each quarter of Greek or Latin survey. Students must earn a 'B-' or higher on each final to pass.
    • Students must take general examinations in Greek archaeology and Roman archaeology, and choose two more exams from the following fields: Ancient Philosophy, Greek history, Roman history, Greek literature and Latin literature. Students must select the remaining two fields in consultation with the graduate director no later than June of the second year of graduate study. Candidates must have taken at least one course at Stanford in each of the chosen fields (in the case of ancient philosophy, a seminar or its equivalent); exceptions must be granted by the Director of Graduate Studies. Students need to prepare by conferring with the professor overseeing the exam. One general examination (and a second if approved by the graduate director) must be taken in the first two to three weeks of the student's second year, Autumn Quarter. Remaining exams will be taken during the first two to three weeks of the third year, Autumn Quarter.
    • The University oral examination, which is a defense of the candidate’s dissertation. In order to take this exam, a significant portion of the dissertation must be completed and approved by the dissertation adviser(s), the exam committee must have been established and approved by the Chair, and a date and time must have been arranged with the department.  The exam consists of a public presentation with question and answer period (no longer than an hour), followed by a private examination between the student and the exam committee (also no longer than an hour).
  5. During the third year, the candidate, in consultation with the dissertation proposal director, prepares a dissertation proposal which is examined by the dissertation proposal defense committee (set up by the dissertation proposal director and consisting of the dissertation proposal director and two other faculty members, one of whom may be from outside the department), no later than the end of the first quarter of the fourth year. If the proposal is deemed unsatisfactory, this proposal examination is repeated in the following quarter and must be passed. Failure to pass this re-examination results in dismissal. Subsequently, each candidate, in consultation with the graduate director and the dissertation proposal director, selects a dissertation director who must be a member of the Academic Council. The candidate and the dissertation director collaborate to select an appropriate dissertation reading committee in accordance with University rules.
  6. Students are required to undertake the equivalent of four one quarter courses of teaching under department supervision. This teaching requirement is normally completed during the second and third years of study. Under certain circumstances, summer teaching may satisfy this requirement.

III. Ancient History

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics with specialization in ancient history must fulfill the following requirements:

  1. Complete 135 units of academic credit or equivalent in study beyond the bachelor’s degree at the end of the fourth year. These must include:
    HISTORY 304Approaches to History5
    Two proseminars. These introduce students to primary sources of evidence for ancient history that require special training: papyrology, epigraphy, paleography, numismatics, and archaeology. This year's offerings are: 1,28-10
    Proseminar: Documentary Papyrology
    Paleography of Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts
    Advanced Paleography
    Three skills courses relevant to the individual student's chosen research approach. For example, a student could take classes in economics, demography, legal history, or anthropology. Courses can also be used to learn other ancient or modern languages, either by course work or directed reading. 19-15
    Ten graduate seminars (200-level or above). At least five of these seminars must be taken in the department. 2,330-50
    ANCIENT LANGUAGE COURSEWORK
    Option 1: Students focus more on one ancient language by taking 15 units of one survey series (CLASSICS 201L/202L/203L or CLASSICS 201G/202G/203G) and 5 units of the alternate series, plus the following courses: 430
    The Semantics of Grammar
    The Semantics of Grammar
    Latin Syntax
    Latin Syntax
    Greek Syntax: Prose Composition
    Greek Syntax: Prose Composition
    Option 2: Student emphasize broader linguistic skills. This requires students to take both ancient language surveys.30
    Survey of Latin Literature: Literature of the Roman Republic
    Survey of Latin Literature: Augustan Age Latin
    Survey of Latin Literature: Imperial Latin
    Survey of Greek Literature: Archaic Greek
    Survey of Greek Literature: Classical Greek
    Survey of Greek Literature: Hellenistic and Late Greek
    1

    Students must consult their advisers and the graduate director to determine the appropriate coursework.

    2

    With the approval of their advisers and graduate director, students may take seminars outside of the department or at another university with which Stanford has an exchange agreement to fulfill this requirement.

    3

    Two of these seminars may be replaced by directed readings with adviser and graduate director approval.

    4

     Students who select Greek for their primary language should consult with the graduate director for a course to replace the Semantics of Grammar requirement.

  2. Maintain satisfactory progress throughout the degree program.  The Classics department sets a higher standard for satisfactory progress than the University minimum requirements.  To maintain that standard, students are expected to: Students who fail to maintain satisfactory progress will have travel and discretionary funds withheld until the situation is redressed.
    • Maintain good grades (within the Classics department, this normally means grades in the A range; an accumulation of grades of B+ or lower may indicate problems).
    • pass all required exams by the required deadlines
    • write a minimum of three seminar papers per year in the first three years
    • demonstrate high quality research and writing
    • take no more than one incomplete grade at a time (unless given special permission by the Director of Graduate Studies)
    • take incomplete grades only occassionally and finish any Incompletes in a timely manner
    • demonstrate effective teaching when serving as a Teaching Assistant or Teaching Fellow
    Students who fail to maintain satisfactory progress will have travel and discretionary funds withheld until the situation is redressed.
  3. Students must apply and be approved to advance to candidacy by the end of Summer Quarter of their second year.
  4. Examinations:
    • As soon as students arrive, they must take diagnostic exams in Greek and Latin, as well as Greek and Roman history. Depending on performance, students may be required to enroll in undergraduate language classes in that language to improve their skills to the level required for graduate work. The history exams are mainly on narrative history, especially important names, dates, and events. Depending on performance, students may be asked to sit in on the undergraduate history courses and take a directed reading or a graduate survey if offered.
    • Students must take the final offered at the end of each quarter of Greek or Latin survey (for Option 1 above) or both Greek and Latin surveys (for Option 2 above). Students must earn a ‘B-’ or higher on each final to pass.
    • Students must pass two modern language translation exams: (1) German and (2) French or Italian. In exceptional circumstances, the Graduate Committee will permit a different language, e.g. Modern Greek or Russian, to be substituted for (2), in keeping with dissertation research plans. As of September 2014, modern language exams will be based on individualized reading lists: five academic monographs or equivalent, chosen by the student in consultation with the Director of Graduate Studies and agreed in writing at least two months in advance. Students will be allowed to use paper and online dictionaries. Exams will be offered twice a year: at the start of the Fall term and the end of the Spring term.  Incoming graduates may choose to be tested as early as the Fall term exam. The department strongly encourages students to take modern language exams as early as possible in the program (at least one modern language by the end of the first year), and certainly after any summer language courses they may have taken. Students will have two opportunities to the pass the modern language examinations.  Failing the second opportunity will mean automatic dismissal from the program. At the latest, students are required to pass the first modern language exam by the end of the second year, and the second modern language exam by the end of the third year, in order to maintain satisfactory progress. A grade of B- or higher is required to pass.
    • Students must take general examinations in Greek history and Roman history, and choose two more exams from the following fields: Ancient Philosophy, Greek archaeology, Roman archaeology, Greek literature and Latin literature. Students must select the remaining two fields in consultation with the graduate director no later than June of the second year of graduate study. Candidates must have taken at least one course at Stanford in each of the chosen fields (in the case of ancient philosophy, a seminar or its equivalent); exceptions must be granted by the Director of Graduate Studies. Students need to prepare by conferring with the professor overseeing the exam. In preparing for the general examinations, candidates are expected to make full use of relevant secondary material in modern languages. They should therefore plan to satisfy the requirements in French and German as soon as possible, preferably before the translation examinations. One general examination (and a second if approved by the graduate director) must be taken in the first two to three weeks of the student's second year, Autumn Quarter. Remaining exams will be taken during the first two to three weeks of the third year, Autumn Quarter.
    • The University oral examination, which is a defense of the candidate’s dissertation. In order to take this exam, a significant portion of the dissertation must be completed and approved by the dissertation adviser(s), the exam committee must have been established and approved by the Chair, and a date and time must have been arranged with the department.  The exam consists of a public presentation with question and answer period (no longer than an hour), followed by a private examination between the student and the exam committee (also no longer than an hour).
  5. During the third year, the candidate, in consultation with the dissertation proposal director, prepares a dissertation proposal which is examined by the dissertation proposal defense committee (set up by the dissertation proposal director and consisting of the dissertation proposal director and two other faculty members, one of whom may be from outside the department), no later than the end of the first quarter of the fourth year. If the proposal is deemed unsatisfactory, this proposal examination is repeated in the following quarter and must be passed. Failure to pass this re-examination results in dismissal. Subsequently, each candidate, in consultation with the graduate director and the dissertation proposal director, selects a dissertation director who must be a member of the Academic Council. The candidate and the dissertation director collaborate to select an appropriate dissertation reading committee in accordance with University rules.
  6. Candidates are required to undertake the equivalent of four one quarter courses of teaching under department supervision. This teaching requirement is normally completed during the second and third years of study. Under certain circumstances, summer teaching may satisfy this requirement.

