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Earth Systems

Contacts

Office: Yang and Yamazaki Environment and Energy (Y2E2) Building, Room 131
Mail Code: 94305-4215
Phone: (650) 725-7427
Email: ktewks@stanford.edu
Web Site: http://earthsystems.stanford.edu

Courses offered by the Earth Systems Program are listed under the subject code EARTHSYS on the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses web site.

Mission of the Undergraduate Program in Earth Systems

The Earth Systems Program is an interdisciplinary environmental science major. Students learn about and independently investigate complex environmental problems caused by human activities in interaction with natural changes in the Earth system. Earth Systems majors become skilled in those areas of science, economics, and policy needed to tackle the globe's most pressing environmental problems, becoming part of a generation of scientists, professionals, and citizens who approach and solve problems in a new way: a systematic, interdisciplinary way.

For students to be effective contributors to solutions for such problems, their training and understanding must be both broad and deep. To this end, Earth Systems students take courses in the fundamentals of biology, calculus, chemistry, geology, and physics, as well as economics, policy, and statistics. After completing breadth training, they concentrate on advanced work in one of five focus areas: biology, energy, environmental economics and policy, land systems and land use, or oceanography. Tracks are designed to support focus and rigor but include flexibility for specialization. Examples of specialized focus have included but are not limited to environment and human health, sustainable agriculture, energy economics, sustainable development, business and the environment, and marine policy. Along with formal course requirements, Earth Systems students complete a 9-unit (270-hour) internship. The internship provides a hands-on academic experience working on a supervised field, laboratory, government, or private sector project.

The following is an outline of the sequential topics covered and skills developed in this major.

  1. Fundamentals: The Earth Systems Program includes courses that describe the natural workings of the physical and biological components of the Earth, as well as courses that describe the human activities that lead to change in the Earth system. Training in fundamentals includes introductory course work in geology, biology, chemistry, physics, and economics. Depending on the Earth Systems track chosen, training may also include introduction to the study of energy systems, microbiology, oceans, or soils.
  2. System Interactions: Focus in these courses is on the fundamental interactions among the physical, biological, and human components of the Earth system. The dynamics of the interplay between natural variation and human-imposed influences must be understood to achieve effective solutions to environmental problems.
    1. Earth Systems courses that introduce students to the dynamic and multiple interactions that characterize global change problems include:
    2. Units
      EARTHSYS 10Introduction to Earth Systems4
      EARTHSYS 111Biology and Global Change4
      EARTHSYS 112Human Society and Environmental Change4
    3. Competence in understanding system-level interactions is critical to development as an Earth Systems thinker, so additional classes that meet this objective are excellent choices as electives.
  3. Skills Development: Students take skills courses that help them to recognize, quantify, describe, and help solve complex problems that face society.

Field and laboratory methods can help students to recognize the scope and nature of environmental change. For example, training in satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems allows students to monitor and analyze large-scale spatial patterns of change. This training is either required or recommended for all tracks.

Quantification of environmental problems requires training in single and multivariable calculus, linear algebra, and statistics. Training in statistics is specific to the area of focus: geostatistics, biostatistics, econometrics.

Success in building workable solutions to environmental problems is linked to the ability to effectively communicate ideas, data, and results. Writing intensive courses (WIM) help students to communicate complex concepts to expert and non-expert audiences. All Stanford students must complete one WIM course in their major. The Earth Systems WIM courses are:

Units
EARTHSYS 200Sustaining Action: Research, Analysis and Writing for the Public3
EARTHSYS 195Natural Hazards and Risk Communication3

Other Earth Systems courses also focus on effective written and oral communication and are recommended.

Effective solutions to environmental problems take into consideration natural processes as well as human needs. Earth Systems emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinary analysis and implementation of workable solutions through:

Units
EARTHSYS 210ASenior Seminar3
EARTHSYS 210BSenior Seminar3
EARTHSYS 210CSenior Seminar3
EARTHSYS 260Internship9

A comprehensive list of environmental courses, as well as advice on those that focus on problem solving, is available in the program office.

The Earth Systems Program provides an advising network that includes faculty, staff, and student peer advisers.

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduate)

The program expects majors to be able to demonstrate the following learning outcomes. These learning outcomes are used in evaluating students and the program's undergraduate degree. Students are expected to:

  1. demonstrate knowledge of foundational skills and concepts relevant to interdisciplinary study of the environment.
  2. analyze environmental problems at the interface of natural and human systems in an interdisciplinary fashion.
  3. demonstrate the ability to communicate complex concepts and data to expert and non-expert audiences.
  4. apply relevant science, economics, engineering, and policy to problem analysis and proposed solutions, both independently and as part of a team.

Learning Outcomes (Graduate)

The master's degree in Earth Systems provides the student with enhanced analytical tools to evaluate the disciplines most closely associated with the student's focus area. Specialization is gained through course work and independent research work supervised by the M.S. faculty adviser.

Bachelor of Science in Earth Systems

The B.S. in Earth Systems (EARTHSYS) requires the completion of courses divided into three categories: 1) core; 2) foundation and breadth; 3) track-specific requirements. The student must carry out a senior-level research or internship project and participate in the Senior Seminar, as well as the writing in the major (WIM) requirement.

Required Core

Units
EARTHSYS 10Introduction to Earth Systems4
EARTHSYS 111Biology and Global Change4
EARTHSYS 112Human Society and Environmental Change4
Select one of the following:3
Senior Seminar
Senior Seminar
Senior Seminar
EARTHSYS 260Internship9
EARTHSYS 195Natural Hazards and Risk Communication3
or EARTHSYS 200 Sustaining Action: Research, Analysis and Writing for the Public

Required Foundation and Breadth Courses

Units
Biology (3-10)3-10
Select one of the following:
Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology
Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology
Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology
Ecology
Genetics, Evolution, and Ecology
   and Culture, Evolution, and Society
Chemistry (4-8)4-8
Select one of the following:
Chemical Principles
Chemical Principles I
   and Chemical Principles II
Economics (5)5
Principles of Economics
Geology and Environmental Sciences (3-5)3-5
Select one of the following:
Introduction to Geology: The Physical Science of the Earth
Introduction to Geology: California Desert Geology
Introduction to Geology: Dynamic Earth
Evolution and Extinction: Introduction to Historical Geology
Mathematics (15)
Select one of the following:10
MATH 19
  & MATH 20
  & MATH 21
Calculus
   and Calculus
   and Calculus
or MATH 41
  & MATH 42
Calculus
   and Calculus
MATH 51Linear Algebra and Differential Calculus of Several Variables5
or CME 100 Vector Calculus for Engineers
Probability and Statistics (3-5)3-5
Select one of the following:
Experimental Design and Probability
Biostatistics
Introduction to Statistical Methods (Postcalculus) for Social Scientists
Statistical Methods in Engineering and the Physical Sciences
Theory of Probability

More extensive work in mathematics and physics may be valuable for those planning graduate study. Graduate study in ecology and evolutionary biology and in economics requires familiarity with differential equations, linear algebra, and stochastic processes. Graduate study in geology, oceanography, and geophysics may require more physics and chemistry. Students should consult their adviser for recommendations beyond the requirements specified above.

Tracks

Anthrosphere

Units
Additional foundation and breadth courses (13-14)
ECON 50Economic Analysis I5
ECON 155Environmental Economics and Policy5
Select one of the following (seek advice from Program leadership):3-4
One physics class from the PHYSICS 20 or 40 series
Choose one course in each of the three following sub-categories, with a total of six required. At least one of the six must be a skills/methods course marked with an asterisk (*).
Economics and Environmental Policy (3-5)3-5
Economic Analysis II
Applied Econometrics *
Economic Policy Analysis
Law and Economics
California Coast: Science, Policy, and Law
Ethics and Public Policy
Energy and Environmental Policy Analysis
Economics of Natural Resources
Climate Policy Analysis
Energy Policy Analysis
Social Entrepreneurship and the Environment (2-5) 12-5
Negotiation
Transformative Design
Organizations: Theory and Management
Sustainable Product Development and Manufacturing
Creativity and Innovation
Entrepreneurial Design for Extreme Affordability
Green Design Strategies and Metrics
Design for Sustainability
Design Thinking Bootcamp: Experiences in Innovation and Design
Concepts and Analytic Skills for the Social Sector *
Social Entrepreneurship Collaboratory
Sustainable Development (3-5) 23-5
Human Behavioral Ecology
Indigenous Peoples and Environmental Problems
Culture as Commodity
Anthropology of Capitalism
Demography: Health, Development, Environment
Sustainable Development Studio (must be taken for at least 3 units)
World Food Economy *
Negotiating Sustainable Development
Economic Analysis III *
Development Economics
Theory of Ecological and Environmental Anthropology
Clean Energy Developement
Designing Liberation Technologies
Land Use Control
Elective Requirement (6-10)6-10
Two additional courses at the 100-level or above are required. Each must be a minimum of 3 units and approved by an adviser.

1

May also use MS&E 288 for this requirement. This course is not offered this year.

2

 May also use POLISCI 140, POLISCI 143 for this requirement. These courses are not offered this year.

 Biosphere

Units
Additional foundation and breadth courses (22-23)
BIO 41Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology5
Select one of the following:4-5
Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology
Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology
CHEM 33Structure and Reactivity5
GES 1CIntroduction to Geology: Dynamic Earth 14
or GES 4 Evolution and Extinction: Introduction to Historical Geology
PHYSICS 41Mechanics4
or PHYSICS 45 Light and Heat
Choose two courses from Ecology and Conservation Biology, and one course from each of the remaining sub-categories below, total six required.
Biogeochemistry (3-4)3-4
Terrestrial Biogeochemistry
Aquatic Chemistry and Biology
Stable Isotopes in Biogeochemistry
Biological Oceanography
Marine Chemistry
Science of Soils
Geomicrobiology
Ecology and Conservation Biology (3-12)3-12
Ecology
Evolutionary Paleobiology
Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions
Ecology of the Hawaiian Islands
Paleobiology
Marine Ecology
Dynamics and Management of Marine Populations
Ecology and Conservation of Kelp Forest Communities
Sustainability and Marine Ecosystems
Coral Reef Ecosystems
Freshwater Systems
Coastal Forest Ecosystems
Ecosystems and Society (3-5) 23-5
Heritage, Environment, and Sovereignty in Hawaii
Nature, Culture, Heritage
Human Behavioral Ecology
Indigenous Peoples and Environmental Problems
Parks and Peoples: The Benefits and Costs of Protected Area Conservation
Political Ecology of Tropical Land Use: Conservation, Natural Resource Extraction, and Agribusiness
Environmental Change and Emerging Infectious Diseases
Evolution and Conservation in Galapagos
Elective Requirement (6-10)6-10
Two additional courses at the 100-level or above are required. Each must be a minimum of 3 units and approved by an adviser.

1

 Must take GES 1C or GES 4 to fulfill this requirement, and not GES 1A or 1B.

2

 May also use HISTORY 169 for this requirement. This course is not offered this year.

