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African Studies

Contacts

Office: 100 Encina Commons, 615 Crothers Way
Mail Code: 94305-6045
Phone: (650) 723-0295
Email: africanstudies@stanford.edu
Web Site: http://africanstudies.stanford.edu

Courses offered by the Center for African Studies are listed under the subject code AFRICAST on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

The Center for African Studies coordinates an interdisciplinary program in African Studies for undergraduates and graduate students. The program seeks to enrich understanding of the interactions among the social, economic, cultural, historical, linguistic, genetic, geopolitical, ecological, and biomedical factors that shape and have shaped African societies. By arrangement with the Stanford/Berkeley Joint Center for African Studies, graduate students may incorporate courses from both institutions into their programs. Contact the center for information regarding courses offered at the University of California, Berkeley.

Courses in African Studies are offered by departments and programs throughout the University. Each year the center sponsors a seminar to demonstrate to advanced undergraduates and graduate students how topics of current interest in African Studies are approached from different disciplinary perspectives.

Course offerings in African languages are also coordinated by the Center for African Studies. Along with regular courses in several levels of Arabic, Swahili, Xhosa, and Zulu, the center arranges with the African and Middle Eastern Languages and Literatures Program in the Stanford Language Center to offer instruction in other African languages; in recent years, it has offered courses in Amharic, Bambara, Chichewa, Ewe, Fulani, Hausa, Igbo, Shona, Twi, Wolof, and Yoruba.

The Center for African Studies offers a master of arts degree for graduate students. Undergraduates and graduate students not pursuing the master's degree can specialize in African Studies under the arrangements listed below.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The purpose of the master's program is to further develop knowledge and skills in African Studies and to prepare students for a professional career or doctoral studies. This is achieved through completion of courses, in the primary field as well as related areas, and experience with independent work and specialization.

 

Undergraduate Programs in African Studies

Undergraduates may choose an African Studies focus from:

  1. A minor in African Studies offers students the ability to combine a focus on Africa with their major in any other discipline. This offers the students a strong regional specialization. For requirements see the "Minor in African Studies" section of this bulletin.
  2. A major in a traditionally defined academic department such as Anthropology, History, or Political Science. These departments afford ample opportunity to enroll in courses outside the major, leaving the student free to pursue the interdisciplinary study of Africa.
  3. Interdepartmental majors, such as African and African American Studies or International Relations, which offer coordinated and comprehensive interdisciplinary course sequences, permitting a concentration in African Studies.

Certificate in African Studies

Students may apply for a certificate in African Studies. Requirements for the certificate are the same as for the minor; however, students may double-count courses applied toward their major or graduate studies. The certificate in African Studies is issued by the Program in African Studies and will not appear on any University record, including the student’s transcript.  For more information and an application, contact the center.

Minor in African Studies

The Center for African Studies awards a minor in African Studies. Students majoring in any field qualify for this minor by meeting the following requirements:

  1. A minimum of 25 units of Africa-related courses. Students may not double-count courses for completing major and minor requirements.
  2. At least one quarter's exposure to a sub-Saharan African language. The Center for African Studies and the Special Languages Program may arrange instruction in any of several languages spoken in West, East, Central, and Southern Africa.
  3. One introductory course that deals with more than one region of Africa.
  4. A minimum 25-page research paper, with a focus on Africa. This paper may be an extension of a previous paper written for an African Studies course.
  5. A designated focus of study, either disciplinary or regional, through a three-course concentration.

Upon completion of requirements, final certification of the minor is made by the Center for African Studies and appears on the student's transcript.

Graduate Study in African Studies

For those who wish to specialize in Africa at the graduate level, African Studies can be designated a field of concentration within the master's and doctoral programs of some academic departments. Students in such departments as Anthropology, History, Political Science, and Sociology, and in the School of Education, may declare African Studies as the area of specialization for their master's and Ph.D. thesis work. Some other departments, programs, and institutes such as the International Comparative Education Program also permit students to specialize in African Studies.

Stanford graduate students who are U.S. citizens or permanent residents may request an academic year application for a Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowship. Students need not be enrolled at Stanford to apply for the summer fellowship. The deadline for both is January 8. For more information or an application, contact the Center.