IV. Joint Program in Ancient Philosophy

This specialization is jointly administered by the departments of Classics and Philosophy and is overseen by a joint committee composed of members of both departments. It provides students with the training, specialist skills, and knowledge needed for research and teaching in ancient philosophy while producing scholars who are fully trained as either philosophers or classicists.

Graduate students admitted by the Classics department receive their Ph.D. from the Classics department. This specialization includes training in ancient and modern philosophy. Each student in the program is advised by a committee consisting of one professor from each department.

Candidates for the Ph.D. degree in Classics with specialization in ancient philosophy must fulfill the following requirements:

Units
Students must take three courses in the Philosophy department 19-15
One course in logic which can be fulfilled at the 100-level or higher
One course in aesthetics, ethics, or political philosophy (200-level or higher)
One course in metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, or philosophy of science.
At least three courses in ancient philosophy at the 200 level or above, one of which must be in the Philosophy department. 19-15
  1. 1

    All courses taken in the Philosophy department count for seminar credit (i.e., as contributing to the 12-seminar requirement in the Language and Literature track in the Classics department).

    Complete 135 units of academic credit or equivalent in study beyond the bachelor’s degree at the end of the fourth year. This includes all the requirements listed for the language and literature specialization in the graduate program in Classics (see above).  Students must also take the below courses focusing on philosophy.
  2. Examinations: The requirements are the same as those listed in the language and literature specialization, except that one of the four areas of general examination must be taken in ancient philosophy in addition to the exams in Greek literature and Latin literature.
  3. Dissertation Proposal: The requirements are the same as those listed in the language and literature specialization.
  4. Teaching: The requirements are the same as those listed in the language and literature specialization.

Classics and a Minor Field

The Ph.D. in Classics may be combined with a minor in another field, such as anthropology, history, humanities, or classical linguistics. Requirements for the minor field vary, but can include about six graduate-level courses in the field and one written examination, plus a portion of the University oral exam (dissertation defense). Students must consult with the department in which the minor is offered for exact requirements. Students who pursure this are expected to take five years. The department encourages such programs for especially able and well prepared students. The following timetable would be typical for a five-year program:

  • First Year: course work, almost entirely in Classics. One translation exam taken in June. One or both modern language exams taken.
  • Second Year: course work, both in Classics and the minor field. Second translation exam completed. French and German exams completed.
  • Third Year: course work, both in Classics and the minor field. General examinations in Classics.
  • Fourth Year: remaining course work, both in Classics and the minor field. General examination in the minor field. Preparation for dissertation.
  • Fifth Year: dissertation, University oral examination.

Ph.D. Minor in Classics

For a graduate minor, the department recommends at least 20 units in Latin or Greek at the intermediate-level or above, and at least one course at the graduate (200) level or above.  Students interested in this minor must discuss their proposed course plan with the Director of Graduate Studies as well as their Ph.D. department before obtaining Classics department approval.

Emeriti: (Professors) Mark W. Edwards, Marsh H. McCall, Jr.,* Susan Treggiari

Chair: Walter Scheidel

Director of Graduate Studies: Grant Parker

Director of Undergraduate Studies and Joint Major Advisor: Giovanna Ceserani

Professors: Alessandro Barchiesi, Andrew M. Devine, Richard P. Martin, Ian Morris, Reviel Netz, Andrea Nightingale, Josiah Ober (Classics, Political Science), Anastasia-Erasmia Peponi, M. Rush Rehm (Classics, TAPS), Richard Saller (Classics, History), Walter Scheidel (Classics, History), Michael Shanks, Susan A. Stephens

Associate Professors: Giovanna Ceserani, Christopher B. Krebs, Jody Maxmin (Art and Art History, Classics), Grant Parker, Jennifer Trimble

Assistant Professor: Justin Leidwanger

Courtesy Professors: Fabio Barry (Art and Art History), Chris Bobonich (Philosophy), Alan Code (Philosophy), Charlotte Fonrobert (Religious Studies), Ian Hodder (Anthropology), Bissera Pentcheva (Art and Art History),  Caroline Winterer (History), Yiqun Zhou (East Asian Languages and Cultures)

Visiting Professor: Thomas A. Schmitz

Lecturers: Maud Gleason, John Klopacz

* Recalled to active duty.

Courses

CLASSICS 1G. Beginning Greek. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 1.) No knowledge of Greek is assumed. Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language.

CLASSICS 1L. Beginning Latin. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 1.) Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. No previous knowledge of Latin is assumed.

CLASSICS 2G. Beginning Greek. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 2.) Continuation of CLASSICS 1G. Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language.

CLASSICS 2L. Beginning Latin. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 2.) Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. Prerequisite: CLASSICS 1L or equivalent placement.

CLASSICS 3G. Beginning Greek. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 3.) Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. Prerequisite: CLASSICS 2G or equivalent placement. CLASSICS 3G fulfills University language requirement.

CLASSICS 3L. Beginning Latin. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 3.) Vocabulary and syntax of the classical language. Prerequisite: CLASSICS 2L or equivalent placement. CLASSICS 3L fulfills the University language requirement.

CLASSICS 4L. Intensive Beginning Latin. 12 Units.

Equivalent to a year of beginning Latin (three quarters; CLASSLAT 1, 2 and 3), this course is designed to teach the fundamentals of the Latin language in eight weeks. We will focus primarily on acquiring the basics of Latin grammar, morphology, and vocabulary and developing basic reading skills. At the end of the course, students should be able to read easy Latin prose and poetry. We will be using Wheelock's Latin textbook and meeting three hours a day, four days a week. Grades will depend on class participation and on performance in weekly quizzes and in a final written exam. Classics majors and minors must take course for letter grade. CLASSLAT 10 fulfills the University language requirement. Graduate students may take 210, all others enroll in 10.
Same as: CLASSLAT 210.

CLASSICS 6G. Biblical Greek. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 5.) This is a one term intensive class in Biblical Greek. After quickly learning the basics of the language, we will then dive right into readings from the New Testament and the Septuagint, which is the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. No previous knowledge of Greek required. If demand is high for a second term, an additional quarter will be offered in the Spring.
Same as: JEWISHST 5, RELIGST 171A.

CLASSICS 6L. Latin 500-1600 CE. 5 Units.

The aim of the course is to familiarize students with medieval Latin and neo-Latin through a reading of various short texts drawn from philosophical, religious, political, historical, and literary works. Students will devote most of their efforts to preparing translations for class. We shall also discuss some peculiarities of post-classical Latin grammar. Prerequisite: CLASSLAT 1, 2 & 3, or equivalent.
Same as: ENGLISH 113L, PHIL 113L, PHIL 213L, RELIGST 173X.

CLASSICS 7G. Biblical Greek. 3-5 Units.

This is a continuation of the Winter Quarter Biblical Greek Course. We will be reading selections primarily from the New Testament (both Gospels and Epistles) as well as focusing on knowledge of key vocabulary and grammar needed to read the Greek Bible with ease. Readings will be supplemented with sections from the Septuagint and Early Christian texts (Apostolic Fathers and Early Creeds). Pre-requisite: ClassGrk 5 or a similar introductory course in Ancient Greek.
Same as: JEWISHST 5B, RELIGST 5B.

CLASSICS 11G. Intermediate Greek: Prose. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 101.) Transition to reading narrative: Lucian, with selections from Plato and New Testament. Grammar review and vocabulary-building.

CLASSICS 11L. Intermediate Latin: Introduction to Literature. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 101.) Phonology, morphology, semantics, and syntax. Readings in prose and poetry. Analysis of literary language, including rhythm, meter, word order, narrative, and figures of speech.