 Energy, Science and Technology

Units
Additional Foundation and Breadth Courses (13-14)
PHYSICS 43Electricity and Magnetism4
PHYSICS 45Light and Heat4
CME 100Vector Calculus for Engineers (preferred over MATH 51 for this track)5
One-unit of Computer Science is required (unless CME 100 was completed); see Earth Systems staff for approved CS courses. 0-1
Energy Fundamentals (9-12)
ENGR 30Engineering Thermodynamics3
Select one of the following: 13-4
Modern Power Systems Engineering
Fundamentals of Petroleum Engineering
Solar Cells, Fuel Cells, and Batteries: Materials for the Energy Solution
Thermodynamic Evaluation of Green Energy Technologies
Select one of the following:3-5
Energy and the Environment
Renewable Energy Sources and Greener Energy Processes
Energy Resources
Choose at least one course in each of the three sub-categories, total five required. Please note that many of these have prerequisite work.
Energy Resources & Technology (3-5)3-5
Energy and the Environment
Energy Resources
Building Systems
Energy Efficient Buildings
Fundamentals of Petroleum Engineering
Energy Infrastructure, Technology and Economics
Geothermal Reservoir Engineering
Solar Cells, Fuel Cells, and Batteries: Materials for the Energy Solution
Fundamentals of Energy Processes
Energy from Wind and Water Currents
Internal Combustion Engines
Fuel Cell Science and Technology
Sustainable Energy & Development (3-4) 13-4
Renewable Energy Sources and Greener Energy Processes
Electric Power: Renewables and Efficiency
Goals and Methods of Sustainable Building Projects
Planning Tools and Methods in the Power Sector
Life Cycle Assessment for Complex Systems
Green House Gas Mitigation
Carbon Capture and Sequestration
Thermodynamic Evaluation of Green Energy Technologies
Solar Cells, Fuel Cells, and Batteries: Materials for the Energy Solution
Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: The Atmospheric Circulation
Energy Policy, Economics & Entrepreneurship (2-4)2-4
Transition to sustainable energy systems
Energy in Transition: Technology, Policy and Politics
Optimization of Energy Systems
Energy and Environmental Policy Analysis
Sustainable Product Development and Manufacturing
Climate Policy Analysis
Energy Policy Analysis
Clean Energy Developement
Energy Markets and Policy
Energy Law
Elective Requirement (3-5)3-5
One additional course at the 100-level or above is required. This course must be a minimum of 3 units and approved by an adviser. 3 units of approved energy seminars may count as one elective. See Earth Systems staff for the approved seminar list.

1

 May also use CEE 172P for this requirement. This course is not offered this year.

Land Systems and Land Use

Additional foundation and breadth courses (8)
PHYSICS 41Mechanics4
PHYSICS 45Light and Heat4
Track Option A: LAND SYSTEMS (35-52)35-52
Choose at least one course in each of the four sub-categories below, total seven required.
Land Ecosystems (3-5)3-5
Conservation Biology: A Latin American Perspective
Science of Soils
Soil and Water Chemistry
Terrestrial Biogeochemistry
Water (3-4)3-4
Mechanics of Fluids
Watersheds and Wetlands
Floods and Droughts, Dams and Aqueducts
Aquatic Chemistry and Biology
Near-Surface Geophysics
Soil Physics and Hydrology
Land Use (3-5)3-5
World Food Economy
Goals and Methods of Sustainable Building Projects
Sustainable Development Studio (must be taken for at least 3 units)
Energy Efficient Buildings
Utopia and Reality: Introduction to Urban Studies
Introduction to Urban Design: Contemporary Urban Design in Theory and Practice
Land Use Control
Concepts of Urban Agriculture
Methods (3-5)3-5
Remote Sensing of Land
Fundamentals of Geographic Information Science (GIS)
Fundamentals of Modeling
Elective Requirement (6-10)6-10
Two additional courses at the 100-level or above are required. Each must be a minimum of 3 units and approved by an adviser.
Track Option B: SUSTAINABLE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE (37-48)37-48
A total of seven courses are required from the Food and Agriculture focus areas.
Fundamentals of Agriculture Production and Economics (8)8
Both required:
World Food Economy
Feeding Nine Billion
Biogeophysical Dimensions (9-12)9-12
Required:
Science of Soils
And select two of the following:
Climate and Agriculture
Plant Genetics
The Biologies of Humans and Plants
Human Nutrition
Soil Physics and Hydrology
Social Dimensions (3-5)3-5
Select one of the following:
Aquaculture and the Environment: Science, History, and Policy
Concepts of Urban Agriculture
Food and Society: Exploring Eating Behaviors in Social, Environmental, and Policy Context
The Ecology of Cuisine: Food, Nutrition, and the Evolution of the Human Diet
Applied Study in the Field (3-5)3-5
Select one of the following:
Food and Community: New Visions for a Sustainable Future
Principles and Practices of Sustainable Agriculture
Elective Requirement (6-10)6-10
Two additional courses at the 100-level or above are required. Each must be a minimum of 3 units and approved by an adviser.

 Oceans

Units
Additional Foundation and Breadth Courses (12-18)
MATH 51
  & MATH 52
Linear Algebra and Differential Calculus of Several Variables
   and Integral Calculus of Several Variables 1
5-10
or CME 100 Vector Calculus for Engineers
PHYSICS 41Mechanics4
PHYSICS 45Light and Heat3-4
or GEOPHYS 110 Earth on the Edge: Introduction to Geophysics
Physics of the Atmosphere and Climate (3)3
Select one of the following:
Weather and Storms
Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: The Atmospheric Circulation (preferred)
Physics of the Ocean (3-4)3-4
Select one of the following:
Introduction to Physical Oceanography
Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: the Ocean Circulation 2
Spatial Analysis (3-4)3-4
Remote Sensing of the Oceans
Biological Oceanography (3-4)3-4
Select one of the following:
Biological Oceanography (preferred; take at the same time as EARTHSYS 152)
Oceanic Biology
Marine Chemistry (3-4)3-4
Marine Chemistry
Human Dimensions (1-5)1-5
Select one of the following:
Marine Conservation Biology
California Coast: Science, Policy, and Law
Marine Resource Economics and Conservation
Field Experience (12-20) 312-20
Select at least one of the following:
Stanford at Sea
One quarter abroad at the Stanford in Australia Program
One quarter (or more) at the Hopkins Marine Station
Elective Requirement (6-10)6-10
Two additional courses at the 100-level or above are required. Each must be a minimum of 3 units and approved by an adviser. See Earth Systems staff for a list of possible electives.

1

 CME 100 is preferred over taking MATH 51 and MATH 52 for this track.

2

 EARTHSYS 146B can be taken in addition to EARTHSYS 164 and would count as an elective.

3

Courses taken during Stanford@SEA and BOSP Australia cannot be substituted for track requirements but can count toward electives.

Summary of Course Requirements and Units

For all students:

Units
Earth Systems Introduction and Core12
Required Foundation and Breadth Courses33-48
Internship9
Senior Seminar3
Writing in the Major (WIM)3

Track-Specific:

Units
Anthrosphere Track37-54
Biosphere Track46-70
Energy, Science and Technology Track39-54
Land Systems and Land Use Track35-52
Oceans Track46-72

Honors Program

The Earth Systems Honors program provides students with an opportunity to pursue individual research within a specific area or between areas of Earth Systems through a year-long mentored research project. This research must be mentored by one or more Earth Systems-affiliated faculty members, and it culminates in a written thesis.

To qualify for the honors program, students must have and maintain a minimum overall GPA of 3.4. Potential honors students should complete the EARTHSYS 111 Biology and Global Change and EARTHSYS 112 Human Society and Environmental Change sequence by the end of the junior year. Qualified students can apply in Spring Quarter of the junior year, or the fourth quarter before graduation (check with program for specific application deadlines), by submitting a detailed research proposal and a brief statement of support from a faculty research adviser. Students who elect to do an honors thesis should begin planning no later than Winter Quarter of the junior year.

A maximum of 9 units is awarded for thesis research through EARTHSYS 199 Honors Program in Earth Systems. Those 9 units may not substitute for any other required parts of the Earth Systems curriculum. All theses are evaluated for acceptance by the thesis faculty adviser and one additional faculty member, who is the second reader. Both the adviser and second reader must be members of the Academic Council. Acceptance into the Honors program is not a guarantee of graduating with the honors designation. The thesis must be accepted and approved by both readers and the Earth Systems Honors Committee, and a minimum overall GPA of 3.4 must be maintained.

Honors students are encouraged to present their research through the School of Earth Sciences Annual Research Review, which highlights undergraduate and graduate research in the school during the annual visit of the School of Earth Sciences external Advisory Board. Faculty advisers are encouraged to sponsor presentation of student research results at professional society meetings.

Coterminal Master's Degree in Earth Systems

The Stanford coterminal degree plan enables an undergraduate to embark on an integrated program of study leading to the master's degree before requirements for the bachelor's degree have been completed. Undergraduates majoring in Earth Systems, or a related field, may apply to work simultaneously toward their Bachelor’s degree and a Master’s degree in Earth Systems. The M.S. degree in Earth Systems allows an increased specialization through additional course work that may include nine units of thesis research. Integration of Earth Systems concepts is furthered by participation in EARTHSYS 290 Master's Seminar or another approved course. Non-Earth Systems undergraduates accepted to the coterminal M.S. program are required to take EARTHSYS 290.

Application and Admission

To apply, complete and return to the Earth Systems office an application that includes:

  • The Stanford coterminal application
  • A statement of purpose
  • A resume
  • A current Stanford transcript
  • Two letters of recommendation, one of which must be from the master's adviser (adviser must be an Academic Council member)
  • A list of courses that fulfill degree requirements signed by a co-Director and the master's adviser

Applications must be submitted no later than the quarter prior to the expected completion of the Bachelor’s degree (check with program office for specific application deadline). An application fee is assessed by the Registrar's Office for coterminal applications.

Students applying to the coterminal program must have completed a minimum of 120 units toward graduation with a minimum overall Stanford GPA of 3.4.

The student has the option of receiving the B.S. degree after completing that degree's requirements or receiving two degrees concurrently at the end of the master's program.

Degree Requirements

These specific requirements must be fulfilled to receive an M.S. degree:

  • A minimum of 45 units of course work and/or research credit (upon approval). At least 34 units of the student's course work for the Master's must be at the 200-level or above. All remaining course work must be at the 100-level or above. A minimum overall GPA of 3.4 must be maintained.

The student must devise a program of study that shows a level of specialization appropriate to the master's level, as determined in consultation with the adviser and Julie Kennedy, Kevin Arrigo, or Katie Phillips. Students applying from an undergraduate major other than Earth Systems should meet with Julie Kennedy, Kevin Arrigo, Deana Fabbro-Johnston, or Katie Phillips for clarification.

With the adviser's approval, up to 9 units may be in the form of research. This may culminate in the preparation of a master's thesis; however, a thesis is not required for the degree.

University requirements for the coterminal M.S. are described in the "Coterminal Bachelor's and Master's Degrees" section of this bulletin. For University coterminal degree program rules and University application forms, see the "Procedures for Coterminal Students" web site.

