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Office: Main Department, Gilbert Building, Room 109
Mail Code: 94305-5020
Phone: (650) 723-2413
Web Site: http://biology.stanford.edu
Office: Student Services, Gilbert Building, Room 108
Mail Code: 94305-5020
Phone: (650) 723-1826 (graduate students); (650) 723-5060 (undergraduates)
Web Site: http://biology.stanford.edu

Courses offered by the Department of Biology are listed under the subject code BIO on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

The department provides:

  • a major program leading to the B.S. degree
  • a minor program
  • a coterminal program leading to the M.S. degree
  • a doctoral program leading to the Ph.D. degree, and
  • courses designed for the non-major.

Mission of the Undergraduate Program in Biology

The mission of the undergraduate program in Biology is to provide students with in-depth knowledge in the discipline, from molecular biology to ecology. Students in the program learn to think and analyze information critically, to draw connections among the different areas of biology, and to communicate their ideas effectively to the scientific community. The major exposes students to the scientific process through a set of core courses and electives from a range of subdisciplines. The Biology major serves as preparation for professional careers, including medicine, dentistry, veterinary sciences, teaching, consulting, research, and field studies.

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduate)

The department expects undergraduate majors in the program to be able to demonstrate the following learning outcomes. These learning outcomes are used in evaluating students and the department's undergraduate program. Students are expected to demonstrate:

  1. the ability to use discipline-specific tools and content knowledge to analyze and interpret scientific data, to evaluate the significance of the data, and to articulate conclusions supportable by the data.
  2. the ability, independently and collaboratively, to formulate testable scientific hypotheses and to design approaches to obtain data to test the respective hypotheses.
  3. the ability to communicate content understanding and research outcomes effectively using various media.

Mission of the Graduate Program in Biology

For graduate-level students, the department offers resources and experience learning from and working with world-renowned faculty involved in research on ecology, neurobiology, population biology, plant and animal physiology, biochemistry, immunology, cell and developmental biology, genetics, and molecular biology.

The M.S. degree program offers general or specialized study to individuals seeking biologically oriented course work, and to undergraduate science majors wishing to increase or update their science background or obtain advanced research experience.

The training for a Ph.D. in Biology is focused on learning skills required to be a successful research scientist and teacher, including how to ask important questions and then devise and carry out experiments to answer these questions. Students work closely with an established adviser and meet regularly with a committee of faculty members to ensure that they understand the importance of diverse perspectives on experimental questions and approaches. Students learn how to evaluate critically pertinent original literature in order to stay abreast of scientific progress in their areas of interest. They also learn how to make professional presentations, write manuscripts for publication, and become effective teachers.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The purpose of the master's program is to further develop knowledge and skills in Biology and to prepare students for a professional career or doctoral studies. This is achieved through completion of courses, in the primary field as well as related areas, and experience with independent work and specialization.

The Ph.D. is conferred upon candidates who have demonstrated substantial scholarship and the ability to conduct independent research and analysis in Biology. Through completion of advanced course work and rigorous skills training, the doctoral program prepares students to make original contributions to the knowledge of Biology and to interpret and present the results of such research.

Facilities

The offices, labs, and personnel of the Department of Biology are located in the Gilbert Biological Sciences, Herrin Laboratories, Herrin Hall, James H. Clark Center, Lorry I. Lokey Laboratory, and Jerry Yang and Akiko Yamazaki Environment and Energy (Y2E2) buildings. Along with the Carnegie Institution of Washington all are on the main campus. Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (JRBP) is located near Stanford University's campus in the eastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Hopkins Marine Station is on Monterey Bay in Pacific Grove.

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve encompasses geologic, topographic, and biotic diversity within its 1,189 acres and provides a natural laboratory for researchers from around the world, educational experiences for students and docent-led visitors, and refuge for native plants and animals. See the JRBP web site.

Hopkins Marine Station, located 90 miles from the main University campus in Pacific Grove, was founded in 1892 as the first marine laboratory on the west coast of North America. For more information, including courses taught at Hopkins Marine Station with the subject code BIOHOPK, see the "Hopkins Marine Station" section of this bulletin.

The department's large collections of plants (Dudley Herbarium), fish, reptiles, and amphibians, as well as smaller collections of birds, mammals, and invertebrates, are housed at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, where they, and extensive collections of the Academy, are available to those interested in the systematics of these groups. Entomological collections, restricted to those being used in particular research projects, are housed in the Herrin Laboratories. No general collections are maintained except for teaching purposes.

The Falconer Biology Library in Herrin Hall contains over 1,200 current subscriptions and an extensive collection of monographs and reference works. A specialized library is maintained at Hopkins Marine Station.

Biology Course Numbering System

The department uses the following course numbering system:

Number Level
000-099Introductory and Core
100-199Undergraduate
200-299Advanced Undergraduate, Coterminal and PhD
300+PhD

Bachelor of Science in Biology

The undergraduate major in Biology can serve as a stepping-stone for a wide variety of career opportunities. For students planning to attend medical, dental, or veterinary school, or graduate school in biological and applied sciences, the biology major provides a strong foundation in the basic life sciences. This foundation of knowledge, plus laboratory experience, also prepares students well for research and technical positions in universities, government, and industry.

While a major in Biology provides an excellent background for these technical careers, it can also serve as a valuable and satisfying focus of a liberal arts education for those not planning careers in science-related fields. An understanding of basic biological principles is of increasing importance in today's world. A knowledgeable and concerned citizenry is the best guarantee that these issues will be resolved most effectively. Finally, an understanding of the processes of life can heighten our perception and appreciation of the world around us, in terms of its beauty, variety, and uniqueness.

Advising

Members of the Biology faculty are available for advising on such academic matters as choice of courses, research, suggested readings, and career plans. The student services office maintains a current list of faculty advisers, advising availability, and research interests.

The student services staff and BioBridge, the department's peer advising group, are prepared to answer questions on administrative matters, such as requirements for the major, approved out-of-department electives, transfer course evaluations, and petition procedures. This office also distributes the department's Bachelor of Science Handbook, which delineates policies and requirements, as well as other department forms and informational handouts.

Each undergraduate interested in the Biology major is required to select a department faculty adviser as part of the major declaration process.

Degree Requirements

Candidates for the general Biology B.S. degree must complete the following requirements, which ranges from 86-102 total units. There is also an option to add honors to the general major. Honors requirements are explained in detail in the "Honors" tab.

Core Courses

(must be taken for a letter grade when available):

Units
BIO 41Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology5
BIO 42Cell Biology and Animal Physiology5
BIO 43Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology5
or BIOHOPK 43 Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology
BIO 45Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology (Formerly BIO 44X)4
BIO 46Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (Formerly BIO 44Y) 14-5
or BIO 47 Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
or BIOHOPK 47 Core Laboratory in Plant Biology, Ecology and Evolution
1

BIO 46  or BIO 47 is not required if completing honors program. Failure to complete honors program results in student being required to complete BIO 46 or BIO 47.

Required Foundational Breadth Courses

(two courses may be taken credit/no credit):

Units
Chemistry
The following CHEM courses are required:
CHEM 31A
CHEM 31B
Chemical Principles I
and Chemical Principles II
5-10
or CHEM 31X Chemical Principles Accelerated
CHEM 33Structure and Reactivity4-5
or CHEM 1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry
CHEM 35Synthetic and Physical Organic Chemistry4-5
or CHEM 2 Organic Chemistry of Carbonyl Containing Molecules
CHEM 141The Chemical Principles of Life I4
CHEM 143The Chemical Principles of Life II4
Physics
Select one of the following Series:10-12
PHYSICS 20 Series
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat Laboratory
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics Laboratory
PHYSICS 40 Series
Mechanics
Electricity and Magnetism
Light and Heat
Mathematics
Select one of the following Series:5-10
3-Quarter Calculus Series
Calculus
Calculus
Calculus
2-Quarter Calculus Series
Calculus
Calculus
Advanced Calculus and Linear Algebra
Linear Algebra and Differential Calculus of Several Variables (or beyond) 2
Additional Foundational Breadth Course
Select one of the following:3-5
Experimental Design and Probability 1
Biostatistics 1
Programming Methodology
Programming Abstractions (Accelerated)
Linear Algebra and Differential Calculus of Several Variables 2
Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus
Total Units39-55
1

If taken to fulfill the foundational breadth requirement, these courses do not count toward the 24 elective unit requirement.

2

May be counted either toward the math requirement or foundational breadth, but not both.

Electives

24 units required, distributed as follows:

  • Biology (BIO) or Hopkins Marine Station (BIOHOPK) courses numbered 100 or above.
  • Approved out-of-department electives (list also available in the student services office).
  • No more than 6 units from any combination of these courses may be applied toward the total number of elective units:
    Units
    BIO 196ABiology Senior Reflection3
    BIO 196BBiology Senior Reflection3
    BIO 196CBiology Senior Reflection3
    BIO 197WASenior Writing Project: The Personal Essay in Biology3
    BIO 198Directed Reading in Biology1-15
    BIO 198XOut-of-Department Directed Reading1-15
    BIO 199Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology1-15
    BIO 199WSenior Honors Thesis: How to Effectively Write About Scientific Research3
    BIO 199XOut-of-Department Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology1-15
    BIO 290Teaching of Biology1-5
    BIO 291Development and Teaching of Core Experimental Laboratories1-2
    BIO 296TA Training in Biology1
    BIOHOPK 198HDirected Instruction or Reading1-15
    BIOHOPK 199HUndergraduate Research1-15
    BIOHOPK 290HTeaching of Biological Science1-15
  • One course from at least three of the four central menu areas listed below. The purpose of the central menu is to expose students to a wide range of topics studied within the field of biology and is intended to give students a breadth of knowledge. Please note—this requirement is only for the general major. Students pursuing a specialized field of study should consult the specific degree requirements listed in the "Fields of Study" tab.
  • No more than 6 units applied toward the elective unit requirement may be taken CR/NC.

Central Menu Areas

The four Central Menu Areas are:

  • Area 1 (Molecular)
  • Area 2 (Cell/Developmental)
  • Area 3 (Organismal)
  • Area 4 (Ecology and Evolution)

Note: Although some courses are listed in more than one central menu area, they may only count toward one requirement. For instance, a student who takes BIO 118 may choose to have the course count toward Central Menu area 1 or 2, but not both.

Units
1. Molecular (Area 1)
Advanced Molecular Biology
Chromatin Regulation of the Genome
Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution
Genetic Analysis of Biological Processes
Cell and Developmental Biology I
Chemical Biology
Molecular and Cellular Immunology
Developmental Biology and Evolution
Developmental Biology in the Ocean: Diverse Embryonic & Larval Strategies of marine invertebrates
Cancer Biology
Environmental Microbiology I
2. Cell/Developmental (Area 2)
Genetic Analysis of Biological Processes
Cell and Developmental Biology I
Plant Genetics
Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology
Developmental Neurobiology
Chemical Biology
Molecular and Cellular Immunology
Developmental Biology and Evolution
Developmental Biology in the Ocean: Diverse Embryonic & Larval Strategies of marine invertebrates
Nerve, Muscle, and Synapse
Sensory Ecology
Cancer Biology
Environmental Microbiology I
3. Organismal (Area 3)
Human Physiology
Cellular Neuroscience: Cell Signaling and Behavior
Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology
Developmental Neurobiology
Ecological Mechanics
Animal Diversity: An Introduction to Evolution of Animal Form and Function from Larvae to Adults
Invertebrate Zoology
Comparative Animal Physiology
Nerve, Muscle, and Synapse
Disease Ecology: from parasites evolution to the socio-economic impacts of pathogens on nations
Physiological Ecology of Marine Megafauna
Sensory Ecology
Topics in Microbiology
4. Ecology and Evolution (Area 4)
Ecology
Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution
Evolution
Conservation Biology: A Latin American Perspective
Ecology and Evolution of Animal Behavior
Modeling Cultural Evolution
Ecological Mechanics
Oceanic Biology
Disease Ecology: from parasites evolution to the socio-economic impacts of pathogens on nations
Marine Ecology: From Organisms to Ecosystems
Marine Conservation Biology
Dynamics and Management of Marine Populations
Physiological Ecology of Marine Megafauna
Ecology and Conservation of Kelp Forest Communities
Environmental Microbiology I

Writing in the Major

Students must take one of the following courses to fulfill the Writing in the Major requirement in Biology:

Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Human Physiology Laboratory
Plant Genetics
Explorations in Stem Cell Biology
Biology Senior Reflection
Senior Writing Project: The Personal Essay in Biology
Senior Honors Thesis: How to Effectively Write About Scientific Research
Core Laboratory in Plant Biology, Ecology and Evolution
Marine Ecology: From Organisms to Ecosystems

Note: BIO 107, BIO 137, BIO 168, BIO 196A, BIO 197WA, BIO 199W can also count toward the elective requirement. BIOHOPK 172H can also count toward the elective requirement if taken in 2015-16 or later.


Typical Schedule for a Four-Year Program

First YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Chemical Principles I (CHEM 31A)5    
Calculus (MATH 41)5    
Freshman requirements, seminars, or WAYS8    
Chemical Principles II (CHEM 31B)  5  
Calculus (MATH 42)  5  
Freshman requirements, seminars, or WAYS  8  
Structure and Reactivity (CHEM 33)    5
Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus (STATS 60)    5
Freshman requirements, seminars, or WAYS    6
Year Total: 18 18 16
 
Second YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology (BIO 41)5    
Synthetic and Physical Organic Chemistry (CHEM 35)5    
WAYS, PWR8    
Cell Biology and Animal Physiology (BIO 42)  5  
Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology (BIO 45)  4  
The Chemical Principles of Life I (CHEM 141)  4  
WAYS  3  
Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology (BIO 43)
or Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology (BIOHOPK 43)
    5
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (BIO 47)
or Core Laboratory in Plant Biology, Ecology and Evolution (BIOHOPK 47)
    4-5
The Chemical Principles of Life II (CHEM 143)    4
WAYS    3
Year Total: 18 16 16-17
 
Third YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat (PHYSICS 21)4    
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat Laboratory (PHYSICS 22)1    
WAYS 6    
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics (PHYSICS 23)  4  
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics Laboratory (PHYSICS 24)  1  
Electives  6  
Electives    6
Year Total: 11 11 6
 
Fourth YearUnits
AutumnWinterSpring
Electives4    
Electives  4  
Electives    4
Year Total: 4 4 4
 
Total Units in Sequence: 142-143
1

This schedule varies slightly if the student takes CHEM 31X in place of CHEM 31A & CHEM 31B.

2

 The schedule varies slightly if the student takes MATH 19, MATH 20, and MATH 21 in place of  MATH 41 & MATH 42

Honors

To graduate with departmental honors, a student must conduct an independent research project typically over the course of at least one year; projects are started no later than Autumn or Winter Quarter of the junior year. Research must be done in a Biology Department lab or a lab in another department for which the student has obtained prior approval. Administrative steps include:

  1. Submit an approved honors proposal to the department's student services office two quarters prior to graduation. For instance, students graduating Spring Quarter must submit petitions no later than mid-Autumn Quarter.
  2. Complete at least 10 units of an approved research project in from the same lab. Students conducting research in a lab outside of the department of Biology must submit an Out of Department Research Petition either before they start their research, or if research was started prior to declaring the Biology major, as soon as their major declaration is approved. Only research units from BIO or BIOHOPK are counted toward the 10 unit requirement:
    Units
    BIO 199Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology1-15
    BIO 199XOut-of-Department Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology1-15
    BIOHOPK 199HUndergraduate Research1-15
  3. Obtain at least a 3.0 (B) grade point average (GPA) in all Biology major requirements taken at Stanford (foundational breadth, core, and elective courses). Grades earned from teaching and research are not computed into this GPA:
    Units
    BIO 198Directed Reading in Biology1-15
    BIO 198XOut-of-Department Directed Reading1-15
    BIO 199Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology1-15
    BIO 199XOut-of-Department Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology1-15
    BIO 290Teaching of Biology1-5
    BIO 291Development and Teaching of Core Experimental Laboratories1-2
    BIO 296TA Training in Biology1
    BIOHOPK 199HUndergraduate Research1-15
    BIOHOPK 290HTeaching of Biological Science1-15
  4. If graduating in June, participate in the annual Achauer Undergraduate Biology Honors Symposium by presenting a poster or giving an oral presentation. The symposium is typically at the end of May. Students graduating in Autumn, Winter, or Summer Quarter must produce a poster in the quarter in which they graduate to be displayed at the symposium.
  5. Complete and, by the published deadline within the quarter graduation is expected, submit online an honors thesis approved by at least two readers. At least one reader must be from the faculty of the Department of Biology and both readers must be Academic Council members. The title page of the honors thesis must include student name, thesis title, name and department of research sponsor, and name and department of second reader. Students must submit this page with original ink signatures to the student services office by the published deadline for the quarter in which graduation is expected.