Financial Aid

The Center for African Studies offers a limited number of Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) fellowships to U.S. citizens and permanent residents who undertake full-time study of an African language as part of their graduate training.

Coterminal Bachelor's and Master of Arts in African Studies

The one-year master's program in African Studies is designed for students who have experience working, living, or studying in Africa, and little prior course work on the region.

Undergraduates at Stanford may apply for admission to the coterminal master's program in African Studies. Coterminal degree applications will only be accepted from students in their fourth year, meaning that the program must be completed in the fifth year. An exception can only be made for students who completed an honors thesis in their third year. For University coterminal degree program rules and application forms, see the Registrar web site. Requirements for the master's degree are summarized below.

The annual deadline for all applications, including coterminal and master's, is January 8. All applicants must submit an online application, including a 500-word statement of purpose, resume, 15-20 page double-spaced academic writing sample, three letters of recommendation, official transcripts, and Graduate Record Examination scores. TOEFL scores are required of applicants for whom English is not their first language or who did not attend an undergraduate institution where English is the language of instruction. To apply online and for information on graduate admissions, see the Graduate Admissions web site.

Degree Requirements

University requirements for the master's degree are described in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

The program requires completion of a minimum of 45 graduate units. Upon entering, each student is assigned a faculty adviser who works with the student to develop a customized program of study.

To receive the M.A. degree in African Studies, students must complete:

  1. Core Courses (15 units)

    Students must complete the core African Studies M.A. course, AFRICAST 301A The Dynamics of Change in Africa, in Autumn Quarter. Students elect two additional graduate courses taught by African Studies academic council members and drawn from a list of approved courses. Students must also complete, AFRICAST 302 Research Workshop, in Spring Quarter, in which they present and discuss their research and research interests.
  2. Cognate Courses (10 units)

    A minimum of 10 units of graduate-level credit in two cognate courses from the following thematic clusters not chosen as the student's concentration field:
    1. culture and society
    2. health, well-being, and the environment
    3. political economy and security.
  3. Concentration Field (12-15 units)

    Students choose one area of specialization:
    1. culture and society
    2. health, well-being, and the environment
    3. political economy and security
    • Students also choose a group of three related elective courses for graduate credit from the cognate course listings or elsewhere in the Stanford curriculum in consultation with the student's adviser and with the approval of the CAS director. With approval, introductory courses may be substituted in fields such as advanced undergraduate biology for those interested in epidemic diseases or public health. The academic adviser, in agreement with faculty in the chosen field, guarantees that each set of courses forms part of a coherent program.
  4. Language Requirement

    Students take one year of training in an African language, usually at least 3 units per quarter, resulting in intermediate-level proficiency as measured by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) or comparable language acquisition standards. Students who have advanced proficiency in an African language must fulfill this requirement by taking another European language spoken in Africa, such as French or Portuguese, by taking another African language to the intermediate-level, or by taking a year-long sequence in Arabic. Students with competency in one or more African languages and one or more other languages widely spoken in Africa, may substitute a program of methodological training including, for example, a sequence of courses in statistics or GIS survey techniques.
  5. Seminar Requirement

    Students enroll each quarter in AFRICAST 300 Contemporary Issues in African Studies, 1 unit, in which guest scholars present lectures on African themes and topics.
  6. Thesis Option

    Students may elect to write a master's thesis; they may register for up to 10 units of thesis research under the guidance of an Academic Council member. Thesis units may be counted toward the electives within the concentration field unit requirements.
  7. Grade Requirements

    Courses to be counted toward the degree, except for AFRICAST 300 Contemporary Issues in African Studies, must be taken for a letter grade and receive a grade of 'B' or higher.

In addition to AFRICAST courses, the following courses are examples of those offered in other departments that may be used to fulfill optional requirements. To meet requirements for the master's degree, students must take courses at the graduate level which are typically at least at the 200 level.