Co-Directors: Julie Kennedy and Kevin Arrigo

Associate Director, Administration: Deana Fabbro-Johnston

Committee of the Whole: Nicole Ardoin (School of Education, Woods Institute for the Environment), Kevin Arrigo (Earth Systems, Environmental Earth System Science), Gregory Asner (Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution), Barbara Block (Biology, Hopkins Marine Station, Woods Institute for the Environment), Margaret Caldwell (Law, Woods Institute for the Environment), Karen Casciotti (Environmental Earth System Science), Page Chamberlain (Environmental Earth System Science), Lisa Curran (Anthropology, Woods Institute for the Environment), Gretchen Daily (Biology, Woods Institute for the Environment), Jenna Davis (Civil and Environmental Engineering, Woods Institute for the Environment), Mark Denny (Biology, Hopkins Marine Station), Noah Diffenbaugh (Environmental Earth System Science, Woods Institute for the Environment), Rodolfo Dirzo (Biology, Woods Institute for the Environment), Robert B. Dunbar (Environmental Earth System Science, Woods Institute for the Environment), William Durham (Anthropology, Woods Institute for the Environment), Gary Ernst (Geological and Environmental Sciences, emeritus), Walter Falcon (Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, emeritus, Woods Institute for the Environment), Scott Fendorf (Environmental Earth System Science, Woods Institute for the Environment), Christopher Field (Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution, Woods Institute for the Environment), Christopher Francis (Environmental Earth System Science, Woods Institute for the Environment), Zephyr Frank (History, Woods Institute for the Environment), David Freyberg (Civil and Environmental Engineering, Woods Institute for the Environment), Margot Gerritsen (Energy Resources Engineering), Deborah Gordon (Biology, Woods Institute for the Environment), Steven Gorelick (Environmental Earth System Science, Woods Institute for the Environment), Elizabeth Hadly (Biology, Woods Institute for the Environment), George Hilley (Geological and Environmental Sciences), David Kennedy (History, emeritus, Woods Institute for the Environment), Donald Kennedy (Biology, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, emeritus, Woods Institute for the Environment), Julie Kennedy (Earth Systems, Environmental Earth System Science, Woods Institute for the Environment), Rosemary Knight (Geophysics, Woods Institute for the Environment), Jeffrey Koseff (Civil and Environmental Engineering, Woods Institute for the Environment), Anthony Kovscek (Energy Resources Engineering), Eric Lambin (Environmental Earth System Science, Woods Institute for the Environment), David Lobell (Environmental Earth System Science, Woods Institute for the Environment), Gilbert Masters (Civil and Environmental Engineering), Pamela Matson (Dean, School of Earth Sciences, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Woods Institute for the Environment), Stephen Monismith (Civil and Environmental Engineering, Woods Institute for the Environment), Harold Mooney (Biology, emeritus, Woods Institute for the Environment), Rosamond Naylor (Environmental Earth System Science, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Woods Institute for the Environment), Richard Nevle (School of Earth Sciences), Stephen Palumbi (Biology, Hopkins Marine Station, Woods Institute for the Environment), Jonathan Payne (Geological and Environmental Sciences), Kathleen Phillips (Earth Systems), Bala Rajaratnam (Environmental Earth System Science, Statistics), Gary Schoolnik (Medicine, Woods Institute for the Environment), George Somero (Biology, Hopkins Marine Station), James Sweeney (Management Science and Engineering, Woods Institute for the Environment), Paul Switzer (Environmental Earth System Science, Emeritus, Statistics, Emeritus), Leif Thomas (Environmental Earth System Science), Barton Thompson, Junior (Law, Woods Institute for the Environment), Peter Vitousek (Biology, Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources, Woods Institute for the Environment), Virginia Walbot (Biology), Mark Zoback (Geophysics)

Overseas Studies Courses in Earth Systems

The Bing Overseas Studies Program manages Stanford study abroad programs for Stanford undergraduates. Students should consult their department or program's student services office for applicability of Overseas Studies courses to a major or minor program.

The Bing Overseas Studies course search site displays courses, locations, and quarters relevant to specific majors.

For course descriptions and additional offerings, see the listings in the Stanford Bulletin's ExploreCourses or Bing Overseas Studies.


Units
OSPAUSTL 10Coral Reef Ecosystems3
OSPAUSTL 25Freshwater Systems3
OSPAUSTL 30Coastal Forest Ecosystems3
OSPFLOR 33Under the Tuscan Sun: A Model for Agriculture and Sustainability5
OSPFLOR 74Ethics and Politics of Climate Change5
OSPPARIS 74Climate Change Challenges in France and Europe: from Project to Policy4
OSPSANTG 31The Chilean Energy System: 30 Years of Market Reforms5
OSPSANTG 55Environment, Economy and Society in Latin America, 1800's-Present3-5
OSPSANTG 58Living Chile: A Land of Extremes5
OSPSANTG 85Marine Ecology of Chile and the South Pacific5

Courses

EARTHSYS 4. Evolution and Extinction: Introduction to Historical Geology. 4 Units.

Introduction to the basic tools and principles geologists and paleontologists use to reconstruct the history of the Earth. Principles of stratigraphy, correlation, the geological timescale, the history of biodiversity, and the interpretation of fossils. The use of data from sedimentary geology, geochemistry, and paleontology to test theories for critical events in Earth history such as mass extinctions. Two half-day field trips.
Same as: GES 4.

EARTHSYS 8. The Oceans: An Introduction to the Marine Environment. 3 Units.

For non-majors and majors in earth science or environmental science. The major ocean ecosystems and how they function both naturally and under the influence of human activities. Emphasis is on the dominant organisms of each ecosystem and how they interact with each other and their physical and chemical environment. The types of ecosystems discussed include coral reefs, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, coastal upwelling systems, blue-water oceans, estuaries, and near-shore dead zones. Lectures, multimedia presentations, and group activities.
Same as: EESS 8.

EARTHSYS 9. Preparing for Your Community Based Internship. 1 Unit.

This course is designed to help students make the most of their internship experience by setting learning goals in advance, negotiating clear roles and expectations, and preparing for the professional role required as part of the organization. In this way, we hope to help you avoid some of the common pitfalls of internships. Through readings, discussions, and guest speakers, we will explore how to prepare for your internship, work with your community placement, and how best to leverage your internship when you return -- as a research topic in an honors thesis, as a fellowship placement, or as a stepping stone to future career opportunities.
Same as: HUMBIO 9.

EARTHSYS 10. Introduction to Earth Systems. 4 Units.

For non-majors and prospective Earth Systems majors. Multidisciplinary approach using the principles of geology, biology, engineering, and economics to describe how the Earth operates as an interconnected, integrated system. Goal is to understand global change on all time scales. Focus is on sciences, technological principles, and sociopolitical approaches applied to solid earth, oceans, water, energy, and food and population. Case studies: environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity, and resource sustainability.

EARTHSYS 11SI. Grow It, Cook It, Eat It: Personal Empowerment in Interdisciplinary Food Systems. 2 Units.

Interdisciplinary examination of sustainable food systems and decision-making at personal, local, and global scales. Discussions focusing on food systems from farm to fork. Hands-on experience farming at the Stanford Educational Farm and cooking in the Stanford Demonstration Kitchen. Guest lecturers from the local food justice movement. Students will become empowered to make informed decisions regarding food choices.

EARTHSYS 12SC. Environmental and Geological Field Studies in the Rocky Mountains. 2 Units.

The Rocky Mountain area, ecologically and geologically diverse, is being strongly impacted by changing land-use patterns, global and regional environmental change, and societal demands for energy and natural resources. This three-week field program emphasizes coupled environmental and geological problems in the Rocky Mountains and will cover a broad range of topics including the geologic origin of the American West from three billion years ago to the recent; paleoclimatology and the glacial history of this mountainous region; the long- and short-term carbon cycle and global climate change; and environmental issues in the American West that are related to changing land-use patterns and increased demand for its abundant natural resources. These broad topics are integrated into a coherent field study by examining earth/environmental science-related questions in three different settings: 1) the three-billion-year-old rocks and the modern glaciers of the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming; 2) the sediments in the adjacent Wind River basin that host abundant gas and oil reserves and also contain the long-term climate history of this region; and 3) the volcanic center of Yellowstone National Park and mountainous region of Teton National Park, and the economic and environmental problems associated with gold mining and extraction of oil and gas in areas adjoining these national parks. Students will complete six assignments based upon field exercises, working in small groups to analyze data and prepare reports and maps. Lectures will be held in the field prior to and after fieldwork. Note: This course involves one week of backpacking in the Wind Rivers and hiking while staying in cabins near Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and horseback riding in the Dubois area of Wyoming. Students must arrive in Salt Lake City on Monday, Sept. 1. (Hotel lodging will be provided for the night of Sept. 1, and thereafter students will travel as a Sophomore College group.) We will return to campus on Sunday, Sept. 21.
Same as: EESS 12SC, GES 12SC.

EARTHSYS 13SC. People, Land, and Water in the Heart of the West. 2 Units.

Salmon River. Sun Valley. Pioneer Mountains. The names speak of powerful forces and ideas in the American West. Central Idaho - a landscape embracing snow-capped mountains, raging rivers, sagebrush deserts, farms, ranches, and resort communities - is our classroom for this field-based seminar led by David Freyberg, professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and David Kennedy, professor emeritus of History. nnThis course focuses on the history and future of a broad range of natural resource management issues in the western United States. We will spend a week on campus preparing for a two-week field course in Idaho exploring working landscapes, private and public lands, water and fisheries, conservation, and the history and literature of the relationship between people and the land in the American West. After the first week spent on campus, we will drive to Idaho to begin the field portion of our seminar. In Idaho, we will spend time near Twin Falls, at Lava Lake Ranch near Craters of the Moon National Monument, in Custer County at the Upper Salmon River, and near Stanley in the Sawtooth National Forest. No prior camping experience is required, but students should be comfortable living outdoors in mobile base camps for periods of several days. Students will investigate specific issues in-depth and present their findings at the end of the course.
Same as: CEE 11SC, HISTORY 23SC.

EARTHSYS 14SI. Human and Environmental Rights from Farm to Fork. 1 Unit.

This course aims to understand the environmental and human rights implications of our modern globalized food system-from farm, to factory, to international commerce, and finally, to fork. Focus will be on the labor and environmental conditions of industrial agriculture, working conditions and environmental consequences of processing factories, the implications of international food commerce, the modern obesity crisis, and emerging solutions that aim to correct these problems.
Same as: EESS 11SI.

EARTHSYS 16. Conservation and Social Justice: Ocean Views from Social Landscapes. 1 Unit.

Directed reading course in preparation for Ocean Views from Social Landscapes trip that will be exploring conservation and social justice issues in the Monterey Bay area.

EARTHSYS 18. Promoting Sustainability Behavior Change at Stanford. 2 Units.

Stanford Green Living Council training course. Effective strategies for enacting sustainable behavior change on campus. Community-based social marketing, psychology, behavioral economics, education, sociology, and design. Students design a behavior change intervention project targeting a specific sustainable behavior. Lectures online and weekly sections/workshops.

EARTHSYS 23. Human Power, the Environment, and Alternative Transportation. 1 Unit.

This is a directed-reading course taught for the Alternative Spring Break (ASB) trip going to Portland, OR. Portland is known as a well-planned city with efficient transportation. Although the car is still the primary mode of transport, Portland boasts more alternative forms of transportation than most urban centers in the United States and relies on a sophisticated public transportation system to move its people through key central transit hubs. We will look at the modes of transportation available to us in Portland and other parts of the United States, focusing on bikes, bus systems, and other forms of public transportation. Prerequisite: Only students who applied and were accepted through the Haas Center for Public Service should enroll for this class.

EARTHSYS 30. Ecology for Everyone. 4 Units.