CLASSICS 12G. Intermediate Greek: Herodotus - the father of history?. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 102.) Herodotus of Halicarnassus (ca. 484 - 426) has often been celebrated as the "father of history." But the promised "display of his research" owes much to the Homeric poems, contemporary tragedy, and the medical discourse, and it contains lengthy passages quite fabulous and mysterious. We will read sections of book 1 and 8 in Greek, review morphology and syntax as needed, and reflect on the Ionic enlightenment, Herodotus' role therein, and his status as a historian. Classics majors and minors may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 12L. Intermediate Latin: Plautus. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 102.) A close study of two plays by the brilliant comic dramatist of the 2nd Century BC. The course will develop confidence and expertise in translating Latin, with special attention to syntax. Topics to be considered include the relation of Plautine comedy to Greek models, issues in performance, and socio-political contexts. Classics majors and minors may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 13G. Intermediate Greek: Homer. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 103.) Full description TBD. Classics majors and minors may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 13L. Intermediate Latin: Cicero and Catullus. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 103.) In this class you will practice with and reinforce the advanced vocabulary, forms, and syntax of classical Latin you have previously acquired by reading continuous works of Latin prose (Cicero) and poetry (Catullus). While the primary emphasis of this course is on developing fluency in reading Latin, you will have opportunities to discuss and research the biographical, political, and literary issues raised by the readings. Your knowledge of the content and syntax of the readings will be assessed by several short translation/grammar quizzes. You will also sit for mid-quarter and end-quarter tests. Classics majors and minors may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 16N. Sappho: Erotic Poetess of Lesbos. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 24N.) Preference to freshmen. Sappho's surviving fragments in English; traditions referring to or fantasizing about her disputed life. How her poetry and legend inspired women authors and male poets such as Swinburne, Baudelaire, and Pound. Paintings inspired by Sappho in ancient and modern times, and composers who put her poetry to music.
Same as: FEMGEN 24N.

CLASSICS 17N. To Die For: Antigone and Political Dissent. 4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 6N.) Preference to freshmen. Tensions inherent in the democracy of ancient Athens; how the character of Antigone emerges in later drama, film, and political thought as a figure of resistance against illegitimate authority; and her relevance to contemporary struggles for women's and workers' rights and national liberation. Readings and screenings include versions of Antigone by Sophocles, Anouilh, Brecht, Fugard/Kani/Ntshona, Paulin, Glowacki, Gurney, and von Trotta.
Same as: TAPS 12N.

CLASSICS 21Q. Eight Great Archaeological Sites in Europe. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 21Q.) Preference to sophomores. Focus is on excavation, features and finds, arguments over interpretation, and the place of each site in understanding the archaeological history of Europe. Goal is to introduce the latest archaeological and anthropological thought, and raise key questions about ancient society. The archaeological perspective foregrounds interdisciplinary study: geophysics articulated with art history, source criticism with analytic modeling, statistics interpretation. A web site with resources about each site, including plans, photographs, video, and publications, is the basis for exploring.

CLASSICS 24N. What is a Map?. 4 Units.

Exploration of the nature of maps via an overview of premodern mapping practices, combining theory and history of maps. Hands-on research involving Stanford's rare and historical maps, and chance to create own maps.

CLASSICS 26N. The Roman Empire: Its Grandeur and Fall. 4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 24N.) Preference to freshmen. Explore themes on the Roman Empire and its decline from the 1st through the 5th centuries C.E.. What was the political and military glue that held this diverse, multi-ethnic empire together? What were the bases of wealth and how was it distributed? What were the possibilities and limits of economic growth? How integrated was it in culture and religion? What were the causes and consequences of the conversion to Christianity? Why did the Empire fall in the West? How suitable is the analogy of the U.S. in the 21st century?
Same as: HISTORY 11N.

CLASSICS 28N. Inequality: the Last 100,000 Years. 3 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 13N.) This seminar traces the evolution of resource inequality from the Stone Age to the present. Only this long-term perspective reveals the forces that drive inequality and allows us to address two key questions: what causes inequality, and what factors have been capable of reducing it, at least for a while? We are going to confront challenging arguments: that inequality has been closely tied up with overall economic and human development, and that over the long course of history, war, revolution and pestilence were the most effective equalizers of income and wealth. This class will help you appreciate contexts and complexities that are usually obscured by partisan polemics and short-term thinking. Seminar participants will be directly involved in the instructor's current research project on the history of inequality.
Same as: HISTORY 15N.

CLASSICS 31. Greek Mythology. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 18.) The heroic and divine in the literature, mythology, and culture of archaic Greece. Interdisciplinary approach to the study of individuals and society. Illustrated lectures. Readings in translation of Homer, Hesiod, Herodotus, and the poets of lyric and tragedy. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.

CLASSICS 32. Gender and Power in Ancient Greece. 4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 17.) Introduction to the sex-gender system of ancient Greece, with comparative material from modern America. How myths, religious rituals, athletics, politics and theater reinforced gender stereotypes and sometimes undermined them. Skills: finding clues, identifying patterns and making connections amongst the components of a strange and beautiful culture very different from our own. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: FEMGEN 17.

CLASSICS 34. Ancient Athletics. 3-4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 34.) How the Olympic Games developed and how they were organized. Many other Greek festivals featured sport and dance competitions, including some for women, and showcased the citizen athlete as a civic ideal. Roman athletics in contrast saw the growth of large-scale spectator sports and professional athletes. Some toured like media stars; others regularly risked death in gladiatorial contests and chariot-racing. We will also explore how large-scale games were funded and how they fostered the development of sports medicine. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required; enroll in sections on coursework.

CLASSICS 35. Becoming Like God: An Introduction to Greek Ethical Philosophy. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 35.) This course investigates key ethical philosophies in classical Greece. After reading several Greek tragedies (representing traditional Greek values), we examine the Greek philosophers' rejection of this tradition and their radically new ethical theories. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle offered different ethical theories, but they shared basic conceptions of goodness and happiness. They argues that we could "become like gods" by achieving philosophic wisdom. What kind of wisdom is this? How does it make us ethically good and supremely happy people?.

CLASSICS 36. Gender and Power in Ancient Rome. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 119.) Interactions of gender and power in ancient Roman politics, religion, spectacles, and daily life. Masculinity and femininity in founding legends and public rituals; the ambiguous status of Vestal Virgins; gendered behavior in the Roman Forum; the spatial logic of prostitution; sexual characterizations of good vs. bad emperors in ancient texts; gender and time in Roman houses; inversions of gender and space in early Christian martyr narratives. Readings include modern gender theory as well as ancient Roman texts and material culture.

CLASSICS 41. Herodotus. 4-5 Units.

For Ancient History field of study majors; others by consent of instructor. Close reading technique. Historical background to the Greco-Persian Wars; ancient views of empire, culture, and geography; the wars and their aftermath; ancient ethnography and historiography, including the first narrative of ancient Egypt.

CLASSICS 42. Philosophy and Literature. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 81) Required gateway course for Philosophical and Literary Thought; crosslisted in departments sponsoring the Philosophy and Literature track: majors should register in their home department; non-majors may register in any sponsoring department. Introduction to major problems at the intersection of philosophy and literature. Issues may include authorship, selfhood, truth and fiction, the importance of literary form to philosophical works, and the ethical significance of literary works. Texts include philosophical analyses of literature, works of imaginative literature, and works of both philosophical and literary significance. Authors may include Plato, Montaigne, Nietzsche, Borges, Beckett, Barthes, Foucault, Nussbaum, Walton, Nehamas, Pavel, and Pippin. Taught in English.
Same as: COMPLIT 181, ENGLISH 81, FRENCH 181, GERMAN 181, ITALIAN 181, PHIL 81, SLAVIC 181.

CLASSICS 43. Exploring the New Testament. 4 Units.

The New Testament is many things to many people. Around the globe, it is and has been for two millennia a source of culture, law, and faith. It has been used both to undergird battles for civil rights and to fight against them. It has been used both to justify wars and to argue that all war is unjust. Yet, many people haven¿t read the New Testament and still more haven¿t looked at it from historical, sociological, comparative and literary frameworks. This course will provide you the opportunity to read the New Testament and to study it closely. We will ask questions of the New Testament about the early Jesus movement, how it fits into its historical context and how it developed. We will look at the range of opinions and views about Jesus present in this literature. We will explore the different genres used by early Christians. We will examine how this set of Early Christian texts came to be considered the canon.
Same as: RELIGST 86.

CLASSICS 51. Introduction to the Archaeology of Greece. 3-5 Units.

An introduction to the archaeology of ancient Greece, from the first city states through the cultural achievements of classical Athens to the conquest by Rome.
Same as: ARCHLGY 51.