Units
AFRICAST 112AIDS, Literacy, and Land: Foreign Aid and Development in Africa5
AFRICAST 199Independent Study or Directed Reading1-5
AFRICAST 200The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Tanzania: A Pre-Field Seminar1
AFRICAST 212AIDS, Literacy, and Land: Foreign Aid and Development in Africa5
AFRICAST 224Memory and Heritage In South Africa Syllabus1
AFRICAST 301AThe Dynamics of Change in Africa4-5
ANTHRO 247Nature, Culture, Heritage5
ARTHIST 490Curatorial Activism in the Arts of Africa5
BIO 209BThe Human Genome and Disease: Genetic Diversity and Personalized Medicine3
BIOC 209BThe Human Genome and Disease: Genetic Diversity and Personalized Medicine3
FILMSTUD 316International Documentary4
FINANCE 381Private Equity in Frontier Markets: Creating a New Investible Asset Class4
IPS 213International Mediation and Civil Wars3-5
POLISCI 246PThe Dynamics of Change in Africa4-5

Joint Degree Program in African Studies and Law

This joint degree program grants an M.A. degree in African Studies and a Doctor of Jurisprudence (J.D.) degree. It is designed to train students interested in a career in teaching, research, or the practice of law related to African legal affairs. Students must apply separately to the African Studies M.A. program and to the Stanford School of Law and be accepted by both. Completing this combined course of study requires approximately four academic years, depending on the student's background and level of training in African languages. A number of approved courses may be counted towards both degrees. For more information, see the "Joint Degree Programs" section of this bulletin and the Stanford Law School's web site. Students who have been accepted by both programs should consult with the departments to determine which courses can be double-counted.

Emeriti: David B. Abernethy, John Baugh, Joan Bresnan, Susan Cashion, Sandra E. Drake, Peter Egbert, James. L. Gibbs, Jr., William B. Gould, Bruce F. Johnston, William R. Leben, Bruce Lusignan, Hans N. Weiler, Sylvia Wynter

Director: Jeremy Weinstein

Professors: Jean-Marie Apostolidès (French, Drama), Ellen Jo Baron (Pathology), Michele Barry (Medicine), Joel Beinin (History), John Boothroyd (Microbiology and Immunology), Elisabeth Mudimbe-Boyi (French and Italian, Comparative Literature), James T. Campbell (History), Martin Carnoy (Education), Harry Elam (Drama), James Fearon (Political Science), James Ferguson (Anthropology), Terry Lynn Karl (Political Science), Richard Klein (Anthropology), David Laitin (Political Science), Michael McFaul (Political Science), Yvonne Maldonado (Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases), Lynn Meskell (Anthropology), Julie Parsonnet (Infectious Diseases), Mary L. Polan (Obstetrics and Gynecology), John Rickford (Linguistics), Richard Roberts (History)

Associate Professors: Prudence L. Carter (Education), Paulla A. Ebron (Anthropology), Liisa Malkki (Anthropology), Hugh Brent Solvason (Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences)

Assistant Professors: Jenna Davis (Civil and Environmental Engineering), David DeGusta (Anthropology), Oliver Fringer (Civil and Environmental Engineering), Sean A. Hanretta (History), Barbaro Martinez-Ruiz (Art History), Kathryn Miller (History), Grant Parker (Classics), Jeremy Weinstein (Political Science)

Professor (Research): David Katzenstein (School of Medicine)

Associate Professor (Teaching): Robert Siegel (Microbiology and Immunology)

Assistant Professor (Clinical): Brian Blackburn (Infectious Diseases)

Senior Lecturers: Khalil Barhoum (African and Middle Eastern Languages), Helen Stacy (Law)

Lecturers: Byron Bland (Stanford Center on Conflict and Negotiation), Jonathan Greenberg (Law), Ramzi Salti (African and Middle Eastern Languages), Galen Sibanda (African and Middle Eastern Languages), Timothy Stanton (Bing Overseas Studies)

Consulting Professors: Anne Firth-Murray (Human Biology), Joel Samoff (Center for African Studies)

Curators: Karen Fung (African Collection Curator, Green Library), Thomas Seligman (Director, Cantor Arts Center, and Lecturer, Art and Art History), Barbara Thompson (Phyllis Wattis Curator of the Arts of Africa and the Americas, Cantor Arts Center)

Senior Research Fellows: Coit Blacker (Freeman Spogli Institute), Larry Diamond (Hoover Institution), Stephen Stedman (Freeman Spogli Institute, Center for International Security and Cooperation)

Overseas Studies Courses in African Studies

The Bing Overseas Studies Program manages Stanford study abroad programs for Stanford undergraduates. Students should consult their department or program's student services office for applicability of Overseas Studies courses to a major or minor program.

