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Office: Yang and Yamazaki Environment and Energy Building, Room 140
Mail Code: 94305-4216
Phone: 650-721-5723
Email: vbravo@stanford.edu
Web Site: http://eess.stanford.edu

Courses offered by the Department of Earth System Science are listed under the subject code ESS on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

On April 16, 2015, the Senate of the Academic Council approved the change of name for the department to become the Department of Earth System Science. Prior to April 16, the department was named the Department of Environmental Earth System Science.

Earth System Science studies the planet's oceans, lands, and atmosphere as an integrated system, with an emphasis on changes occurring during the current period of overwhelming human influence, the Anthropocene. Faculty and students within the department use the principles of biology, chemistry, and physics to study problems involving processes occurring at the Earth's surface, such as climate change and global nutrient cycles, providing a foundation for problem solving related to environmental sustainability and global environmental change.

Graduate Programs in Earth System Science

The University's basic requirements for the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees are discussed in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.  The Department of Earth System Science does not offer coterminal admission to the master’s in Earth System Science.

Learning Objectives (Graduate)

The objectives of the doctoral program in Earth System Science are to enable students to develop the skills needed to conduct original investigations in environmental and earth system sciences, to interpret the results, and to present the data and conclusions in a publishable manner. Graduates should develop strong communication skills with the ability to teach and communicate effectively with the public.

The objectives of the master's program in Earth System Science is to continue a student's training in one of the earth science disciplines and to prepare students for a professional career or doctoral studies.

On April 16, 2015, the Senate of the Academic Council approved the Master of Science in Earth System Science. Students who matriculated into the Master of Science in Environmental Earth System Science have the option of changing the name of their degree to Earth System Science. Degree requirements remain the same.

Master of Science in Earth System Science

The University's requirements for M.S. degrees are outlined in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

Admission 

For admission to graduate work in the department, the applicant must have taken the Aptitude Test (verbal, quantitative, and analytical writing assessment) of the Graduate Record Examination. In keeping with University policy, applicants whose first language is not English must submit TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) scores from a test taken within the last 18 months. Individuals who have completed a B.S. or two-year M.S. program in the U.S. or other English-speaking country are not required to submit TOEFL scores.

Unit Requirements

  1. A minimum of 45 units of course work at the 100 level or above.
  2. Half of the courses used to satisfy the 45-unit requirement must be intended primarily for graduate students, usually at the 200 level or above.
  3. No more than 15 units of thesis research may be used to satisfy the 45-unit requirement.
  4. Some students may be required to make up background deficiencies in addition to these basic requirements.
  5. By the end of Winter Quarter of the first year in residence, a student must complete at least three courses taught by a minimum of two different department faculty members.

Course Work

Units
Required Core Courses
ESS 305Climate Change: An Earth Systems Perspective2
ESS 306From Freshwater to Oceans to Land Systems: An Earth System Perspective to Global Challenges2
ESS 307Research Proposal Development and Delivery2
Distribution Requirements
Area A: Analysis of the Earth System (Select one course)
ESS 211Fundamentals of Modeling3-5
GS 241Data Science for Geoscience3
STATS 160Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus5
CME 106Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers4
STATS 207Introduction to Time Series Analysis3
Area B: Measurement of the Earth System (Select one course)
ESS 210Techniques in Environmental Microbiology3
ESS 212Measurements in Earth Systems3-4
ESS 241Remote Sensing of the Oceans3-4
ESS 262Remote Sensing of Land4
Area C: Earth System Processes, Models, and Human-Environmental Interactions (Select one course)
ESS 220Physical Hydrogeology4
ESS 221Contaminant Hydrogeology and Reactive Transport4
ESS 232Evolution of Earth Systems4
ESS 244Marine Ecosystem Modeling3
ESS 246AAtmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: The Atmospheric Circulation3
ESS 246BAtmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: the Ocean Circulation3
ESS 258Geomicrobiology3
Seminar Requirements
Each quarter during the first academic year:
EARTH 300Earth Sciences Seminar1
Autumn Quarter of first academic year:
ESS 301Topics in Earth System Science1

Teaching Assistantship

As a program requirement, advanced degree candidates in ESS complete TA-appointed (25%) quarters at a minimum of:  2 for Ph.D. students and 1 for master's students, to be completed over the course of study. In addition, additional TA quarters may be considered and/or required in consultation with the research adviser, depending on academic goals, funding availability, or the requirements of individual doctoral programs.

Advising

The department's graduate coordinator, in coordination with the departmental faculty, appoints an academic adviser prior to registration with appropriate consideration of the student's background, interests, and professional goals. In consultation with the adviser, the student plans a program of course work for the first year. The faculty adviser is charged with designing the curriculum in consultation with the student specific to the research topic.

Thesis

Each student must complete a thesis describing his or her research. Thesis research should begin during the first year of study at Stanford and should be completed before the end of the second year of residence. Early during the thesis research period, and after consultation with the student, the thesis adviser appoints a second reader for the thesis who must be approved by the graduate coordinator; the thesis adviser is the first reader. The two readers jointly determine whether the thesis is acceptable for the M.S. degree in the department.

Master of Science, Course Work Only Option for ESS Ph.D. Students

The course-work-only M.S. for ESS Ph.D. students requires 45 unduplicated units of which all 45 must be course work (non-research, non-independent study, non-thesis units). All required units must be in courses at the 100-level or above, 50 percent of those units must be in graduate-level courses (generally, at the 200-level or above). No units are awarded for course work completed elsewhere (i.e., not eligible to transfer-in units). All 45 units can be applied to the 135 unit requirement for the Ph.D. The remaining 90 units can consist of all research units

On April 16, 2015, the Senate of the Academic Council approved the Doctor of Philosophy in Earth System Science. Students who matriculated into the Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Earth System Science have the option of changing the name of their degree to Earth System Science. Degree requirements remain the same.

Doctor of Philosophy in Earth System Science

The University's requirements for the Ph.D. degree are outlined in the "Graduate Degrees" section of this bulletin.

Admission 

For admission to graduate work in the department, the applicant must have taken the Aptitude Test (verbal, quantitative, and analytical writing assessment) of the Graduate Record Examination. In keeping with University policy, applicants whose first language is not English must submit TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) scores from a test taken within the last 18 months. Individuals who have completed a B.S. or two-year M.S. program in the U.S. or other English-speaking country are not required to submit TOEFL scores.

Unit Requirements

  1. A minimum of 135 units of graduate study at Stanford must be satisfactorily completed.
  2. Required courses must be taken for a letter grade, if offered. 
  3. Ph.D. students registered for 10 units must pass at least 6 units per quarter. Students must maintain at least a 3.0 grade point average.
  4. Ph.D. students must complete a minimum of four graduate level, letter-grade courses of at least 3 units each from four different faculty members on the Academic Council in the University.
  5. By the end of Spring Quarter of their first year in residence, students must complete at least three graduate level courses taught by a minimum of two different ESS faculty members.

Course Work

Units
Required Core Courses
ESS 305Climate Change: An Earth Systems Perspective2
ESS 306From Freshwater to Oceans to Land Systems: An Earth System Perspective to Global Challenges2
ESS 307Research Proposal Development and Delivery2
Distribution Requirements
Area A: Analysis of the Earth System (Select one course)
ESS 211Fundamentals of Modeling3-5
GS 241Data Science for Geoscience3
STATS 160Introduction to Statistical Methods: Precalculus5
CME 106Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers4
STATS 207Introduction to Time Series Analysis3
Area B: Measurement of the Earth System (Select one course)
ESS 210Techniques in Environmental Microbiology3
ESS 212Measurements in Earth Systems3-4
ESS 241Remote Sensing of the Oceans3-4
ESS 262Remote Sensing of Land4
Area C: Earth System Processes, Models, and Human-Environmental Interactions (Select one course)
ESS 220Physical Hydrogeology4
ESS 221Contaminant Hydrogeology and Reactive Transport4
ESS 232Evolution of Earth Systems4
ESS 244Marine Ecosystem Modeling3
ESS 246AAtmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: The Atmospheric Circulation3
ESS 246BAtmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: the Ocean Circulation3
ESS 258Geomicrobiology3
Seminar Requirements
Each quarter during the first academic year:
EARTH 300Earth Sciences Seminar1
Autumn Quarter of first academic year:
ESS 301Topics in Earth System Science1

Teaching Assistantship

As a program requirement, advanced degree candidates in ESS complete TA-appointed (25%) quarters at a minimum of:  2 for Ph.D. students and 1 for master's students, to be completed over the course of study. In addition, additional TA quarters may be considered and/or required in consultation with the research advisor, depending on academic goals, funding availability, or the requirements of individual doctoral programs.