CLASSICS 52. Introduction to Roman Archaeology. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 81.) This course will introduce you to the material culture of the ancient Roman world, from spectacular imperial monuments in the city of Rome to cities and roads around the Mediterranean, from overarching environmental concerns to individual human burials, from elite houses and army forts to the the lives of slaves, freedmen and gladiators. Key themes will be change and continuity over time; the material, spatial and visual workings of power; how Roman society was materially changed by its conquests and how conquered peoples responded materially to Roman rule.
Same as: ARCHLGY 81.

CLASSICS 54. Introduction to World Architecture. 5 Units.

This lecture course surveys the history of architecture and urbanism, from the first societies to the present, in Europe, West and East Asia, the Americas, and Africa. The course progresses by case studies of exemplary monuments and cities, and examines the built environment as both cultural artifact and architectural event. It considers the social and political circumstances of architectural invention as well as plumbing the depth of artistic context by which particular formal choices resonate with an established representational culture.
Same as: ARTHIST 3.

CLASSICS 55. Urban Sustainability: Long-Term Archaeological Perspectives. 3-5 Units.

Comparative and archaeological view of urban design and sustainability. How fast changing cities challenge human relationships with nature. Innovation and change, growth, industrial development, the consumption of goods and materials. Five millennia of city life including Near Eastern city states, Graeco-Roman antiquity, the Indus Valley, and the Americas.

CLASSICS 76. Global History: The Ancient World. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the emergence of "world empires"-- the first way of constituting a world-- in four regions of the eastern hemisphere from the first millennium BCE to the year 900 CE. It will study the pivotal role of cities, the importance of rulers, the incorporation of diverse peoples, and how the states that followed their collapse constituted new world orders through combining imitation of the vanished empire with the elaboration of the new "world religions."
Same as: HISTORY 1A.

CLASSICS 81. Ancient Empires: Near East. 4-5 Units.

Why do imperialists conquer people? Why do some people resist while others collaborate? This course tries to answer these questions by looking at some of the world's earliest empires. The main focus is on the expansion of the Assyrian and Persian Empires between 900 and 300 BC and the consequences for the ancient Jews, Egyptians, and Greeks. The main readings come from the Bible, Herodotus, and Assyrian and Persian royal inscriptions, and the course combines historical and archaeological data with social scientific approaches. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.

CLASSICS 82. The Egyptians. 3-5 Units.

Overview of ancient Egyptian pasts, from predynastic times to Greco-Roman rule, roughly 3000 BCE to 30 BCE. Attention to archaeological sites and artifacts; workings of society; and cultural productions, both artistic and literary. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: AFRICAAM 30.

CLASSICS 83. The Greeks. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 101.) 250 years ago, for almost the first time in history, a few societies rejected kings who claimed to know what the gods wanted and began moving toward democracy. Only once before had this happened--in ancient Greece. This course asks how the Greeks did this, and what they can teach us today. It uses texts and archaeology to trace the material and military sides of the story as well as cultural developments, and looks at Greek slavery and misogyny as well as their achievements. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: HISTORY 101.

CLASSICS 84. The Romans. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 60.) How did a tiny village create a huge empire and shape the world, and why did it fail? Roman history, imperialism, politics, social life, economic growth, and religious change. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required; enroll in sections on Coursework.
Same as: HISTORY 102A.

CLASSICS 88. Origins of History in Greece and Rome. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 117.) The beginnings and development of historical writing in the ancient world. Emphasis on major classical historians and various models of history they invented, from local to imperial, military, cultural, biographical, world history and church history. Focus on themes of power, war, loss, growth and decline, as put by the ancients into historical narrative forms and probed by way of historical questioning and explanation. Attention to how these models resonate still today. Readings in translation: Herodotus, Thucydides, Tacitus, Livy and others. Participation in a weekly discussion section is required.
Same as: HISTORY 114.

CLASSICS 101G. Advanced Greek: Plato's Phaedrus. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 111.) The course will be an intensive and extensive reading of this intriguing dialogue. Focus will center on making sense of the Greek and polishing translation/grammar skills. However, the trees of language should not prevent us from gazing at the whole forest. As it is, the Phaedrus deals with the significant interplay between eros and logos ¿i.e. the far-reaching extents of a rhetoric on love. Topics opened by this vein of thought include: a unique pastoral setting, philosophy and myth, the origins of poetic creation, types of madness, man¿s relation to the divine, the nature of the soul, the art of writing as a cause of oblivion. Classics majors and minors must take for a letter grade and may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 101L. Advanced Latin. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 111.) Full description TBD. Classics majors and minors must take for a letter grade and may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 102G. Advanced Greek: Lyric Poetry. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 112.) Invectives, love songs, drinking songs, elegies, and choral odes from 700-500 B.C.E. Readings include Sappho, Alcaeus, Archilochus, Mimnermus, Alcman, Solon, and Pindar. Classics majors and minors may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 102L. Advanced Latin: Livy. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 112.) Livy's Book I tells the story of Rome from its founding to the banishment of the kings, recounting most famous episodes of Roman legendary history, models of Roman ideals and virtues. Reading also excerpts from Livy Book 6, we will ask: What makes Livy's story-telling so compelling? What kind of history did Livy think he was writing? What can we read in these legends about Roman values, self-definition and possibly self-doubt? Close attention to language, style and narrative techniques.

CLASSICS 103G. Advanced Greek: Scientific Writing. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 113.) Euclid and Archimedes. Reading texts from Greek science. The relationship between form and meaning in the presentation of scientific information, introduction to Greek Paleography. Classics majors and minors must take for a letter grade and may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 103L. Advanced Latin: Latin Lovers. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 113.) Four brilliant writers¿¿Gallus, Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid¿¿composed poetry on the thrills and pangs of love and loss: they are known as the Roman elegists. We will look at some of their predecessors and read their own works in Latin in selection, reflect on their choice of life in the service of love, and review grammar and syntax as necessary. Classics majors and minors must take course for a letter grade and may repeat for credit with advance approval from the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

CLASSICS 104A. Latin Syntax. 4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 175A/275A.) Intensive review of Latin syntax. Begins Autumn Quarter and continues through the fifth week of Winter Quarter. See CLASSICS 206A/B for supplemental courses. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Latin. First-year graduate students register for CLASSICS 204A.
Same as: CLASSICS 204A.

CLASSICS 104B. Latin Syntax. 2 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 175B/275B) Intensive review of Latin syntax. Began with 104A/204A in Autumn Quarter and continues through the fifth week of Winter Quarter. See CLASSICS 206A/B for supplemental courses. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Latin. First-year graduate students register for CLASSICS 204B.
Same as: CLASSICS 204B.

CLASSICS 105A. Greek Syntax: Prose Composition. 2 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 175A/275A.) Review of Greek grammar and instruction in Greek prose composition skills. Begins sixth week of Winter Quarter and continues through Spring Quarter. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Greek. First-year graduate students register for 205A/B.
Same as: CLASSICS 205A.

CLASSICS 105B. Greek Syntax: Prose Composition. 4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 175B/275B.) Review of Greek grammar and instruction in Greek prose composition skills. Begins sixth week of Winter Quarter and continues through Spring Quarter. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Greek. First-year graduate students register for 205A/B.
Same as: CLASSICS 205B.

CLASSICS 112. Introduction to Greek Tragedy: Gods, Heroes, Fate, and Justice. 4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 110.) Gods and heroes, fate and free choice, gender conflict, the justice or injustice of the universe: these are just some of the fundamental human issues that we will explore in about ten of the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.
Same as: TAPS 167.

CLASSICS 121. Ecology in Philosophy and Literature. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 116.) The basic principles of ecological thinking, exploring the ways that different writers represent and relate to the natural world. Some key questions: What is nature, and where do humans fit in the natural world? How exactly do humans differ from other animals? Do these differences make us superior beings? What are our ethical responsibilities towards the earth and its inhabitants? In what ways have the technologies of writing, television, and computers affected humankind's relationship to the natural world?.

CLASSICS 123. Ancient Medicine. 3-4 Units.

Contemporary medical practice traces its origins to the creation of scientific medicine by Greek doctors such as Hippocrates and Galen. Is this something of which modern medicine can be proud? The scientific achievements and ethical limitations of ancient medicine when scientific medicine was no more than another form of alternative medicine. Scientific medicine competed in a marketplace of ideas where the boundaries between scientific and social aspects of medicine were difficult to draw.

CLASSICS 124. Ancient and Modern Medicine. 3-4 Units.