Everything is connected, but how? Ecology is the science of interactions and the changes they generate. This project-based course links individual behavior, population growth, species interactions, and ecosystem function. Introduction to measurement, observation, experimental design and hypothesis testing in field projects, mostly done in groups. The goal is to learn to think analytically about everyday ecological processes involving bacteria, fungi, plants, animals and humans. The course uses basic statistics to analyze data; there are no math prerequisites except arithmetic. Open to everyone, including those who may be headed for more advanced courses in ecology and environmental science.
Same as: BIO 30.

EARTHSYS 37N. Climate Change: Science & Society. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. How and why do greenhouse gases cause climate to change? How will a changing climate affect humans and natural ecosystems? What can be done to prevent climate change and better adapt to the climate change that does occur? Focus is on developing quantitative understanding of these issues rooted in both the physical and social sciences. Exercises based on simple quantitative observations and calculations; algebra only, no calculus.

EARTHSYS 38N. The Worst Journey in the World: The Science, Literature, and History of Polar Exploration. 3 Units.

This course examines the motivations and experiences of polar explorers under the harshest conditions on Earth, as well as the chronicles of their explorations and hardships, dating to the 1500s for the Arctic and the 1700s for the Antarctic. Materials include The Worst Journey in the World by Aspley Cherry-Garrard who in 1911 participated in a midwinter Antarctic sledging trip to recover emperor penguin eggs. Optional field trip into the high Sierra in March.
Same as: EESS 38N, GES 38N.

EARTHSYS 39N. The Carbon Cycle: Reducing Your Impact. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Changes in the long- and short-term carbon cycle and global climate through the burning of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution. How people can shrink their carbon footprints. Long-term sources and sinks of carbon and how they are controlled by tectonics and short-term sources and sinks and the interaction between the biosphere and ocean. How people can shrink their carbon footprints. Held at the Stanford Community Farm.

EARTHSYS 41N. The Global Warming Paradox. 3 Units.

Preference to freshman. Focus is on the complex climate challenges posed by the substantial benefits of energy consumption, including the critical tension between the enormous global demand for increased human well-being and the negative climate consequences of large-scale emissions of carbon dioxide. Topics include: Earth¿s energy balance; detection and attribution of climate change; the climate response to enhanced greenhouse forcing; impacts of climate change on natural and human systems; and proposed methods for curbing further climate change. Sources include peer-reviewed scientific papers, current research results, and portrayal of scientific findings by the mass media and social networks.
Same as: EESS 41N.

EARTHSYS 42. The Global Warming Paradox II. 1 Unit.

Further discussion of the complex climate challenges posed by the substantial benefits of energy consumption, including the critical tension between the enormous global demand for increased human well-being and the negative climate consequences of large-scale emissions of carbon dioxide. Discussions of topics of student interest, including peer-reviewed scientific papers, current research results, and portrayal of scientific findings by the mass media and social networks. Focus is on student engagement in on-campus and off-campus activities. Prerequisite: EESS 41N or EARTHSYS 41N or consent of instructor.
Same as: EESS 42.

EARTHSYS 46N. Exploring the Critical Interface between the Land and Monterey Bay: Elkhorn Slough. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Field trips to sites in the Elkhorn Slough, a small agriculturally impacted estuary that opens into Monterey Bay, a model ecosystem for understanding the complexity of estuaries, and one of California's last remaining coastal wetlands. Readings include Jane Caffrey's Changes in a California Estuary: A Profile of Elkhorn Slough. Basics of biogeochemistry, microbiology, oceanography, ecology, pollution, and environmental management.
Same as: EESS 46N.

EARTHSYS 49N. Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on a Large Urban Estuary: San Francisco Bay. 3 Units.

This course will be focused around San Francisco Bay, the largest estuary on the Pacific coasts of both North and South America as a model ecosystem for understanding the critical importance and complexity of estuaries. Despite its uniquely urban and industrial character, the Bay is of immense ecological value and encompasses over 90% of California's remaining coastal wetlands. Students will be exposed to the basics of estuarine biogeochemistry, microbiology, ecology, hydrodynamics, pollution, and ecosystem management/restoration issues through lectures, interactive discussions, and field trips. Knowledge of introductory biology and chemistry is recommended.
Same as: CEE 50N, EESS 49N.

EARTHSYS 56Q. Changes in the Coastal Ocean: The View From Monterey and San Francisco Bays. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Recent changes in the California current, using Monterey Bay as an example. Current literature introduces principles of oceanography. Visits from researchers from MBARI, Hopkins, and UCSC. Optional field trip to MBARI and Monterey Bay.
Same as: EESS 56Q.

EARTHSYS 57Q. Climate Change from the Past to the Future. 3 Units.

Preference to sophomores. Numeric models to predict how climate responds to increase of greenhouse gases. Paleoclimate during times in Earth's history when greenhouse gas concentrations were elevated with respect to current concentrations. Predicted scenarios of climate models and how these models compare to known hyperthermal events in Earth history. Interactions and feedbacks among biosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Topics include long- and short-term carbon cycle, coupled biogeochemical cycles affected by and controlling climate change, and how the biosphere responds to climate change. Possible remediation strategies.
Same as: EESS 57Q.

EARTHSYS 61Q. Food and security. 3 Units.

The course will provide a broad overview of key policy issues concerning agricultural development and food security, and will assess how global governance is addressing the problem of food security. At the same time the course will provide an overview of the field of international security, and examine how governments and international institutions are beginning to include food in discussions of security.
Same as: EESS 61Q, INTNLREL 61Q.

EARTHSYS 100. Environmental and Geological Field Studies in the Rocky Mountains. 3 Units.

Three-week, field-based program in the Greater Yellowstone/Teton and Wind River Mountains of Wyoming. Field-based exercises covering topics including: basics of structural geology and petrology; glacial geology; western cordillera geology; paleoclimatology; chemical weathering; aqueous geochemistry; and environmental issues such as acid mine drainage and changing land-use patterns.
Same as: EESS 101, GES 101.

EARTHSYS 101. Energy and the Environment. 3 Units.

Energy use in modern society and the consequences of current and future energy use patterns. Case studies illustrate resource estimation, engineering analysis of energy systems, and options for managing carbon emissions. Focus is on energy definitions, use patterns, resource estimation, pollution. Recommended: MATH 21 or 42.
Same as: ENERGY 101.

EARTHSYS 102. Renewable Energy Sources and Greener Energy Processes. 3 Units.

The energy sources that power society are rooted in fossil energy although energy from the core of the Earth and the sun is almost inexhaustible; but the rate at which energy can be drawn from them with today's technology is limited. The renewable energy resource base, its conversion to useful forms, and practical methods of energy storage. Geothermal, wind, solar, biomass, and tidal energies; resource extraction and its consequences. Recommended: MATH 21 or 42.
Same as: ENERGY 102.

EARTHSYS 103. Energy Resources. 3-5 Units.

Comprehensive overview of fossil and renewable energy resources and energy efficiency. Topics covered for each resource: resource abundance, location, recovery, conversion, consumption, end-uses, environmental impacts, economics, policy, and technology. Applied lectures in specific energy sectors: buildings, transportation, the electricity industry, and energy in the developing world. Required field trips to local energy facilities. Optional discussion section for extra unit. CEE 173 is offered for 4-5 units; ES 103 is offered for 4-5 units; CEE 207A is offered for 3-5 units: instructor approval required for 3-unit option.
Same as: CEE 173A, CEE 207A.

EARTHSYS 104. The Water Course. 4 Units.

The pathway that water takes from rainfall to the tap using student home towns as an example. How the geological environment controls the quantity and quality of water; taste tests of water from around the world. Current U.S. and world water supply issues. Offered Spring 2014.
Same as: GEOPHYS 104.

EARTHSYS 105. Food and Community: New Visions for a Sustainable Future. 3 Units.

Through this course students will learn about the community and outreach component of the urban gardening movement. Over the quarter students will learn about urban farming, about projects that work to increase access of the most underserved to fresh and local food, and about the challenges surrounding these efforts. The theme of the course will be ¿stories¿ ¿ stories of food and community, of innovation, and of service. Students will learn through engaging in conversation with different leaders in the local food movement. Additionally, through hands-on learning and participation, students will become familiar with different types of community food projects in the Bay Area, including urban farms, free food giveaways, food banks, and gleaning projects. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center). Limited enrollment. May be repeated for credit.
Same as: EESS 105.

EARTHSYS 105A. Ecology and Natural History of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve. 4 Units.

Formerly 96A - Jasper Ridge Docent Training. First of two-quarter sequence training program to join the Jasper Ridge education/docent program. The scientific basis of ecological research in the context of a field station, hands-on field research, field ecology and the natural history of plants and animals, species interactions, archaeology, geology, hydrology, land management, multidisciplinary environmental education; and research projects, as well as management challenges of the preserve presented by faculty, local experts, and staff. Participants lead research-focused educational tours, assist with classes and research, and attend continuing education classes available to members of the JRBP community after the course.
Same as: BIO 105A.

EARTHSYS 105B. Ecology and Natural History of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve. 4 Units.

Formerly 96B - Jasper Ridge Docent Training. First of two-quarter sequence training program to join the Jasper Ridge education/docent program. The scientific basis of ecological research in the context of a field station, hands-on field research, field ecology and the natural history of plants and animals, species interactions, archaeology, geology, hydrology, land management, multidisciplinary environmental education; and research projects, as well as management challenges of the preserve presented by faculty, local experts, and staff. Participants lead research-focused educational tours, assist with classes and research, and attend continuing education classes available to members of the JRBP community after the course.
Same as: BIO 105B.

EARTHSYS 106. World Food Economy. 5 Units.

The interrelationships among food, populations, resources, and economic development. The role of agricultural and rural development in achieving economic and social progress in low-income nations. Emphasis is on public sector decision making as it relates to food policy.
Same as: ECON 106, EESS 106.

EARTHSYS 108. Coastal Wetlands. 3 Units.

Ecological structure and function of wetlands emphasizing local, coastal wetlands. Topics include: wetland distribution, classification, and history; and interactions between biotic and abiotic components of wetland ecosystems. Labs and local field trips for exposure to landscape patterns, and common sampling equipment and methods. Recommended: 104 or CEE 166A.
Same as: EARTHSYS 208.

EARTHSYS 109. Creating a Green Student Workforce to Help Implement Stanford's Sustainability Vision. 2 Units.

Examination of program-based local actions that promote resource resource conservation and an educational environment for sustainability. Examination of building-level actions that contribute to conservation, lower utility costs, and generate understanding of sustainability consistent with Stanford's commitment to sustainability as a core value. Overview of operational sustainability including energy, water, buildings, waste, and food systems. Practical training to enable students to become sustainability coordinators for their dorms or academic units.
Same as: CEE 109, ENVRINST 109.

EARTHSYS 111. Biology and Global Change. 4 Units.

The biological causes and consequences of anthropogenic and natural changes in the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Topics: glacial cycles and marine circulation, greenhouse gases and climate change, tropical deforestation and species extinctions, and human population growth and resource use. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core or graduate standing.
Same as: BIO 117, EESS 111.

EARTHSYS 112. Human Society and Environmental Change. 4 Units.

Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding human-environment interactions with a focus on economics, policy, culture, history, and the role of the state. Prerequisite: ECON 1A
Same as: EESS 112, HISTORY 103D.