The Bing Overseas Studies course search site displays courses, locations, and quarters relevant to specific majors.

For course descriptions and additional offerings, see the listings in the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses or Bing Overseas Studies.


Units
OSPCPTWN 15Segregation and Social Distance: The Politics of Social Separation4
OSPCPTWN 18Xhosa Language and Culture2
OSPCPTWN 19Hip Hop Africa: Hip Hop Art, Culture, and Education in Africa3-4
OSPCPTWN 22Preparation for Community-Based Research in Community Health and Development3
OSPCPTWN 24ATargeted Research Project in Community Health and Development3
OSPCPTWN 24BTargeted Research Project in Community Health and Development5
OSPCPTWN 32Service, Citizenship and Social Change: Service Learning in the Contemporary South African Contex-5
OSPCPTWN 33Southern Africa: from Liberation Struggles to Region-Building4
OSPCPTWN 36The Archaeology of Southern African Hunter Gatherers4
OSPCPTWN 38Genocide: The African Experience3-5

Courses

AFRICAST 72SI. Conflict in the Congo. 1-2 Unit.

AFRICAST 109. Running While Others Walk: African Perspectives on Development. 5 Units.

Throughout the history of modern Africa, Africans have specified their desired future¿development, understood broadly¿and identified the major obstacles in achieving it. Debates about development have intensified in the post-colonial period, especially as African countries have replaced the leaders installed at independence. Amidst the general critique of the imposition of external values and rules, Africans have differed, sometimes sharply, on priorities, process, and programs. While for some the challenge is to catch up with development elsewhere, for others it is essential to leap ahead, to set the pace, to initiate a radical social, economic, and political transformation. To ground and extend the common approaches to studying development that emphasize economics and that rely largely on external commentators, we will explore African perspectives. Our major task will be a broad overview, sampling the analyses of Africa¿s intellectuals in several domains. Course participants will review, compare, and analyze major contributions, developing an understanding of contemporary intellectual currents.
Same as: AFRICAST 209.

AFRICAST 111. Education for All? The Global and Local in Public Policy Making in Africa. 5 Units.

Policy making in Africa and the intersection of policy processes and their political and economic dimensions. The failure to implement agreements by international institutions, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations to promote education. Case studies of crowded and poorly equipped schools, overburdened and underprepared teachers, and underfunded education systems.
Same as: AFRICAST 211.

AFRICAST 112. AIDS, Literacy, and Land: Foreign Aid and Development in Africa. 5 Units.

Public policy issues, their roots, and the conflicts they engender. The policy making process: who participates, how, why, and with what results? Innovative approaches to contested policy issues. Foreign roles and their consequences. Case studies such as: a clinic in Uganda that addresses AIDS as a family and community problem; and strategies in Tanzania to increase girls' schooling.
Same as: AFRICAST 212.

AFRICAST 115. South African Encounters. 1 Unit.

This course is a prerequisite for all those accepted to or on the wait list for the Spring BOSP Cape Town term abroad. It will explore issues in contemporary South Africa.
Same as: AFRICAAM 115.

AFRICAST 127. African Art and Politics, c. 1900 - Present. 4 Units.

This course explores the relationship between art and politics in twentieth century Africa. Artistic production and consumption is considered in the context of various major political shifts, from the experience of colonialism to the struggle against Apartheid. Each week we will look closely at different works of art and examine how artists and designers responded to such challenges as independence, modernization and globalization. We will look at painting, sculpture, religious art, public and performance art, photography and film. How western perceptions and understanding of African art have shifted, and how museums have framed African art throughout the twentieth century will remain important points of discussion throughout the course.
Same as: ARTHIST 127A.

AFRICAST 135. Designing Research-Based Interventions to Solve Global Health Problems. 3-4 Units.