Imagine a world where the Universe has a built-in purpose and point. How would this belief impact man's place in nature? Imagine a world where natural substances have "powers." How might this impact diet and pharmacology? Magical vs. scientific healing: a clear divide? Disease and dehumanization: epilepsy, rabies. Physical and mental health: black bile and melancholy. The ethical and scientific assumptions hidden in medical language and imagery. How ancient medicine and modern medicine (especially alternative medicine) illuminate each other.

CLASSICS 136. The Greek Invention of Mathematics. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 103.) How was mathematics invented? A survey of the main creative ideas of ancient Greek mathematics. Among the issues explored are the axiomatic system of Euclid's Elements, the origins of the calculus in Greek measurements of solids and surfaces, and Archimedes' creation of mathematical physics. We will provide proofs of ancient theorems, and also learn how such theorems are even known today thanks to the recovery of ancient manuscripts.
Same as: MATH 163.

CLASSICS 137. Ancient Dance and its Modern Legacy. 3-5 Units.

Descriptions of dance in the Greek and Greco-Roman world; theories about dance in antiquity; dance and the senses; modern and modernist dancers and choreographers discussing ancient dance
Same as: CLASSICS 237, TAPS 165C, TAPS 265C.

CLASSICS 142. Emperor, Explorer, and God: Alexander the Great in the Global Imagination. 3 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 109.) This course will survey the changing image of Alexander the Great from the Hellenistic world to the contemporary. We shall study the appropriation of his life and legend in a variety of cultures both East and West and discuss his reception as both a divine and a secular figure by examining a variety of media including texts (primary and secondary) and images (statues, coins, mosaics, illuminated manuscripts, film, and TV) in the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Jewish, Islamic, Medieval, Renaissance, and Early Modern contexts. In concluding the quarter, students will evaluate contemporary representations in film and popular culture, such as Alexander directed by Oliver Stone and Pop Art in order to better appreciate his enduring legacy.
Same as: RELIGST 109.

CLASSICS 143. Images of Women in Ancient China and Greece. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 153/253.) Representation of women in ancient Chinese and Greek texts. How men viewed women and what women had to say about themselves and their societies. Primary readings in poetry, drama, and didactic writings. Relevance for understanding modern concerns; use of comparison for discovering historical and cultural patterns.
Same as: CHINGEN 143, CHINGEN 243, CLASSICS 243.

CLASSICS 145. Early Christian Gospels. 4 Units.

An exploration of Christian gospels of the first and second century. Emphasis on the variety of images and interpretations of Jesus and the good news, the broader Hellenistic and Jewish contexts of the gospels, the processes of developing and transmitting gospels, and the creation of the canon. Readings include the Gospel of John, the Gospel of Mark, the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Mary and other canonical and non-canonical gospels.
Same as: RELIGST 132D.

CLASSICS 146. Winged Bulls and Sun Disks: Religion and Politics in the Persian Empire. 3-5 Units.

Stretching from India to Ethiopia, the Persian Empire¿the largest empire before Rome¿has been represented as the exemplar of oriental despotism and imperial arrogance, a looming presence and worthy foil for the ¿West¿ and Greek democracy. This course will provide a general introduction to the Persian Empire, beginning in the 6th century BCE to the fall of Persia to Alexander the Great in 331 BCE. We shall not only examine the originality of the first world empire of antiquity, but the course will also attempt to present a broad picture of the diverse cultural institutions and religious practices found within the empire. Readings in translation from the royal edicts and the inscriptions of Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes will allow us to better appreciate the subtle ways in which these Persian kings used religion to justify and propagate the most ambitious imperial agenda the world had ever seen. In concluding the quarter, students will evaluate contemporary representations of Persia and the Persians in politics and popular culture in a wide array of media, such as the recent film 300 and the graphic novel on which it is based, in an attempt to better appreciate the enduring legacy of the Greco-Persian wars.
Same as: CLASSICS 246, RELIGST 229, RELIGST 329.

CLASSICS 147. Priests, Prophets, and Kings: Religion and Society in Late Antique Iran. 4-5 Units.

From India to the Levant and from the Caspian Sea to the Arabian Peninsula, the Sasanian Empire (224-651 CE) was the dominant power in the Middle East till the advent of Islam. Diverse religious institutions and social practices of the Zoroastrians, Manicheans, Jews, and Christians in late antique Iran. Complex relationships between the Zoroastrian priesthood, the Sasanian monarchs, and these minority religions within the context of imperial rule. Profound religious and social changes that occurred with the Islamic conquests of Iran as well as examine the rich cultural continuities that survived from the Pre-Islamic past.
Same as: CLASSICS 247, RELIGST 309.

CLASSICS 148. Imperishable Heroes and Unblemished Goddesses: Myth, Ritual, and Epic in Ancient Iran. 3-5 Units.

Designed as a broad introduction to the world of ancient Iran, students will be introduced to the Indo-European inheritance in ancient Iranian culture; the shared world of ritual, religion, and mythology between Zoroastrianism in Iran and Vedic Hinduism in India; and to the contours of early Zoroastrian religious thought. We will also survey mythoepic literature in translation from the archaic Avesta through the late antique Zoroastrian Middle Persian corpus to the early medieval national epic of Iran, the Book of Kings of Ferdowsi.
Same as: CLASSICS 248, RELIGST 209E, RELIGST 309E.

CLASSICS 150. Majors Seminar. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 176.) Required of Classics majors and minors in junior or senior year; students contemplating honors should take this course in junior year. Advanced skills course involving close reading, critical thinking, editing, and writing. In-class and take-home writing and revising exercises. Final paper topic may be on any subject related to Classics. Fulfills WIM requirement for Classics.

CLASSICS 151. Ten Things: An Archaeology of Design. 3 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 113/213.) Connections among science, technology, society and culture by examining the design of a prehistoric hand axe, Egyptian pyramid, ancient Greek perfume jar, medieval castle, Wedgewood teapot, Edison's electric light bulb, computer mouse, Sony Walkman, supersonic aircraft, and BMW Mini. Interdisciplinary perspectives include archaeology, cultural anthropology, science studies, history and sociology of technology, cognitive science, and evolutionary psychology.
Same as: ARCHLGY 151.

CLASSICS 153. Ancient Urbanism. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 112/212.) Beyond a focus on artists and patrons: how Roman art was seen and understood by its contemporary viewers. Themes include memory, performance, gender, replication, and constructions of space. Goal is to draft a differentiated model of viewing and literacy, with attention to collective experience, hierarchy, access, and subversion.
Same as: URBANST 119.

CLASSICS 154. Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: Maritime Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean. 3-4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 145.) Why do we care about shipwrecks? What can sunken sites and abandoned ports tell us about our past? Focusing primarily on the archaeological record of shipwrecks and harbors, along with literary evidence and contemporary theory, this course examines how and why ancient mariners ventured across the "wine-dark seas" of the Mediterranean for travel, warfare, pilgrimage, and especially commerce. We will explore interdisciplinary approaches to the development of maritime contacts and communication from the Bronze Age through the end of Roman era. At the same time, we will engage with practical techniques of maritime archaeology, which allows us to explore the material record first hand.
Same as: ARCHLGY 145.

CLASSICS 159. Appropriations of Greek Art. 4-5 Units.

Upper division seminar. The history of the appropriation of Greek art by Rome, the Renaissance, Lord Elgin, and Manet. Enrollment limited to 6. Prerequisite: ARTHIST 102 or consent of instructor.

CLASSICS 161. Archaic Greek Art. 4 Units.

In the decades 480-460, just before work began on the Parthenon, the sculptor Myron, creator of the Discus-Thrower, was even more celebrated for his bronze cow. Ancient authors describe an image so palpably alive that shepherds threw stones at her, thinking that she had strayed from the herd, and bulls vied for her attention. A century later, the quest for mimesis prompted a contest between two artists. Zeuxis painted a bunch of grapes seductive enough to attract hungry birds; Parrhasios then added a linen curtain, which Zeuxis asked to be removed from his painting. Zeuxis conceded defeat since he had fooled only birds, whereas Parrhasios had deceived an artist. nnThis course explores the art and culture of the ancestors of these men. The Greeks of the archaic period (1000-480) would have understood the painters¿ competitive zeal, but only toward the end of the period would they have recognized naturalism as an artistic aim. nnEarlier Greek art is more abstract than life-like, closer to Calder than Michelangelo. In the eighth century Homer¿s descriptions of the rippling muscles (and egos) of his heroes, and the grief of Achilles¿ horses, evoke living men and sentient animals, but his fellow sculptors and painters prefer abstraction.nnThis changes in the seventh century as a result of commercial contacts with the Near East and Egypt. Imported bronzes, ivories and other Near Eastern exotica alerted Greek artists to a wider range of subjects, techniques and intentions, including naturalism. Later in the century, Greek expatriates learned the art of carving hard stone from Egyptian masters and soon marble sculpture and architecture spread throughout Greece. nnIn the course of the sixth and early fifth centuries Greek artists assimilate what they had borrowed, compete with one another, obey and disobey their teachers, test the tolerance of the gods and eventually produce works of art that speak with a Greek accent. When the Persians invaded the Acropolis in 480 and 479, they encountered artifacts with little trace of alien influence or imprint and, at Salamis and Plataea, fought decisive battles in which the Greeks prevailed. In the aftermath of the war, as the Greeks rebuilt their cities and their lives, Myron¿s cow reminded them of their debts to other cultures and their resolve to remain true to their own.
Same as: ARTHIST 101.