Further information on the honors program is available in the student services office in Gilbert 108, as well as on the Honors Program and Undergraduate Research in Biology web site.

Fields of Study (Honors Tracks)

In addition to the undergraduate general major, the department offers the following seven fields of study (also known as honors tracks) for students wishing to concentrate their studies in particular areas of biology:

  1. Biochemistry and Biophysics
  2. Computational Biology
  3. Ecology and Evolution
  4. Marine Biology
  5. Microbes and Immunity
  6. Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology
  7. Neurobiology

These fields of study are declared on Axess at the time of the major declaration; they appear on both the transcript and on the diploma.

Candidates for the B.S. degree in Biology with a field of study are required to complete the departmental honors program and the WIM requirement as well as the set of requirements outlined following below.

Honors Requirements for the B.S. Degree in Biology with a Field of Study

  1. Approved honors proposal
  2. Complete at least 10 units of an approved research project in from the same lab. Students conducting research in a lab outside of the department of Biology must submit an Out of Department Research Petition either before they start their research, or if research was started prior to declaring the Biology major, as soon as their major declaration is approved. Only research units from BIO or BIOHOPK are permitted:
    Units
    Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology
    Out-of-Department Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology
    Undergraduate Research
  3. Poster/oral presentation at annual honors symposium
  4. Approved honors thesis
  5. 3.0 GPA in all courses taken for the major with the exception of research and/or teaching units

Writing in the Major for the B.S. Degree in Biology with a Field of Study

Students must take one of the following courses to fulfill the Writing in the Major requirement in Biology:

Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Human Physiology Laboratory
Plant Genetics
Explorations in Stem Cell Biology
Biology Senior Reflection
Senior Writing Project: The Personal Essay in Biology
Senior Honors Thesis: How to Effectively Write About Scientific Research
Core Laboratory in Plant Biology, Ecology and Evolution
Marine Ecology: From Organisms to Ecosystems

Note: BIO 107, BIO 137, BIO 168, BIO 196A, BIO 197WA, BIO 199W can also count toward the elective requirement. BIOHOPK 172H can also count toward the elective requirement if taken in 2015-16 or later.


Biochemistry and Biophysics

Candidates for the Biochemistry and Biophysics field of study must complete the following, as well as the honors and WIM requirements above, for a total ranging from 86-115 units:

Core Courses

Must be taken for a letter grade when available.

Units
BIO 41Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology5
BIO 42Cell Biology and Animal Physiology5
BIO 43Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology5
or BIOHOPK 43 Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology
BIO 45Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology (formerly BIO 44X)4

Required Foundational Breadth Courses

Two courses may be taken credit/no credit.

Units
Chemistry
The following CHEM courses are required:
CHEM 31A
CHEM 31B
Chemical Principles I
and Chemical Principles II
5-10
or CHEM 31X Chemical Principles Accelerated
CHEM 33Structure and Reactivity4-5
or CHEM 1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry
CHEM 35Synthetic and Physical Organic Chemistry4-5
or CHEM 2 Organic Chemistry of Carbonyl Containing Molecules
CHEM 141The Chemical Principles of Life I4
CHEM 143The Chemical Principles of Life II4
Physics
PHYSICS 41Mechanics4
PHYSICS 43Electricity and Magnetism4
PHYSICS 45Light and Heat4
Mathematics
MATH 51Linear Algebra and Differential Calculus of Several Variables5
MATH 52Integral Calculus of Several Variables5
Additional Foundational Breadth Course
STATS 60Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus5
or BIO 141 Biostatistics
or BIOHOPK 174H Experimental Design and Probability
Total Units48-55

Required Biology Courses

Must be taken for a letter grade.

Units
BIO 104Advanced Molecular Biology5
BIO 118Genetic Analysis of Biological Processes4
BIO 123ACell and Developmental Biology I4
Total Units13

Approved Biochemistry and Biophysics Courses

Must be taken for a letter grade.

Units
Select three of the following:9-13
Biology by the Numbers
Theoretical Neuroscience
Cellular Biophysics
Advanced Imaging Lab in Biophysics
Imaging: Biological Light Microscopy
Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology
Advanced Cell Biology
Systems Biology
Systems Physiology and Design
Introduction to Imaging and Image-based Human Anatomy
Modeling Biomedical Systems: Ontology, Terminology, Problem Solving
Representations and Algorithms for Computational Molecular Biology
BIOPHYS/SBIO 228
Biological Macromolecules
Biological Chemistry Laboratory
Biophysical Chemistry
Modern Optics
How Cells Work: Energetics, Compartments, and Coupling in Cell Biology
Intermediate Physics Laboratory I: Analog Electronics

Electives

10 units required. Electives must be 100-level or above and chosen from the offerings in the Department of Biology, Hopkins Marine Station, or from the list of approved out-of-department electives. Up to 6 units of teaching and research are allowed. Only one course can be taken credit/no credit.


Computational Biology

Candidates for the Computational Biology field of study must complete the following, as well as the honors and WIM requirements above, for a total ranging from 82-110 units:

Core Courses

Must be taken for a letter grade when available.

Units
BIO 41Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology5
BIO 42Cell Biology and Animal Physiology5
BIO 43Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology5
or BIOHOPK 43 Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology
Select one of the following:4-5
Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology (formerly BIO 44X)
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (formerly BIO 44Y)
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (formerly BIO 44Y)
Core Laboratory in Plant Biology, Ecology and Evolution (formerly BIOHOPK 44Y)

Required Foundational Breadth Courses, Group 1

Two courses may be taken credit/no credit.

Units
Chemistry
The following CHEM courses are required:
CHEM 31A
CHEM 31B
Chemical Principles I
and Chemical Principles II
5-10
or CHEM 31X Chemical Principles Accelerated
CHEM 33Structure and Reactivity4-5
or CHEM 1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry
CHEM 35Synthetic and Physical Organic Chemistry4-5
or CHEM 2 Organic Chemistry of Carbonyl Containing Molecules
Physics
Select one of the following series:10-12
PHYSICS 20 Series
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat Laboratory
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics Laboratory
PHYSICS 40 Series
Mechanics
Electricity and Magnetism
Light and Heat
Total Units23-32

Required Foundational Breadth Courses, Group 2

All courses must be taken for a letter-grade only.

Units
MATH 51Linear Algebra and Differential Calculus of Several Variables5
CS 106AProgramming Methodology5
BIO 141Biostatistics5
Total Units15

Required Computational Biology Courses

Must be taken for a letter grade.

Units
Select four of the following:12-14
Introduction to Biophysics
Modeling Cultural Evolution
Theoretical Population Genetics
Ecological Statistics
Statistical and Machine Learning Methods for Genomics
Systems Biology
Computational Modeling of Microbial Communities
BIOPHYS 228
Statistical Methods in Computational Genetics

Electives

3 courses of 3 or more units each. Electives must be 100-level or above and chosen from the offerings in the Department of Biology, Hopkins Marine Station, Department of Computer Sciences, or from the list of approved out-of-department electives. Only one course can be taken credit/no credit. Research and teaching units may not count towards this requirement.


Ecology and Evolution

Candidates for the Ecology and Evolution field of study must complete the following, as well as the honors and WIM requirements above, for a total ranging from 100-116 units:

Core Courses

Must be taken for a letter grade when available.

Units
BIO 41Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology5
BIO 42Cell Biology and Animal Physiology5
BIO 43Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology5
or BIOHOPK 43 Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology
BIO 101Ecology 14
or BIOHOPK 172H Marine Ecology: From Organisms to Ecosystems
Select one of the following:4-5
Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology (formerly BIO 44X)
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (formerly BIO 44Y)
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (formerly BIO 44Y)
Core Laboratory in Plant Biology, Ecology and Evolution (formerly BIOHOPK 44Y)
1

This course cannot also be used to count toward the elective requirement.

Required Foundational Breadth Courses

Two courses may be taken credit/no credit.

Units
Chemistry
The following CHEM courses are required:
CHEM 31A
CHEM 31B
Chemical Principles I
and Chemical Principles II
5-10
or CHEM 31X Chemical Principles Accelerated
CHEM 33Structure and Reactivity4-5
or CHEM 1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry
CHEM 35Synthetic and Physical Organic Chemistry4-5
or CHEM 2 Organic Chemistry of Carbonyl Containing Molecules
Physics
Select one of the following Series:10-12
PHYSICS 20 Series
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat Laboratory
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics Laboratory
PHYSICS 40 Series
Mechanics
Electricity and Magnetism
Light and Heat
Mathematics
Select one of the following Series:5-10
3-Quarter Calculus Series
Calculus
Calculus
Calculus
2-Quarter Calculus Series
Calculus
Calculus
Advanced Calculus and Linear Algebra
Linear Algebra and Differential Calculus of Several Variables
Total Units28-42

Required Evolutionary Biology Course

Must be taken for a letter grade.

Units
Select one of the following:3-5
Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution
BIO 136
Evolution
Molecular Ecology

Required Quantitative Methods Course

Must be taken for a letter grade.

Units
Select one of the following:3-5
Biostatistics
Experimental Design and Probability
Programming Methodology
Programming Abstractions (Accelerated)
Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus (or beyond)

Electives

30 units required. Only one course can be taken credit/no credit. Electives must be from this approved list:

Units
BIO 101Ecology 44
BIO 105AEcology and Natural History of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve4
BIO 105BEcology and Natural History of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve4
BIO 116Ecology of the Hawaiian Islands4
BIO 117Biology and Global Change4
BIO 118Genetic Analysis of Biological Processes4
BIO 1213
BIO 131Complex Systems Lab1
BIO 138Ecosystem Services: Frontiers in the Science of Valuing Nature3
BIO 144Conservation Biology: A Latin American Perspective3
BIO 145Ecology and Evolution of Animal Behavior3
BIO 146Population Studies1
BIO 182Modeling Cultural Evolution3
BIO 183Theoretical Population Genetics3
BIO 227Foundations of Community Ecology2
BIO 234Conservation Biology: A Latin American Perspective3
BIO 274SHopkins Microbiology Course3-12
BIOHOPK 161HInvertebrate Zoology5
BIOHOPK 162HComparative Animal Physiology5
BIOHOPK 163HOceanic Biology4
BIOHOPK 166HMolecular Ecology5
BIOHOPK 172HMarine Ecology: From Organisms to Ecosystems 45
BIOHOPK 173HMarine Conservation Biology 14
BIOHOPK 174HExperimental Design and Probability 53
BIOHOPK 182HStanford at Sea 316
BIOHOPK 185HEcology and Conservation of Kelp Forest Communities 35
BIOHOPK 187HSensory Ecology4
BIOHOPK 268HDisease Ecology: from parasites evolution to the socio-economic impacts of pathogens on nations3
CHEM 130Organic Chemistry Laboratory3
CHEM 131Organic Polyfunctional Compounds3
EARTHSYS 122Evolution of Marine Ecosystems4
EARTHSYS 128Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems4
EARTHSYS 142Remote Sensing of Land4
EARTHSYS 144/ESS 164Fundamentals of Geographic Information Science (GIS)4
EARTHSYS 158Geomicrobiology3
ESS 158Geomicrobiology3
GS 128Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems4
OSPAUSTL 10Coral Reef Ecosystems 23
OSPAUSTL 25Freshwater Systems 23
OSPAUSTL 30Coastal Forest Ecosystems 23
1

Only 1 unit can count.

2

Only 2 units can count.

3

Only 6 units can count.

4

Cannot also count toward core course requirement.

5

Cannot also count toward quantitative methods requirement.


Marine Biology

Candidates for the Marine Biology field of study must complete the following, as well as the honors and WIM requirements above, for a total ranging from 94-105 units:

Core Courses

Must be taken for a letter grade when available.

Units
BIO 41Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology5
BIO 42Cell Biology and Animal Physiology5
BIO 43Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology5
or BIOHOPK 43 Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology
Select one of the following:4-5
Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology (formerly BIO 44X)
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (formerly BIO 44Y)
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (formerly BIO 44Y)
Core Laboratory in Plant Biology, Ecology and Evolution (formerly BIOHOPK 44Y)

Required Foundational Breadth Courses

Two courses may be taken credit/no credit.

Units
Chemistry
The following CHEM courses are required:
CHEM 31A
CHEM 31B
Chemical Principles I
and Chemical Principles II
5-10
or CHEM 31X Chemical Principles Accelerated
CHEM 33Structure and Reactivity4-5
or CHEM 1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry
CHEM 35Synthetic and Physical Organic Chemistry4-5
or CHEM 2 Organic Chemistry of Carbonyl Containing Molecules
CHEM 141The Chemical Principles of Life I4
CHEM 143The Chemical Principles of Life II4
Physics
Select one of the following Series:10-12
PHYSICS 20 Series
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat Laboratory
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics Laboratory
PHYSICS 40 Series
Mechanics
Electricity and Magnetism
Light and Heat
Mathematics
Select one of the following Series:5-10
Three Quarter Calculus Series
Calculus
Calculus
Calculus
Two Quarter Calculus Series
Calculus
Calculus
Advanced Calculus and Linear Algebra
Linear Algebra and Differential Calculus of Several Variables
Additional Foundational Breadth Course3-5
Select one of the following:
Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus
Biostatistics
Experimental Design and Probability
Total Units39-55

Required Biology Courses

Must be taken for a letter grade.

Units
BIO 101Ecology 14
or BIOHOPK 172H Marine Ecology: From Organisms to Ecosystems
BIO 118Genetic Analysis of Biological Processes4
BIO 143Evolution3
Total Units11
1

If BIOHOPK 172H is taken to fulfill this requirement, it cannot also count below.

Marine Biology Courses

Must be taken for a letter grade.

Units
Select four of the following:15-52
Ecology of the Hawaiian Islands
Ecological Mechanics
Developmental Biology and Evolution
Developmental Biology in the Ocean: Diverse Embryonic & Larval Strategies of marine invertebrates
Invertebrate Zoology
Comparative Animal Physiology
Oceanic Biology
Nerve, Muscle, and Synapse
Marine Ecology: From Organisms to Ecosystems 1
Marine Conservation Biology ((must be take for 3 units))
Dynamics and Management of Marine Populations
Physiological Ecology of Marine Megafauna
Stanford at Sea
Ecology and Conservation of Kelp Forest Communities
Sensory Ecology
Coral Reef Ecosystems 2
Freshwater Systems 2
Coastal Forest Ecosystems 2
1

May not also fulfill the required Biology course above.

2

These three courses as a whole count as one of the four required courses in this section.


Microbes and Immunity

Candidates for the Microbes and Immunity field of study must complete the following, as well as the honors and WIM requirements above, for a total ranging from 88-121 units:

Core Courses

Must be taken for a letter grade when available.

Units
BIO 41Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology5
BIO 42Cell Biology and Animal Physiology5
BIO 43Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology5
or BIOHOPK 43 Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology
Select one of the following:4-5
Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology (formerly BIO 44X)
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (formerly BIO 44Y)
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (formerly BIO 44Y)
Core Laboratory in Plant Biology, Ecology and Evolution (formerly BIOHOPK 44Y)

Required Foundational Breadth Courses

Two courses may be taken credit/no credit.