The excitement around social innovation and entrepreneurship has spawned numerous startups focused on tackling world problems, particularly in the fields of education and health. The best social ventures are launched with careful consideration paid to research, design, and efficacy. This course offers students the necessary tools for understanding how to effectively design and evaluate education-based social ventures.n nUsing TeachAIDS (an award-winning nonprofit educational technology social venture used in 74 countries) as a primary case study, students will be given an in-depth look into how the entity was founded and scaled globally. Guest speakers will include world-class experts and entrepreneurs in Philanthropy, Medicine, Communications, Education, and Technology.nnStudents enrolling for 4 units complete additional assignments.
Same as: AFRICAST 235, EDUC 135X, EDUC 335X, MED 235.

AFRICAST 139A. Forgotten Africa: An Introduction to the Archaeology of Africa. 5 Units.

This course provides an introductory survey of Africa¿s past from prehistoric times through the 19th-century. The course will challenge Western depictions of Africa as a dark continent `without history¿ by highlighting the continent¿s vibrant cultures, sophisticated technologies, complex political systems and participation in far-reaching commercial networks, all predating European colonization. In tandem, the course explores how these histories are mobilized in the production of negative ideas about Africa in contemporary discourse.
Same as: ANTHRO 139A, ARCHLGY 139A.

AFRICAST 141A. Science, Technology, and Medicine in Africa. 4 Units.

Africa is often depicted as a place simply in need of science, technology, andnnmedicine. This class will introduce students to the culture and politics of science innnsub-Saharan Africa: to the diverse and rich traditions, histories and contemporarynnpredicaments of knowledge practices on the continent. We will consider the rolennof science in the colonial period, covering the expansion of European empires intonnAfrica and the forms of technical knowledge that colonial governments encountered, especially as they relate to health and the environment. We will examine the role of science at African independence and in international development work. Finally, we will discuss the techno-politics of medical training and research, resource extraction, and the internet in contemporary Africa. This course will provide some important background for those with an applied interest in Africa as well as provide an introduction to a growing area of scholarship. Course materials include historical and ethnographic works, as well as primary sources and films emphasizing scientific practice in the context of geopolitical relations of power and inequality.
Same as: ANTHRO 141A.

AFRICAST 142. Challenging the Status Quo: Social Entrepreneurs Advancing Democracy, Development and Justice. 5 Units.

This seminar is part of a broader program on Social Entrepreneurship at CDDRL. It will use practice to better inform theory. Working with three visiting social entrepreneurs from developing and developed country contexts students will use case studies of successful and failed social change strategies to explore relationships between social entrepreneurship, gender, democracy, development and justice. It interrogates current definitions of democracy and development and explores how they can become more inclusive of marginalized populations. This is a service learning class in which students will learn by working on projects that support the social entrepreneurs' efforts to promote social change. Limited enrollment. Attendance at the first class is mandatory in order to participate in service learning.
Same as: INTNLREL 142.

AFRICAST 151. AIDS in Africa. 3 Units.

Medical, social, and political aspects of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa including: biology, transmission, diagnosis,and treatment of HIV; mother-to-child transmission and breastfeeding; vaccines; community and activist responses to the HIV epidemic; economics of HIV treatment; governance and health; ethics in research and program implementation.

AFRICAST 190. Madagascar Prefield Seminar. 1-2 Unit.

The purpose of this seminar is to prepare students for their overseas field experience in Madagascar. The seminar will provide an introduction to island biogeography and culture, with emphasis on Madagascar. During the seminar, students will give presentations on specific aspects of biogeography and will also lay the groundwork for the presentations they will be giving during the field seminar where access to the internet and to other scholarly resources will be quite limited. In addition, we will cover logistics, health and safety, cultural sensitivity, geography and politics, and basic language skills. We will also deal with post-field issues such as reverse culture shock, and ways in which participants can consolidate and build up their abroad experiences after they return to campus. Students will have the opportunity to participate pilot study aimed at developing a series of innovative online curriculum based upon their field experience.

AFRICAST 195. BACK FROM AFRICA WORKSHOP. 1-2 Unit.

This course is being offered for students who conducted research over the summer in Africa. It will have students reflect on their time in Africa, transform their observations and research into scholarship and connect them as a community. Cape Town fellows and any others who conducted summer research in Africa can use this course to finish their research.

AFRICAST 199. Independent Study or Directed Reading. 1-5 Unit.

May be repeated for credit.

AFRICAST 200. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Tanzania: A Pre-Field Seminar. 1 Unit.