CLASSICS 162. Empire and Aftermath: Greek Art from the Parthenon to Scopas. 4 Units.

The class begins with the art, architecture and political ideals of Periclean Athens, from the emergence of the city as the political and cultural center of Greece in 450 to its defeat in the Peloponnesian War in 404. It then considers how Athens and the rest of Greece proceed in the fourth century to rebuild their lives and the monuments that define them. Earlier artistic traditions endure, with subtle changes, in the work of sculptors such as Kephisodotos. Less subtle are the outlook and output of his son Praxiteles. In collaboration with Phryne, his muse and mistress, Praxiteles challenged the canons and constraints of the past with the first female nude in the history of Greek sculpture. His gender-bending depictions of gods and men were equally audacious, their shiny surfaces reflecting Plato¿s discussion of Eros and androgyny. Scopas was also a man of his time but pursued different interests. Drawn to the inner lives of men and woman, his tormented Trojan War heroes and victims are still scarred by memories of the Peloponnesian War, and a world away from the serene faces of the Parthenon. His famous Maenad, a devotee of Dionysos who has left this world for another, belongs to the same years as Euripides¿ Bacchae and, at the same time, anticipates the torsion and turbulence of Bernini and the Italian Baroque. In the work of these and other fourth century personalities, the stage is set for Alexander the Great and his conquest of a kingdom extending from Greece to the Indus River. (Formerly CLASSART 102)
Same as: ARTHIST 102, ARTHIST 302.

CLASSICS 163. Greek Art In and Out of Context. 4-5 Units.

The seminar considers Greek artifacts in the context of Greek life (including the life of the workshop), and the endless ways in which craftsmen served the needs of Greek society. Their foundries, factories and ceramic studios produced the material goods that defined Greek life: temples, statues and other offerings for the gods; arms and armor for warriors; sporting equipment and prizes for athletes; houses, clothing and crockery for the family; ships and sailcloth, wagons and ploughs, wine and oil-presses for a thriving domestic and overseas economy; gravestones and funeral vases for the dead. (Formerly CLASSART 109.) nMost of the antiquities exhibited in museums, or purchased by private collectors from galleries and auction houses, survive because they were buried with people who used and cherished them. The Greeks¿ belief that the artifacts they valued in life would serve them in the afterlife informs the second part of the seminar, which is devoted to the recent history of tomb looting and the illicit trafficking in antiquities.
Same as: ARTHIST 203.

CLASSICS 168. Engineering the Roman Empire. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 117.) Roman monuments and monumental space were designed to impress. This class explores the interrelated aesthetics and mechanics of construction that led to one of the most extensive building programs undertaken by a pre-modern state. Through case studies ranging from arches, columns and domes to road networks, machines and landscape modification, we investigate not only the materials, methods, and knowledge behind Roman architectural innovation, but the communication of imperial messages through designed space.
Same as: ARCHLGY 118.

CLASSICS 169. Archaeology of Britannia. 3-4 Units.

Life in the Roman Empire: this course is a broad introduction to the archaeology of one of the best known provinces of the empire.
Same as: ARCHLGY 169.

CLASSICS 171. Byzantine Art and Architecture, 300-1453 C.E.. 4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 106/206.) This course and its study trip to the Getty (Los Angeles) to view the new Byzantine exhibition explores the art and architecture of the Eastern Mediterranean: Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, Damascus, Thessaloniki, and Palermo, 4th-15th centuries. Applying an innovative approach, we will probe questions of phenomenology and aesthetics, focusing our discussion on the performance and appearance of spaces and objects in the changing diurnal light, in the glitter of mosaics and in the mirror reflection and translucency of marble.
Same as: ARTHIST 106, ARTHIST 306.

CLASSICS 172. Art & Architecture in the Medieval Mediterranean. 4 Units.

Chronological survey of Byzantine, Islamic, and Western Medieval art and architecture from the early Christian period to the Gothic age. Broad art-historical developments and more detailed examinations of individual monuments and works of art. Topics include devotional art, court and monastic culture, relics and the cult of saints, pilgrimage and crusades, and the rise of cities and cathedrals.
Same as: ARTHIST 105, ARTHIST 305.

CLASSICS 173. Hagia Sophia. 5 Units.

By employing a methodology based in psychoacoustics, semiotics, and phenomenology, this course explores the relationship among sound, water, marble, meaning, and religious experience in the sixth-century church of HagianSophia built by emperor Justinian in Constantinople. We will read medieval sources describing the interior and ritual, make short movies exploring the shimmer of marble in buildings on campus, and study the acoustics of domed buildings through computer auralization done at Stanford's CCRMA (Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics)
Same as: ARTHIST 208.

CLASSICS 174. Art and Religious Experience in Byzantium and Islam. 5 Units.

This course presents a comparative study of Christian and Islamic paradigms (sixth to the thirteenth centuries) in the construction of religious experience through the material fabric of the building, the interior decor, objects, and rituals. We will read medieval ekphrastic texts and poetry, which stirred the viewer/participant to experience the building/object as animate. Among the sites we will study are: Hagia Sophia, the Ka'ba, the Dome of teh Rock, the Mosque at Damascus and at Cordoba. We will read Byzantine and Arabic writers such as Paul the Silentiary, Patriarch Germanos, Maximus Confessor, Shahrawardi, and Ibn Arabi.
Same as: ARTHIST 209, ARTHIST 309.

CLASSICS 175. Architecture, Acoustics and Ritual in Byzantium. 1-3 Unit.

Onassis Seminar "Icons of Sound: Architecture, Acoustics and Ritual in Byzantium". This year-long seminar explores the creation and operations of sacred space in Byzantium by focusing on the intersection of architecture, acoustics, music, and ritual. Through the support of the Onassis Foundation (USA), nine leading scholars in the field share their research and conduct the discussion of their pre-circulated papers. The goal is to develop a new interpretive framework for the study of religious experience and assemble the research tools needed for work in this interdisciplinary field.
Same as: ARTHIST 208C, ARTHIST 408C, MUSIC 208C, MUSIC 408C, REES 208C, REES 408C, RELIGST 208C, RELIGST 308C.

CLASSICS 181. Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 133/333.) Political philosophy in classical antiquity, focusing on canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. Historical background. Topics include: political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; and law, civic strife, and constitutional change.
Same as: CLASSICS 381, PHIL 176A, PHIL 276A, POLISCI 230A, POLISCI 330A.

CLASSICS 183. Economy and Economics of Ancient Greece. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 114.) Cultural and political background for Athens of the 5th and 4th century BC. Athenian economy of the 4th century BC. Economic ideas of Plato, Aristotle, and Xenophon. Pros and Cons of utilitarianism in light of the ethical theories of Plato and Aristotle. Economy and economics of ancient Greece will be compared to the same of ancient China. There is an interesting parallel.
Same as: ECON 114.

CLASSICS 184. Ancient and Modern Slavery. 3-5 Units.

The ancient Greeks and Roman created the largest and most durable slave system in world history. It formed one of the foundations of classical civilization. While cruelty and exploitation were ever-present features, ancient slavery was not race-based and many slaves came to be freed and fully integrated into society. We will investigate this complex institution from a comparative perspective and in the context of the experience of modern colonial slavery.

CLASSICS 198. Directed Readings. 1-15 Unit.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 160.) May be repeated for credit.
Same as: Undergraduate.

CLASSICS 199. Undergraduate Thesis: Senior Research. 2-10 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 199.).