Units
Chemistry
The following CHEM courses are required:
CHEM 31A
CHEM 31B
Chemical Principles I
and Chemical Principles II
5-10
or CHEM 31X Chemical Principles Accelerated
CHEM 33Structure and Reactivity4-5
or CHEM 1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry
CHEM 35Synthetic and Physical Organic Chemistry4-5
or CHEM 2 Organic Chemistry of Carbonyl Containing Molecules
CHEM 141The Chemical Principles of Life I4
CHEM 143The Chemical Principles of Life II4
Physics
Select one of the following Series:10-12
PHYSICS 20 Series
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat Laboratory
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics Laboratory
PHYSICS 40 Series
Mechanics
Electricity and Magnetism
Light and Heat
Mathematics
Select one of the following Series:5-10
3-Quarter Calculus Series
Calculus
Calculus
Calculus
2-Quarter Calculus Series
Calculus
Calculus
Advanced Calculus and Linear Algebra
Linear Algebra and Differential Calculus of Several Variables
Additional Foundational Breadth Course
BIO 141Biostatistics 14-5
or BIOHOPK 174H Experimental Design and Probability
or STATS 60 Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus
Total Units40-55
1

This course cannot also be used to count toward the elective requirement.

Required Courses in Microbiology, Immunology, Molecular Evolution

Must be taken for a letter grade.

Units
Select four of the following:11-16
Plant Microbe Interaction
Molecular and Cellular Immunology
Advanced Imaging Lab in Biophysics
Hopkins Microbiology Course
Aquatic Chemistry and Biology
Environmental Microbiology I
Microbial Bioenergy Systems
Pathogens and Disinfection
Geomicrobiology
Viral Lifestyles
Advanced Immunology I
Advanced Immunology II
Translational Immunology
HIV: The Virus, the Disease, the Research
Tumor Immunology
Innate Immunology
Bacteria in Health and Disease
Advanced Pathogenesis of Bacteria, Viruses, and Eukaryotic Parasites
Advanced Immunology I

Required Course in Reading Scientific Literature

Must be taken for a letter grade.

Units
Select one of the following or students may petition for other courses in reading scientific literature:3
Microbiology Literature
Topics in Microbiology

Electives

12 units required. Electives must be 100-level or above and selected from the offerings in the Department of Biology, Hopkins Marine Station, or from the list of approved out-of-department electives. Up to 6 units of teaching and research are allowed. Only one course can be taken credit/no credit.


Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology

Candidates for the Molecular and Cell Biology field of study must complete the following, as well as the honors and WIM requirements above, for a total ranging from 94-122 units:

Core Courses

Must be taken for a letter grade when available.

Units
BIO 41Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology5
BIO 42Cell Biology and Animal Physiology5
BIO 43Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology5
or BIOHOPK 43 Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology
Select one of the following:4-5
Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology (formerly BIO 44X)
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (formerly BIO 44Y)
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (formerly BIO 44Y)
Core Laboratory in Plant Biology, Ecology and Evolution (formerly BIOHOPK 44Y)

Required Foundational Breadth Courses

Two courses may be taken credit/no credit.

Units
Chemistry
The following CHEM courses are required:
CHEM 31A
CHEM 31B
Chemical Principles I
and Chemical Principles II
5-10
or CHEM 31X Chemical Principles Accelerated
CHEM 33Structure and Reactivity4-5
or CHEM 1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry
CHEM 35Synthetic and Physical Organic Chemistry4-5
or CHEM 2 Organic Chemistry of Carbonyl Containing Molecules
CHEM 141The Chemical Principles of Life I4
CHEM 143The Chemical Principles of Life II4
Physics
Select one of the following Series:10-12
PHYSICS 20 Series
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat Laboratory
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics Laboratory
PHYSICS 40 Series
Mechanics
Electricity and Magnetism
Light and Heat
Mathematics
Select one of the following Series:5-10
3-Quarter Calculus Series
Calculus
Calculus
Calculus
2-Quarter Calculus Series
Calculus
Calculus
Advanced Calculus and Linear Algebra
Linear Algebra and Differential Calculus of Several Variables
Additional Foundational Breadth Course
BIO 141Biostatistics 14-5
or BIOHOPK 174H Experimental Design and Probability
or STATS 60 Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus
Total Units40-55
1

This course cannot also be used to count toward the elective requirement.

Required Biology Courses

Must be taken for a letter grade.

Units
BIO 104Advanced Molecular Biology5
BIO 118Genetic Analysis of Biological Processes4
BIO 123ACell and Developmental Biology I4
Total Units13

Electives

19 units required. Electives must be 100-level or above and selected from the offerings in the Department of Biology, Hopkins Marine Station, or from the list of approved out-of-department electives. Up to 6 units of teaching and research are allowed. Only one course can be taken credit/no credit.


Neurobiology

Candidates for the Neurobiology field of study must complete the following, as well as the honors and WIM requirements above, for a total ranging from 94-123 units:

Core Courses

Must be taken for a letter grade when available.

Units
BIO 41Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology5
BIO 42Cell Biology and Animal Physiology5
BIO 43Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology5
or BIOHOPK 43 Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology
Select one of the following:4-5
Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology (formerly BIO 44X)
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (formerly BIO 44Y)
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (formerly BIO 44Y)
Core Laboratory in Plant Biology, Ecology and Evolution (formerly BIOHOPK 44Y)

Required Foundational Breadth Courses

Two courses may be taken credit/no credit.

Units
Chemistry
The following CHEM courses are required:
CHEM 31A
CHEM 31B
Chemical Principles I
and Chemical Principles II
5-10
or CHEM 31X Chemical Principles Accelerated
CHEM 33Structure and Reactivity4-5
or CHEM 1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry
CHEM 35Synthetic and Physical Organic Chemistry4-5
or CHEM 2 Organic Chemistry of Carbonyl Containing Molecules
CHEM 141The Chemical Principles of Life I4
CHEM 143The Chemical Principles of Life II4
Physics
Select one of the following Series:10-12
PHYSICS 20 Series
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat
Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat Laboratory
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics
Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics Laboratory
PHYSICS 40 Series
Mechanics
Electricity and Magnetism
Light and Heat
Mathematics
Select one of the following Series:5-10
3-Quarter Calculus Series
Calculus
Calculus
Calculus
2-Quarter Calculus Series
Calculus
Calculus
Advanced Calculus and Linear Algebra
Linear Algebra and Differential Calculus of Several Variables
Additional Foundational Breadth Course
BIO 141Biostatistics 14-5
or BIOHOPK 174H Experimental Design and Probability
or STATS 60 Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus
Total Units40-55
1

This course cannot also be used to count toward the elective requirement.

Required Biology Courses

Must be taken for a letter grade.

Units
BIO 118Genetic Analysis of Biological Processes4-5
or BIO 104 Advanced Molecular Biology
BIO 123ACell and Developmental Biology I4
BIO 149The Neurobiology of Sleep 14-8
or BIO 150 Human Behavioral Biology
or BIO 163
or NBIO 206 The Nervous System
BIO 154Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology 14-8
or NBIO 206 The Nervous System
BIO 158Developmental Neurobiology4
1

NBIO 206 can be used to fulfill both requirements.

Electives

12 units required. Electives must be at the 100-level or above and selected from the offerings in the Department of Biology, Hopkins Marine Station, or from the list of approved out-of-department electives. Up to 6 units of teaching and/or research are allowed. Only one course can be taken credit/no credit.

Hopkins Marine Station

For additional information, see the "Biology, Hopkins Marine Station" section of this bulletin or the Hopkins Marine Station web site.

Courses offered by the Department of Biology are listed under the subject code BIOHOPK on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

Summer Program at Hopkins Marine Station

The summer program is open to advanced undergraduate, graduate students, and postdoctoral students, and to teachers whose biological backgrounds, teaching, or research activities can benefit from a summer's study of marine life. Applications, deadlines, and further information are available at http://hopkins.stanford.edu.

Courses

Courses at Hopkins Marine Station can satisfy many requirements, from the Natural Sciences GER to major and minor requirements in departments housed in the Schools of Engineering, Humanities and Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Students are encouraged to check with their department's student services office to see which courses at Hopkins may be used to fulfill major or minor requirements.

Students may go to Hopkins as early as Spring Quarter in the sophomore year, and can also go in the junior and/or senior year to take elective courses. The following Hopkins Marine Station courses may be used toward the Biology degree requirements:

Core

Units
BIOHOPK 43Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology5
BIOHOPK 47Core Laboratory in Plant Biology, Ecology and Evolution (formerly BIOHOPK 44Y)5

Electives

Units
BIOHOPK 150HEcological Mechanics3
BIOHOPK 154HAnimal Diversity: An Introduction to Evolution of Animal Form and Function from Larvae to Adults7
BIOHOPK 155HDevelopmental Biology and Evolution4
BIOHOPK 156HHands-On Neurobiology: Structure, Function and Development6
BIOHOPK 160HDevelopmental Biology in the Ocean: Diverse Embryonic & Larval Strategies of marine invertebrates5-8
BIOHOPK 161HInvertebrate Zoology5
BIOHOPK 162HComparative Animal Physiology5
BIOHOPK 163HOceanic Biology4
BIOHOPK 165HThe Extreme Life of the Sea3
BIOHOPK 166HMolecular Ecology5
BIOHOPK 167HNerve, Muscle, and Synapse5
BIOHOPK 168HDisease Ecology: from parasites evolution to the socio-economic impacts of pathogens on nations3
BIOHOPK 172HMarine Ecology: From Organisms to Ecosystems5
BIOHOPK 173HMarine Conservation Biology4
BIOHOPK 174HExperimental Design and Probability3
BIOHOPK 177HDynamics and Management of Marine Populations4
BIOHOPK 179HPhysiological Ecology of Marine Megafauna3
BIOHOPK 182HStanford at Sea (only 6 units may count towards the major)16
BIOHOPK 184HHolistic Biology (only 6 units may count towards the major)16
BIOHOPK 185HEcology and Conservation of Kelp Forest Communities5
BIOHOPK 187HSensory Ecology4
BIOHOPK 189HSustainability and Marine Ecosystems3
BIOHOPK 264HPOPULATION GENOMICS1-2
BIOHOPK 274Hopkins Microbiology Course9-12
BIOHOPK 275HSynthesis in Ecology2

Research and/or Teaching (maximum 6 units combined)

Units
BIOHOPK 198HDirected Instruction or Reading1-15
BIOHOPK 199HUndergraduate Research1-15
BIOHOPK 290HTeaching of Biological Science1-15
BIOHOPK 300HResearch1-15

See Biology degree requirements above for further information. Many of the Hopkins Marine Station courses may be used to fulfill department major requirements.

Minor in Biology

Students interested in the minor in Biology must declare the minor and submit their course plan online via Axess no later than two quarters prior to the student's intended quarter of degree conferral. The Biology minor requires a minimum of six courses meeting the following criteria:

  • All courses must be taken for a letter grade.
  • All courses must be worth or approved for 3 or more units.
  • All courses, other than BIO 41, 42, 43, BIOHOPK 43, OSPAUSTL 10, 25, or 30 must be at or above the 100-level. Stanford Introductory Seminars may not be used to fulfill the minor requirements. Note: OSPAUSTL 10, 25, 30 together count as 2 courses toward the minor.
  • Courses used to fulfill the minor may not be used to fulfill any other department degree requirements (minor or major).
  • Courses must be chosen from the offerings of the Department of Biology or the Hopkins Marine Station, or from the list of approved out-of-department electives. Any approved out of department elective must be approved for at least 3 units.
  • At least one course from the Biology Core must be taken, although all 3 may be used:
Units
BIO 41Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology5
BIO 42Cell Biology and Animal Physiology5
BIO 43Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology5
or BIOHOPK 43 Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology
  • The Biology Core Laboratory courses do not count towards the minor:
Units
BIO 46Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology4
BIO 47Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology4
BIOHOPK 47Core Laboratory in Plant Biology, Ecology and Evolution5
  • If taken for at least 3 units, independent research conducted in a Biology lab may count as 1 course. Note: Research done in a non-Biology lab cannot be counted toward the minor.
Units
BIO 199Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology1-15
BIOHOPK 199HUndergraduate Research1-15
Not allowable is:
Out-of-Department Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology

Master of Science in Biology

For information on the University's basic requirements for the M.S. degree, see the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin. Students considering this degree option should meet with staff in the student services office prior to applying.

The M.S. degree program offers general or specialized study to individuals seeking biologically oriented course work and to undergraduate science majors wishing to increase or update their science background or obtain advanced research experience. Students who have majored in related fields are eligible to apply, but course work equivalent to the preparation of a Stanford B.S. in Biology may be required in addition to the general requirements. This includes course work in biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics. The M.S. program does not have an M.S. with thesis option.

Admissions

The department only accepts M.S. program applications from matriculated Stanford students:

  1. undergraduates wishing to pursue a coterminal M.S. degree.
  2. graduate students from other Stanford programs wishing to pursue an M.S. degree.
  3. current Biology Ph.D. students wishing to discontinue the Ph.D. program with an M.S. degree.

Undergraduates must apply in mid-January to start the program in Spring, Autumn, or the following Winter quarter. Graduate students may apply by the third week of any academic quarter.

Required application materials

  1. Completed Coterminal Online Application
  2. A statement of purpose which explains why the student wishes to enter the program and what the student plans to accomplish while in the program. The statement should also supply information about the student's science capabilities if his or her undergraduate academic record does not accurately reflect them.
  3. Unofficial Stanford transcript.
  4. Two letters of recommendation, preferably from Biology faculty members in this department. If two such letters are not available, letters from faculty familiar with the student's ability to succeed in a graduate science curriculum are acceptable.
  5. Application fee: an application fee is charged to all students regardless of outcome; application fee is applied directly to students' accounts.

University Coterminal Requirements

Coterminal master’s degree candidates are expected to complete all master’s degree requirements as described in this bulletin. University requirements for the coterminal master’s degree are described in the “Coterminal Master’s Program” section. University requirements for the master’s degree are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

After accepting admission to this coterminal master’s degree program, students may request transfer of courses from the undergraduate to the graduate career to satisfy requirements for the master’s degree. Transfer of courses to the graduate career requires review and approval of both the undergraduate and graduate programs on a case by case basis.

In this master’s program, courses taken three quarters prior to the first graduate quarter, or later, are eligible for consideration for transfer to the graduate career. No courses taken prior to the first quarter of the sophomore year may be used to meet master’s degree requirements.

Course transfers are not possible after the bachelor’s degree has been conferred.

The University requires that the graduate adviser be assigned in the student’s first graduate quarter even though the undergraduate career may still be open. The University also requires that the Master’s Degree Program Proposal be completed by the student and approved by the department by the end of the student’s first graduate quarter.

General Requirements

The M.S. program consists of Department of Biology and/or Hopkins Marine Station course work, approved out-of-department electives, and foundational breadth courses totaling at least 45 units at or above the 100-level, distributed as follows:

  1. A minimum of 23 of the 45 units must be courses designated primarily for graduate students (generally 200-level or higher, but not always).
  2. A minimum of 36 units must be chosen from the offerings in the Department of Biology (BIO), Hopkins Marine Station (BIOHOPK), the list of approved out-of-department electives, research, teaching and/or foundational breadth courses.
    Units
    BIO 198Directed Reading in Biology1-15
    BIO 198XOut-of-Department Directed Reading1-15
    BIO 290Teaching of Biology1-5
    BIO 291Development and Teaching of Core Experimental Laboratories1-2
    BIO 300Graduate Research1-10
    BIO 300XOut-of-Department Graduate Research1-10
    BIOHOPK 198HDirected Instruction or Reading1-15
    BIOHOPK 290HTeaching of Biological Science1-15
    BIOHOPK 300HResearch1-15
    1. a maximum of 18 units may be a combination of Biology research, directed reading and/or teaching:
    2. a maximum of 9 units may be foundational breadth courses in chemistry, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and/or physics beyond the level required for the undergraduate degree in Biology and at least at the 100-level.
  3. No more than 9 units may be other Stanford course work relevant to a student's professional development. Students are required to petition for courses that fall into this category using the General Petition form.

Each candidate designs a coherent program of study in consultation with her or his department adviser. Although there are no specific courses required, program proposals must adhere to department parameters.