Annual Review

Each year, the department evaluates students to assess progress to degree, identify areas of strength, provide helpful resources, and note potential issues or areas of concern. This annual review includes a record of accomplishments presented by the student, written evaluations by the faculty adviser of the student’s progress, and committee feedback on the academic and research progress of the student. The student should have no 'I' grades in core courses, must maintain at least a 3.0 grade-point average, and show evidence of productive and sustained research progress, with no conflict of interest or conflict of commitment.

Possible outcomes of the annual review include: (1) continuation of the student in good standing, and (2) placing the student on probation, with specific written guidelines of the period of probation and the necessary steps for reinstatement to good standing.

Annual reviews are required for all Ph.D. students, including first-year Ph.D. students. In the first year, the annual review is conducted between the student and the Ph.D. adviser(s) (prior to forming a doctoral committee). After the first year, the annual review must be conducted between the student and the student's doctoral committee. In all years, the written annual review form must be completed and signed by both the student and the adviser.

In the year in which students are undertaking their candidacy exam (research qualifying exam), that exam serves as the annual review. In addition, any student who has scheduled the dissertation defense and petitioned to graduate in Axess may elect not to hold an additional annual review meeting. Annual reviews that are not the qualifying exam or dissertation defense should take place in the Autumn or Winter Quarter (with the exception of first-year students, who may hold their annual review meeting with their adviser(s) in Spring Quarter).

Candidacy and Qualification Exam

Admission to a doctoral degree program is preliminary to, and distinct from, admission to candidacy. Admission to candidacy for the doctoral degree is a judgment by the faculty in the department or school of the student’s potential to successfully complete the requirements of the degree program. Candidacy is valid for five calendar years (through the end of the quarter in which candidacy expires), unless terminated by the department (for example, for unsatisfactory progress).  University policy requires completion of the department qualifying procedures and application for candidacy by the end of the second year in the Ph.D. program. Therefore, it is strongly advised that the qualifying exam be taken during the fith (non-Summer) quarter so that the student may retake the exam in the case of inadequate performance and still advance to candidacy by the end of the sixth (non-Summer) quarter. 

Students must present a draft proposal to their adviser in a timely fashion, and take account of the adviser’s comments and require revisions before preparing a final draft. The student submits a copy of the final draft of the research proposal to each member of the examining committee at least two weeks before the scheduled date of the examination.

The qualifying exam is an oral exam based on the candidate’s written research proposal. The exam is a test of the student’s ability to recognize, evaluate, and plan a significant research project and his/her mastery of fields essential to the completion of research. The research proposal must provide a concise review of the background literature, and must discuss the proposed problem, its importance, and the methods to be applied to its examination. The methods should be made clear. The proposal must contain a timetable and, if appropriate, the student should discuss such matters as funding, field logistics, laboratory scheduling, and availability of equipment. The proposal must be well thought out, carefully written and edited, and finished with appropriate references and illustrations. It must not exceed 15 double-spaced pages in length, exclusive of figures and bibliography. The qualifying exam is oral and consists of three parts:

  1. A presentation of the proposed research (no more than 30 minutes duration);
  2. An examination of the candidate on the merits of the proposal, touching on but not limited to the aspects listed in the proposal; and
  3. An examination of any subject matter judged by committee members to be relevant to the student’s ability to carry out the proposed research.

It is recognized that, in practice, parts 1‐ 3 may not be entirely separate and distinct. The entire examination lasts no less than 2 hours and no more than 3 hours; the examination under part 3 is at least one hour. No part of examination is public.

Doctoral Dissertation and Oral Defense

Under the supervision of the research advisory committee, the candidate must prepare a doctoral dissertation that is a contribution to knowledge and is the result of independent research; curriculum must also be developed with the supervision of the committee, which should be designed to provide a rigorous foundation for the research area. The format of the dissertation must meet University guidelines. The student is urged to prepare dissertation chapters that, in scientific content and format, are readily publishable.

The doctoral dissertation is defended in the University oral examination. The department appoints the research adviser and two other members of the research committee to be readers of the draft dissertation. The readers are charged to read the draft and to certify in writing to the department that it is adequate to serve as a basis for the University oral examination. Upon obtaining this written certification, the student is permitted to schedule the University oral examination.

Chair: Robert Jackson

Professors: Kevin Arrigo, C. Page Chamberlain, Noah Diffenbaugh3, Robert Dunbar, Scott Fendorf, Christopher Field1,3, Steven Gorelick, , Robert Jackson2,3, Eric Lambin3, Pamela Matson (Dean), Rosamond Naylor 3,4

Associate Professors: Karen Casciotti, Christopher Francis, James Holland Jones, David Lobell3,4, Leif Thomas

Assistant Professors: Marshall Burke 4, Ann Dekas, Alexandra Konings, Balakanapathy Rajaratnam5, Paula Welander

Courtesy Professors: Gregory Asner, Ken Caldeira, Anna Michalak, Peter Vitousek

Visiting Professors: Lisa Ainsworth, Jennifer Harden, Kathleen Lohse

1Joint appointment with Biology

2Joint appointment with the Precourt Institute for Energy

3 Joint appointment with the Woods Institute for the Environment

4Joint appointment with the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies

5 Joint appointment with Statistics

Courses

ESS 8. The Oceans: An Introduction to the Marine Environment. 4 Units.

The course will provide a basic understanding of how the ocean functions as a suite of interconnected ecosystems, both naturally and under the influence of human activities. Emphasis is on the interactions between the physical and chemical environment and the dominant organisms of each ecosystem. The types of ecosystems discussed include coral reefs, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, coastal upwelling systems, blue-water oceans, estuaries, and near-shore dead zones. Lectures, multimedia presentations, group activities, and tide-pooling day trip.
Same as: EARTHSYS 8

ESS 10SC. In the Age of the Anthropocene: Coupled-Human Natural Systems of Southeast Alaska. 2 Units.

Southeast Alaska is often described as America's "last frontier," embodying a physical reality of the "pristine" that was once revered by the early romantics and founders of the modern conservation movement throughout Western North America. Although endowed with more designated Wilderness land than any other state, Alaska remains a working landscape: a mixed cash-subsistence economy where communities rely upon the harvest and export of natural resources. Here, ecosystem services remain tangible, and people living in communities that are unconnected by roads confront questions of sustainability on a daily basis. This field-based course introduces students to the global questions of land use change and sustainable resource management in the American West through the place-based exploration of Southeast Alaska. Focused on four key social-ecological challenges -- fisheries, forestry, tourism, and energy -- the coupled human-natural systems of Southeast Alaska provide a unique lens for students to interpret broader resource management and conservation issues. The curriculum balances field explorations and classroom lectures with community exploration in which students will engage with fishermen, hatchery workers, forest managers, loggers, mill owners, tour operators, tourists, city officials, citizens, and Native residents. Students will catch their own salmon, walk through old-growth and logged forests, kayak next to glacial moraines, and witness the impacts of human activities, both local and global, on the social-ecological systems around them. In the context of rapidly changing ecosystems, students will confront the historical, ecological, and economic complexities of environmental stewardship in this region. By embedding their experiences within frameworks of land change science, land-ocean interactions, ecosystem ecology, and natural resource management and economics, students will leave this course ready to apply what they have learned to the global challenges of sustainability and conservation that pervade systems far beyond Alaska. This course is co-sponsored by the School of Earth Sciences and takes place in Sitka, Alaska. Students arrange for their arrival at the seminar's point of origin; all subsequent travel is made possible by Sophomore College and the School of Earth Sciences.