CLASSICS 201G. Survey of Greek Literature: Archaic Greek. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 208A.) Required two-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years.

CLASSICS 201L. Survey of Latin Literature: Literature of the Roman Republic. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 207A.) One-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years. Focus is on translation, textual criticism, genre, the role of Greece in shaping Roman literature, and oral versus written discourse.

CLASSICS 202G. Survey of Greek Literature: Classical Greek. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 208B.) Required two-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years.

CLASSICS 202L. Survey of Latin Literature: Augustan Age Latin. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 207B.) Required two-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Texts of Augustan literature required by the graduate syllabus, emphasizing poetry and major authors.

CLASSICS 203G. Survey of Greek Literature: Hellenistic and Late Greek. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 208C.) Required two-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Greek and Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years.

CLASSICS 203L. Survey of Latin Literature: Imperial Latin. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 207C.) One-year sequence focusing on the origins, development, and interaction of Latin literature, history, and philosophy. Greek and Latin material taught in alternate years.

CLASSICS 204A. Latin Syntax. 4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 175A/275A.) Intensive review of Latin syntax. Begins Autumn Quarter and continues through the fifth week of Winter Quarter. See CLASSICS 206A/B for supplemental courses. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Latin. First-year graduate students register for CLASSICS 204A.
Same as: CLASSICS 104A.

CLASSICS 204B. Latin Syntax. 2 Units.

(Formerly CLASSLAT 175B/275B) Intensive review of Latin syntax. Began with 104A/204A in Autumn Quarter and continues through the fifth week of Winter Quarter. See CLASSICS 206A/B for supplemental courses. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Latin. First-year graduate students register for CLASSICS 204B.
Same as: CLASSICS 104B.

CLASSICS 205A. Greek Syntax: Prose Composition. 2 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 175A/275A.) Review of Greek grammar and instruction in Greek prose composition skills. Begins sixth week of Winter Quarter and continues through Spring Quarter. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Greek. First-year graduate students register for 205A/B.
Same as: CLASSICS 105A.

CLASSICS 205B. Greek Syntax: Prose Composition. 4 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGRK 175B/275B.) Review of Greek grammar and instruction in Greek prose composition skills. Begins sixth week of Winter Quarter and continues through Spring Quarter. Prerequisite for undergraduates: three years of Greek. First-year graduate students register for 205A/B.
Same as: CLASSICS 105B.

CLASSICS 206A. The Semantics of Grammar. 2 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 205A.) Supplements CLASSICS 104A/204A. 206A: Tense, Aspect, Argument Structure, Location. 206B: Quantification, Plurality, Modification, Negation, Modality.

CLASSICS 206B. The Semantics of Grammar. 2 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 205B.) Supplements CLASSICS 104B/204B. 206A: Tense, Aspect, Argument Structure, Location. 206B: Quantification, Plurality, Modification, Negation, Modality.

CLASSICS 213. Proseminar: Documentary Papyrology. 3-5 Units.

The focus will be on documentary papyrology. Students will be introduced to the basics of the discipline.

CLASSICS 215. Paleography of Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts. 3-5 Units.

Introductory course in the history of writing and of the book, from the late antique period until the advent of printing. Opportunity to learn to read and interpret medieval manuscripts through hands-on examination of original materials in Special Collections of Stanford Libraries as well as through digital images. Offers critical training in the reading of manuscripts for students from departments as diverse as Classics, History, Philosophy, Religious Studies, English, and the Division of Languages Cultures and Literatures.
Same as: DLCL 209, HISTORY 309G, RELIGST 204.

CLASSICS 216. Advanced Paleography. 5 Units.

This course will train students in the transcription and editing of original Medieval and Early Modern textual materials from c. 1000 to 1600, written principally in Latin and English (but other European languages are possible, too). Students will hone their archival skills, learning how to describe, read and present a range of manuscripts and single-leaf documents, before turning their hand to critical interpretation and editing. Students, who must already have experience of working with early archival materials, will focus on the full publication of one individual fragment or document as formal assessment.
Same as: ENGLISH 300A, HISTORY 315, RELIGST 329X.

CLASSICS 237. Ancient Dance and its Modern Legacy. 3-5 Units.

Descriptions of dance in the Greek and Greco-Roman world; theories about dance in antiquity; dance and the senses; modern and modernist dancers and choreographers discussing ancient dance
Same as: CLASSICS 137, TAPS 165C, TAPS 265C.

CLASSICS 243. Images of Women in Ancient China and Greece. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 153/253.) Representation of women in ancient Chinese and Greek texts. How men viewed women and what women had to say about themselves and their societies. Primary readings in poetry, drama, and didactic writings. Relevance for understanding modern concerns; use of comparison for discovering historical and cultural patterns.
Same as: CHINGEN 143, CHINGEN 243, CLASSICS 143.

CLASSICS 244. Classical Seminar: Rethinking Classics. 4-5 Units.

Literary and philosophical texts from Antiquity (including Homer, the Greek tragedians, Plato, Aristotle, Virgil, and Augustine). In each case, we will examine the cultural contexts in which each text was composed (e.g. political regimes and ideologies; attitudes towards gender and sexuality; hierarchies of class and status; discourses on "barbarians" and resident aliens). We will study various theoretical approaches to these books in an effort to "rethink" these texts in the 21st century.
Same as: DLCL 321.

CLASSICS 246. Winged Bulls and Sun Disks: Religion and Politics in the Persian Empire. 3-5 Units.

Stretching from India to Ethiopia, the Persian Empire¿the largest empire before Rome¿has been represented as the exemplar of oriental despotism and imperial arrogance, a looming presence and worthy foil for the ¿West¿ and Greek democracy. This course will provide a general introduction to the Persian Empire, beginning in the 6th century BCE to the fall of Persia to Alexander the Great in 331 BCE. We shall not only examine the originality of the first world empire of antiquity, but the course will also attempt to present a broad picture of the diverse cultural institutions and religious practices found within the empire. Readings in translation from the royal edicts and the inscriptions of Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes will allow us to better appreciate the subtle ways in which these Persian kings used religion to justify and propagate the most ambitious imperial agenda the world had ever seen. In concluding the quarter, students will evaluate contemporary representations of Persia and the Persians in politics and popular culture in a wide array of media, such as the recent film 300 and the graphic novel on which it is based, in an attempt to better appreciate the enduring legacy of the Greco-Persian wars.
Same as: CLASSICS 146, RELIGST 229, RELIGST 329.

CLASSICS 247. Priests, Prophets, and Kings: Religion and Society in Late Antique Iran. 4-5 Units.

From India to the Levant and from the Caspian Sea to the Arabian Peninsula, the Sasanian Empire (224-651 CE) was the dominant power in the Middle East till the advent of Islam. Diverse religious institutions and social practices of the Zoroastrians, Manicheans, Jews, and Christians in late antique Iran. Complex relationships between the Zoroastrian priesthood, the Sasanian monarchs, and these minority religions within the context of imperial rule. Profound religious and social changes that occurred with the Islamic conquests of Iran as well as examine the rich cultural continuities that survived from the Pre-Islamic past.
Same as: CLASSICS 147, RELIGST 309.

CLASSICS 248. Imperishable Heroes and Unblemished Goddesses: Myth, Ritual, and Epic in Ancient Iran. 3-5 Units.

Designed as a broad introduction to the world of ancient Iran, students will be introduced to the Indo-European inheritance in ancient Iranian culture; the shared world of ritual, religion, and mythology between Zoroastrianism in Iran and Vedic Hinduism in India; and to the contours of early Zoroastrian religious thought. We will also survey mythoepic literature in translation from the archaic Avesta through the late antique Zoroastrian Middle Persian corpus to the early medieval national epic of Iran, the Book of Kings of Ferdowsi.
Same as: CLASSICS 148, RELIGST 209E, RELIGST 309E.

CLASSICS 298. Directed Reading in Classics. 1-15 Unit.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 260.)
Same as: Graduate Students.

CLASSICS 301. Gateways to Classics. 1 Unit.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 300A.) Focus on skills, methodologies and approaches in the study of Classics topics, with attention both to histories of the disciplines and to new developments. Required for first-year Classics graduate students.

CLASSICS 315. Aristotle and the Object of Mathematical Reasoning. 4 Units.