In addition to the unit requirements outlined above, students must adhere to the following:

  1. A program proposal, signed by the student's adviser and approved by the chair of the M.S. committee, must be filed by the third week of the first quarter of enrollment. A revised program proposal is required to be filed whenever there are changes to a student's previously approved program proposal.
  2. Students may take only 6 units CR/NC.
  3. Students must maintain a GPA of 3.0 or higher.
  4. Students must receive a grade of 'B-' or better in all courses taken for the degree.

Students not meeting these minimum requirements are subject to departmental academic review and/or dismissal.

The department's Master of Science Handbook has additional information about the program, University policy and the department.

Doctor of Philosophy in Biology

For information on the University's basic requirements for the Ph.D. degree, see the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin. The training for a Ph.D. in Biology is focused on learning skills required for being a successful research scientist and teacher, including how to ask important questions and then devise and carry out experiments to answer these questions. Students work closely with an established adviser and meet regularly with a committee of faculty members to ensure that they understand the importance of diverse perspectives on experimental questions and approaches. Students learn how to evaluate critically pertinent original literature in order to stay abreast of scientific progress in their areas of interest. They also learn how to make professional presentations, write manuscripts for publication, and become effective teachers.

Admissions

Students seeking entrance to graduate study in Biology ordinarily should have the equivalent of an undergraduate major in Biology at Stanford. However, students from other disciplines, particularly the physical sciences, are also encouraged to apply. Such students are advised at the time of initial registration on how they should complete background training during the first year of graduate study. In addition to the usual basic undergraduate courses in biology, it is recommended that preparation for graduate work include courses in chemistry through organic chemistry, general physics, and mathematics through calculus.

Application, Admission, and Financial Aid

Prospective graduate students must apply via Stanford's online graduate application.

The department's program is divided into three separate areas of concentration:

  • ecology/evolution/population studies
  • integrative/organismal
  • molecular/cellular/developmental/genetic/plant

Included in these concentrations is the option to conduct research at Hopkins Marine Station. These concentrations are recorded in the department as part of the admissions process and for tracking degree progress for admitted students; they do not appear on official university records.

Applicants are required to take the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) general test. The GRE subject test is not required. Applicants should plan on taking the GRE at least one month prior to the application deadline to ensure that official scores are available when applications are evaluated.

Admission to the Ph.D. program is competitive and in recent years it has been possible to offer admission to approximately 9-10 percent of the applicants.

Applicants who are eligible should apply for nationally competitive predoctoral fellowships, especially those offered by the National Science Foundation.

Admitted students are typically offered financial support in the form of Stanford Graduate Fellowships, research assistantships, NIH traineeships or biology fellowships.

General Requirements

All students must be enrolled in exactly 10 units during autumn, winter, spring and summer quarters until reaching Terminal Graduate Registration (TGR) status and are required to pass all courses in which they are enrolled. Students must earn a grade of 'B-' or better in all courses applicable to the degree that are taken for a letter grade.Satisfactory completion of each year’s general and track specific requirements listed below is required for satisfactory progress towards the degree. Students not making satisfactory degree progress are subject to departmental academic review and/or dismissal.

  1. First year advising

    Each entering student meets with the first-year advising committee within the first two weeks of Autumn Quarter, Winter Quarter and May 15 of Spring Quarter. The committee reviews the student's previous academic work and current goals and advises the student on a program of Stanford courses, some of which may be required and others recommended. Completion of the core curriculum listed below under "Track Specific Requirements" is required of all students.
  2. Ethics

    Students must take a course on the ethical conduct of research. This course should be taken in the first year of the program.
    Units
    MED 255The Responsible Conduct of Research1
  3. Teaching

    Teaching experience and training are part of the graduate curriculum. Each student assists in teaching one course in
    1. the department's core lecture or lab series
      Units
      BIO 41Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology5
      BIO 42Cell Biology and Animal Physiology5
      BIO 43Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology5
      BIO 45Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology (Formerly 44X)4
      BIO 46Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (Formerly 44Y)4
      BIO 47Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (Formerly 44Y)4
    2. and a second course that can be either a core course or other Biology or Hopkins Marine Station course

  4. Seminars

    Graduate seminars devoted to current literature and research in particular fields of biology are an important means of attaining professional perspective and competence. Seminars are presented under individual course listings or are announced by the various research groups. Topics of current biological interest are presented by speakers from Stanford and other institutions. During the first year of study, graduate students are required to attend seminars and make one formal seminar presentation which must be evaluated by a minimum of two Biology faculty members.
  5. Fellowship application

    All eligible first year students must apply for a National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellowship.
  6. Adviser/lab selection

    By May 1, each first-year student is required to have selected a lab in which to perform dissertation research and to have been accepted by the faculty member in charge.
  7. Qualifying exam and admission to candidacy

    During the second year, students are required to write a dissertation proposal which is evaluated by a committee of faculty (the dissertation proposal committee) in an oral presentation. Track-specific deadlines are listed below. All students must be admitted to candidacy by the end of their second year. This is contingent upon satisfactory completion of course work, all first and second year requirements, the dissertation proposal and the University's requirements for candidacy outlined in the Candidacy section of this bulletin. If a student does not meet the requirements for admission to candidacy by the end of the second year, the student is subject to dismissal from the Ph.D. program.
  8. Committee meetings

    Students must meet regularly with their advising committees. For more details, see the Biology PhD Handbook.
  9. Individual Development Plan meetings

    Students must meet once a year with their adviser. For more details, see the Biology PhD Handbook.

  10. Publishable manuscript

    Each student must complete one publishable manuscript (paper) for which s/he is the major contributor.
  11. Residency requirement

    A minimum of 135 units of graduate registration is required of each candidate at the time of graduation.
  12. Doctoral dissertation

    A substantial draft of the dissertation must be submitted to the student's oral examination committee at least one month before the oral exam is scheduled to take place. The dissertation must be presented to an oral examination committee comprised of at least five faculty members. In addition, the final written dissertation must be approved by the student's reading committee (a minimum of three approved faculty), and submitted to the Registrar's Office. Upon completion of this final requirement, a student is eligible for conferral of the degree.

Track Specific Requirements

In addition to the general requirements listed above, students must also complete requirements within their concentration. Written petitions for exemptions to core curriculum and lab rotation requirements are considered by the advising committee and the chair of the graduate studies committee. Approval is contingent upon special circumstances and is not routinely granted.

Molecular, Cellular, Developmental, Genetic, and Plant

  1. Courses: Students are required to take the following courses prior to Spring Quarter of the 4th year, except for the required first year courses as noted:
    Units
    BIOS 200Foundations in Experimental Biology (must be taken Autumn quarter of the first year)5
    BIO 301Frontiers in Biology (satisfies first-year seminar requirement; must be taken Autumn and Winter quarters of first year)1-3
    One additional course in each of the four scientific areas decided upon by the student and the advising committee 1
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Biology of Molecules
    3. Genetics/Genomics
    4. Quantitative Methods
  2. Lab Rotations: First-year students are required to do their first rotation in the lab of a Department of Biology faculty member for at least five weeks. The total rotation time in labs of Department of Biology faculty must be at least ten weeks. Students are encouraged to do at least two rotations in the Department of Biology.
  3. Two-part qualifying exam: Each student must pass the exam in their second year.
    1. Dissertation proposal: During Autumn Quarter of the second year, the student must prepare a written dissertation proposal that outlines the student's projected dissertation research, including an expert assessment of the current literature; deadline is November 1.
    2. Oral examination: Held after submission of the written proposal to the dissertation proposal committee. It is an evaluation of the student’s ability to summarize the field of study, generate a working hypothesis, develop a degree plan that could be completed in 3-4 years, understand the logic of experimental design, develop a decision tree based on (all) possible results of experiments and draw conclusions and adapt hypotheses depending on results. Deadline is November 15.
1

  Up to two of these courses may be "mini courses" in the Biosciences (BIOS).

Integrative/Organismal

  1. Courses: Students are required to take BIO 301 Frontiers in Biology in their first year. Students specializing in integrative/organismal biology may be required to take additional courses as advised by committee.

  2. Students are encouraged, but not required, to carry out research rotations to help them select an adviser/research lab. If students choose to rotate, their first rotation must be in the lab of a Department of Biology faculty member for at least five weeks. The total rotation time in labs of Department of Biology faculty must be at least ten weeks. Students are encouraged to do at least two rotations in the Department of Biology.

  3. First-year paper: Students must submit a paper that is evaluated by a minimum of two Academic Council faculty members by May 15. This paper should be a step toward the development of a dissertation proposal and may consist of an analysis of new data or a literature review and synthesis.
  4. Two-part qualifying exam: Each student must pass the exam in their second year.

    1. Dissertation proposal: During Spring Quarter of the second year, the student must prepare a written dissertation proposal that outlines the student's projected dissertation research, including an expert assessment of the current literature; deadline is May 15.
    2. Oral examination: Held after submission of the written proposal to the dissertation proposal committee. It is an evaluation of the student’s ability to summarize the field of study, generate a working hypothesis, develop a degree plan that could be completed in 3-4 years, understand the logic of experimental design, develop a decision tree based on (all) possible results of experiments and draw conclusions and adapt hypotheses depending on results. Deadline is June 15.

Ecology, Evolution, and Population Studies

  1. Courses: Students are required to take the following courses in their first year:

    Units
    BIO 302Current Topics and Concepts in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution1
    BIO 303Current Topics and Concepts in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution1
    BIO 304Current Topics and Concepts in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution1
    Students specializing in ecology and evolution may be required to take additional courses as advised by committee.
  2. First-year paper: The paper should be read, commented upon and agreed to as satisfactory by two EcoEvo faculty by May 15. This can be satisfied in a number of ways which all involve new writing, undertaken since entering the Stanford program. These may include:
    1. A new draft research manuscript (a previously published paper is not acceptable).
    2. Some other piece of new writing, such as a review paper from a course, or an initial literature review of a potential thesis topic. In this case the paper should ordinarily be not less than 10 double-spaced pages in usual sized font, and not more than 10 single spaced pages, plus references. It should be written in the style of a standard scientific paper.
  3. Two-part qualifying exam: Each student must pass the exam in their second year.

    1. Dissertation proposal: During Spring Quarter of the second year, the student must prepare a written dissertation proposal that outlines the student's projected dissertation research, including an expert assessment of the current literature; deadline is May 15.
    2. Oral examination: Held after submission of the written proposal to the dissertation proposal committee. The student should prepare a presentation of the goals of the thesis, typically including preliminary data, models, etc. as appropriate which are relevant to at least the first goal, and should be prepared thereafter to discuss questions raised by the committee in professional scientific depth. Deadline is June 15.

Emeriti Professors: Bruce S. Baker, Winslow R. Briggs, Allan M. Campbell, Paul R. Ehrlich, David Epel, Donald Kennedy, Harold A. Mooney, Peter Ray, Joan Roughgarden, George N. Somero, Ward B. Watt, Norman K. Wessells, Dow O. Woodward, Charles Yanofsky

Emeritus Professor (Research): R. Paul Levine

Emeritus Professor (Teaching): Carol L. Boggs

Chair: Tim P. Stearns

Professors: Dominique Bergmann, Barbara A. Block, Steven M. Block, Larry B. Crowder, Martha S. Cyert, Gretchen C. Daily, Giulio De Leo, Mark W. Denny, Rodolfo Dirzo, Marcus W. Feldman, Russell D. Fernald, Christopher B. Field, Judith Frydman, William F. Gilly, Deborah M. Gordon, Or Gozani, Elizabeth A. Hadly, Philip C. Hanawalt, H. Craig Heller, Patricia P. Jones, Richard G. Klein, Ron R. Kopito, Sharon R. Long, Liqun Luo, Susan K. McConnell, Fiorenza Micheli, Mary Beth Mudgett, W. James Nelson (on leave winter and spring), Stephen R. Palumbi, Dmitri Petrov, Jonathan Pritchard, Noah A. Rosenberg, Robert M. Sapolsky, Carla J. Shatz, Kang Shen, Michael A. Simon (on leave winter), Robert D. Simoni, Tim P. Stearns, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Alice Ting, Stuart H. Thompson, Shripad Tuljapurkar, Peter Vitousek, Virginia Walbot

Associate Professors: Tadashi Fukami (on leave in autumn), Hunter B. Fraser, Christopher Lowe, Mark J. Schnitzer, Jan M. Skotheim

Assistant Professors: Xiaoke Chen, Scott J. Dixon, Jessica L. Feldman, Jeremy A. Goldbogen, Erin Mordecai, Ashby Morrison, Kabir Peay, M. Kristy Red-Horse (on leave winter and spring)

Courtesy Professors: Joseph Berry, Devaki Bhaya, Carlos D. Bustamante, Daniel Fisher, Wolf Frommer, Arthur R. Grossman, Joseph S. Lipsick, Alfred Spormann, Irving Weissman

Courtesy Associate Professors: Kathryn Barton, David Ehrhardt, Jonathan Payne, Sue Rhee, Zhiyong Wang

Courtesy Assistant Professors: José R. Dinneny, Paula V. Welander

Lecturers: Jessica Coyle, Daria Hekmat-Scafe, Jamie Imam, Waheeda Khalfan, Shyamala D. Malladi, Stephanie May, Patricia Seawell, Andrew Todhunter, James Watanabe

Librarian: Michael Newman

Overseas Studies Courses in Biology

The Bing Overseas Studies Program manages Stanford study abroad programs for Stanford undergraduates. Students should consult their department or program's student services office for applicability of Overseas Studies courses to a major or minor program.

The Bing Overseas Studies course search site displays courses, locations, and quarters relevant to specific majors.

For course descriptions and additional offerings, see the listings in the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses or Bing Overseas Studies.

Units
OSPAUSTL 10Coral Reef Ecosystems3
OSPAUSTL 25Freshwater Systems3
OSPAUSTL 30Coastal Forest Ecosystems3
OSPPARIS 87Understanding Neurodegenerative Disease3
OSPPARIS 163Advanced Biochemistry3
OSPSANTG 85Marine Ecology of Chile and the South Pacific5

Courses

BIO 2N. Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Disease in a Changing World. 3 Units.

This seminar will explore the ways in which anthropogenic change, climate change, habitat destruction, land use change, and species invasions effects the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases. Topics will include infectious diseases of humans, wildlife, livestock, and crops, effects of disease on threatened species, disease spillover, emerging diseases, and the role of disease in natural systems. Course will be taught through a combination of popular and scientific readings, discussion, and lecture. .

BIO 3. Frontiers in Marine Biology. 1 Unit.

An introduction to contemporary research in marine biology, including ecology, conservation biology, environmental toxicology, behavior, biomechanics, evolution, neurobiology, and molecular biology. Emphasis is on new discoveries and the technologies used to make them. Weekly lectures by faculty from the Hopkins Marine Station.

BIO 3N. Views of a Changing Sea: Literature & Science. 3 Units.

The state of a changing world ocean, particularly in the eastern Pacific, will be examined through historical and contemporary fiction, non-fiction and scientific publications. Issues will include harvest and mariculture fisheries, land-sea interactions and oceanic climate change in both surface and deep waters.

BIO 4N. Peopleomics: The science and ethics of personalized genomic medicine. 3 Units.

Exploration of the new field of personalized genomic medicine. Personalized medicine is based on the idea that each person's unique genome sequence can be used to predict risk of acquiring specific diseases, and to make more informed medical choices. The science behind these approaches; where they are heading in the future; and the ethical implications such technology presents. Lectures augmented with hands-on experience in exploring and analyzing a real person's genome.

BIO 5N. Tipping Point for Planet Earth: How Close Are We to the Edge?. 3 Units.

We will explore why the earth is headed toward a tipping point: a change that is so rapid, so extreme, and so unexpected that humanity may not be able to recover. We will cover synergies between people, stuff, storms, hunger, thirst, toxins, disease and war. Students will read chapters from the instructor¿s new book, Tipping Point for Planet Earth, and will participate in class discussions. Each student will produce their own projects based on one of the course themes.