EARTHSYS 113. Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 3 Units.

Earthquake location, magnitude and intensity scales, seismic waves, styles of eruptions and volcanic hazards, tsunami waves, types and global distribution of volcanoes, volcano forecasting. Plate tectonics as a framework for understanding earthquake and volcanic processes. Forecasting; earthquake resistant design; building codes; and probabilistic hazard assessment. For non-majors and potential earth scientists. Offered every year, spring quarter.
Same as: GEOPHYS 113.

EARTHSYS 115. Wetlands Ecology of the Pantanal Prefield Seminar. 2-3 Units.

This seminar will prepare students for their overseas field experience in the Pantanal, Brazil, the largest wetland in the world, studying wetlands ecology and conservation in situ. Students will give presentations on specific aspects of the Pantanal and lay the groundwork for the presentations they will be giving during the field seminar where access to the internet and to other scholarly resources will be quite limited. Additional topics include: logistics, health and safety, cultural sensitivity, geography and politics, and basic language skills; also, post-field issues such as reverse culture shock, and ways in which participants can consolidate and build up their abroad experiences after they return to campus. Students will have the opportunity to participate in a pilot study aimed at developing a series of innovative online curriculum based upon their field experience.

EARTHSYS 116. Ecology of the Hawaiian Islands. 4 Units.

Terrestrial and marine ecology and conservation biology of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Taught in the field in Hawaii as part of quarter-long sequence of courses including Earth Sciences and Anthropology. Topics include ecological succession, plant-soil interactions, conservation biology, biological invasions and ecosystem consequences, and coral reef ecology. Restricted to students accepted into the Earth Systems of Hawaii Program.
Same as: BIO 116.

EARTHSYS 117. Earth Sciences of the Hawaiian Islands. 4 Units.

Progression from volcanic processes through rock weathering and soil-ecosystem development to landscape evolution. The course starts with an investigation of volcanic processes, including the volcano structure, origin of magmas, physical-chemical factors of eruptions. Factors controlling rock weathering and soil development, including depth and nutrient levels impacting plant ecosystems, are explored next. Geomorphic processes of landscape evolution including erosion rates, tectonic/volcanic activity, and hillslope stability conclude the course. Methods for monitoring and predicting eruptions, defining spatial changes in landform, landform stability, soil production rates, and measuring biogeochemical processes are covered throughout the course. This course is restricted to students accepted into the Earth Systems of Hawaii Program.
Same as: EARTHSCI 117, EESS 117.

EARTHSYS 118. Heritage, Environment, and Sovereignty in Hawaii. 4 Units.

This course explores the cultural, political economic, and environmental status of contemporary Hawaiians. What sorts of sustainable economic and environmental systems did Hawaiians use in prehistory? How was colonization of the Hawaiian Islands informed and shaped by American economic interests and the nascent imperialsm of the early 20th centrury? How was sovereignty and Native Hawaiian identity been shaped by these forces? How has tourism and the leisure industry affected the natural environment? This course uses archaeological methods, ethnohistorical sources, and historical analysis in an exploration of contemporary Hawaiian social economic and political life.
Same as: ANTHRO 118.

EARTHSYS 121. Building a Sustainable Society: New Approaches for Integrating Human and Environmental Priorities. 3 Units.

"Building a Sustainable Society: New approaches to integrating human and environmental priorities" draws on economics, natural resources management, sociology and leadership science to examine theoretical frameworks and diverse case studies that illustrate the main drivers, core features and challenges of building a sustainable society where human beings and the natural environment thrive. Themes include collaborative consumption, the sharing economy, worker-owned cooperatives, community-corporate partnerships, cradle to cradle design, social entrepreneurship, impact investing, "beyond GDP" measures, and 21st century leadership. Critical perspectives, lectures and student-led discussions guide analysis of innovations within public, private and civic sectors globally, with emphasis on Latin America.
Same as: HUMBIO 110.

EARTHSYS 122. Paleobiology. 4 Units.

Introduction to the fossil record with emphasis on marine invertebrates. Major debates in paleontological research. The history of animal life in the oceans. Topics include the nature of the fossil record, evolutionary radiations, mass extinctions, and the relationship between biological evolution and environmental change. Fossil taxa through time. Exercises in phylogenetics, paleoecology, biostratigraphy, and statistical methods.
Same as: GES 123.

EARTHSYS 123. From Local to Global: Collaborations for International Environmental Education. 2 Units.

A collaboration with three universities in Africa. Discourse and debate using Internet and mobile technology interactions. Topics include the global environment, climate change, sustainable development, and food security.
Same as: EDUC 122X.

EARTHSYS 124. Environmental Justice: Local, National, and International Dimensions. 4 Units.

Focus is on whether minorities and low income citizens suffer disproportionate environmental and health impacts resulting from government and corporate decision making in contexts such as the siting of industrial facilities and waste dumps, toxic chemical use and distribution, and the enforcement of environmental mandates and policies. Implications of environmental justice issues at the international level, emphasizing climate change.
Same as: EARTHSYS 224.

EARTHSYS 131. Communicating Environmental Research Using Narratives and Stories. 1 Unit.

Creative strategies by which earth scientists can overcome impediments to scientific literacy. Construction of stories and narratives out of research. The role of imagination and cognitive perception in environmental issues. Barriers and problems that arise in risk and science awareness. Connections between environmentalism and environmental science. Environmental issues in fictional narratives. The responsible function for earth scientists in public debates. Reflections on the role of science in current and future issues likely to involve members outside of science. Priority given to students seeking degrees in the School of Earth Sciences.
Same as: EARTHSYS 231, EESS 131, EESS 231.

EARTHSYS 132. Energy and Climate Cooperation in the Western Hemisphere. 4 Units.

Current political dynamics in major western hemisphere fossil fuel producers in N. America, the Andean region, the Southern Cone of S. America, and Trinidad and Tobago. The potential for developing sustainable alternative energy resources in the western hemisphere for export particularly biofuels, and its impact on agricultural policy, environmental protection, and food prices. The feasibility of creating regional energy security rings such as the proposed N. American Energy Security and Prosperity Partnership.
Same as: EARTHSYS 232, INTNLREL 146A, IPS 263.

EARTHSYS 133. Climate Change Law and Policy: From California to the Federal Government. 3 Units.

California climate laws, including the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB32), the Clean Cars and Trucks Bill (SB 1493), and the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Performance Standard (SB 1368), and complementary and subsidiary regulations such as the Renewable Portfolio Standard, the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, land use law, and energy efficiency and decoupling. The draft scoping plan to outline California's policies for achieving its ambitious economy-wide reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The Western Climate Initiative. The history, details, and current status of California's efforts as platforms to delve into larger legal issues.
Same as: EARTHSYS 233.

EARTHSYS 134. Stable Isotopes in Biogeochemistry. 3 Units.

Light stable isotopes and their application to geological, ecological, and environmental problems. Isotopic systematics of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur; chemical and biogenic fractionation of light isotopes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and rocks and minerals.
Same as: EARTHSYS 234, EESS 134, EESS 234.

EARTHSYS 135. Podcasting the Anthropocene. 1 Unit.

Identification and interview of a Stanford researcher to be featured in an audio podcast. Exploration of interviewing techniques, audio manipulation, and podcasting as a newly emerging media platform. Individual and group projects. Group workshops focused on preparation, review, and critiques of podcasts.
Same as: EARTHSYS 235.

EARTHSYS 138. International Urbanization Seminar: Cross-Cultural Collaboration for Sustainable Urban Development. 4-5 Units.

Comparative approach to sustainable cities, with focus on international practices and applicability to China. Tradeoffs regarding land use, infrastructure, energy and water, and the need to balance economic vitality, environmental quality, cultural heritage, and social equity. Student teams collaborate with Chinese faculty and students partners to support urban sustainability projects. Limited enrollment via application; see internationalurbanization.org for details. Prerequisites: consent of the instructor(s).
Same as: URBANST 145.

EARTHSYS 140. The Energy-Water Nexus. 3 Units.

Energy, water, and food are our most vital resources constituting a tightly intertwined network: energy production requires water, transporting and treating water needs energy, producing food requires both energy and water. The course is an introduction to learn specifically about the links between energy and water. Students will look first at the use of water for energy production, then at the role of energy in water projects, and finally at the challenge in figuring out how to keep this relationship as sustainable as possible. Students will explore case examples and are encouraged to contribute examples of concerns for discussion as well as suggest a portfolio of sustainable energy options.
Same as: GEOPHYS 135.

EARTHSYS 141. Remote Sensing of the Oceans. 3-4 Units.

How to observe and interpret physical and biological changes in the oceans using satellite technologies. Topics: principles of satellite remote sensing, classes of satellite remote sensors, converting radiometric data into biological and physical quantities, sensor calibration and validation, interpreting large-scale oceanographic features.
Same as: EARTHSYS 241, EESS 141, EESS 241, GEOPHYS 141.

EARTHSYS 142. Remote Sensing of Land. 4 Units.

The use of satellite remote sensing to monitor land use and land cover, with emphasis on terrestrial changes. Topics include pre-processing data, biophysical properties of vegetation observable by satellite, accuracy assessment of maps derived from remote sensing, and methodologies to detect changes such as urbanization, deforestation, vegetation health, and wildfires.
Same as: EARTHSYS 242, EESS 162, EESS 262.

EARTHSYS 142A. Negotiating Sustainable Development. 3 Units.

How to be effective at achieving sustainability by learning the skills required to negotiate differences between stakeholders who advocate for their own interests. How ecological, social, and economic interests can be effectively balanced and managed. How to be effective actors in the sustainability movement, and use frameworks to solve complex, multiparty processes. Case study analysis of domestic and international issues. Students negotiate on behalf of different interest groups in a variety of arenas including energy, climate, land use, and the built environment. One Saturday all day field trip. No prerequisites.
Same as: CEE 142A, CEE 242A, EARTHSYS 242A.

EARTHSYS 143J. Climate Change in the West: A History of the Future. 5 Units.

Global warming is changing the American West. But this region is no stranger to environmental change and human adaption to harsh environments. How can history create more clear thinking about the current crisis and choices for the future? The long history of climate change in the West, as well as current warming, through scientific research, historical sources, environmental histories, and visions for the future, including plans for mitigation and adaption, scientific predictions, and science fiction.
Same as: HISTORY 243J.

EARTHSYS 144. Fundamentals of Geographic Information Science (GIS). 3-4 Units.

Survey of geographic information including maps, satellite imagery, and census data, approaches to spatial data, and tools for integrating and examining spatially-explicit data. Emphasis is on fundamental concepts of geographic information science and associated technologies. Topics include geographic data structure, cartography, remotely sensed data, statistical analysis of geographic data, spatial analysis, map design, and geographic information system software. Computer lab assignments.
Same as: EESS 164.

EARTHSYS 145. Environmental Crises and Historical Change. 4-5 Units.

The history of North America has contained a series of environmental crises brought about by human actions. This course examines the so-called Columbian Exchange that led to the depopulation of the Western Hemisphere; the long crisis on the Great Plains including the near extermination of bison and the Dust Bowl, and the current crisis of global warming. The goal is to understand not only how human actions have transformed the North American environment, but also how the crises these changes provoke have influenced human society. Too often a sophisticated analysis of environmental change has been placed alongside a crude analysis of social change.

EARTHSYS 146A. Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: The Atmospheric Circulation. 3 Units.