ESS 12SC. Environmental and Geological Field Studies in the Rocky Mountains. 2 Units.

The ecologically and geologically diverse Rocky Mountain area is being strongly impacted by changing land use patterns, global and regional environmental change, and societal demands for energy and natural resources. This field program emphasizes coupled environmental and geological problems in the Rocky Mountains, covering a broad range of topics including the geologic origin of the American West from three billion years ago to the present; paleoclimatology and the glacial history of this mountainous region; the long- and short-term carbon cycle and global climate change; and environmental issues in the American West related to changing land-use patterns and increased demand for its abundant natural resources. In addition to the science aspects of this course we will also investigate the unique western culture of the area particularly in regards to modern ranching and outfitting in the American West. These broad topics are integrated into a coherent field-study as we examine earth/ environmental science-related questions in three different settings: 1) the three-billion-year-old rocks and the modern glaciers of the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming; 2) the sediments in the adjacent Wind River basin that host abundant gas and oil reserves and also contain the long-term climate history of this region; and 3) the volcanic center of Yellowstone National Park and the mountainous region of Teton National Park. Students will complete six assignments based upon field exercises, working in small groups to analyze data and prepare reports and maps. Lectures will be held in the field prior to and after fieldwork. The students will read two required books prior to this course that will be discussed on the trip.nnNote: This course involves one week of backpacking in the Wind Rivers and hiking while staying in cabins near Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Students must arrive in Salt Lake City on Monday, September 4. (Hotel lodging will be provided for the night of September 4, and thereafter students will travel as a Sophomore College group.) We will return to campus on Friday, September 22.
Same as: EARTHSYS 12SC, GS 12SC

ESS 38N. The Worst Journey in the World: The Science, Literature, and History of Polar Exploration. 3 Units.

This course examines the motivations and experiences of polar explorers under the harshest conditions on Earth, as well as the chronicles of their explorations and hardships, dating to the 1500s for the Arctic and the 1700s for the Antarctic. Materials include The Worst Journey in the World by Aspley Cherry-Garrard who in 1911 participated in a midwinter Antarctic sledging trip to recover emperor penguin eggs. Optional field trip into the high Sierra in March.
Same as: EARTHSYS 38N, GS 38N

ESS 42. The Global Warming Paradox II. 1 Unit.

Further discussion of the complex climate challenges posed by the substantial benefits of energy consumption, including the critical tension between the enormous global demand for increased human well-being and the negative climate consequences of large-scale emissions of carbon dioxide. Discussions of topics of student interest, including peer-reviewed scientific papers, current research results, and portrayal of scientific findings by the mass media and social networks. Focus is on student engagement in on-campus and off-campus activities. Prerequisite: EESS 41N or EARTHSYS 41N or consent of instructor.
Same as: EARTHSYS 42

ESS 43. The Global Warming Paradox III. 1 Unit.

Further discussion of the complex climate challenges posed by the substantial benefits of energy consumption, including the critical tension between the enormous global demand for increased human well-being and the negative climate consequences of large-scale emissions of carbon dioxide. Discussions explore topics of student interest, including peer-reviewed scientific papers, current research results, and portrayal of scientific findings by the mass media and social networks. Focus is on student engagement in on-campus and off-campus activities.May be repeat for credit.

ESS 46N. Exploring the Critical Interface between the Land and Monterey Bay: Elkhorn Slough. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Field trips to sites in the Elkhorn Slough, a small agriculturally impacted estuary that opens into Monterey Bay, a model ecosystem for understanding the complexity of estuaries, and one of California's last remaining coastal wetlands. Readings include Jane Caffrey's Changes in a California Estuary: A Profile of Elkhorn Slough. Basics of biogeochemistry, microbiology, oceanography, ecology, pollution, and environmental management.
Same as: EARTHSYS 46N

ESS 49N. Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on a Large Urban Estuary: San Francisco Bay. 3 Units.

This course will be focused around San Francisco Bay, the largest estuary on the Pacific coasts of both North and South America as a model ecosystem for understanding the critical importance and complexity of estuaries. Despite its uniquely urban and industrial character, the Bay is of immense ecological value and encompasses over 90% of California's remaining coastal wetlands. Students will be exposed to the basics of estuarine biogeochemistry, microbiology, ecology, hydrodynamics, pollution, and ecosystem management/restoration issues through lectures, interactive discussions, and field trips. Knowledge of introductory biology and chemistry is recommended.
Same as: CEE 50N, EARTHSYS 49N

ESS 56Q. Changes in the Coastal Ocean: The View From Monterey and San Francisco Bays. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Recent changes in the California current, using Monterey Bay as an example. Current literature introduces principles of oceanography. Visits from researchers from MBARI, Hopkins, and UCSC. Optional field trip to MBARI and Monterey Bay.
Same as: EARTHSYS 56Q

ESS 57Q. Climate Change from the Past to the Future. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Numeric models to predict how climate responds to increase of greenhouse gases. Paleoclimate during times in Earth's history when greenhouse gas concentrations were elevated with respect to current concentrations. Predicted scenarios of climate models and how these models compare to known hyperthermal events in Earth history. Interactions and feedbacks among biosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Topics include long- and short-term carbon cycle, coupled biogeochemical cycles affected by and controlling climate change, and how the biosphere responds to climate change. Possible remediation strategies.
Same as: EARTHSYS 57Q

ESS 60. Food, Water and War: Life on the Mekong. 1 Unit.

Preparatory course for Bing Overseas Studies summer course in Cambodia. Prerequisite. Requires instructor consent.

ESS 61Q. Food and security. 3 Units.

The course will provide a broad overview of key policy issues concerning agricultural development and food security, and will assess how global governance is addressing the problem of food security. At the same time the course will provide an overview of the field of international security, and examine how governments and international institutions are beginning to include food in discussions of security.
Same as: EARTHSYS 61Q, INTNLREL 61Q

ESS 101. Environmental and Geological Field Studies in the Rocky Mountains. 3 Units.

Three-week, field-based program in the Greater Yellowstone/Teton and Wind River Mountains of Wyoming. Field-based exercises covering topics including: basics of structural geology and petrology; glacial geology; western cordillera geology; paleoclimatology; chemical weathering; aqueous geochemistry; and environmental issues such as acid mine drainage and changing land-use patterns.
Same as: EARTHSYS 100, GS 101

ESS 106. World Food Economy. 5 Units.

The economics of food production, consumption, and trade. The micro- and macro- determinants of food supply and demand, including the interrelationship among food, income, population, and public-sector decision making. Emphasis on the role of agriculture in poverty alleviation, economic development, and environmental outcomes. (graduate students enroll in 206).
Same as: EARTHSYS 106, EARTHSYS 206, ECON 106, ECON 206, ESS 206

ESS 107. Control of Nature. 3 Units.

Think controlling the earth's climate is science fiction? It is when you watch Snowpiercer or Dune, but scientists are already devising geoengineering schemes to slow climate change. Will we ever resurrect the woolly mammoth or even a T. Rex (think Jurassic Park)? Based on current research, that day will come in your lifetime. Who gets to decide what species to save? And more generally, what scientific and ethical principles should guide our decisions to control nature? In this course, we will examine the science behind ways that people alter and engineer the earth, critically examining the positive and negative consequences. We'll explore these issues first through popular movies and books and then, more substantively, in scientific research.
Same as: EARTHSYS 107

ESS 108. Research Preparation for Undergraduates. 1 Unit.

For undergraduates planning to conduct research during the summer with faculty through the MUIR and SUPER programs. Readings, oral presentations, proposal development. May be repeated for credit.

ESS 111. Biology and Global Change. 4 Units.