BIO 7N. Introduction to Conservation Photography. 3 Units.

Introduction to the field of conservation photography and the strategic use of visual communication in addressing issues concerning the environment and conservation. Students will be introduced to basic digital photography, digital image processing, and the theory and application of photographic techniques. Case studies of conservation issues will be examined through photographs and multimedia platforms including images, video, and audio. Lectures, tutorials, demonstrations, and optional field trips will culminate in the production of individual and group projects.

BIO 7S. Introduction to Biology. 3 Units.

Introduction to several major fields of biology, including biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, evolution, and biodiversity. Introduces the general approaches used by scientists to study life and explores recent advances in each area during weekly discussion section. Not intended for biology majors, but provides the foundation for higher-level biology courses. Prerequisite: high school biology.

BIO 7SL. Introduction to Biology Lab. 2 Units.

Optional laboratory to be taken with BIO7S. Introduction to basic biological laboratory techniques, including microscopy, identification of biomolecules, assaying enzyme activity, genetic manipulation of microorganisms, assaying the effects of gene mutation on protein function, and using PCR to genotype organisms.

BIO 8N. Human Evolution. 3 Units.

A survey of the anatomical and behavioral evidence for human evolution and of the increasingly important information from molecular genetics. Emphasis on the split between the human and chimpanzee lines 6-7 million years ago, the appearance of the australopiths by 4.1 million years ago, the emergence of the genus Homo about 2.5 million years ago, the spread of Homo from Africa 1.7-1.6 million years ago, the subsequent divergence of Homo into different species on different continents, and the expansion of fully modern humans (Homo sapiens) from Africa about 50,000 years ago to replace the Neanderthals and other non-modern Eurasians.

BIO 10AX. Conservation Photography. 2 Units.

Account of the genre of conservation photography and strategic use of visual communication in the environmental arena. Introduction to use of digital SLR cameras and digital image processing. Case studies of conservation issues accompanied by multimedia platforms including images, video, and audio. Theory and application of photographic techniques. Lectures, tutorials, demonstrations, and field trips. Individual and group projects.

BIO 12N. Sensory Ecology of Marine Animals. 3 Units.

Animals living in the oceans experience a highly varied range of environmental stimuli. An aquatic lifestyle requires an equally rich range of sensory adaptations, including some that are totally foreign to us. In this course we will examine sensory system in marine animals from both an environmental and behavioral perspective and from the point of view of neuroscience and information systems engineering.

BIO 16. Conservation Storytelling: Pre-course for BOSP South Africa. 1 Unit.

Limited to students admitted to the BOSP South Africa overseas seminar. Through 4 workshop meetings, students will develop and pitch story ideas, form teams in which a writer and a photographer agree to collaborate on a story, and conduct background research prior to departing for South Africa.

BIO 24N. Visions of Paradise: Garden Design. 3 Units.

Through literature readings and field trips to local gardens learn the principles and esthetics of classic garden designs: Italian Renaissance, botanical teaching, Japanese, English cottage, and others. Design a personal vision of paradise with details of species, visual and scent impact, water features, and hardscape. Open your eyes to a new appreciation of the world of plants and learn some physiology and genetics that explains the specific properties of individual species.

BIO 25Q. The Molecular Basis of Genetic Disease. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Focus is on two genetic diseases resulting from the production of protein molecules that are unable to fold into their native conformations, called conformational diseases: cystic fibrosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or Lou Gehrig's disease. Hypotheses and controversies surrounding the molecular basis of these disorders, and implications for novel therapeutics. Readings from research literature.

BIO 26N. Maintenance of the Genome. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. The precious blueprint for life is entrusted to the genomic DNA molecules in all living cells. Multiple strategies have evolved to prevent the deleterious consequences from endogenous DNA alterations and damage from radiation or genotoxic chemicals in the environment. In this seminar you will learn about the remarkable systems that scan cellular DNA for alterations and make repairs to ensure genomic stability. Deficiencies in DNA repair have been implicated in many hereditary diseases involving developmental defects, premature aging, and/or predisposition to cancer. An understanding of DNA repair mechanisms is important for advances in the fields of cancer biology, neurobiology, and gerontology. Background readings, introductory lectures, student presentations, short term paper.

BIO 26S. Maintenance of the Genome. 3 Units.

The precious blueprint for life is entrusted to genome maintenance proteins found in all living cells. This seminar introduces the remarkable systems that scan cellular DNA for alterations and make repairs to ensure genomic stability. We further explore how deficiencies in these systems can lead to developmental defects, premature aging, and predisposition to cancer. Course includes background reading from primary articles, introductory lectures, student presentations, and a short term paper. Prerequisites: High school Biology. Preference to Stanford students.

BIO 30. Ecology for Everyone. 4 Units.

Everything is connected, but how? Ecology is the science of interactions and the changes they generate. This project-based course links individual behavior, population growth, species interactions, and ecosystem function. Introduction to measurement, observation, experimental design and hypothesis testing in field projects, mostly done in groups. The goal is to learn to think analytically about everyday ecological processes involving bacteria, fungi, plants, animals and humans. The course uses basic statistics to analyze data; there are no math prerequisites except arithmetic. Open to everyone, including those who may be headed for more advanced courses in ecology and environmental science.
Same as: EARTHSYS 30

BIO 32Q. Neuroethology: The Neural Control of Behavior. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Animal behavior offers insights about evolutionary adaptations and this seminar will discuss the origins of the study of animal behavior and its development to the present. How does the nervous system control behavior and how is it changed by behavior? We will analyze and discuss original research papers about the neural basis of behavior. The use and misuse of parallels between animal and human behavior. Possible field trip to observe animals in their natural habitat.
Same as: HUMBIO 91Q

BIO 33N. Conservation Science and Practice. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. This course will explore the potential for harmonizing people and nature, for achieving improved outcomes in the well-being of both as a result of conservation investments and interventions. We will consider biophysical, economic, social, and psychological perspectives, examining an array of conservation goals, from protecting endangered species to securing ecosystem services (such as flood control and climate stability) to alleviating poverty and improving mental well-being. We will also study the design and implementation of real conservation and human development efforts worldwide, among the many farmers, ranchers, fishing people, and others managing Earth's lands and waters. Highlights include a field trip to Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, Stanford¿s very own nature reserve, and guest visits of some impressive conservation leaders internationally.

BIO 34N. Hunger. 3 Units.

The biology of hunger and satiety, disease states that disrupt normal responses to hunger and satiety, starvation responses and adaptations to starvation in a variety of organisms, food production and distribution mechanisms, historic famines and their causes, the challenges of providing adequate food and energy for the Earth's growing population, local and global efforts to alleviate hunger, and hunger in fiction.

BIO 41. Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology. 5 Units.

Emphasis is on macromolecules (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids) and how their structure relates to function and higher order assembly; molecular biology, genome structure and dynamics, gene expression from transcription to translation. Prerequisites: CHEM 31X (or 31A,B), 33. Recommended: CHEM 35; MATH 19, 20, 21 or 41, 42.

BIO 41A. Bio Solve-It. 1 Unit.

Students enrolled in Bio41 lecture and regular discussion sections attend two additional 80 min sections per week. The objective of the course is to help students to solidify basic concepts, identify areas to work on, and apply core concepts learned that week in Bio41 lecture and section. Space is limited, by application only. Co-Requisite: BIO 41.

BIO 41S. Biochemistry, Genetics, and Molecular Biology. 5 Units.

Emphasis is on macromolecules (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids) and how their structure relates to function and higher order assembly; molecular biology, genome structure and dynamics, gene expression from transcription to translation. Prerequisites: CHEM 31X (or 31A,B), 33; MATH 19, 20, 21 or 41, 42. Recommended: CHEM 35.

BIO 42. Cell Biology and Animal Physiology. 5 Units.

Cell structure and function; principles of animal physiology (immunology, renal, cardiovascular, sensory, motor physiology, and endocrinology); neurobiology from cellular basis to neural regulation of physiology. Prerequisites: CHEM 31X (or 31A,B), 33. Recommended: BIO 41; CHEM 35; MATH 19, 20, 21 or 41, 42.

BIO 42A. Bio Solve-It. 1 Unit.

Students enrolled in Bio42 lecture and regular discussion sections attend two additional 80 min sections per week. The objective of the course is to help students to solidify basic concepts, identify areas to work on, and apply core concepts learned that week in Bio42 lecture and section. Space is limited, by application only. Co-Requisite: BIO 42.

BIO 43. Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology. 5 Units.

Principles of evolution: macro- and microevolution and population genetics. Ecology: the principles underlying the exchanges of mass and energy between organisms and their environments; population, community, and ecosystem ecology; populations, evolution, and global change. Equivalent to BIOHOPK 43. Prerequisites: CHEM 31X (or 31A,B), 33. Recommended: BIO 41, 42; CHEM 35; MATH 19, 20, 21 or 41, 42.

BIO 43A. Bio Solve-It. 1 Unit.

Students enrolled in Bio43 lecture and regular discussion sections attend two additional 80 min sections per week. The objective of the course is to help students to solidify basic concepts, identify areas to work on, and apply core concepts learned that week in Bio43 lecture and section. Space is limited, by application only. Co-Requisite: BIO 43.

BIO 45. Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology. 4 Units.

Investigate yeast strains that are engineered to express the human tumor suppressor protein, p53, and use modern molecular methods to identify the functional consequences of p53 mutations isolated from tumor cells. Learn about the protein's role as Guardian of the Genome through lectures and by reading and discussing journal articles. Use molecular visualization programs to examine the structure of normal and mutant p53 proteins. Assay the ability of mutant p53 to direct expression of several reporter genes. During guided reflection, investigate further and identify what could be wrong with the p53 mutants you have been studying. Conduct lab experiments to test hypotheses, analyze data, and present your findings through a team oral presentation, as well as a scientific poster. There are no pre-requisites for this course. However, having taken CHEM 31X, or 31A and B, and 33 and being concurrently enrolled or past enrollment in Biology or Human Biology core will help. Note: This class has a $25 course fee. More information can be found at http://web.stanford.edu/class/bio45.

BIO 46. Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. 4 Units.

The goal of this course is to develop an understanding of how to conduct biological research, using a topic in Ecology, Evolutionary Biology, and Plant Biology as a practical example. This includes the complete scientific process: assessing background literature, generating testable hypotheses, learning techniques for field- and lab-based data collection, analyzing data using appropriate statistical methods, and writing and sharing results. To build these skills, this course focuses on the microorganisms associated with lichen epiphytes. Students, working in teams, develop novel research hypotheses and execute the necessary experiments and measurements to test these hypotheses. In addition, students will learn how to manipulate, visualize and analyze data in R. The capstone of the course is an oral defense of students' findings, as well as a research paper in the style of a peer-reviewed journal article. Labs are completed both on campus and at Jasper Ridge. Lab fee. Information about this class is available at http://bio44.stanford.edu. Satisfies WIM in Biology.

BIO 47. Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. 4 Units.

The goal of this course is to develop an understanding of how to conduct biological research, using a topic in Ecology, Evolutionary Biology, and Plant Biology as a practical example. This includes the complete scientific process: assessing background literature, generating testable hypotheses, learning techniques for field- and lab-based data collection, analyzing data using appropriate statistical methods, and finally writing and sharing results. To build these skills, this course will focus on nectar microbes at Stanford's nearby Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve. Students, working in teams, will develop novel research hypotheses and execute the necessary experiments and measurements to test these hypotheses. The capstone of the course will be an oral defense of students' findings, as well as a research paper in the style of a peer-reviewed journal article. Labs will be completed both on campus and at Jasper Ridge. Lab fee. Information about this class is available at http://bio44.stanford.edu. Satisfies WIM in Biology.

BIO 50S. Introduction to Cancer Biology. 3 Units.

Introduction to the molecular basis of cancer. This course will examine the biological processes that are disrupted in cancer, such as DNA repair, cell cycle control and signaling pathways, as well as the science behind some current treatments. Prerequisites: general biology.

BIO 51S. The Gene: The History and Science of our Genetic Code. 3 Units.

This discussion-based course will use the novel ¿The gene¿ by Siddhartha Mukherjee and other selected readings to explore the science behind our genetic code. We will cover topics such as regulation of gene expression, inheritance, genetic testing, manipulation of the genome, and the relationship between genetics and identity. Prerequisites: Instructor consent, AP Biology Recommended.

BIO 52. I, Biologist: Diversity Improves the Science of Biology. 1 Unit.

Disciplinary priorities, research agendas, and innovations are determined by the diversity of participants and problem-solving is more successful with a broad range of approaches. Using case studies in biological research, we propose to use these insights to help our students learn why a diverse scientific community leads to better discovery and improves the relevance of science to society. Our premise is that a diverse set of perspectives will impact not only how we learn science, but how we do science.

BIO 54SI. Aberrant Immune Responses: Allergy, Asthma, and Autoimmunity. 1 Unit.

This is a discussion-based course for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Its purpose is to introduce students to a basic understanding of diseases involving overactive immune responses and immune responses directed against the host. Lectures may include a history of the disease, etiology, epidemiology, current and future treatments, and relevant research. This class will emphasize key scientific discoveries in molecular and cellular biology that have benefited our understanding and treatment of these diseases.

BIO 60. Introduction to Problem Solving in Biology. 4 Units.

This course is intended to introduce students to scientific thinking and help them develop the problem-solving skills needed to address biological questions. The course will focus on hot topics in infectious disease using a case study approach. Biological issues will be discussed at the molecular, cellular, organismal and community levels, through student-directed inquiry, hands on data analyses, group discussion, and independent projects. Students will learn how to form logical and testable hypotheses, analyze biological data, construct and test scientific arguments, and communicate scientific ideas verbally and in writing. Emphasis will be on evaluating diverse types of data and applying different approaches to develop an integrated and comprehensive view of selected topics. During class, students will work collaboratively to solve problems in small groups. Course instructors will engage with groups to explore questions and guide problem-solving. Instructors will also provide additional explanation and clarification for each case study as questions arise.

BIO 101. Ecology. 4 Units.

The principles of ecology. Topics: interactions of organisms with their environment, dynamics of populations, species interactions, structure and dynamics of ecological communities, biodiversity. Half-day field trip required. Satisfies Central Menu Area 4. Prerequisite: 43, or consent of instructor. Recommended: statistics.

BIO 104. Advanced Molecular Biology. 5 Units.

Molecular mechanisms that govern the replication, recombination, and expression of eukaryotic genomes. Topics: DNA replication, DNA recombination, gene transcription, RNA splicing, regulation of gene expression, protein synthesis, and protein folding. Satisfies Central Menu Area 1. Prerequisite: Biology core.
Same as: BIO 200

BIO 105A. Ecology and Natural History of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve. 4 Units.

Formerly 96A - Jasper Ridge Docent Training. First of two-quarter sequence training program to join the Jasper Ridge education/docent program. The scientific basis of ecological research in the context of a field station, hands-on field research, field ecology and the natural history of plants and animals, species interactions, archaeology, geology, hydrology, land management, multidisciplinary environmental education; and research projects, as well as management challenges of the preserve presented by faculty, local experts, and staff. Participants lead research-focused educational tours, assist with classes and research, and attend continuing education classes available to members of the JRBP community after the course.
Same as: EARTHSYS 105A

BIO 105B. Ecology and Natural History of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve. 4 Units.

Formerly 96B - Jasper Ridge Docent Training. First of two-quarter sequence training program to join the Jasper Ridge education/docent program. The scientific basis of ecological research in the context of a field station, hands-on field research, field ecology and the natural history of plants and animals, species interactions, archaeology, geology, hydrology, land management, multidisciplinary environmental education; and research projects, as well as management challenges of the preserve presented by faculty, local experts, and staff. Participants lead research-focused educational tours, assist with classes and research, and attend continuing education classes available to members of the JRBP community after the course.
Same as: EARTHSYS 105B

BIO 107. Human Physiology Laboratory. 4 Units.

