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HISTORY 101. The Greeks. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 101.) 250 years ago, for almost the first time in history, a few societies rejected kings who claimed to know what the gods wanted and began moving toward democracy. Only once before had this happened--in ancient Greece. This course asks how the Greeks did this, and what they can teach us today. It uses texts and archaeology to trace the material and military sides of the story as well as cultural developments, and looks at Greek slavery and misogyny as well as their achievements. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required.
Same as: CLASSICS 83

HISTORY 102. History of the International System. 5 Units.

After defining the characteristics of the international system at the beginning of the twentieth century, this course reviews the primary developments in its functioning in the century that followed. Topics include the major wars and peace settlements; the emergence of Nazism and Communism; the development of the Cold War and nuclear weapons; the rise of China, India, and the EU; and the impact of Islamic terrorism. The role of international institutions and international society will also be a focus as will the challenge of environment, health, poverty, and climate issues to the functioning of the system.
Same as: INTNLREL 102

HISTORY 102A. The Romans. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 60.) How did a tiny village create a huge empire and shape the world, and why did it fail? Roman history, imperialism, politics, social life, economic growth, and religious change. Weekly participation in a discussion section is required; enroll in sections on Coursework.
Same as: CLASSICS 84

HISTORY 103D. Human Society and Environmental Change. 4 Units.

Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding human-environment interactions with a focus on economics, policy, culture, history, and the role of the state. Prerequisite: ECON 1.
Same as: EARTHSYS 112, EARTHSYS 212, ESS 112

HISTORY 103E. The International History of Nuclear Weapons. 5 Units.

An introduction to the history of nuclear weapons from World War II to the present. The focus is on politics, but the role of technology transfer, whether legal or illicit, in the development of nuclear weapons will be examined; so too will the theories about the military and political utility of nuclear weapons. We will look at the efforts to control and abolish nuclear weapons and at the international institutions created to reduce the danger of nuclear war.
Same as: POLISCI 116

HISTORY 103F. The Changing Face of War: Introduction to Military History. 3-5 Units.

Introduces students to the rich history of military affairs and, at the same time, examines the ways in which we think of change and continuity in military history. How did war evolve from ancient times, both in styles of warfare and perceptions of war? What is the nature of the relationship between war and society? Is there such a thing as a Western way of war? What role does technology play in transforming military affairs? What is a military revolution and can it be manufactured or induced? Chronologically following the evolution of warfare from Ancient Greece to present day so-called new wars, we will continuously investigate how the interdependencies between technological advances, social change, philosophical debates and economic pressures both shaped and were influenced by war.
Same as: HISTORY 3F

HISTORY 104. Introduction to Geospatial Humanities. 3-5 Units.

This course introduces undergraduate students to the theory and methods of the geospatial humanities, understood broadly as the application of GIS techniques and other quantitative methods in the humanistic study of social and cultural patterns in past and present settings.
Same as: HISTORY 4

HISTORY 104D. International Security in a Changing World. 5 Units.

This class examines the most pressing international security problems facing the world today: nuclear crises, nuclear non-proliferation, terrorism, and climate change. Alternative perspectives--from political science, history, and STS (Science, Technology, and Society) studies--are used to analyze these problems. The class includes an award-winning two-day international negotiation simulation.
Same as: IPS 241, POLISCI 114S

HISTORY 105A. History of Information: From Moveable Type to Machine Learning. 3-5 Units.

Students who have taken HISTORY 205A/305A should not enroll in this course. Information has a history-- and it's not the one we've been told by Silicon Valley. In a series of propulsive, empirically rich, and provocative lectures and discussions, this course deep-dives into the history of information and IT, including moveable type, telegraphy, typewriting, personal computing, gaming, social media, algorithms, machine learning, Digital Humanities, and more. You will leave the course with entirely new perspectives on information, including how IT shapes-- and is shaped by-- culture, nationality, gender, ethnicity, economy, and environment.
Same as: HISTORY 5A

HISTORY 106A. Global Human Geography: Asia and Africa. 5 Units.