The biological causes and consequences of anthropogenic and natural changes in the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Topics: glacial cycles and marine circulation, greenhouse gases and climate change, tropical deforestation and species extinctions, and human population growth and resource use. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core or graduate standing.
Same as: BIO 117, EARTHSYS 111

ESS 112. Human Society and Environmental Change. 4 Units.

Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding human-environment interactions with a focus on economics, policy, culture, history, and the role of the state. Prerequisite: ECON 1.
Same as: EARTHSYS 112, HISTORY 103D

ESS 117. Earth Sciences of the Hawaiian Islands. 4 Units.

Progression from volcanic processes through rock weathering and soil-ecosystem development to landscape evolution. The course starts with an investigation of volcanic processes, including the volcano structure, origin of magmas, physical-chemical factors of eruptions. Factors controlling rock weathering and soil development, including depth and nutrient levels impacting plant ecosystems, are explored next. Geomorphic processes of landscape evolution including erosion rates, tectonic/volcanic activity, and hillslope stability conclude the course. Methods for monitoring and predicting eruptions, defining spatial changes in landform, landform stability, soil production rates, and measuring biogeochemical processes are covered throughout the course. This course is restricted to students accepted into the Earth Systems of Hawaii Program.
Same as: EARTH 117, EARTHSYS 117

ESS 118. D^3: Disasters, Decisions, Development. 3-5 Units.

This class connects the science behind natural disasters with the real-world constraints of disaster management and development. In each iteration of this class we will focus on a specific, disaster-prone location as case study. By collaborating with local stakeholders we will explore how science and engineering can make a make a difference in reducing disaster risk in the future. Offered every other year.
Same as: EARTHSYS 124, ESS 218, GEOPHYS 118, GEOPHYS 218, GS 118, GS 218

ESS 132. Evolution of Earth Systems. 4 Units.

This course examines biogeochemical cycles and how they developed through the interaction between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. Emphasis is on the long-term carbon cycle and how it is connected to other biogeochemical cycles on Earth. The course consists of lectures, discussion of research papers, and quantitative modeling of biogeochemical cycles. Students produce a model on some aspect of the cycles discussed in this course. Grades based on class interaction, student presentations, and the modeling project.
Same as: EARTHSYS 132, EARTHSYS 232, ESS 232

ESS 135. Community Leadership. 1-2 Unit.

Offered through Residential Education to residents of Castano House, Manzanita Park. Topics include: emotional intelligence, leadership styles, listening, facilitating meetings, group dynamics and motivation, finding purpose, fostering resilience. Students will lead discussions on personal development, relationships, risky behaviors, race, ethnicity, spirituality, integrity.

ESS 141. Remote Sensing of the Oceans. 3-4 Units.

How to observe and interpret physical and biological changes in the oceans using satellite technologies. Topics: principles of satellite remote sensing, classes of satellite remote sensors, converting radiometric data into biological and physical quantities, sensor calibration and validation, interpreting large-scale oceanographic features.
Same as: EARTHSYS 141, EARTHSYS 241, ESS 241, GEOPHYS 141

ESS 146A. Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: The Atmospheric Circulation. 3 Units.

Introduction to the physics governing the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean and their control on climate with emphasis on the atmospheric circulation. Topics include the global energy balance, the greenhouse effect, the vertical and meridional structure of the atmosphere, dry and moist convection, the equations of motion for the atmosphere and ocean, including the effects of rotation, and the poleward transport of heat by the large-scale atmospheric circulation and storm systems. Prerequisites: MATH 51 or CME100 and PHYSICS 41.
Same as: CEE 161I, CEE 261I, EARTHSYS 146A, EARTHSYS 246A, ESS 246A, GEOPHYS 146A, GEOPHYS 246A

ESS 146B. Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: the Ocean Circulation. 3 Units.

Introduction to the physics governing the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean and their control on climate with emphasis on the large-scale ocean circulation. This course will give an overview of the structure and dynamics of the major ocean current systems that contribute to the meridional overturning circulation, the transport of heat, salt, and biogeochemical tracers, and the regulation of climate. Topics include the tropical ocean circulation, the wind-driven gyres and western boundary currents, the thermohaline circulation, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, water mass formation, atmosphere-ocean coupling, and climate variability. Prerequisites: EESS 146A or EESS 246A, or CEE 162D or CEE 262D, or consent of instructor.
Same as: CEE 162I, CEE 262I, EARTHSYS 146B, EARTHSYS 246B, ESS 246B

ESS 148. Introduction to Physical Oceanography. 4 Units.

Formerly CEE 164. The dynamic basis of oceanography. Topics: physical environment; conservation equations for salt, heat, and momentum; geostrophic flows; wind-driven flows; the Gulf Stream; equatorial dynamics and ENSO; thermohaline circulation of the deep oceans; and tides. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 41 (formerly 53).
Same as: CEE 162D, CEE 262D, EARTHSYS 164

ESS 151. Biological Oceanography. 3-4 Units.

Required for Earth Systems students in the oceans track. Interdisciplinary look at how oceanic environments control the form and function of marine life. Topics include distributions of planktonic production and abundance, nutrient cycling, the role of ocean biology in the climate system, expected effects of climate changes on ocean biology. Local weekend field trips. Designed to be taken concurrently with Marine Chemistry (EESS/EARTHSYS 152/252). Prerequisites: BIO 43 and EESS 8 or equivalent.
Same as: EARTHSYS 151, EARTHSYS 251, ESS 251

ESS 152. Marine Chemistry. 3-4 Units.

Introduction to the interdisciplinary knowledge and skills required to critically evaluate problems in marine chemistry and related disciplines. Physical, chemical, and biological processes that determine the chemical composition of seawater. Air-sea gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, and chemical equilibria, nutrient and trace element cycling, particle reactivity, sediment chemistry, and diagenesis. Examination of chemical tracers of mixing and circulation and feedbacks of ocean processes on atmospheric chemistry and climate. Designed to be taken concurrently with Biological Oceanography (EESS/EARTHSYS 151/251).
Same as: EARTHSYS 152, EARTHSYS 252, ESS 252

ESS 155. Science of Soils. 3-4 Units.

Physical, chemical, and biological processes within soil systems. Emphasis is on factors governing nutrient availability, plant growth and production, land-resource management, and pollution within soils. How to classify soils and assess nutrient cycling and contaminant fate. Recommended: introductory chemistry and biology.
Same as: EARTHSYS 155

ESS 156. Soil and Water Chemistry. 1-4 Unit.

(Graduate students register for 256.) Practical and quantitative treatment of soil processes affecting chemical reactivity, transformation, retention, and bioavailability. Principles of primary areas of soil chemistry: inorganic and organic soil components, complex equilibria in soil solutions, and adsorption phenomena at the solid-water interface. Processes and remediation of acid, saline, and wetland soils. Recommended: soil science and introductory chemistry and microbiology.
Same as: EARTHSYS 156, EARTHSYS 256, ESS 256

ESS 158. Geomicrobiology. 3 Units.

How microorganisms shape the geochemistry of the Earth's crust including oceans, lakes, estuaries, subsurface environments, sediments, soils, mineral deposits, and rocks. Topics include mineral formation and dissolution; biogeochemical cycling of elements (carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and metals); geochemical and mineralogical controls on microbial activity, diversity, and evolution; life in extreme environments; and the application of new techniques to geomicrobial systems. Recommended: introductory chemistry and microbiology such as CEE 274A.
Same as: EARTHSYS 158, EARTHSYS 258, ESS 258

ESS 162. Remote Sensing of Land. 4 Units.

The use of satellite remote sensing to monitor land use and land cover, with emphasis on terrestrial changes. Topics include pre-processing data, biophysical properties of vegetation observable by satellite, accuracy assessment of maps derived from remote sensing, and methodologies to detect changes such as urbanization, deforestation, vegetation health, and wildfires.
Same as: EARTHSYS 142, EARTHSYS 242, ESS 262

ESS 163. Demography and Life History Theory. 5 Units.