This laboratory course is active and inquiry based. Aspects of exercise and temperature are explored; however, the specific questions the class tackles differ each quarter. Samples of past questions: Does lactic acid accumulation correlate with exercise fatigue at different exercise and body temperatures? Does palm cooling during exercise mitigate the effect of body temperature on fatigue with or without evaporative cooling? Students participate both as experimenters and as subjects of the experiments in two-person teams. Participants must be in good physical condition, though not necessarily athletes, and must be willing to participate in strenuous exercise routines under adverse environmental conditions. Varsity athletes concurrently participating in a spring sport must consult the instructor before applying. Discussion sessions include student presentations of journal articles, data analyses, and feedback on individual WIM research proposals. By application only, see sites.stanford.edu/bio107humbio136 for the application form. Prerequisite: BIO 42 or HUMBIO 4A. Satisfies WIM for Biology.
Same as: HUMBIO 136

BIO 108. Essential Statistics for Human Biology. 4 Units.

Introduction to statistical concepts and methods that are essential to the study of questions in biology, environment, health and related areas. The course will teach and use the computer language R and Python (you learn both, choose one). Topics include distributions, probabilities, likelihood, linear models; illustrations will be based on recent research.
Same as: HUMBIO 85A

BIO 109A. The Human Genome and Disease. 3 Units.

The variability of the human genome and the role of genomic information in research, drug discovery, and human health. Concepts and interpretations of genomic markers in medical research and real life applications. Human genomes in diverse populations. Original contributions from thought leaders in academia and industry and interaction between students and guest lecturers. Students with a major, minor or coterm in Biology: 109A/209A or 109B/209B may count toward degree program but not both.
Same as: BIOC 109A, BIOC 209A, HUMBIO 158

BIO 109B. The Human Genome and Disease: Genetic Diversity and Personalized Medicine. 3 Units.

Continuation of 109A/209A. Genetic drift: the path of human predecessors out of Africa to Europe and then either through Asia to Australia or through northern Russia to Alaska down to the W. Coast of the Americas. Support for this idea through the histocompatibility genes and genetic sequences that predispose people to diseases. Guest lectures from academia and pharmaceutical companies. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core. Students with a major, minor or coterm in Biology: 109A/209A or 109B/209B may count toward degree program but not both.
Same as: BIOC 109B

BIO 110. Chromatin Regulation of the Genome. 3 Units.

Maintenance of the genome is a prerequisite for life. In eukaryotes, all DNA-templated processes are tightly connected to chromatin structure and function. This course will explore epigenetic and chromatin regulation of cellular processes related to aging, cancer, stem cell pluripotency, metabolic homeostasis, and development. Course material integrates current literature with a foundational review of histone modifications and nucleosome composition in epigenetic inheritance, transcription, replication, cell division and DNA damage responses. Prerequisite: BIO 41 or consent of instructor.
Same as: BIO 210

BIO 112. Human Physiology. 4 Units.

Human physiology will be examined by organ systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine. Molecular and cell biology and signaling principles that underlie organ development, pathophysiology and opportunities for regenerative medicine are discussed, as well as integrative control mechanisms and fetal development. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core.
Same as: HUMBIO 133

BIO 113. Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution. 4 Units.

The inference of key molecular evolutionary processes from DNA and protein sequences. Topics include random genetic drift, coalescent models, effects and tests of natural selection, combined effects of linkage and natural selection, codon bias and genome evolution. Satisfies Central Menu Areas 1 or 4. Prerequisites: Biology core or graduate standing in any department, and consent of instructor.
Same as: BIO 244

BIO 115. The Hidden Kingdom - Evolution, Ecology and Diversity of Fungi. 4 Units.

Fungi are critical, yet often hidden, components of the biosphere. They regulate decomposition, are primary partners in plant symbiosis and strongly impact agriculture and economics. Students will explore the fascinating world of fungal biology, ecology and evolution via lecture, lab, field exercises and Saturday field trips that will provide traditional and molecular experiences in the collection, analysis and industrial use of diverse fungi. Students will chose an environmental niche, collect and identify resident fungi, and hypothesize about their community relationship. Prerequisite: BIO 43 recommended.
Same as: BIO 239

BIO 116. Ecology of the Hawaiian Islands. 4 Units.

Terrestrial and marine ecology and conservation biology of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Taught in the field in Hawaii as part of quarter-long sequence of courses including Earth Sciences and Anthropology. Topics include ecological succession, plant-soil interactions, conservation biology, biological invasions and ecosystem consequences, and coral reef ecology. Restricted to students accepted into the Earth Systems of Hawaii Program.
Same as: EARTHSYS 116

BIO 117. Biology and Global Change. 4 Units.

The biological causes and consequences of anthropogenic and natural changes in the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Topics: glacial cycles and marine circulation, greenhouse gases and climate change, tropical deforestation and species extinctions, and human population growth and resource use. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core or graduate standing.
Same as: EARTHSYS 111, ESS 111

BIO 118. Genetic Analysis of Biological Processes. 4 Units.

Focus is on using mutations and genetic analysis to study biological and medical questions. The first portion of the course covers how the identification and analysis of mutations can be used in model systems to investigate biological processes such as development and metabolism. In the second portion of the course, we focus on the use of existing genetic variation in humans and other species to identify disease-associated genes as well as to investigate variation in morphological traits such as body size and shape.

BIO 120. Bacteria in Health and Disease. 3 Units.

Enrollment limited to junior and senior undergraduates, graduate students and medical students. Introduces students to the bacteria that live in and on humans and, in some cases, can cause disease and sometimes death. Topics include the biology of the interaction of the simple microbe with complex human biology and the factors that determine whether or not we coexist relatively peacefully, suffer from overt disease, or succumb to the bacterial onslaught.
Same as: MI 120

BIO 123A. Cell and Developmental Biology I. 4 Units.

This is the first of a two course series that explores organizing principles of development at the cellular and tissue level. Students will learn the mechanisms by which cells polarize, interact with each other and their environment, divide, and generate force and movement and how these processes are utilized during the development of multicellular organisms. The course will also cover how cells communicate to pattern cell specification and morphogenesis during tissue and organ formation and during stem cell regulated homeostasis.

BIO 124. Topics in Cancer Biology. 3 Units.

This discussion-based course will explore the scientific tools used to study the molecular and genetic basis of cancer and to develop treatments for this disease. Topics covered may include cancer models, traditional and targeted cancer therapies, and the development of resistance to treatment. Students will develop skills in critical reading of primary research articles and will also complete a final project. Prerequisites: Biology/Human Biology core or equivalent or consent of instructor.

BIO 126. Introduction to Biophysics. 3-4 Units.

Core course appropriate for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students with prior knowledge of calculus and a college physics course. Introduction to how physical principles offer insights into modern biology, with regard to the structural, dynamical, and functional organization of biological systems. Topics include the roles of free energy, diffusion, electromotive forces, non-equilibrium dynamics, and information in fundamental biological processes.
Same as: APPPHYS 205, BIO 226

BIO 131. Complex Systems Lab. 1 Unit.

Applications of complex systems will be explored in thisnseminar through lectures, discussions, and a class project. Lecture topicsninclude a discussion of chaos in weather modeling and aircraft turbulence,napplication of network science to understand Ebola and the ALS ice bucketnchallenge, and self-organized processes such as crowd dynamics andnWikipedia. The first half of the course will emphasize complex systemsnapplications. Students will apply complex systems analysis techniques tontheir personal research, a current event, or repeat a classic complexnsystems experiment. Projects can include topics such as calculating thenfractal dimension of a forest, simulating crowd dynamics, studying thendegree distribution of social networks, or making a Van der Pol oscillator.nGraduate student led seminar. Can be repeated for credit.

BIO 132. Advanced Imaging Lab in Biophysics. 4 Units.

Laboratory and lectures. Advanced microscopy and imaging, emphasizing hands-on experience with state-of-the-art techniques. Students construct and operate working apparatus. Topics include microscope optics, Koehler illumination, contrast-generating mechanisms (bright/dark field, fluorescence, phase contrast, differential interference contrast), and resolution limits. Laboratory topics vary by year, but include single-molecule fluorescence, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, microendoscopy, and optical trapping. Limited enrollment. Recommended: basic physics, Biology core or equivalent, and consent of instructor.
Same as: APPPHYS 232, BIO 232, BIOPHYS 232, GENE 232

BIO 137. Plant Genetics. 3-4 Units.

Gene analysis, mutagenesis, transposable elements; developmental genetics of flowering and embryo development; biochemical genetics of plant metabolism; scientific and societal lessons from transgenic plants. Satisfies Central Menu Area 2. Prerequisite: Biology core or consent of instructor. Satisfies WIM in Biology.

BIO 138. Ecosystem Services: Frontiers in the Science of Valuing Nature. 3 Units.

This advanced course explores the science of valuing nature, beginning with its historical origins, and then its recent development in natural (especially ecological), economic, psychological, and other social sciences. We will use the ecosystem services framework (characterizing benefits from ecosystems to people) to define the state of knowledge, core methods of analysis, and research frontiers, such as at the interface with biodiversity, resilience, human health, and human development. Intended for diverse students, with a focus on research and real-world cases. To apply, please email the instructor (gdaily@stanford.edu) with a brief description of your background and research interests.
Same as: BIO 238

BIO 141. Biostatistics. 3-5 Units.

Introductory statistical methods for biological data: describing data (numerical and graphical summaries); introduction to probability; and statistical inference (hypothesis tests and confidence intervals). Intermediate statistical methods: comparing groups (analysis of variance); analyzing associations (linear and logistic regression); and methods for categorical data (contingency tables and odds ratio). Course content integrated with statistical computing in R.
Same as: STATS 141

BIO 143. Evolution. 3 Units.

Principles of evolution. Adaptation and natural selection. Darwin and the history of evolutionary thought. Population genetics, including genetic variation and mutation, and effects of migration, drift, linkage, and recombination. Evolutionary phenomena: developmental evolution, life history evolution, molecular evolution, sexual selection, social evolution, and speciation. Pattern and process in biological diversity. Case studies, including human evolution. Satisfies central menu area 4, ecology & evolution.

BIO 144. Conservation Biology: A Latin American Perspective. 3 Units.

Principles and application of the science of preserving biological diversity. Conceptually, this course is designed to explore 4 major components relevant to the conservation of biodiversity, as exemplified by the Latin American region. The conceptual frameworks and principles, however, should be generally applicable, and provide insights for all regions of the world, including those of lesser biodiversity. Satisfies Central Menu Area 4 for Bio majors. Prerequisite: BIO 101, or BIO 43 or HUMBIO 2A with consent of instructor. Graduate level students will be expected to conduct a literature research exercise leading to a written paper, addressing a topic of their choosing, derived from any of the themes discussed in class.
Same as: BIO 234, HUMBIO 112

BIO 145. Ecology and Evolution of Animal Behavior. 3 Units.

Ecological and evolutionary perspectives on animal behavior, with an emphasis on social and collective behavior. This is a project-based course in a lecture/seminar format. Seminars will be based on discussion of journal articles. Independent research projects on the behavior of animals on campus. Prerequisites: Biology or Human Biology core, Biology/ES 30. Recommended: statistics.
Same as: BIO 245

BIO 146. Population Studies. 1 Unit.

Series of talks by distinguished speakers introducing approaches to population and resource studies.

BIO 149. The Neurobiology of Sleep. 4 Units.

Preference to seniors and graduate students. The neurochemistry and neurophysiology of changes in brain activity and conscious awareness associated with changes in the sleep/wake state. Behavioral and neurobiological phenomena including sleep regulation, sleep homeostasis, circadian rhythms, sleep disorders, sleep function, and the molecular biology of sleep. Enrollment limited to 16.
Same as: BIO 249, HUMBIO 161

BIO 150. Human Behavioral Biology. 5 Units.

Multidisciplinary. How to approach complex normal and abnormal behaviors through biology. How to integrate disciplines including sociobiology, ethology, neuroscience, and endocrinology to examine behaviors such as aggression, sexual behavior, language use, and mental illness.
Same as: HUMBIO 160

BIO 151. Mechanisms of Neuron Death. 3 Units.

For Biology majors with background in neuroscience. Cell and molecular biology of neuron death during neurological disease. Topics: the amyloid diseases (Alzheimer's), prion diseases (kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob), oxygen radical diseases (Parkinson's and ALS), triplet repeat diseases (Huntington's), and AIDS-related dementia. Student presentations. Enrollment limited to 15; application required.

BIO 152. Imaging: Biological Light Microscopy. 3 Units.

Biological light microscopy: from theory to practice. This intensive laboratory and lecture course will provide participants with the theoretical and practical knowledge to utilize emerging imaging technologies. Students will learn the principles of light microscopy, as well as use of different types of cameras, laser scanning systems, functional fluorophores, probe delivery techniques. Topics include microscope optics, resolution limits, Koehler illumination, confocal fluorescence, two-photon, TIRF, FRET, photobleaching, super-resolution (SIM, STED, STORM/PALM), and live-cell imaging and cell tracking approaches. Discussion of physical principles; involves partial assembly and extensive use of lab instruments. Lab. Prerequisites: some college physics.
Same as: CSB 222, MCP 222

BIO 153. Cellular Neuroscience: Cell Signaling and Behavior. 4 Units.

Neural interactions underlying behavior. Prerequisites: PSYCH 1 or basic biology.
Same as: PSYCH 120

BIO 154. Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology. 4 Units.

For advanced undergraduate students. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in the organization and functions of the nervous system. Topics: wiring of the neuronal circuit, synapse structure and synaptic transmission, signal transduction in the nervous system, sensory systems, molecular basis of behavior including learning and memory, molecular pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Satisfies Central Menu Areas 2 or 3 for Bio majors. Prerequisite for undergraduates: Biology core or equivalent, or consent of instructors.

BIO 156. Epigenetics. 2 Units.

Epigenetics is the process by which phenotypes not determined by the DNA sequence are stably inherited in successive cell divisions. Course will cover the molecular mechanisms governing epigenetics, ranging from the discovery of epigenetic phenomena to present-day studies on the role of chromatin, DNA methylation, and RNA in regulating epigenetics processes. Topics include: position effect gene expression, genome regulation, gene silencing & heterochromatin, histone code, DNA methylation & imprinting, epigenetics & disease, and epigenetic-based therapeutics. Prerequisite: BIO41 and BIO42 or consent of instructor, advanced biology course such as Bio104.
Same as: BIO 256

BIO 157. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants. 3-4 Units.

Biochemical and molecular basis of plant growth and adaptation. Topics include: hormone signal transduction; photoreceptor chemistry and signaling; metabolite sensing and transport; dynamics of photosynthesis; plant innate immunity and symbiosis. Lectures and readings will emphasize research methods. Prerequisite: Biology core or equivalent, or consent of instructor.
Same as: BIO 257

BIO 158. Developmental Neurobiology. 4 Units.

For advanced undergraduates and coterminal students. The principles of nervous system development from the molecular control of patterning, cell-cell interactions, and trophic factors to the level of neural systems and the role of experience in influencing brain structure and function. Topics: neural induction and patterning cell lineage, neurogenesis, neuronal migration, axonal pathfinding, synapse elimination, the role of activity, critical periods, and the development of behavior. Satisfies Central Menu Areas 2 or 3. Prerequisite: BIO 42 or equivalent.
Same as: BIO 258

BIO 165. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Neurological Disease. 1 Unit.

Current topics in research and investigative therapies of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, OCD, Alzheimer's disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis. Analysis and discussion of primary research papers as well as sources directed at general public. Emphasis on critical thinking, experimental design, therapeutic approaches. Guest lecturers include Dr. Lawrence Steinman and Dr. Gary Steinberg.".

BIO 167. Insulin and carbohydrate metabolism in health and disease a history of advances 1850 to current. 3 Units.

The quest to understand how the body uses sugar and the overlapping quest for a diabetes cure have resulted in discoveries in every branch of biology. Topics include insulin production, structure, and evolution; transduction of the insulin signal; transport of sugar into cells; sugar storage and release; how the brain transports and uses sugar; growth control; pancreas development; genetic and environmental causes of diabetes; engineering solutions to diabetes (artificial pancreas, stem cells), glucose homeostasis (modeling insulin action). Prerequisites: BIO 41, 42.