Introduction to the physics governing the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean and their control on climate with emphasis on the atmospheric circulation. Topics include the global energy balance, the greenhouse effect, the vertical and meridional structure of the atmosphere, dry and moist convection, the equations of motion for the atmosphere and ocean, including the effects of rotation, and the poleward transport of heat by the large-scale atmospheric circulation and storm systems. Prerequisites: MATH 51 or CME100 and PHYSICS 41.
Same as: EARTHSYS 246A, EESS 146A, EESS 246A, GEOPHYS 146A, GEOPHYS 246A.

EARTHSYS 146B. Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: the Ocean Circulation. 3 Units.

Introduction to the physics governing the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean and their control on climate with emphasis on the large-scale ocean circulation. This course will give an overview of the structure and dynamics of the major ocean current systems that contribute to the meridional overturning circulation, the transport of heat, salt, and biogeochemical tracers, and the regulation of climate. Topics include the tropical ocean circulation, the wind-driven gyres and western boundary currents, the thermohaline circulation, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, water mass formation, atmosphere-ocean coupling, and climate variability. Prerequisites: EESS 146A or EESS 246A, or CEE 164 or CEE 262D, or consent of instructor.
Same as: EARTHSYS 246B, EESS 146B, EESS 246B, GEOPHYS 146B, GEOPHYS 246B.

EARTHSYS 151. Biological Oceanography. 3-4 Units.

Required for Earth Systems students in the oceans track. Interdisciplinary look at how oceanic environments control the form and function of marine life. Topics include distributions of planktonic production and abundance, nutrient cycling, the role of ocean biology in the climate system, expected effects of climate changes on ocean biology. Local weekend field trips. Designed to be taken concurrently with Marine Chemistry (EESS/EARTHSYS 152/252). Prerequisites: BIO 43 and EESS 8 or equivalent.
Same as: EARTHSYS 251, EESS 151, EESS 251.

EARTHSYS 152. Marine Chemistry. 3-4 Units.

Introduction to the interdisciplinary knowledge and skills required to critically evaluate problems in marine chemistry and related disciplines. Physical, chemical, and biological processes that determine the chemical composition of seawater. Air-sea gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, and chemical equilibria, nutrient and trace element cycling, particle reactivity, sediment chemistry, and diagenesis. Examination of chemical tracers of mixing and circulation and feedbacks of ocean processes on atmospheric chemistry and climate. Designed to be taken concurrently with Biological Oceanography (EESS/EARTHSYS 151/251)
Same as: EARTHSYS 252, EESS 152, EESS 252.

EARTHSYS 155. Science of Soils. 3-4 Units.

Physical, chemical, and biological processes within soil systems. Emphasis is on factors governing nutrient availability, plant growth and production, land-resource management, and pollution within soils. How to classify soils and assess nutrient cycling and contaminant fate. Recommended: introductory chemistry and biology.
Same as: EESS 155.

EARTHSYS 156. Soil and Water Chemistry. 1-4 Unit.

(Graduate students register for 256.) Practical and quantitative treatment of soil processes affecting chemical reactivity, transformation, retention, and bioavailability. Principles of primary areas of soil chemistry: inorganic and organic soil components, complex equilibria in soil solutions, and adsorption phenomena at the solid-water interface. Processes and remediation of acid, saline, and wetland soils. Recommended: soil science and introductory chemistry and microbiology.
Same as: EARTHSYS 256, EESS 156, EESS 256.

EARTHSYS 156M. Marine Resource Economics and Conservation. 5 Units.

Economic and ecological frameworks to understand the causes of and potential solutions to marine resource degradation. Focus on conservation of marine biodiversity and ecosystem-based management. Applications include: commercial and recreational fisheries, marine reserves, and offshore energy production.
Same as: ECON 156, HUMBIO 111M.

EARTHSYS 158. Geomicrobiology. 3 Units.

How microorganisms shape the geochemistry of the Earth's crust including oceans, lakes, estuaries, subsurface environments, sediments, soils, mineral deposits, and rocks. Topics include mineral formation and dissolution; biogeochemical cycling of elements (carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and metals); geochemical and mineralogical controls on microbial activity, diversity, and evolution; life in extreme environments; and the application of new techniques to geomicrobial systems. Recommended: introductory chemistry and microbiology such as CEE 274A.
Same as: EARTHSYS 258, EESS 158, EESS 258.

EARTHSYS 160. Statistical Methods for Earth and Environmental Sciences: General Introduction. 3 Units.

Extracting information from data using statistical summaries and graphical visualization, statistical measures of association and correlation, distribution models, sampling, error estimation and confidence intervals, linear models and regression analysis, introduction to time-series and spatial data with geostatistics, applications including environmental monitoring, natural hazards, and experimental design.
Same as: EESS 160.

EARTHSYS 161. Statistical Methods for the Earth and Environmental Sciences: Geostatistics. 3-4 Units.

Statistical analysis and graphical display of data, common distribution models, sampling, and regression. The variogram as a tool for modeling spatial correlation; variogram estimation and modeling; introduction to spatial mapping and prediction with kriging; integration of remote sensing and other ancillary information using co-kriging models; spatial uncertainty; introduction to geostatistical software applied to large environmental, climatological, and reservoir engineering databases; emphasis is on practical use of geostatistical tools.
Same as: EESS 161, ENERGY 161.

EARTHSYS 164. Introduction to Physical Oceanography. 4 Units.

The dynamic basis of oceanography. Topics: physical environment; conservation equations for salt, heat, and momentum; geostrophic flows; wind-driven flows; the Gulf Stream; equatorial dynamics and ENSO; thermohaline circulation of the deep oceans; and tides. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 41 (formerly 53).
Same as: CEE 164, CEE 262D, EESS 148.

EARTHSYS 170. Environmental Geochemistry. 4 Units.

Solid, aqueous, and gaseous phases comprising the environment, their natural compositional variations, and chemical interactions. Contrast between natural sources of hazardous elements and compounds and types and sources of anthropogenic contaminants and pollutants. Chemical and physical processes of weathering and soil formation. Chemical factors that affect the stability of solids and aqueous species under earth surface conditions. The release, mobility, and fate of contaminants in natural waters and the roles that water and dissolved substances play in the physical behavior of rocks and soils. The impact of contaminants and design of remediation strategies. Case studies. Prerequisite: 90 or consent of instructor.
Same as: GES 170, GES 270.

EARTHSYS 173. Aquaculture and the Environment: Science, History, and Policy. 3 Units.

Can aquaculture feed billions of people without degrading aquatic ecosystems or adversely impacting local communities? Interdisciplinary focus on aquaculture science and management, international seafood markets, historical case studies (salmon farming in Chile, tuna ranching in the Mediterranean, shrimp farming in Vietnam), current federal/state legislation. Field trip to aquaculture farm and guest lectures. By application only - instructor consent required. Contact gerhart@stanford.edu or dhklinger@stanford.edu prior to first day of class.
Same as: EARTHSYS 273, EESS 173, EESS 273.

EARTHSYS 174. Marine Biodiversity: Law, Science, and Policy. 3 Units.

Examination of the mechanisms that create marine biodiversity and the ways in which biodiversity and natural resources are linked. Introduction to the federal laws and policies that impact marine biodiversity and natural resources. Interactions between biological and political systems.
Same as: EARTHSYS 274.

EARTHSYS 175. California Coast: Science, Policy, and Law. 3-4 Units.

Same as LAW 514. Interdisciplinary. The legal, science, and policy dimensions of managing California's coastal resources. Coastal land use and marine resource decision making. The physics, chemistry, and biology of the coastal zone, tools for exploring data from the coastal ocean, and the institutional framework that shapes public and private decision making. Field work: how experts from different disciplines work to resolve coastal policy questions. Primarily for graduate students; upper-level undergraduates may enroll with permission of instructor. Students will be expected to participate in at least three mandatory field trips.
Same as: CEE 175A, CEE 275A, EARTHSYS 275.

EARTHSYS 177. Interdisciplinary Research Survival Skills. 2 Units.

Learning in interdisciplinary situations. Framing research questions. Developing research methods that benefit from interdisciplinary understanding. Writing for multiple audiences and effectively making interdisciplinary presentations. Discussions with interdisciplinary experts from across campus regarding interdisciplinary research projects.
Same as: EARTHSYS 277, ENVRINST 177, ENVRINST 277.

EARTHSYS 177C. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Environmental Journalism. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM / ENVRES 277C.) Practical, collaborative, writing-intensive course in science-based environmental journalism. Science and journalism students learn how to identify and write engaging stories about environmental issues and science, how to assess the quality and relevance of environmental news, how to cover the environment and science beats effectively, and how to build bridges between the worlds of journalism and science. Limited enrollment: preference to journalism students and students in the natural and environmental sciences. Prerequisite: COMM 104, ENVRES 200 or consent of instructor. Admissions by application only, available from thayden@stanford.edu.
Same as: COMM 177C, COMM 277C, ENVRES 277C.

EARTHSYS 178. The Ethics of Environmental Choices. 4 Units.

(Formerly PHIL 278/378.) The institutional and individual dimensions of environmental choices. On the institutional side, examine externalities, the tragedy of the commons, sustainable development and environmental policy. On the individual side, discuss individual responsibility, intrinsic value, and moral pluralism. Focus is on decision making including the role of risk analysis, the rate of discount for effects on future generations, cost-benefit analysis, and scientific epistemology.
Same as: EARTHSYS 278, PHIL 178A, PHIL 278A.

EARTHSYS 179S. Seminar: Issues in Environmental Science, Technology and Sustainability. 1-2 Unit.

Invited faculty, researchers and professionals share their insights and perspectives on a broad range of environmental and sustainability issues. Students critique seminar presentations and associated readings.
Same as: CEE 179S, CEE 279S, EESS 179S.

EARTHSYS 180B. Principles and Practices of Sustainable Agriculture. 3-4 Units.

Field-based training in ecologically sound agricultural practices at the Stanford Community Farm. Weekly lessons, field work, and group projects. Field trips to educational farms in the area. Topics include: soils, composting, irrigation techniques, IPM, basic plant anatomy and physiology, weeds, greenhouse management, and marketing.
Same as: EESS 280B.

EARTHSYS 181. Concepts of Urban Agriculture. 3 Units.

For advanced undergraduates and graduate students from all fields. Current status of and potential for global urban agriculture. Topics include: environmental and economic dimensions of urban food production and sourcing; city policy and land-use planning; and an ecosystem services approach to urban agriculture. Developed and developing world contexts. Two field trips are required. Students must attend one field trip from group A and another from group B. See below. nnEnrollment is limited. Application on the first day of class, attendance mandatory. Enrollment permissions will be determined after first class meeting. Contact tcostell@stanford.edu with questions. nnGroup A: Community Urban Gardens - Saturday, April 14 (morning); Saturday, April 21 (morning)nGroup B: Commercial Urban Agriculture Operations - Friday, April 20 (all day); Friday, April 27 (all day)
Same as: EARTHSYS 281, EESS 181, EESS 281.

EARTHSYS 182. Current Issues in Sustainable Agriculture. 2 Units.

Sustainability and ethics of animal production in the U.S. Demystification of the marketing of agricultural products. The past, present, and future of small family farms. Farm labor issues. Students lead discussions and write response papers.
Same as: EARTHSYS 282, EESS 182, EESS 282.