Life history theory is the branch of evolutionary biology that attempts to understand patterns of investment in growth, reproduction, and survival across the life cycle. It is the theory that explains the major transitions that mark individual organisms' life cycles from conception to death. In this class, we will focus on the central themes of life history theory and how they relate to specific problems of the human life cycle. In addition to the classic questions of life history theory (e.g., evolution of reproductive effort, size vs. quality, etc.), we will discuss some peculiar issues that relate specifically to humans. In particular, we will explore the intersection of life history theory and more classical economic approaches to decision theory and rational choice. This will include an exploration of the evolution of economic transfers and their implications for demographic transitions, ecological resilience, and the consumption of natural resources. This discussion will explore how an understanding of life history theory might help in promoting investments in future welfare or developing policies that promote sustainability.
Same as: ESS 363

ESS 164. Fundamentals of Geographic Information Science (GIS). 3-4 Units.

Survey of geographic information including maps, satellite imagery, and census data, approaches to spatial data, and tools for integrating and examining spatially-explicit data. Emphasis is on fundamental concepts of geographic information science and associated technologies. Topics include geographic data structure, cartography, remotely sensed data, statistical analysis of geographic data, spatial analysis, map design, and geographic information system software. Computer lab assignments. All students are required to attend a weekly lab session.
Same as: EARTHSYS 144

ESS 165. Advanced Geographic Information Systems. 4 Units.

Building on the Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems course, this class delves deeper into geospatial analysis and mapping techniques. The class is heavily project-based and students are encouraged to bring their own research questions. Topics include topographic analysis, interpolation, spatial statistics, network analysis, and scripting using Python and Acrpy. All students are required to attend a weekly lab. ESS 164 or equivalent is a prerequisite.
Same as: ESS 265

ESS 179S. Seminar: Issues in Environmental Science, Technology and Sustainability. 1-2 Unit.

Invited faculty, researchers and professionals share their insights and perspectives on a broad range of environmental and sustainability issues. Students critique seminar presentations and associated readings.
Same as: CEE 179S, CEE 279S, EARTHSYS 179S

ESS 181. Urban Agriculture in the Developing World. 3-4 Units.

In this advanced undergraduate course, students will learn about some of the key social and environmental challenges faced by cities in the developing world, and the current and potential role that urban agriculture plays in meeting (or exacerbating) those challenges. This is a service-learning course, and student teams will have the opportunity to partner with real partner organizations in a major developing world city to define and execute a project focused on urban development, and the current or potential role of urban agriculture. Service-learning projects will employ primarily the student's analytical skills such as synthesis of existing research findings, interdisciplinary experimental design, quantitative data analysis and visualization, GIS, and qualitative data collection through interviews and textual analysis. Previous coursework in the aforementioned analytical skills is preferred, but not required. Admission is by application.
Same as: EARTHSYS 181, EARTHSYS 281, ESS 281, URBANST 181

ESS 183. Food Matters: Agriculture in Film. 1 Unit.

Film series presenting historical and contemporary issues dealing with food and agriculture across the globe. Students discuss reactions and thoughts in a round table format. May be repeated for credit.
Same as: EARTHSYS 183, EARTHSYS 283, ESS 283

ESS 206. World Food Economy. 5 Units.

The economics of food production, consumption, and trade. The micro- and macro- determinants of food supply and demand, including the interrelationship among food, income, population, and public-sector decision making. Emphasis on the role of agriculture in poverty alleviation, economic development, and environmental outcomes. (graduate students enroll in 206).
Same as: EARTHSYS 106, EARTHSYS 206, ECON 106, ECON 206, ESS 106

ESS 208. Topics in Geobiology. 1 Unit.

Reading and discussion of classic and recent papers in the field of Geobiology. Co-evolution of Earth and life; critical intervals of environmental and biological change; geomicrobiology; paleobiology; global biogeochemical cycles; scaling of geobiological processes in space and time.
Same as: GS 208

ESS 210. Techniques in Environmental Microbiology. 3 Units.

Fundamentals and application of laboratory techniques to study the diversity and activity of microorganisms in environmental samples, including soil, sediment, and water. Emphasis is on culture-independent approaches, including epifluorescence microscopy, extraction and analysis of major biomolecules (DNA, RNA, protein, lipids), stable isotope probing, and metabolic rate measurements. Format will include lectures, laboratory exercises, and discussions. Students will learn how to collect, analyze, and understand common and cutting-edge datasets in environmental microbiology.

ESS 211. Fundamentals of Modeling. 3-5 Units.

Simulation models are a powerful tool for environmental research, if used properly. The major concepts and techniques for building and evaluating models. Topics include model calibration, model selection, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, and Monte Carlo and bootstrap methods. Emphasis is on gaining hands-on experience using the R programming language. Prerequisite: Basic knowledge of statistics.
Same as: EARTHSYS 211

ESS 212. Measurements in Earth Systems. 3-4 Units.

Preference will be given to ESS first-year grad students. Techniques to track biological, chemical, and physical processes operating across the San Francisquito Creek watershed, encompassing upland, aquatic, estuarine, and marine environments. Topics include gas and water flux measurement, assessment of microbiological communities, determination of biological productivity, isotopic analysis, soil and water chemistry determination, and identification of rock strata and weathering processes.

ESS 214. Introduction to geostatistics and modeling of spatial uncertainty. 3-4 Units.

Introduction of fundamental geostatistical tools for modeling spatial variability and uncertainty, and mapping of environmental attributes. Additional topics include sampling design and incorporation of different types of information (continuous, categorical) in prediction. Assignments consist of small problems to familiarize students with theoretical concepts, and applications dealing with the analysis and interpretation of various data sets (soil, water pollution, atmospheric constituents, remote sensing) primarily using Matlab. No prior programming experience is required. Open to graduates. Open to undergraduates with consent from the instructor. 3-credit option includes midterm/final or student-developed project. 4-credit option requires both. Prerequisite: College-level introductory statistics.

ESS 215. Earth System Dynamics. 2 Units.

This is a graduate level course that examines the dynamics of the Earth System from an integrated perspective. Lectures introduce the physical, biogeochemical, ecological, and human dimensions of the Earth System, with emphasis on feedbacks, thresholds and tipping points. Human interactions with climate and land systems are emphasized in order to enable in-depth exploration of Earth System dynamics. Lab projects focus on a region of the globe for which rich coordinated data sources exist and complex Earth System dynamics dominate the environment.

ESS 216. Terrestrial Biogeochemistry. 3 Units.

Nutrient cycling and the regulation of primary and secondary production in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems; land-water and biosphere-atmosphere interactions; global element cycles and their regulation; human effects on biogeochemical cycles. Prerequisite: graduate standing in science or engineering; consent of instructor for undergraduates or coterminal students.

ESS 217. Climate of the Cenozoic. 3 Units.

For upper-division undergraduate and graduate students. The paleoclimate of the Cenozoic and how climate changes in the past link to the carbon cycle. Topics include long- and short-term records of climate on continents and oceans, evidence for and causes of hyperthermal events, how the Earth's climate has responded in increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Guest speakers, student presentations.

ESS 218. D^3: Disasters, Decisions, Development. 3-5 Units.

This class connects the science behind natural disasters with the real-world constraints of disaster management and development. In each iteration of this class we will focus on a specific, disaster-prone location as case study. By collaborating with local stakeholders we will explore how science and engineering can make a make a difference in reducing disaster risk in the future. Offered every other year.
Same as: EARTHSYS 124, ESS 118, GEOPHYS 118, GEOPHYS 218, GS 118, GS 218

ESS 219. Climate Variability during the Holocene: Understanding what is Natural Climate Change. 3 Units.