The concept of definition plays a central role in Aristotle's treatment of both philosophical and scientific inquiry, as well as explanation. A definition is an account of what something is, and some definitions are used to guide causal inquiry whereas others function as explanatory starting points. In this course we will examine texts from his logic, natural science and metaphysics in order to see what the different kinds of definition are, how they obtained, and how they are capture the nature or essence of a definable object. Particular attention will be given to the role of matter in the definition of the form of a natural substance, state, process or activity. For instance, what role does a specification of physiological processes play in the definitions of emotions such as anger? No knowledge of Greek is required. May be repeat for credit.
Same as: PHIL 318.

CLASSICS 318. Aristophanes: Comedy, and Democracy. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 304.) Intensive study of three plays in Greek (Knights, Peace, Ecclesiazusae) and the rest of the corpus in English, with reference to formal features and a focus on how Old Comedy related to the democratic practices of Athens.

CLASSICS 320. The Odes and Epodes of Horace. 3-5 Units.

Critical analysis of poetic texts, strengthening and updating the understanding of Latin language and style, and discussion of some of the most influential lyric poetry of all time. Topics include language, style and meter, and also poetics, historical context, gender, ethics, genre, and the history of Western lyric poetry. Classics undergraduates as well as graduate students familiar with other traditions of poetry are welcome.

CLASSICS 331. Words and Things in the History of Classical Scholarship. 4-5 Units.

How have scholars used ancient texts and objects since the revival of the classical tradition? How did antiquarians study and depict objects and relate them to texts and reconstructions of the past? What changed and what stayed the same as humanist scholarship gave way to professional archaeologists, historians, and philologists? Focus is on key works in the history of classics, such as Erasmus and Winckelmann, in their scholarly, cultural, and political contexts, and recent critical trends in intellectual history and the history of disciplines.
Same as: HISTORY 303F.

CLASSICS 335. Ekphrasis in Antiquity. 3-5 Units.

What is "ekphrasis"? How was it theorized and practiced in antiquity? Description, interpretation, and the senses; The relationship between the verbal and the visual in antiquity from Homer to Philostratus.

CLASSICS 336. Plato on Eros and Beauty. 3-5 Units.

We read Plato's Symposium and Phaedrus; topics: love, beauty, language (oral and written). Graduate seminar, but open to seniors.

CLASSICS 337. The Second Sophistic. 3-5 Units.

The class will introduce students to the most important aspects of the Second Sophistic: linguistic and literary classicism, rhetoric and performance, typical literary forms. Particular emphasis will be on the social and political background of the movement (Greek identity, social distinction, sophists and gender). For students who wish to take the class for 4 or 5 units, part of the readings will be in the original Greek.

CLASSICS 352. Doing Business in Classical Antiquity: Mediterranean Exchange. 3-5 Units.

Exchange was everywhere in the Mediterranean, from the individual household to the state. Yet the specific models by which goods changed hands were as varied as the ideas and values that moved alongside them. This seminar will explore theoretical approaches to commercial and non-commercial exchange, drawing primarily on the crucial but uneven bodies of archaeological evidence and historical sources in an effort to investigate the simple but hardly straightforward question of how business was undertaken in the Greco-Roman world.
Same as: ARCHLGY 327.

CLASSICS 353. Archaeology: Post-Humanist Agendas. 3-5 Units.

How do people and their artifacts connect? Just what is the subject of archaeological history? A seminar reviewing the latest materialist approaches in archaeology and heritage studies.
Same as: ARCHLGY 353.

CLASSICS 367. Mediterranean Networks. 3-5 Units.

The the ancient Mediterranean was highly interconnected is common knowledge, and the idea of integration has become a defining factory in current approaches to Greco-Roman cultural identities. Yet how connectivity functiond, and how we should effectively analyze it, are less well understood. This seminar highlights emerging network approaches--both broad theoretical network paradigms and specific network science methodologies--as conceptual tools for archaeological and historical investigations of cultural interaction (economic, religious, artistic, colonial, etc.) across the Mediterranean world.
Same as: ARCHLGY 367.

CLASSICS 373. Reception and Literacy in Roman Art. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 322.) Beyond a focus on artists and patrons: how Roman art was seen and understood by its contemporary viewers. Themes include memory, performance, gender, replication, and constructions of space. Goal is to draft a differentiated model of viewing and literacy, with attention to collective experience, hierarchy, access, and subversion.
Same as: ARTHIST 422.

CLASSICS 376. Art, Ekphrasis, and Music in Byzantium and Islam. 5 Units.

Focus is on the interrelation of art, architecture, verbal description, poetry, and music, including the singing of psalms and recitation of the Qur'an. How ekphrasis, the style of writing vividly intended to transform the listeners into spectators, structures the perception of and response to artistic production be it an art object, building, or a musical performance. The role of ekphrasis in animating the inanimate and the importance of breath and spirit, which become manifest in visual, acoustic, olfactory, and gustatory terms. Religious and courtly settings: Hagia Sophia, the Great Palace of Constantinople, the Dome of the Rock, the palaces of Baghdad and Samarra, the mosque at Cordoba, Medinat al-Zahra and the Alhambra. Greek and Arabic writers on ekphrasis in translation, juxtaposing the medieval material to the ancient theories of ekphrasis and modern scholarship.
Same as: ARTHIST 405.

CLASSICS 377. Animation, Performance, Presence in Medieval Art. 5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSART 311.) This course will explore concepts of animacy, performance, and presence in the art of Byzantium, focusing on the concept of image understood as the living bodies of the saints, the space of Hagia Sophia and its Eucharist ritual, the polymorphism of the mixed-media icon, and the interaction with these objects in prayer and recitation of epigrams.
Same as: ARTHIST 411.

CLASSICS 381. Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 133/333.) Political philosophy in classical antiquity, focusing on canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. Historical background. Topics include: political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; and law, civic strife, and constitutional change.
Same as: CLASSICS 181, PHIL 176A, PHIL 276A, POLISCI 230A, POLISCI 330A.

CLASSICS 382. High-Stakes Politics: Case Studies in Political Philosophy, Institutions, and Interests. 3-5 Units.

Normative political theory combined with positive political theory to better explain how major texts may have responded to and influenced changes in formal and informal institutions. Emphasis is on historical periods in which catastrophic institutional failure was a recent memory or a realistic possibility. Case studies include Greek city-states in the classical period and the northern Atlantic community of the 17th and 18th centuries including upheavals in England and the American Revolutionary era.
Same as: POLISCI 231.

CLASSICS 384A. Ancient Greek Economic Development. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 330A.) Drawing on Herodotus and other literary sources, ancient historians have traditionally seen classical Greece as a very poor land. Recent research, however (much of it conducted here at Stanford), suggests that Greece in fact saw substantial economic growth and rising standards of living across the first millennium BCE. This seminar tests the poor Hellas/wealthy Hellas models against literary and archaeological data. We will develop and test hypotheses to explain the rate and pace of economic change in the Greek world.
Same as: POLISCI 430A.

CLASSICS 384B. Ancient Greek Economic Development. 1-5 Unit.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 330B.) Drawing on Herodotus and other literary sources, ancient historians have traditionally seen classical Greece as a very poor land. Recent research, however (much of it conducted here at Stanford), suggests that Greece in fact saw substantial economic growth and rising standards of living across the first millennium BCE. This seminar tests the poor Hellas/wealthy Hellas models against literary and archaeological data. We will develop and test hypotheses to explain the rate and pace of economic change in the Greek world.
Same as: POLISCI 430B.

CLASSICS 391. Early Empires: Han and Rome. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 344.) This course systematically compares the Han Empire and the Roman Empire in order to provide insight into the distinctive features of the empires as a political and social type. Topics examined will include geographic frames, the nature of the ruler, the role of the city, the form and function of military forces, religious aspects, legal codes, structures of kinship, and the relation of these states to the outside world.

CLASSICS 396. Humanities+Design: Visualizing the Grand Tour. 4-5 Units.

Study of the eighteenth-century Grand Tour of Italy through visualization tools of the digital age. Critical readings in both visual epistemology and current Grand Tour studies; interrogating the relationship between quantitative and qualitative approaches in digital humanities; what new insights in eighteenth-century British travel to Italy does data visualization offer us? Students will transform traditional texts and documents into digital datasets, developing individual data analysis projects using text mining, data capture and visualization techniques.
Same as: DLCL 396, HISTORY 336E.

CLASSICS 399. Dissertation Research in Classics. 1-10 Unit.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 360.).

CLASSICS 801. TGR M.A. Project. 0 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 801.).

CLASSICS 802. TGR Ph.D. Dissertation. 0 Units.

(Formerly CLASSGEN 802.).