EARTHSYS 183. Food Matters: Agriculture in Film. 1 Unit.

Film series presenting historical and contemporary issues dealing with food and agriculture across the globe. Students discuss reactions and thoughts in a round table format. May be repeated for credit.
Same as: EARTHSYS 283, EESS 183, EESS 283.

EARTHSYS 184. Climate and Agriculture. 3-4 Units.

The effects of climate change on global food and agricultural systems. Climate assessment and socioeconomic modeling approaches to quantify the impacts of climate on agro-ecosystems and society. Enrollment limited to 25; priority to graduate students, seniors, and juniors. Prerequisites: ECON 106/206.
Same as: EARTHSYS 284, EESS 184, EESS 284.

EARTHSYS 185. Feeding Nine Billion. 3 Units.

Feeding a growing and wealthier population is a huge task, and one with implications for many aspects of society and the environment. There are many tough choices to be made- on fertilizers, groundwater pumping, pesticide use, organics, genetic modification, etc. Unfortunately, many people form strong opinions about these issues before understanding some of the basics of how food is grown, such as how most farmers currently manage their fields, and their reasons for doing so. The goal of this class is to present an overview of global agriculture, and the tradeoffs involved with different practices. Students will develop two key knowledge bases: basic principles of crop ecology and agronomy, and familiarity with the scale of the global food system. The last few weeks of the course will be devoted to building on this knowledge base to evaluate different future directions for agriculture.

EARTHSYS 187. FEED the Change: Redesigning Food Systems. 2-3 Units.

Introductory course to design and systems thinking, with an emphasis on food systems. Series of diverse experiences (lectures, workshops, teaching, field trips, storytelling, and more) teaching how to use human-centered design to approach problem solving, how to begin analyzing complex systems, and how to work effectively in teams. Explore passions and interests, as well as different elements of the design process. Work in teams on real projects, and teach other students about food and design thinking. Admission is by application: http://feedcollaborative.org/classes/.
Same as: MS&E 187.

EARTHSYS 188. Social and Environmental Tradeoffs in Climate Decision-Making. 1-2 Unit.

How can we ensure that measures taken to mitigate global climate change don¿t create larger social and environmental problems? What metrics should be used to compare potential climate solutions beyond cost and technical feasibility, and how should these metrics be weighed against each other? How can modeling efforts and stakeholder engagement be best integrated into climate decision making? What information are we still missing to make fully informed decisions between technologies and policies? Exploration of these questions, alongside other issues related to potential negative externalities of emerging climate solutions. Evaluation of energy, land use, and geoengineering approaches in an integrated context, culminating in a climate stabilization group project.
Same as: EARTHSYS 288.

EARTHSYS 195. Natural Hazards and Risk Communication. 3 Units.

Introduction to the science behind natural hazards, the risks associated with these hazards, and effective methods of communicating them to a variety of audiences. Examination of methods of translation and communication. Investigation of the relative effectiveness of these methods for increasing preparedness and resiliency to natural hazards. Satisfies the Earth Systems WIM requirement.

EARTHSYS 197. Directed Individual Study in Earth Systems. 1-9 Unit.

Under supervision of an Earth Systems faculty member on a subject of mutual interest.

EARTHSYS 199. Honors Program in Earth Systems. 1-9 Unit.

EARTHSYS 200. Sustaining Action: Research, Analysis and Writing for the Public. 3 Units.

Preference to graduate students and senior undergraduates in environmental, natural and social sciences, engineering, journalism. Students help produce and publish SAGE, an eco advice column, by choosing, researching, and answering questions about sustainable living submitted by Stanford alumni and the general public. Prerequisite: admission by application, available from instructor, thayden@stanford.edu. (Meets Earth Systems WIM requirement).
Same as: ENVRES 200.

EARTHSYS 202. PhD Students on the PhD: Doctoral Research in Environmental Science. 1 Unit.

This seminar is designed for coterms and upperclassmen who are considering pursuing a PhD in environmental science but want to know what that path really entails. Consisting of small-group discussions with current PhD students, this course will feature conversations on a range of PhD research topics and will also delve into the substance of the PhD experience itself. We will explore PhD students' programs and career paths: the milestones, processes, and issues that guide their decisions and shapes their PhD experiences. Discussion themes will be determined partly in advance and partly based on the interests of participants and could include topics such as choosing a PhD program or research question, interdisciplinarity, community engagement, or work/life balance.

EARTHSYS 208. Coastal Wetlands. 3 Units.

Ecological structure and function of wetlands emphasizing local, coastal wetlands. Topics include: wetland distribution, classification, and history; and interactions between biotic and abiotic components of wetland ecosystems. Labs and local field trips for exposure to landscape patterns, and common sampling equipment and methods. Recommended: 104 or CEE 166A.
Same as: EARTHSYS 108.

EARTHSYS 210A. Senior Seminar. 3 Units.

Interdisciplinary problem analysis and oral communication. Students present results of their Earth Systems internship or research project. Students participate in a research or service learning group project focused on a local environmental issue. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center). Prerequisite: EARTHSYS 260.

EARTHSYS 210B. Senior Seminar. 3 Units.

Interdisciplinary problem analysis and oral communication. Students present results of their Earth Systems internship or research project. Students participate in a research or service learning group project focused on a local environmental issue. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center). Prerequisite: EARTHSYS 260.

EARTHSYS 210C. Senior Seminar. 3 Units.

Interdisciplinary problem analysis and oral communication. Students present results of their Earth Systems internship or research project. Students participate in a research or service learning group project focused on a local environmental issue. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center). Prerequisite: EARTHSYS 260.

EARTHSYS 210D. Senior Seminar. 3 Units.

Interdisciplinary problem analysis and oral communication. Students present results of their Earth Systems internship or research project. Students participate in a research or service learning group project focused on a local environmental issue. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center). Prerequisite: EARTHSYS 260.

EARTHSYS 211. Fundamentals of Modeling. 3-5 Units.

Simulation models are a powerful tool for environmental research, if used properly. The major concepts and techniques for building and evaluating models. Topics include model calibration, model selection, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, and Monte Carlo and bootstrap methods. Emphasis is on gaining hands-on experience using the R programming language. Prerequisite: asic knowledge of nnstatistics.
Same as: EESS 211.

EARTHSYS 224. Environmental Justice: Local, National, and International Dimensions. 4 Units.

Focus is on whether minorities and low income citizens suffer disproportionate environmental and health impacts resulting from government and corporate decision making in contexts such as the siting of industrial facilities and waste dumps, toxic chemical use and distribution, and the enforcement of environmental mandates and policies. Implications of environmental justice issues at the international level, emphasizing climate change.
Same as: EARTHSYS 124.

EARTHSYS 231. Communicating Environmental Research Using Narratives and Stories. 1 Unit.

Creative strategies by which earth scientists can overcome impediments to scientific literacy. Construction of stories and narratives out of research. The role of imagination and cognitive perception in environmental issues. Barriers and problems that arise in risk and science awareness. Connections between environmentalism and environmental science. Environmental issues in fictional narratives. The responsible function for earth scientists in public debates. Reflections on the role of science in current and future issues likely to involve members outside of science. Priority given to students seeking degrees in the School of Earth Sciences.
Same as: EARTHSYS 131, EESS 131, EESS 231.

EARTHSYS 232. Energy and Climate Cooperation in the Western Hemisphere. 4 Units.

Current political dynamics in major western hemisphere fossil fuel producers in N. America, the Andean region, the Southern Cone of S. America, and Trinidad and Tobago. The potential for developing sustainable alternative energy resources in the western hemisphere for export particularly biofuels, and its impact on agricultural policy, environmental protection, and food prices. The feasibility of creating regional energy security rings such as the proposed N. American Energy Security and Prosperity Partnership.
Same as: EARTHSYS 132, INTNLREL 146A, IPS 263.

EARTHSYS 233. Climate Change Law and Policy: From California to the Federal Government. 3 Units.

California climate laws, including the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB32), the Clean Cars and Trucks Bill (SB 1493), and the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Performance Standard (SB 1368), and complementary and subsidiary regulations such as the Renewable Portfolio Standard, the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, land use law, and energy efficiency and decoupling. The draft scoping plan to outline California's policies for achieving its ambitious economy-wide reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The Western Climate Initiative. The history, details, and current status of California's efforts as platforms to delve into larger legal issues.
Same as: EARTHSYS 133.

EARTHSYS 234. Stable Isotopes in Biogeochemistry. 3 Units.

Light stable isotopes and their application to geological, ecological, and environmental problems. Isotopic systematics of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur; chemical and biogenic fractionation of light isotopes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and rocks and minerals.
Same as: EARTHSYS 134, EESS 134, EESS 234.

EARTHSYS 235. Podcasting the Anthropocene. 1 Unit.

Identification and interview of a Stanford researcher to be featured in an audio podcast. Exploration of interviewing techniques, audio manipulation, and podcasting as a newly emerging media platform. Individual and group projects. Group workshops focused on preparation, review, and critiques of podcasts.
Same as: EARTHSYS 135.

EARTHSYS 241. Remote Sensing of the Oceans. 3-4 Units.

How to observe and interpret physical and biological changes in the oceans using satellite technologies. Topics: principles of satellite remote sensing, classes of satellite remote sensors, converting radiometric data into biological and physical quantities, sensor calibration and validation, interpreting large-scale oceanographic features.
Same as: EARTHSYS 141, EESS 141, EESS 241, GEOPHYS 141.

EARTHSYS 242. Remote Sensing of Land. 4 Units.

The use of satellite remote sensing to monitor land use and land cover, with emphasis on terrestrial changes. Topics include pre-processing data, biophysical properties of vegetation observable by satellite, accuracy assessment of maps derived from remote sensing, and methodologies to detect changes such as urbanization, deforestation, vegetation health, and wildfires.
Same as: EARTHSYS 142, EESS 162, EESS 262.

EARTHSYS 242A. Negotiating Sustainable Development. 3 Units.

How to be effective at achieving sustainability by learning the skills required to negotiate differences between stakeholders who advocate for their own interests. How ecological, social, and economic interests can be effectively balanced and managed. How to be effective actors in the sustainability movement, and use frameworks to solve complex, multiparty processes. Case study analysis of domestic and international issues. Students negotiate on behalf of different interest groups in a variety of arenas including energy, climate, land use, and the built environment. One Saturday all day field trip. No prerequisites.
Same as: CEE 142A, CEE 242A, EARTHSYS 142A.

EARTHSYS 246A. Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: The Atmospheric Circulation. 3 Units.

Introduction to the physics governing the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean and their control on climate with emphasis on the atmospheric circulation. Topics include the global energy balance, the greenhouse effect, the vertical and meridional structure of the atmosphere, dry and moist convection, the equations of motion for the atmosphere and ocean, including the effects of rotation, and the poleward transport of heat by the large-scale atmospheric circulation and storm systems. Prerequisites: MATH 51 or CME100 and PHYSICS 41.
Same as: EARTHSYS 146A, EESS 146A, EESS 246A, GEOPHYS 146A, GEOPHYS 246A.

EARTHSYS 246B. Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: the Ocean Circulation. 3 Units.