BIO 168. Explorations in Stem Cell Biology. 3 Units.

A discussion-based course for advanced undergraduates. The purpose of this course is to introduce students to key topics in stem cell biology and foster the development of strong scientific writing skills. We will review and discuss some landmark and current primary literature in the stem cell field. Topics will include embryonic and adult stem cells, cellular reprogramming and stem cells in disease and regenerative medicine. Students will present a current research paper in their preferred stem cell topic area and compose a novel research proposal. Prerequisites: Biology or Human Biology core. Satisfies WIM in Biology.

BIO 171. Principles of Cell Cycle Control. 3 Units.

Genetic analysis of the key regulatory circuits governing the control of cell division. Illustration of key principles that can be generalized to other synthetic and natural biological circuits. Focus on tractable model organisms; growth control; irreversible biochemical switches; chromosome duplication; mitosis; DNA damage checkpoints; MAPK pathway-cell cycle interface; oncogenesis. Analysis of classic and current primary literature. Satisfies Central Menu Area 2.
Same as: BIO 271, CSB 271

BIO 173. Chemical Biology. 3 Units.

Chemical biology is an integrative discipline that seeks to apply chemical tools and approaches to understand biology. This course will introduce students to various methods and approaches used in this field, with an emphasis on the use of natural products and synthetic small molecules as probes of biological function. Specific examples will be used to illustrate the ramifications of chemical biology with molecular, cell and developmental biology. The interaction between disease and drug discovery will be considered in detail. Prerequisites: Completion of BioCore (BIO 41, 42, 43).

BIO 174. Human Skeletal Anatomy. 5 Units.

Study of the human skeleton (a. k. a. human osteology), as it bears on other disciplines, including medicine, forensics, archaeology, and paleoanthropology (human evolution). Basic bone biology, anatomy, and development, emphasizing hands-on examination and identification of human skeletal parts, their implications for determining an individual¿s age, sex, geographic origin, and health status, and for the evolutionary history of our species. Three hours of lecture and at least three hours of supervised and independent study in the lab each week.
Same as: ANTHRO 175, ANTHRO 275, BIO 274, HUMBIO 180

BIO 175. Collective Behavior in Natural and Artificial Systems. 3 Units.

This course will explore possibilities for student research projects based on presentations of faculty research. We will cover a broad range of topics within the general area of collective behavior, both natural and artificial. Students will build on faculty presentations to develop proposals for future projects.
Same as: SYMSYS 275

BIO 177. Plant Microbe Interaction. 3 Units.

Molecular basis of plant symbiosis and pathogenesis. Topics include mechanisms of recognition and signaling between microbes and plant hosts, with examples such as the role of small molecules, secreted peptides, and signal transduction pathways in symbiotic or pathogenic interactions. Readings include landmark papers together with readings in the contemporary literature. Prerequisites: Biology core and two or more upper division courses in genetics, molecular biology, or biochemistry. Recommended: plant genetics or plant biochemistry.
Same as: BIO 277

BIO 178. Microbiology Literature. 3 Units.

For advanced undergraduates and first-year graduate students. Critical reading of the research literature in prokaryotic genetics and molecular biology, with particular applications to the study of major human pathogens. Classic and foundational papers in pathogenesis, genetics, and molecular biology; recent literature on bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella, Vibrio, and/or Yersinia. Diverse experimental approaches: biochemistry, genomics, pathogenesis, and cell biology. Prerequisites: Biology Core and two upper-division courses in genetics, molecular biology, or biochemistry.
Same as: BIO 278

BIO 180. Microbial Physiology. 3 Units.

Introduction to the physiology of microbes including cellular structure, transcription and translation, growth and metabolism, mechanisms for stress resistance and the formation of microbial communities. These topics will be covered in relation to the evolution of early life on Earth, ancient ecosystems, and the interpretation of the rock record. Recommended: introductory biology and chemistry.
Same as: EARTHSYS 255, ESS 255, GS 233A

BIO 182. Modeling Cultural Evolution. 3 Units.

Seminar. Quantitative models for the evolution of socially transmitted traits. Rates of change of learned traits in populations and patterns of cultural diversity as a function of innovation and cultural transmission. Learning in constant and changing environments. Possible avenues for gene-culture coevolution.
Same as: BIO 282

BIO 183. Theoretical Population Genetics. 3 Units.

Models in population genetics and evolution. Selection, random drift, gene linkage, migration, and inbreeding, and their influence on the evolution of gene frequencies and chromosome structure. Models are related to DNA sequence evolution. Prerequisites: calculus and linear algebra, or consent of instructor.
Same as: BIO 283

BIO 196A. Biology Senior Reflection. 3 Units.

Capstone course series for seniors. Creative, self-reflective and scientifically relevant projects conceived, produced and exhibited over the course of three quarters. Explore scientific content of personal interest through creative forms including but not limited to writing, music, fine arts, performing arts, photography, film or new media. A written essay on the creative process and scientific significance of the selected topic will accompany the creative work. Completed projects may be included in a creative portfolio. Required enrollment in 196A,B,C. Satisfies WIM in Biology.

BIO 196B. Biology Senior Reflection. 3 Units.

Capstone course series for seniors. Creative, self-reflective and scientifically relevant projects conceived, produced and exhibited over the course of three quarters. Explore scientific content of personal interest through creative forms including but not limited to writing, music, fine arts, performing arts, photography, film or new media. A written essay on the creative process and scientific significance of the selected topic will accompany the creative work. Completed projects may be included in a creative portfolio. Required enrollment in 196A,B,C.

BIO 196C. Biology Senior Reflection. 3 Units.

Capstone course series for seniors. Creative, self-reflective and scientifically relevant projects conceived, produced and exhibited over the course of three quarters. Explore scientific content of personal interest through creative forms including but not limited to writing, music, fine arts, performing arts, photography, film or new media. A written essay on the creative process and scientific significance of the selected topic will accompany the creative work. Completed projects may be included in a creative portfolio. Required enrollment in 196A,B,C.

BIO 197WA. Senior Writing Project: The Personal Essay in Biology. 3 Units.

Seminar focused on writing. Compose, workshop and revise scientifically relevant and personal essays in biology directed at a mainstream audience, interweaving research, interview, memoir, and other elements of nonfiction craft. Satisfies WIM in Biology.

BIO 198. Directed Reading in Biology. 1-15 Unit.

Individually arranged under the supervision of members of the faculty.

BIO 198X. Out-of-Department Directed Reading. 1-15 Unit.

Individually arranged under the supervision of members of the faculty. Credit for work arranged with out-of-department faculty is restricted to Biology majors and requires department approval. See https://biology.stanford.edu/academics/undergraduate-research/directed-reading for information and petitions. May be repeated for credit.

BIO 199. Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology. 1-15 Unit.

Individual research taken by arrangement with in-department instructors. See http://biohonors.stanford.edu for information on research sponsors, units, and credit for summer research. May be repeated for credit.

BIO 199W. Senior Honors Thesis: How to Effectively Write About Scientific Research. 3 Units.

Workshop. For seniors pursuing an honors thesis in a biology-focused major or program. Focus on improving scientific writing and synthesizing in the context of students' individual research projects. Complete literature review which will form the basis for the thesis introduction. Develop methods section of the thesis. Small seminar-style discussion sections with research-based discussions, student led PowerPoint presentations, and writing workshops. Co-requisite: Concurrent enrollment in 199 or 199X or equivalent. Satisfies WIM in Biology.

BIO 199X. Out-of-Department Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology. 1-15 Unit.

Individual research by arrangement with out-of-department instructors. Credit for 199X is restricted to declared Biology majors and requires department approval. See https://biology.stanford.edu/academics/undergraduate-research/research for information on research sponsors, units, petitions, deadlines, credit for summer research, and out-of-Stanford research. May be repeated for credit.

BIO 200. Advanced Molecular Biology. 5 Units.

Molecular mechanisms that govern the replication, recombination, and expression of eukaryotic genomes. Topics: DNA replication, DNA recombination, gene transcription, RNA splicing, regulation of gene expression, protein synthesis, and protein folding. Satisfies Central Menu Area 1. Prerequisite: Biology core.
Same as: BIO 104

BIO 202. Ecological Statistics. 3 Units.

Intended for graduate students (and advanced undergraduates in special circumstances with consent of instructors) in biology and related environmental sciences, this course is an introduction to statistical methods for ecological data analysis, using the programming language R. The course will have lectures, discussions, and independent research projects using the students¿ own data or simulated or publicly available data.

BIO 204. Neuroplasticity: From Synapses to Behavior. 3 Units.

This course will focus on neuroplasticity from a broad perspective, from molecular cellular mechanism to its involvement in behavior and diseases. Emphasis will be on: a) molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying various forms of neuroplasticity; b) the neuroplasticity during brain development; c) the neuroplasticity in adult brain with respect to learning and memory; and d) maladaptive neuroplasticity in neurodegenerative disease and drug addiction. This course is designed for Ph.D. students from both the Biology and Neuroscience programs. Open to advanced undergraduates by consent of instructor.

BIO 208. Spanish in Science/Science in Spanish. 2 Units.

For graduate and undergraduate students interested in the natural sciences and the Spanish language. Students will acquire the ability to communicate in Spanish using scientific language and will enhance their ability to read scientific literature written in Spanish. Emphasis on the development of science in Spanish-speaking countries or regions. Course is conducted in Spanish and intended for students pursuing degrees in the sciences, particularly disciplines such as ecology, environmental science, sustainability, resource management, anthropology, and archeology.
Same as: EARTHSYS 207, LATINAM 207

BIO 210. Chromatin Regulation of the Genome. 3 Units.

Maintenance of the genome is a prerequisite for life. In eukaryotes, all DNA-templated processes are tightly connected to chromatin structure and function. This course will explore epigenetic and chromatin regulation of cellular processes related to aging, cancer, stem cell pluripotency, metabolic homeostasis, and development. Course material integrates current literature with a foundational review of histone modifications and nucleosome composition in epigenetic inheritance, transcription, replication, cell division and DNA damage responses. Prerequisite: BIO 41 or consent of instructor.
Same as: BIO 110

BIO 214. Advanced Cell Biology. 4 Units.

For Ph.D. students. Current research on cell structure, function, and dynamics. Topics include complex cell phenomena such as cell division, apoptosis, compartmentalization, transport and trafficking, motility and adhesion, and differentiation. Weekly reading of current papers from the primary literature. Preparation of an original research proposal. Prerequisite for advanced undergraduates: BIO 129A,B, and consent of instructor.
Same as: BIOC 224, MCP 221

BIO 217. Neuronal Biophysics. 4 Units.

Biophysical descriptions and mechanisms of passive and excitable membranes, ion channels and pumps, action potential propagation, and synaptic transmission. Introduction to dynamics of single neurons and neuronal networks. Emphasis is on the experimental basis for modern research applications. Interdisciplinary aspects of biology and physics. Literature, problem sets, and student presentations. Prerequisites: undergraduate physics, calculus, and biology.

BIO 222. Exploring Neural Circuits. 3 Units.

Seminar. The logic of how neural circuits control behavior; how neural circuits are assembled during development and modified by experience. Emphasis is on primary literature. Topics include: neurons as information processing units; simple and complex circuits underlying sensory information processing and motor control; and development and plasticity of neural circuits. Advanced undergraduates and graduate students with background in physical science, engineering, and biology may apply to enroll. Recommended: background in neuroscience.

BIO 223. Stochastic and Nonlinear Dynamics. 3 Units.

Theoretical analysis of dynamical processes: dynamical systems, stochastic processes, and spatiotemporal dynamics. Motivations and applications from biology and physics. Emphasis is on methods including qualitative approaches, asymptotics, and multiple scale analysis. Prerequisites: ordinary and partial differential equations, complex analysis, and probability or statistical physics.
Same as: APPPHYS 223

BIO 226. Introduction to Biophysics. 3-4 Units.

Core course appropriate for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students with prior knowledge of calculus and a college physics course. Introduction to how physical principles offer insights into modern biology, with regard to the structural, dynamical, and functional organization of biological systems. Topics include the roles of free energy, diffusion, electromotive forces, non-equilibrium dynamics, and information in fundamental biological processes.
Same as: APPPHYS 205, BIO 126

BIO 227. Foundations of Community Ecology. 2 Units.

Discussion of classic papers in community ecology (Forbes, Clements, Gleason, Grinnell, Lindeman, Preston, Elton, Hutchinson, May, MacArthur, Odum, Connell, Paine, Tilman, etc.) and contemporary papers on related topics, to develop historical perspectives to understand current issues and identify future directions. Prerequisite for undergraduates: consent of instructor.

BIO 230. Molecular and Cellular Immunology. 4 Units.

Components of the immune system and their functions in immune responses in health and disease: development of the immune system; innate and adaptive immunity; structure and function of antibodies; molecular biology and biochemistry of antigen receptors and signaling pathways; cellular basis of immune responses and their regulation; genetic control of immune responses and disease susceptibility. Lectures and discussion in class and in sections. Satisfies Central Menu Areas 1 or 2. For upper class undergraduates and graduate students who have not previously taken an introductory immunology course. Prerequisite for undergraduates: Biology or Human Biology core, or consent of instructor.

BIO 230A. Molecular and Cellular Immunology Literature Review. 1 Unit.

Special discussion section for graduate students. Supplement to 230. Corequisite: 230.

BIO 232. Advanced Imaging Lab in Biophysics. 4 Units.

Laboratory and lectures. Advanced microscopy and imaging, emphasizing hands-on experience with state-of-the-art techniques. Students construct and operate working apparatus. Topics include microscope optics, Koehler illumination, contrast-generating mechanisms (bright/dark field, fluorescence, phase contrast, differential interference contrast), and resolution limits. Laboratory topics vary by year, but include single-molecule fluorescence, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, microendoscopy, and optical trapping. Limited enrollment. Recommended: basic physics, Biology core or equivalent, and consent of instructor.
Same as: APPPHYS 232, BIO 132, BIOPHYS 232, GENE 232

BIO 234. Conservation Biology: A Latin American Perspective. 3 Units.

Principles and application of the science of preserving biological diversity. Conceptually, this course is designed to explore 4 major components relevant to the conservation of biodiversity, as exemplified by the Latin American region. The conceptual frameworks and principles, however, should be generally applicable, and provide insights for all regions of the world, including those of lesser biodiversity. Satisfies Central Menu Area 4 for Bio majors. Prerequisite: BIO 101, or BIO 43 or HUMBIO 2A with consent of instructor. Graduate level students will be expected to conduct a literature research exercise leading to a written paper, addressing a topic of their choosing, derived from any of the themes discussed in class.
Same as: BIO 144, HUMBIO 112

BIO 238. Ecosystem Services: Frontiers in the Science of Valuing Nature. 3 Units.

This advanced course explores the science of valuing nature, beginning with its historical origins, and then its recent development in natural (especially ecological), economic, psychological, and other social sciences. We will use the ecosystem services framework (characterizing benefits from ecosystems to people) to define the state of knowledge, core methods of analysis, and research frontiers, such as at the interface with biodiversity, resilience, human health, and human development. Intended for diverse students, with a focus on research and real-world cases. To apply, please email the instructor (gdaily@stanford.edu) with a brief description of your background and research interests.
Same as: BIO 138

BIO 239. The Hidden Kingdom - Evolution, Ecology and Diversity of Fungi. 4 Units.

Fungi are critical, yet often hidden, components of the biosphere. They regulate decomposition, are primary partners in plant symbiosis and strongly impact agriculture and economics. Students will explore the fascinating world of fungal biology, ecology and evolution via lecture, lab, field exercises and Saturday field trips that will provide traditional and molecular experiences in the collection, analysis and industrial use of diverse fungi. Students will chose an environmental niche, collect and identify resident fungi, and hypothesize about their community relationship. Prerequisite: BIO 43 recommended.
Same as: BIO 115

BIO 244. Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution. 4 Units.

The inference of key molecular evolutionary processes from DNA and protein sequences. Topics include random genetic drift, coalescent models, effects and tests of natural selection, combined effects of linkage and natural selection, codon bias and genome evolution. Satisfies Central Menu Areas 1 or 4. Prerequisites: Biology core or graduate standing in any department, and consent of instructor.
Same as: BIO 113

BIO 245. Ecology and Evolution of Animal Behavior. 3 Units.