Goal is to prepare students for an HIV/AIDS prevention, service-learning experience in Tanzania. Topics include: history of HIV/AIDS epidemic globally and in Tanzania; social and economic impact of AIDS; national and societal responses; ethical issues in crosscultural service learning; teaching for prevention; biology of HIV transmission, disease progression, and prevention; introduction to Tanzanian history and politics; HIV/AIDS and development; social, cultural, and economic context of HIV risk; and strategies for HIV prevention in Tanzania.

AFRICAST 209. Running While Others Walk: African Perspectives on Development. 5 Units.

Throughout the history of modern Africa, Africans have specified their desired future¿development, understood broadly¿and identified the major obstacles in achieving it. Debates about development have intensified in the post-colonial period, especially as African countries have replaced the leaders installed at independence. Amidst the general critique of the imposition of external values and rules, Africans have differed, sometimes sharply, on priorities, process, and programs. While for some the challenge is to catch up with development elsewhere, for others it is essential to leap ahead, to set the pace, to initiate a radical social, economic, and political transformation. To ground and extend the common approaches to studying development that emphasize economics and that rely largely on external commentators, we will explore African perspectives. Our major task will be a broad overview, sampling the analyses of Africa¿s intellectuals in several domains. Course participants will review, compare, and analyze major contributions, developing an understanding of contemporary intellectual currents.
Same as: AFRICAST 109.

AFRICAST 211. Education for All? The Global and Local in Public Policy Making in Africa. 5 Units.

Policy making in Africa and the intersection of policy processes and their political and economic dimensions. The failure to implement agreements by international institutions, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations to promote education. Case studies of crowded and poorly equipped schools, overburdened and underprepared teachers, and underfunded education systems.
Same as: AFRICAST 111.

AFRICAST 212. AIDS, Literacy, and Land: Foreign Aid and Development in Africa. 5 Units.

Public policy issues, their roots, and the conflicts they engender. The policy making process: who participates, how, why, and with what results? Innovative approaches to contested policy issues. Foreign roles and their consequences. Case studies such as: a clinic in Uganda that addresses AIDS as a family and community problem; and strategies in Tanzania to increase girls' schooling.
Same as: AFRICAST 112.

AFRICAST 224. Memory and Heritage In South Africa Syllabus. 1 Unit.

The focus of this course is to provide a forum in which students examine the role of memory and heritage in South Africa. The course will include visiting speakers, discussion and other activities. The complex relationship between memory and heritage in South Africa will provide the basis for a series of broad conversations about citizenship, national reconciliation, memorialization, justice, modernity and heritage ethics.

AFRICAST 235. Designing Research-Based Interventions to Solve Global Health Problems. 3-4 Units.

The excitement around social innovation and entrepreneurship has spawned numerous startups focused on tackling world problems, particularly in the fields of education and health. The best social ventures are launched with careful consideration paid to research, design, and efficacy. This course offers students the necessary tools for understanding how to effectively design and evaluate education-based social ventures.n nUsing TeachAIDS (an award-winning nonprofit educational technology social venture used in 74 countries) as a primary case study, students will be given an in-depth look into how the entity was founded and scaled globally. Guest speakers will include world-class experts and entrepreneurs in Philanthropy, Medicine, Communications, Education, and Technology.nnStudents enrolling for 4 units complete additional assignments.
Same as: AFRICAST 135, EDUC 135X, EDUC 335X, MED 235.

AFRICAST 299. Independent Study or Directed Reading. 1-10 Unit.

AFRICAST 300. Contemporary Issues in African Studies. 1 Unit.

Guest scholars present analyses of major African themes and topics. Brief response papers required. May be repeated for credit.

AFRICAST 301A. The Dynamics of Change in Africa. 4-5 Units.

Crossdisciplinary colloquium; required for the M.A. degree in African Studies. Open to advanced undergraduates and PhD students. Addresses critical issues including patterns of economic collapse and recovery; political change and democratization; and political violence, civil war, and genocide. Focus on cross-cutting issues including the impact of colonialism; the role of religion, ethnicity, and inequality; and Africa¿s engagement with globalization.
Same as: POLISCI 246P, POLISCI 346P.

AFRICAST 302. Research Workshop. 1 Unit.

Required for African Studies master's students. Student presentations.