Introduction to the physics governing the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean and their control on climate with emphasis on the large-scale ocean circulation. This course will give an overview of the structure and dynamics of the major ocean current systems that contribute to the meridional overturning circulation, the transport of heat, salt, and biogeochemical tracers, and the regulation of climate. Topics include the tropical ocean circulation, the wind-driven gyres and western boundary currents, the thermohaline circulation, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, water mass formation, atmosphere-ocean coupling, and climate variability. Prerequisites: EESS 146A or EESS 246A, or CEE 164 or CEE 262D, or consent of instructor.
Same as: EARTHSYS 146B, EESS 146B, EESS 246B, GEOPHYS 146B, GEOPHYS 246B.

EARTHSYS 247. Controlling Climate Change in the 21st Century. 3 Units.

Climate change is a global environmental, social, cultural and economic challenge. Responding to this challenge requires a paradigm shift which will alter energy production, transport, industry, politics, development strategies, north/south equity, and individual freedom and responsibilities around the world. Given the short term planning horizon of the majority of political, economic and social institutions, the slow burn of climate change presents major policy challenges. The course is designed to clarify the primary issues embedded in these challenges.
Same as: BIO 147, BIO 247, HUMBIO 116.

EARTHSYS 250. Directed Research. 1-9 Unit.

Independent research related to student's primary track, carried out after the junior year, during the summer, and/or during the senior year. Student develops own project with faculty supervision. 10-15 page thesis. May be repeated for credit.

EARTHSYS 251. Biological Oceanography. 3-4 Units.

Required for Earth Systems students in the oceans track. Interdisciplinary look at how oceanic environments control the form and function of marine life. Topics include distributions of planktonic production and abundance, nutrient cycling, the role of ocean biology in the climate system, expected effects of climate changes on ocean biology. Local weekend field trips. Designed to be taken concurrently with Marine Chemistry (EESS/EARTHSYS 152/252). Prerequisites: BIO 43 and EESS 8 or equivalent.
Same as: EARTHSYS 151, EESS 151, EESS 251.

EARTHSYS 252. Marine Chemistry. 3-4 Units.

Introduction to the interdisciplinary knowledge and skills required to critically evaluate problems in marine chemistry and related disciplines. Physical, chemical, and biological processes that determine the chemical composition of seawater. Air-sea gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, and chemical equilibria, nutrient and trace element cycling, particle reactivity, sediment chemistry, and diagenesis. Examination of chemical tracers of mixing and circulation and feedbacks of ocean processes on atmospheric chemistry and climate. Designed to be taken concurrently with Biological Oceanography (EESS/EARTHSYS 151/251)
Same as: EARTHSYS 152, EESS 152, EESS 252.

EARTHSYS 256. Soil and Water Chemistry. 1-4 Unit.

(Graduate students register for 256.) Practical and quantitative treatment of soil processes affecting chemical reactivity, transformation, retention, and bioavailability. Principles of primary areas of soil chemistry: inorganic and organic soil components, complex equilibria in soil solutions, and adsorption phenomena at the solid-water interface. Processes and remediation of acid, saline, and wetland soils. Recommended: soil science and introductory chemistry and microbiology.
Same as: EARTHSYS 156, EESS 156, EESS 256.

EARTHSYS 258. Geomicrobiology. 3 Units.

How microorganisms shape the geochemistry of the Earth's crust including oceans, lakes, estuaries, subsurface environments, sediments, soils, mineral deposits, and rocks. Topics include mineral formation and dissolution; biogeochemical cycling of elements (carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and metals); geochemical and mineralogical controls on microbial activity, diversity, and evolution; life in extreme environments; and the application of new techniques to geomicrobial systems. Recommended: introductory chemistry and microbiology such as CEE 274A.
Same as: EARTHSYS 158, EESS 158, EESS 258.

EARTHSYS 260. Internship. 1-9 Unit.

Supervised field, lab, or private sector project. May consist of directed research under the supervision of a Stanford faculty member, participation in one of several off campus Stanford programs, or an approved non-Stanford program relevant to the student's Earth Systems studies. Required of and restricted to declared Earth Systems majors. Includes 15-page technical summary research paper that is subject to iterative revision. (WIM).

EARTHSYS 272. Antarctic Marine Geology. 3 Units.

For upper-division undergraduates and graduate students. Intermediate and advanced topics in marine geology and geophysics, focusing on examples from the Antarctic continental margin and adjacent Southern Ocean. Topics: glaciers, icebergs, and sea ice as geologic agents (glacial and glacial marine sedimentology, Southern Ocean current systems and deep ocean sedimentation), Antarctic biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy (continental margin evolution). Students interpret seismic lines and sediment core/well log data. Examples from a recent scientific drilling expedition to Prydz Bay, Antarctica. Up to two students may have an opportunity to study at sea in Antarctica during Winter Quarter.
Same as: EESS 242.

EARTHSYS 273. Aquaculture and the Environment: Science, History, and Policy. 3 Units.

Can aquaculture feed billions of people without degrading aquatic ecosystems or adversely impacting local communities? Interdisciplinary focus on aquaculture science and management, international seafood markets, historical case studies (salmon farming in Chile, tuna ranching in the Mediterranean, shrimp farming in Vietnam), current federal/state legislation. Field trip to aquaculture farm and guest lectures. By application only - instructor consent required. Contact gerhart@stanford.edu or dhklinger@stanford.edu prior to first day of class.
Same as: EARTHSYS 173, EESS 173, EESS 273.

EARTHSYS 274. Marine Biodiversity: Law, Science, and Policy. 3 Units.

Examination of the mechanisms that create marine biodiversity and the ways in which biodiversity and natural resources are linked. Introduction to the federal laws and policies that impact marine biodiversity and natural resources. Interactions between biological and political systems.
Same as: EARTHSYS 174.

EARTHSYS 275. California Coast: Science, Policy, and Law. 3-4 Units.

Same as LAW 514. Interdisciplinary. The legal, science, and policy dimensions of managing California's coastal resources. Coastal land use and marine resource decision making. The physics, chemistry, and biology of the coastal zone, tools for exploring data from the coastal ocean, and the institutional framework that shapes public and private decision making. Field work: how experts from different disciplines work to resolve coastal policy questions. Primarily for graduate students; upper-level undergraduates may enroll with permission of instructor. Students will be expected to participate in at least three mandatory field trips.
Same as: CEE 175A, CEE 275A, EARTHSYS 175.

EARTHSYS 277. Interdisciplinary Research Survival Skills. 2 Units.

Learning in interdisciplinary situations. Framing research questions. Developing research methods that benefit from interdisciplinary understanding. Writing for multiple audiences and effectively making interdisciplinary presentations. Discussions with interdisciplinary experts from across campus regarding interdisciplinary research projects.
Same as: EARTHSYS 177, ENVRINST 177, ENVRINST 277.

EARTHSYS 278. The Ethics of Environmental Choices. 4 Units.

(Formerly PHIL 278/378.) The institutional and individual dimensions of environmental choices. On the institutional side, examine externalities, the tragedy of the commons, sustainable development and environmental policy. On the individual side, discuss individual responsibility, intrinsic value, and moral pluralism. Focus is on decision making including the role of risk analysis, the rate of discount for effects on future generations, cost-benefit analysis, and scientific epistemology.
Same as: EARTHSYS 178, PHIL 178A, PHIL 278A.

EARTHSYS 281. Concepts of Urban Agriculture. 3 Units.

For advanced undergraduates and graduate students from all fields. Current status of and potential for global urban agriculture. Topics include: environmental and economic dimensions of urban food production and sourcing; city policy and land-use planning; and an ecosystem services approach to urban agriculture. Developed and developing world contexts. Two field trips are required. Students must attend one field trip from group A and another from group B. See below. nnEnrollment is limited. Application on the first day of class, attendance mandatory. Enrollment permissions will be determined after first class meeting. Contact tcostell@stanford.edu with questions. nnGroup A: Community Urban Gardens - Saturday, April 14 (morning); Saturday, April 21 (morning)nGroup B: Commercial Urban Agriculture Operations - Friday, April 20 (all day); Friday, April 27 (all day)
Same as: EARTHSYS 181, EESS 181, EESS 281.

EARTHSYS 282. Current Issues in Sustainable Agriculture. 2 Units.

Sustainability and ethics of animal production in the U.S. Demystification of the marketing of agricultural products. The past, present, and future of small family farms. Farm labor issues. Students lead discussions and write response papers.
Same as: EARTHSYS 182, EESS 182, EESS 282.

EARTHSYS 283. Food Matters: Agriculture in Film. 1 Unit.

Film series presenting historical and contemporary issues dealing with food and agriculture across the globe. Students discuss reactions and thoughts in a round table format. May be repeated for credit.
Same as: EARTHSYS 183, EESS 183, EESS 283.

EARTHSYS 284. Climate and Agriculture. 3-4 Units.

The effects of climate change on global food and agricultural systems. Climate assessment and socioeconomic modeling approaches to quantify the impacts of climate on agro-ecosystems and society. Enrollment limited to 25; priority to graduate students, seniors, and juniors. Prerequisites: ECON 106/206.
Same as: EARTHSYS 184, EESS 184, EESS 284.

EARTHSYS 288. Social and Environmental Tradeoffs in Climate Decision-Making. 1-2 Unit.

How can we ensure that measures taken to mitigate global climate change don¿t create larger social and environmental problems? What metrics should be used to compare potential climate solutions beyond cost and technical feasibility, and how should these metrics be weighed against each other? How can modeling efforts and stakeholder engagement be best integrated into climate decision making? What information are we still missing to make fully informed decisions between technologies and policies? Exploration of these questions, alongside other issues related to potential negative externalities of emerging climate solutions. Evaluation of energy, land use, and geoengineering approaches in an integrated context, culminating in a climate stabilization group project.
Same as: EARTHSYS 188.

EARTHSYS 290. Master's Seminar. 2 Units.

Required of and open only to Earth Systems master's students. Reflection on the Earth Systems coterm experience and development of skills to clearly articulate interdisciplinary expertise to potential employers, graduate or professional schools, colleagues, business partners, etc. Hands-on projects to take students through a series of guided reflection activities. Individual and small group exercises. Required, self-chosen final project encapsulates each student's MS expertise in a form relevant to his or her future goals (ie. a personal statement, research poster, portfolio, etc.).

EARTHSYS 297. Directed Individual Study in Earth Systems. 1-9 Unit.

Under supervision of an Earth Systems faculty member on a subject of mutual interest.

EARTHSYS 298. Earth Systems Book Review. 2 Units.

For Earth Systems master's students and advanced undergraduates only. Analysis and discussion of selected literary nonfiction books relevant to Earth systems topics. Examples of previous topics include political presentations of environmental change in the popular press, review of the collected works of Aldo Leopold, disaster literature, and global warming.

EARTHSYS 299. M.S. Thesis. 1-9 Unit.

EARTHSYS 323. Stanford at Sea. 16 Units.

(Graduate students register for 323H.) Five weeks of marine science including oceanography, marine physiology, policy, maritime studies, conservation, and nautical science at Hopkins Marine Station, followed by five weeks at sea aboard a sailing research vessel in the Pacific Ocean. Shore component comprised of three multidisciplinary courses meeting daily and continuing aboard ship. Students develop an independent research project plan while ashore, and carry out the research at sea. In collaboration with the Sea Education Association of Woods Hole, MA. Only 6 units may count towards the Biology major.
Same as: BIOHOPK 182H, BIOHOPK 323H, EESS 323.