Many elements of the debate about attribution of modern climate change to man-made influences hinge on understanding the past history of climate as well as forcing functions such as solar output, volcanism, and "natural" trace gas variability. Interest in Holocene reconstructions of past climate and forcing functions has surged in the last 20 years providing a robust literature set for discussion and analysis. The goal of this class is to provide graduate students with a view of the archives available for Holocene paleoenvironmental analysis, the tracers that are used, and the results thus far. We will also explore the world of data-model comparisons and examine the role that paleorecords play in the IPCC reports. The class will consist of some lectures as well as many class discussions based on assigned readings.

ESS 220. Physical Hydrogeology. 4 Units.

(Formerly GES 230.) Theory of underground water occurrence and flow, analysis of field data and aquifer tests, geologic groundwater environments, solution of field problems, and groundwater modeling. Introduction to groundwater contaminant transport and unsaturated flow. Lab. Prerequisite: elementary calculus.
Same as: CEE 260A

ESS 221. Contaminant Hydrogeology and Reactive Transport. 4 Units.

Decades of industrial activity have released vast quantities of contaminants to groundwater, threatening water resources, ecosystems and human health. What processes control the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface? What remediation strategies are effective and what are the tradeoffs among them? How are these processes represented in models used for regulatory and decision-making purposes? This course will address these and related issues by focusing on the conceptual and quantitative treatment of advective-dispersive transport with reacting solutes, including modern methods of contaminant transport simulation. Some Matlab programming / program modification required. Prerequisite: Physical Hydrogeology ESS 220 / CEE 260A (Gorelick) or equivalent and college-level course work in chemistry.
Same as: CEE 260C, GS 225

ESS 232. Evolution of Earth Systems. 4 Units.

This course examines biogeochemical cycles and how they developed through the interaction between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. Emphasis is on the long-term carbon cycle and how it is connected to other biogeochemical cycles on Earth. The course consists of lectures, discussion of research papers, and quantitative modeling of biogeochemical cycles. Students produce a model on some aspect of the cycles discussed in this course. Grades based on class interaction, student presentations, and the modeling project.
Same as: EARTHSYS 132, EARTHSYS 232, ESS 132

ESS 240. Advanced Oceanography. 3 Units.

For upper-division undergraduates and graduate students in the earth, biologic, and environmental sciences. Topical issues in marine science/oceanography. Topics vary each year following or anticipating research trends in oceanographic research. Focus is on links between the circulation and physics of the ocean with climate in the N. Pacific region, and marine ecologic responses. Participation by marine scientists from research groups and organizations including the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute.

ESS 241. Remote Sensing of the Oceans. 3-4 Units.

How to observe and interpret physical and biological changes in the oceans using satellite technologies. Topics: principles of satellite remote sensing, classes of satellite remote sensors, converting radiometric data into biological and physical quantities, sensor calibration and validation, interpreting large-scale oceanographic features.
Same as: EARTHSYS 141, EARTHSYS 241, ESS 141, GEOPHYS 141

ESS 242. Antarctic Marine Geology. 3 Units.

For upper-division undergraduates and graduate students. Intermediate and advanced topics in marine geology and geophysics, focusing on examples from the Antarctic continental margin and adjacent Southern Ocean. Topics: glaciers, icebergs, and sea ice as geologic agents (glacial and glacial marine sedimentology, Southern Ocean current systems and deep ocean sedimentation), Antarctic biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy (continental margin evolution). Students interpret seismic lines and sediment core/well log data. Examples from a recent scientific drilling expedition to Prydz Bay, Antarctica. Up to two students may have an opportunity to study at sea in Antarctica during Winter Quarter.
Same as: EARTHSYS 272

ESS 244. Marine Ecosystem Modeling. 3 Units.

This course will provide the practical background necessary to construct and implement a 2-dimensional (space and time) numerical model of a simple marine ecosystem. Instruction on computer programming, model design and parameterization, and model evaluation will be provided. Throughout the 10-week course, each student will develop and refine their own multi-component marine ecosystem model. Instructor consent required.

ESS 245. Advanced Biological Oceanography. 3-4 Units.

For upper-division undergraduates and graduate students. Themes vary annually but include topics such as marine bio-optics, marine ecological modeling, and phytoplankton primary production. May be repeated for credit. Enrollment by instructor consent only.

ESS 246A. Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: The Atmospheric Circulation. 3 Units.

Introduction to the physics governing the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean and their control on climate with emphasis on the atmospheric circulation. Topics include the global energy balance, the greenhouse effect, the vertical and meridional structure of the atmosphere, dry and moist convection, the equations of motion for the atmosphere and ocean, including the effects of rotation, and the poleward transport of heat by the large-scale atmospheric circulation and storm systems. Prerequisites: MATH 51 or CME100 and PHYSICS 41.
Same as: CEE 161I, CEE 261I, EARTHSYS 146A, EARTHSYS 246A, ESS 146A, GEOPHYS 146A, GEOPHYS 246A

ESS 246B. Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: the Ocean Circulation. 3 Units.

Introduction to the physics governing the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean and their control on climate with emphasis on the large-scale ocean circulation. This course will give an overview of the structure and dynamics of the major ocean current systems that contribute to the meridional overturning circulation, the transport of heat, salt, and biogeochemical tracers, and the regulation of climate. Topics include the tropical ocean circulation, the wind-driven gyres and western boundary currents, the thermohaline circulation, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, water mass formation, atmosphere-ocean coupling, and climate variability. Prerequisites: EESS 146A or EESS 246A, or CEE 162D or CEE 262D, or consent of instructor.
Same as: CEE 162I, CEE 262I, EARTHSYS 146B, EARTHSYS 246B, ESS 146B

ESS 249. Marine Stable Isotopes. 3 Units.

This course will provide an introduction to stable isotopes biogeochemistry with emphasis on applications in marine science. We will cover fundamental concepts of nuclear structure and origin of elements and isotopes, and stable isotopic fractionation. We will discuss mass spectrometry techniques, mass independent fractionation, clumped isotopes, mass balance and box models. Applications of these concepts to studies of ocean circulation, marine carbon and nitrogen cycles, primary productivity, and particle scavenging will also be discussed.

ESS 250. Elkhorn Slough Microbiology. 3 Units.

(Formerly GES 270.) The microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of Elkhorn Slough, an agriculturally-impacted coastal estuary draining into Monterey Bay. The diversity of microbial lifestyles associated with estuarine physical/chemical gradients, and the influence of microbial activity on the geochemistry of the Slough, including the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and metals. Labs and field work. Location: Hopkins Marine Station.

ESS 251. Biological Oceanography. 3-4 Units.

Required for Earth Systems students in the oceans track. Interdisciplinary look at how oceanic environments control the form and function of marine life. Topics include distributions of planktonic production and abundance, nutrient cycling, the role of ocean biology in the climate system, expected effects of climate changes on ocean biology. Local weekend field trips. Designed to be taken concurrently with Marine Chemistry (EESS/EARTHSYS 152/252). Prerequisites: BIO 43 and EESS 8 or equivalent.
Same as: EARTHSYS 151, EARTHSYS 251, ESS 151

ESS 252. Marine Chemistry. 3-4 Units.

Introduction to the interdisciplinary knowledge and skills required to critically evaluate problems in marine chemistry and related disciplines. Physical, chemical, and biological processes that determine the chemical composition of seawater. Air-sea gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, and chemical equilibria, nutrient and trace element cycling, particle reactivity, sediment chemistry, and diagenesis. Examination of chemical tracers of mixing and circulation and feedbacks of ocean processes on atmospheric chemistry and climate. Designed to be taken concurrently with Biological Oceanography (EESS/EARTHSYS 151/251).
Same as: EARTHSYS 152, EARTHSYS 252, ESS 152

ESS 253S. Hopkins Microbiology Course. 3-12 Units.

(Formerly GES 274S.) Four-week, intensive. The interplay between molecular, physiological, ecological, evolutionary, and geochemical processes that constitute, cause, and maintain microbial diversity. How to isolate key microorganisms driving marine biological and geochemical diversity, interpret culture-independent molecular characterization of microbial species, and predict causes and consequences. Laboratory component: what constitutes physiological and metabolic microbial diversity; how evolutionary and ecological processes diversify individual cells into physiologically heterogeneous populations; and the principles of interactions between individuals, their population, and other biological entities in a dynamically changing microbial ecosystem. Prerequisites: CEE 274A and CEE 274B, or equivalents.
Same as: BIO 274S, BIOHOPK 274, CEE 274S

ESS 255. Microbial Physiology. 3 Units.