Ecological and evolutionary perspectives on animal behavior, with an emphasis on social and collective behavior. This is a project-based course in a lecture/seminar format. Seminars will be based on discussion of journal articles. Independent research projects on the behavior of animals on campus. Prerequisites: Biology or Human Biology core, Biology/ES 30. Recommended: statistics.
Same as: BIO 145

BIO 249. The Neurobiology of Sleep. 4 Units.

Preference to seniors and graduate students. The neurochemistry and neurophysiology of changes in brain activity and conscious awareness associated with changes in the sleep/wake state. Behavioral and neurobiological phenomena including sleep regulation, sleep homeostasis, circadian rhythms, sleep disorders, sleep function, and the molecular biology of sleep. Enrollment limited to 16.
Same as: BIO 149, HUMBIO 161

BIO 254. Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology. 3-5 Units.

For graduate students. Includes lectures for BIO 154. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in the organization and functions of the nervous system. Topics: wiring of the neuronal circuit, synapse structure and synaptic transmission, signal transduction in the nervous system, sensory systems, molecular basis of behavior including learning and memory, molecular pathogenesis of neurological diseases.
Same as: NBIO 254

BIO 256. Epigenetics. 2 Units.

Epigenetics is the process by which phenotypes not determined by the DNA sequence are stably inherited in successive cell divisions. Course will cover the molecular mechanisms governing epigenetics, ranging from the discovery of epigenetic phenomena to present-day studies on the role of chromatin, DNA methylation, and RNA in regulating epigenetics processes. Topics include: position effect gene expression, genome regulation, gene silencing & heterochromatin, histone code, DNA methylation & imprinting, epigenetics & disease, and epigenetic-based therapeutics. Prerequisite: BIO41 and BIO42 or consent of instructor, advanced biology course such as Bio104.
Same as: BIO 156

BIO 257. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants. 3-4 Units.

Biochemical and molecular basis of plant growth and adaptation. Topics include: hormone signal transduction; photoreceptor chemistry and signaling; metabolite sensing and transport; dynamics of photosynthesis; plant innate immunity and symbiosis. Lectures and readings will emphasize research methods. Prerequisite: Biology core or equivalent, or consent of instructor.
Same as: BIO 157

BIO 258. Developmental Neurobiology. 4 Units.

For advanced undergraduates and coterminal students. The principles of nervous system development from the molecular control of patterning, cell-cell interactions, and trophic factors to the level of neural systems and the role of experience in influencing brain structure and function. Topics: neural induction and patterning cell lineage, neurogenesis, neuronal migration, axonal pathfinding, synapse elimination, the role of activity, critical periods, and the development of behavior. Satisfies Central Menu Areas 2 or 3. Prerequisite: BIO 42 or equivalent.
Same as: BIO 158

BIO 263. Neural Systems and Behavior. 4 Units.

The field of neuroethology and its vertebrate and invertebrate model systems. Research-oriented. Readings include reviews and original papers. How animal brains compare; how neural circuits are adapted to species-typical behavior; and how the sensory worlds of different species represent the world. Lectures and required discussions. Satisfies Central Menu Area 3 for Bio majors. Prerequisites: BIO 42, HUMBIO 4A.
Same as: HUMBIO 163

BIO 267. Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Disease. 4 Units.

The epidemic of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease occasioned by an aging human population. Genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms. Clinical aspects through case presentations.
Same as: GENE 267, NENS 267

BIO 268. Statistical and Machine Learning Methods for Genomics. 3 Units.

Introduction to statistical and computational methods for genomics. Sample topics include: expectation maximization, hidden Markov model, Markov chain Monte Carlo, ensemble learning, probabilistic graphical models, kernel methods and other modern machine learning paradigms. Rationales and techniques illustrated with existing implementations used in population genetics, disease association, and functional regulatory genomics studies. Instruction includes lectures and discussion of readings from primary literature. Homework and projects require implementing some of the algorithms and using existing toolkits for analysis of genomic datasets.
Same as: BIOMEDIN 245, CS 373, GENE 245, STATS 345

BIO 271. Principles of Cell Cycle Control. 3 Units.

Genetic analysis of the key regulatory circuits governing the control of cell division. Illustration of key principles that can be generalized to other synthetic and natural biological circuits. Focus on tractable model organisms; growth control; irreversible biochemical switches; chromosome duplication; mitosis; DNA damage checkpoints; MAPK pathway-cell cycle interface; oncogenesis. Analysis of classic and current primary literature. Satisfies Central Menu Area 2.
Same as: BIO 171, CSB 271

BIO 274. Human Skeletal Anatomy. 5 Units.

Study of the human skeleton (a. k. a. human osteology), as it bears on other disciplines, including medicine, forensics, archaeology, and paleoanthropology (human evolution). Basic bone biology, anatomy, and development, emphasizing hands-on examination and identification of human skeletal parts, their implications for determining an individual¿s age, sex, geographic origin, and health status, and for the evolutionary history of our species. Three hours of lecture and at least three hours of supervised and independent study in the lab each week.
Same as: ANTHRO 175, ANTHRO 275, BIO 174, HUMBIO 180

BIO 274S. Hopkins Microbiology Course. 3-12 Units.

(Formerly GES 274S.) Four-week, intensive. The interplay between molecular, physiological, ecological, evolutionary, and geochemical processes that constitute, cause, and maintain microbial diversity. How to isolate key microorganisms driving marine biological and geochemical diversity, interpret culture-independent molecular characterization of microbial species, and predict causes and consequences. Laboratory component: what constitutes physiological and metabolic microbial diversity; how evolutionary and ecological processes diversify individual cells into physiologically heterogeneous populations; and the principles of interactions between individuals, their population, and other biological entities in a dynamically changing microbial ecosystem. Prerequisites: CEE 274A and CEE 274B, or equivalents.
Same as: BIOHOPK 274, CEE 274S, ESS 253S

BIO 277. Plant Microbe Interaction. 3 Units.

Molecular basis of plant symbiosis and pathogenesis. Topics include mechanisms of recognition and signaling between microbes and plant hosts, with examples such as the role of small molecules, secreted peptides, and signal transduction pathways in symbiotic or pathogenic interactions. Readings include landmark papers together with readings in the contemporary literature. Prerequisites: Biology core and two or more upper division courses in genetics, molecular biology, or biochemistry. Recommended: plant genetics or plant biochemistry.
Same as: BIO 177

BIO 278. Microbiology Literature. 3 Units.

For advanced undergraduates and first-year graduate students. Critical reading of the research literature in prokaryotic genetics and molecular biology, with particular applications to the study of major human pathogens. Classic and foundational papers in pathogenesis, genetics, and molecular biology; recent literature on bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella, Vibrio, and/or Yersinia. Diverse experimental approaches: biochemistry, genomics, pathogenesis, and cell biology. Prerequisites: Biology Core and two upper-division courses in genetics, molecular biology, or biochemistry.
Same as: BIO 178

BIO 282. Modeling Cultural Evolution. 3 Units.

Seminar. Quantitative models for the evolution of socially transmitted traits. Rates of change of learned traits in populations and patterns of cultural diversity as a function of innovation and cultural transmission. Learning in constant and changing environments. Possible avenues for gene-culture coevolution.
Same as: BIO 182

BIO 283. Theoretical Population Genetics. 3 Units.

Models in population genetics and evolution. Selection, random drift, gene linkage, migration, and inbreeding, and their influence on the evolution of gene frequencies and chromosome structure. Models are related to DNA sequence evolution. Prerequisites: calculus and linear algebra, or consent of instructor.
Same as: BIO 183

BIO 286. Natural History of the Vertebrates. 4 Units.

Broad survey of the diversity of vertebrate life. Discussion of the major branches of the vertebrate evolutionary tree, with emphasis on evolutionary relationships and key adaptations as revealed by the fossil record and modern phylogenetics. Modern orders introduced through an emphasis on natural history, physiology, behavioral ecology, community ecology, and conservation. Lab sessions focused on comparative skeletal morphology through hands-on work with skeletal specimens. Discussion of field methods and experience with our local vertebrate communities through field trips to several of California¿s distinct biomes. Prerequisite: Biology core.

BIO 287. Advanced topics in human population genetics. 3 Units.

Focused examination of specific topics in human population genetics, with emphasis on primary literature. Course themes may include: mathematical properties of statistics used in human population genetics, population genetics and biological race, and statistical inference of human migrations.

BIO 290. Teaching of Biology. 1-5 Unit.

Open to upper-division undergraduates and graduate students. Practical experience in teaching lab biology or serving as an assistant in a lecture course. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

BIO 291. Development and Teaching of Core Experimental Laboratories. 1-2 Unit.

Preparation for teaching the core experimental courses (44X and 44Y). Emphasis is on lab, speaking, and writing skills. Focus is on updating the lab to meet the changing technical needs of the students. Taken prior to teaching either of the above courses. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: selection by instructor.

BIO 292. Curricular Practical Training. 1-3 Unit.

CPT course required for international students completing degree requirements.

BIO 294. Cellular Biophysics. 3 Units.

Physical biology of dynamical and mechanical processes in cells. Emphasis is on qualitative understanding of biological functions through quantitative analysis and simple mathematical models. Sensory transduction, signaling, adaptation, switches, molecular motors, actin and microtubules, motility, and circadian clocks. Prerequisites: differential equations and introductory statistical mechanics.
Same as: APPPHYS 294, BIOPHYS 294

BIO 296. TA Training in Biology. 1 Unit.

Workshop to provide teaching assistants in the Department of Biology with basic training, support, and professional development in their teaching roles. Should be taken concurrently with the first TA position.

BIO 299. Biology PhD Lab Rotation. 1-10 Unit.

Limited to first year Biology PhD students. Lab rotations with Biosciences faculty.

BIO 300. Graduate Research. 1-10 Unit.

For graduate students only. Individual research by arrangement with in-department instructors.

BIO 300X. Out-of-Department Graduate Research. 1-10 Unit.

Individual research by arrangement with out-of-department instructors. Master's students: credit for work arranged with out-of-department instructors is restricted to Biology students and requires approved department petition. See http://biohonors.stanford.edu for more information. May be repeated for credit.

BIO 301. Frontiers in Biology. 1-3 Unit.

Limited to and required of first-year Ph.D. students in molecular, cellular, and developmental biology. Current research in molecular, cellular, and developmental biology emphasizing primary research literature. Held in conjunction with the department's Monday seminar series. Students and faculty meet weekly before the seminar for a student presentation and discussion of upcoming papers.

BIO 302. Current Topics and Concepts in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution. 1 Unit.

Required of first-year PhD students in population biology, and ecology and evolution. Major conceptual issues and developing topics. This course isnnopen only to Biology PhD students and is not open to auditors.".

BIO 303. Current Topics and Concepts in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution. 1 Unit.

Required of first-year PhD students in population biology, and ecology and evolution. Major conceptual issues and developing topics. This course isnnopen only to Biology PhD students and is not open to auditors.".

BIO 304. Current Topics and Concepts in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution. 1 Unit.

Required of first-year PhD students in population biology, and ecology and evolution. Major conceptual issues and developing topics. This course isnnopen only to Biology PhD students and is not open to auditors.

BIO 312. Ethical Issues in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. 1 Unit.

Focus is on ethical issues addressed in Donald Kennedy's Academic Duty and others of importance to academics and scientists in the fields of ecology, behavior, and evolutionary biology. Discussions led by faculty and outside guests. Satisfies ethics course requirement for ecology and evolutionary biology. Prerequisite: PhD student in the ecology and evolutionary biology or marine program, or consent of instructor.

BIO 327. Research Frontiers in Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. 3 Units.

This advanced seminar explores research frontiers in the science of biodiversity and ecosystem services. We will begin with foundational work and then shift to key frontiers now opening up ¿ including DNA barcoding, food web structure and ecosystem processes; remote sensing and modeling biodiversity change and ecosystem services; relating big data on natural capital and human well-being; and nature experience and human mental health. Students will lead discussions and make research presentations. To apply, please email the instructor (gdaily@stanford.edu).

BIO 328. Managing Biodiversity Change: from Science to Policy. 3 Units.

This course will explore key topics in management of biodiversity change at the science-policy interface. The topics will often be approached from an Iberian and Latin American perspective. Topics to be covered include: protected area management, ecological rewilding of abandoned farmland, agri-environmental schemes, developing biodiversity monitoring programs, developing biodiversity scenarios and identifying regional tipping points ecosystems; assessments across scales for the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services.

BIO 329. Matrix Methods for Dynamic Models and Data Analysis. 1 Unit.

Types of matrices in dynamic & stochastic models, covariances, rectangular data, networks. Spectral theorem, asymptotics, stability theory, Nonnegative matrices, ergodicity, Markov chains. Hermitian, covariance, SVD. Perturbation theory. Random matrix products, Lyapunov exponents. Open to Ph.D. students in Biology. Prerequisites: Calculus (AP level) required. Some knowledge of linear algebra, R, preferred.

BIO 330. Stochastic Methods for Simulation, Dynamics and Data Analysis. 1 Unit.

Markov chains: ergodicity, CLT, passage times, absorption. Simulation: random numbers, chains. Poisson processes: applications and simulation. Time series models. MCMC essentials. Open to Ph.D. students in Biology. Prerequisites: Calculus (AP level) and basic linear algebra required. Facility with linear algebra, R, preferred.

BIO 331. The Genetic Footprint of Latin America and its Impact in a Multicultural Society. 3 Units.

This course will cover the latest advances in human population genomics with a particular focus on the evolutionary history of the Americas and the genetic population structure of Latin America. It is intended to suit a broad audience, including students in Biology, Genetics, Health Sciences, Anthropology, and Humanities. Therefore, topics will range from basic concepts in population genetics and DNA analysis techniques to specialized studies aimed at resolving fine-scale structure patterns in different regions across Latin America.

BIO 342. Plant Biology Seminar. 1-3 Unit.

Topics announced at the beginning of each quarter. Current literature. May be repeated for credit. See http://carnegiedpb.stanford.edu/seminars/seminars.php.

BIO 346. Advanced Seminar on Prokaryotic Molecular Biology. 1 Unit.

Enrollment limited to PhD students associated with departmental research groups in genetics or molecular biology.

BIO 375. Field Ecology & Conservation. 4 Units.

This course is based on question-driven research in the field, addressing both conceptual frameworks and methodological aspects of evolutionary ecology and conservation biology. It consists of faculty-led research projects and student independent projects. The field part takes place in a tropical rain forest research station in Mexico September 5-15, 2014. The field component is followed by sessions on campus, where the research data are analyzed, discussed and prepared as scientific papers. The training includes presentations of the papers in a mini-symposium organized as a professional meeting.

BIO 383. Seminar in Population Genetics. 1-3 Unit.

Literature review, research, and current problems in the theory and practice of population genetics and molecular evolution. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

BIO 384. Theoretical Ecology. 1-3 Unit.

Recent and classical research papers in ecology, and presentation of work in progress by participants. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

BIO 390. Topics in Biology. 1 Unit.

Seminar. Topics in biology ranging from neurobiology to ecology.

BIO 459. Frontiers in Interdisciplinary Biosciences. 1 Unit.

Students register through their affiliated department; otherwise register for CHEMENG 459. For specialists and non-specialists. Sponsored by the Stanford BioX Program. Three seminars per quarter address scientific and technical themes related to interdisciplinary approaches in bioengineering, medicine, and the chemical, physical, and biological sciences. Leading investigators from Stanford and the world present breakthroughs and endeavors that cut across core disciplines. Pre-seminars introduce basic concepts and background for non-experts. Registered students attend all pre-seminars; others welcome. See http://biox.stanford.edu/courses/459.html. Recommended: basic mathematics, biology, chemistry, and physics.
Same as: BIOC 459, BIOE 459, CHEM 459, CHEMENG 459, PSYCH 459

BIO 802. TGR Dissertation. 0 Units.

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