Introduction to the physiology of microbes including cellular structure, transcription and translation, growth and metabolism, mechanisms for stress resistance and the formation of microbial communities. These topics will be covered in relation to the evolution of early life on Earth, ancient ecosystems, and the interpretation of the rock record. Recommended: introductory biology and chemistry.
Same as: BIO 180, EARTHSYS 255, GS 233A

ESS 256. Soil and Water Chemistry. 1-4 Unit.

(Graduate students register for 256.) Practical and quantitative treatment of soil processes affecting chemical reactivity, transformation, retention, and bioavailability. Principles of primary areas of soil chemistry: inorganic and organic soil components, complex equilibria in soil solutions, and adsorption phenomena at the solid-water interface. Processes and remediation of acid, saline, and wetland soils. Recommended: soil science and introductory chemistry and microbiology.
Same as: EARTHSYS 156, EARTHSYS 256, ESS 156

ESS 258. Geomicrobiology. 3 Units.

How microorganisms shape the geochemistry of the Earth's crust including oceans, lakes, estuaries, subsurface environments, sediments, soils, mineral deposits, and rocks. Topics include mineral formation and dissolution; biogeochemical cycling of elements (carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and metals); geochemical and mineralogical controls on microbial activity, diversity, and evolution; life in extreme environments; and the application of new techniques to geomicrobial systems. Recommended: introductory chemistry and microbiology such as CEE 274A.
Same as: EARTHSYS 158, EARTHSYS 258, ESS 158

ESS 259. Environmental Microbial Genomics. 1-3 Unit.

The application of molecular and environmental genomic approaches to the study of biogeochemically-important microorganisms in the environment without the need for cultivation. Emphasis is on genomic analysis of microorganisms by direct extraction and cloning of DNA from natural microbial assemblages. Topics include microbial energy generation and nutrient cycling, genome structure, gene function, physiology, phylogenetic and functional diversity, evolution, and population dynamics of uncultured communities.

ESS 260. Advanced Statistical Methods for Earth System Analysis. 3 Units.

Introduction for graduate students to important issues in data analysis relevant to earth system studies. Emphasis on methodology, concepts and implementation (in R), rather than formal proofs. Likely topics include the bootstrap, non-parametric methods, regression in the presence of spatial and temporal correlation, extreme value analysis, time-series analysis, high-dimensional regressions and change-point models. Topics subject to change each year. Prerequisites: STATS 110 or equivalent.
Same as: STATS 360

ESS 261. Molecular Microbial Biosignatures. 1-3 Unit.

Critical reading and discussion of literature on molecular biosignatures as indicators of microbial life and metabolisms in modern and ancient environments. Focus will be primarily on recalcitrant lipids that form chemical fossils and topics covered will include biosynthetic pathways of these lipids, their phylogenetic origins, their physiological roles in modern organisms, and their occurrence throughout the geological record. Recommended: microbiology and organic chemistry.
Same as: GS 234A

ESS 262. Remote Sensing of Land. 4 Units.

The use of satellite remote sensing to monitor land use and land cover, with emphasis on terrestrial changes. Topics include pre-processing data, biophysical properties of vegetation observable by satellite, accuracy assessment of maps derived from remote sensing, and methodologies to detect changes such as urbanization, deforestation, vegetation health, and wildfires.
Same as: EARTHSYS 142, EARTHSYS 242, ESS 162

ESS 263. Topics in Advanced Geostatistics. 3-4 Units.

Conditional expectation theory and projections in Hilbert spaces; parametric versus non-parametric geostatistics; Boolean, Gaussian, fractal, indicator, and annealing approaches to stochastic imaging; multiple point statistics inference and reproduction; neural net geostatistics; Bayesian methods for data integration; techniques for upscaling hydrodynamic properties. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: 240, advanced calculus, C++/Fortran.
Same as: ENERGY 242

ESS 265. Advanced Geographic Information Systems. 4 Units.

Building on the Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems course, this class delves deeper into geospatial analysis and mapping techniques. The class is heavily project-based and students are encouraged to bring their own research questions. Topics include topographic analysis, interpolation, spatial statistics, network analysis, and scripting using Python and Acrpy. All students are required to attend a weekly lab. ESS 164 or equivalent is a prerequisite.
Same as: ESS 165

ESS 270. Analyzing land use in a globalized world. 3 Units.

This is a graduate level course that examines the dynamics of land use in relation to the multiple dimensions of globalization. The objective is to understand and analyze how the expansion of global trade, the emergence of new global actors, and public and private regulations affect land use changes. Beyond getting a better understanding of the dynamics of land use change, the course will enable students to better understand how to effectively influence land use change, from different vantage points: government, NGO, information broker, corporate actor. The main emphasis is on tropical regions. Lectures introduce various topics related to theories, practical cases, and evaluation tools to better understand and analyze contemporary land use dynamics. Data analyses will be conducted in the lab section, based on case studies.

ESS 275. Nitrogen in the Marine Environment. 1-2 Unit.

The goal of this seminar course is to explore current topics in marine nitrogen cycle. We will explore a variety of processes, including primary production, nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, and anaerobic ammonia oxidation, and their controls. We will use the book Nitrogen in the Marine Environment and supplement with student-led discussions of recent literature. A variety of biomes, spatial and temporal scales, and methodologies for investigation will be discussed.

ESS 280. Principles and Practices of Sustainable Agriculture. 3-4 Units.

Field-based training in ecologically sound agricultural practices at the Stanford Community Farm. Weekly lessons, field work, and group projects. Field trips to educational farms in the area. Topics include: soils, composting, irrigation techniques, IPM, basic plant anatomy and physiology, weeds, greenhouse management, and marketing.
Same as: EARTHSYS 180

ESS 281. Urban Agriculture in the Developing World. 3-4 Units.

In this advanced undergraduate course, students will learn about some of the key social and environmental challenges faced by cities in the developing world, and the current and potential role that urban agriculture plays in meeting (or exacerbating) those challenges. This is a service-learning course, and student teams will have the opportunity to partner with real partner organizations in a major developing world city to define and execute a project focused on urban development, and the current or potential role of urban agriculture. Service-learning projects will employ primarily the student's analytical skills such as synthesis of existing research findings, interdisciplinary experimental design, quantitative data analysis and visualization, GIS, and qualitative data collection through interviews and textual analysis. Previous coursework in the aforementioned analytical skills is preferred, but not required. Admission is by application.
Same as: EARTHSYS 181, EARTHSYS 281, ESS 181, URBANST 181

ESS 282. Designing Educational Gardens. 2 Units.

A project-based course emphasizing 'ways of doing 's sustainable agricultural systems based at the new Stanford Educational Farm. Students will work individually and in small groups on the design of a new educational garden and related programs for the Stanford Educational Farm. The class will meet on 6 Fridays over the course of winter quarter. Class meetings will include an introduction to designing learning gardens and affiliated programs, 3 field trips to exemplary educational gardens in the bay area that will include tours and discussions with garden educators, and work sessions for student projects. By application only.
Same as: EARTHSYS 182

ESS 283. Food Matters: Agriculture in Film. 1 Unit.

Film series presenting historical and contemporary issues dealing with food and agriculture across the globe. Students discuss reactions and thoughts in a round table format. May be repeated for credit.
Same as: EARTHSYS 183, EARTHSYS 283, ESS 183

ESS 292. Directed Individual Study in Earth System Science. 1-10 Unit.

Under supervision of an Earth System Science faculty member on a subject of mutual interest.

ESS 300. Climate studies of terrestrial environments. 3 Units.

This course will consist of a weekly seminar covering topics of interest in Cenozoic climate. The course examines the interactions between the biosphere, atmosphere and geosphere and how these interactions influence climate. The course will cover classic and seminal papers on the controls of the oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon isotopes of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere and how they are expressed in paleoclimate proxies. Seminar will consist of reading and discussion of these papers. Students will be responsible for presenting papers. Grades will be determined by class participation. (Chamberlain).

ESS 301. Topics in Earth System Science. 1 Unit.

Current topics, issues, and research related to interactions that link the oceans, atmosphere, land surfaces and freshwater systems. May be repeated for credit.

ESS 305. Climate Change: An Earth Systems Perspective. 2 Units.

A graduate-level, seminar-style class on climate change structured around the IPCC's AR5. Significant reading load and weekly talks by a rotating roster of contributing and lead authors from the IPCC. The focus will be on the physical science basis, adaptation and impacts (working groups 1 and 2), with some material drawn from mitigation (working group 3).

ESS 306. From Freshwater to Oceans to Land Systems: An Earth System Perspective to Global Challenges. 2 Units.

Within this class we will have cover Earth System processes ranging from nutrient cycles to ocean circulation. We will also address global environmental challenges of the twenty-first century that include maintaining freshwater resources, land degradation, health of our oceans, and the balance between food production and environmental degradation. Weekly readings and problem sets on specific topics will be followed by presentations of Earth System Science faculty and an in-depth class discussion. ESS first year students have priority enrollment.

ESS 307. Research Proposal Development and Delivery. 2 Units.

In this class students will learn how to write rigorous, high yield, multidisciplinary proposals targeting major funding agencies. The skills gained in this class are essential to any professional career, particularly in research science. Students will write a National Science Foundation style proposal involving testable hypotheses, pilot data or calculations, and broader impact. Restricted to EESS first-year, graduate students.

ESS 310. Climate and Energy Seminar. 3 Units.

This course examines the links between climate change policy and other regulation of the energy sector in the U.S. context. In the electricity sector, these policies are likely to be closely interconnected, yet they are often considered in isolation. We will evaluate the impacts of energy, air pollution, and water pollution regulations on US greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. We will also examine how state regulatory activities aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the electricity sector are likely to have co-benefits for air and water pollution.

ESS 311. Seminar in Advanced Applications of Remote Sensing. 1 Unit.

In this seminar course, we will invite the pioneering scientists from academia and leading experts from the industry to share their applications of remote sensing technology, with a focus on terrestrial use (e.g. agriculture and forestry). In each independent seminar, speakers will present the basic technology and focus on applications with case studies.nnStudents will gain insight into a variety of remote sensing applications in both academia and industry. No prior remote sensing knowledge is required, and each seminar is independent. Attendance is required to receive credit.

ESS 318. Global Land Use Change to 2050. 2-3 Units.

An exploration of the fundamental drivers behind long term shifts in the demand for, and supply of, land for agriculture, forestry and environmental uses over the next four decades. Topics include trends in food and bioenergy demand, crop productivity on existing and potential croplands, water and climate constraints, non-extractive uses such as carbon sequestration, and the role of global trade and public policies. Students will lead discussions of weekly readings and perform simple numerical experiments to explore the role of individual drivers of long run global land use.

ESS 322A. Seminar in Hydrogeology. 1 Unit.

Current topics. May be repeated for credit. Autumn Quarter has open enrollment, For Winter Quarter, consent of instructor is required.

ESS 322B. Seminar in Hydrogeology. 1 Unit.

Current topics. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

ESS 323. Stanford at Sea. 16 Units.

(Graduate students register for 323H.) Five weeks of marine science including oceanography, marine physiology, policy, maritime studies, conservation, and nautical science at Hopkins Marine Station, followed by five weeks at sea aboard a sailing research vessel in the Pacific Ocean. Shore component comprised of three multidisciplinary courses meeting daily and continuing aboard ship. Students develop an independent research project plan while ashore, and carry out the research at sea. In collaboration with the Sea Education Association of Woods Hole, MA. Only 6 units may count towards the Biology major.
Same as: BIOHOPK 182H, BIOHOPK 323H, EARTHSYS 323

ESS 330. Advanced Topics in Hydrogeology. 1-2 Unit.

Topics: questioning classic explanations of physical processes; coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting heat and solute transport. May be repeated for credit.

ESS 342. Geostatistics. 1-2 Unit.

Classic results and current research. Topics based on interest and timeliness. May be repeated for credit.

ESS 342B. Geostatistics. 1-2 Unit.

Classic results and current research. Topics based on interest and timeliness. May be repeated for credit.

ESS 342C. Geostatistics. 1-2 Unit.

Classic results and current research. Topics based on interest and timeliness. May be repeated for credit.

ESS 360. Social Structure and Social Networks. 5 Units.

In this course, we will explore social network analysis, a set of methods and theories used in the analysis of social structure. The fundamental conceit underlying social network analysis is that social structure emerges from relationships between individuals. We will therefore concentrate in particular on the measurement of relationships, emphasizing especially practical methodology for anthropological fieldwork. This is a somewhat unusual course because of its focus on social network research coming out of anthropological and ethological traditions. While most current practitioners of social network analysis are (probably) sociologists, many of both the methodological antecedents and theoretical justifications for the field can be found in these two traditions. A major goal of this course is to understand how the methods and perspectives of social network analysis can be usefully incorporated into contemporary approaches to ethnography and other anthropological modes of investigation. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.
Same as: ANTHRO 360

ESS 363. Demography and Life History Theory. 5 Units.

Life history theory is the branch of evolutionary biology that attempts to understand patterns of investment in growth, reproduction, and survival across the life cycle. It is the theory that explains the major transitions that mark individual organisms' life cycles from conception to death. In this class, we will focus on the central themes of life history theory and how they relate to specific problems of the human life cycle. In addition to the classic questions of life history theory (e.g., evolution of reproductive effort, size vs. quality, etc.), we will discuss some peculiar issues that relate specifically to humans. In particular, we will explore the intersection of life history theory and more classical economic approaches to decision theory and rational choice. This will include an exploration of the evolution of economic transfers and their implications for demographic transitions, ecological resilience, and the consumption of natural resources. This discussion will explore how an understanding of life history theory might help in promoting investments in future welfare or developing policies that promote sustainability.
Same as: ESS 163

ESS 363F. Oceanic Fluid Dynamics. 3 Units.

Dynamics of rotating stratified fluids with application to oceanic flows. Topics include: inertia-gravity waves; geostrophic and cyclogeostrophic balance; vorticity and potential vorticity dynamics; quasi-geostrophic motions; planetary and topographic Rossby waves; inertial, symmetric, barotropic and baroclinic instability; Ekman layers; and the frictional spin-down of geostrophic flows. Prerequisite: CEE 262A or a graduate class in fluid mechanics.
Same as: CEE 363F

ESS 364F. Advanced Topics in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. 2-3 Units.

A seminar-style class covering the classic papers on the theory of the large-scale ocean circulation. Topics include: wind-driven gyres, mesoscale eddies and geostrophic turbulence, eddy-driven recirculation gyres, homogenization of potential vorticity, the ventilated thermocline, subduction, and the abyssal circulation. Prerequisite: EESS 363F or CEE 363F. Recommended: EESS 246B.
Same as: CEE 364F

ESS 385. Practical Experience in the Geosciences. 1 Unit.

On-the-job training, that may include summer internship, in applied aspects of the geosciences, and technical, organizational, and communication dimensions. Meets USCIS requirements for F-1 curricular practical training. May be repeated for credit.

ESS 398. Current Topics in Ecosystem Modeling. 1-2 Unit.

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ESS 400. Graduate Research. 1-15 Unit.

May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

ESS 401. Curricular Practical Training. 1-3 Unit.

CPT course required for international students completing degree. Prerequisite: Earth System Science Ph.D. candidate.

ESS 801. TGR Project. 0 Units.

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ESS 802. TGR Dissertation. 0 Units.

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