Global patterns of demography, economic and social development, geopolitics, and cultural differentiation, covering E. Asia, S. Asia, S.E. Asia, Central Asia, N. Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. Use of maps to depict geographical patterns and processes.

HISTORY 106B. Global Human Geography: Europe and Americas. 5 Units.

Patterns of demography, economic and social development, geopolitics, and cultural differentiation. Use of maps to depict geographical patterns and processes.

HISTORY 107D. Rise and Fall of Atlantic Slavery, 1500 to 1900. 3-5 Units.

Between 1500 and 1900, about 12 million people were forcibly removed from Africa and transported to the Americas to work as slaves. This course explores the history of racial slavery in the Atlantic world and its lasting significance. Topics include the Middle Passage, the development of racism, the trans-Atlantic slave trade, the slave experience, resistance, African-American cultures, abolitionism, the process of emancipation, reparations, and the perpetuation of slavery and other forms of unfree labor.
Same as: AFRICAAM 107D, HISTORY 7D

HISTORY 107E. Islamic Routes: Archaeology and Heritage of Muslim Societies. 3-5 Units.

How has archaeology changed our knowledge of the spread of Islam and past Muslim societies? How does archaeology shape heritage debates, conflicts and ideas about Islam today? Topics include the city and urban change, secular and religious life, gender, economy, and globalization. These topics are explored using archaeological and critical heritage approaches. Focus is on examples drawn from Syria-Palestine, Egypt, Iraq, Arabian Peninsula, India, and Africa. Sources include archaeological data and material culture, historical texts in translation, and photography.
Same as: ANTHRO 13A, ARCHLGY 13, HISTORY 7E

HISTORY 107G. Making Anglo-American Capitalism. 3-5 Units.

This course addresses capitalism in global perspective to identify the roots of our current economic system. We will consider theories about capitalism, the politics and policies of implementation, and the human and environmental consequences through topics such as the imperial political economy, consumerism, plantation economies, the East India Company, and the rise of credit. Embedding markets in a range of social relations, cultural practices, and institutional arrangements, reveals how capital became an -ism in specific and knowable historical circumstances.
Same as: HISTORY 7G

HISTORY 108C. Sugar and Slavery, Race and Revolution: The Caribbean 1450-1888. 3-5 Units.

This course examines race and slavery across British, French, and Spanish islands, plus Brazil. The intensity of Caribbean slavery produced societies where more people were enslaved than free. The idea of "black" was invented and contested as Caribbean inhabitants leaned on African roots to shape new cultures. Sugar production sparked global wars and planted the seed of modern financial systems. Black people fought back, in ways large and small, marking the beginning of emancipation with the Haitian Revolution.
Same as: AFRICAAM 18C, CSRE 108C, HISTORY 8C

HISTORY 10B. Renaissance to Revolution: Early Modern Europe. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 110B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 110B.) Few historical settings offer a more illuminating perspective on our world today than old-regime Europe. Few cast a darker shadow. Science and the enlightened ambition to master nature and society, the emergence of statehood and its grasp for human mobility, bloodshed and coexistence in the face of religious fragmentation, as well as capitalism and the birth of modern finance: this course surveys some of the most consequential developments in European societies between the late fifteenth and the early nineteenth century.

HISTORY 10N. Thinking About War. 3 Units.

This course examines classic approaches to war as an intellectual problem, looking at how a matter of such great physical violence and passions can be subjected to understanding and used in philosophy, political theory, and art. Questions to be examined include the definition of war, its causes, its moral value, the nature of its participants, its use in the self-definition of individuals and societies, its relation to political authority, warfare and gender, and the problem of civil war.

HISTORY 10SC. Biography in History, Fiction, and Elsewhere. 2 Units.

How biographers, novelists, critics and others have written about the rhythms of life the lives of the famous as well as the obscure - will be explored in this course. Biographical writing can be frivolous, but at its best it has the capacity to undercover so much of life's richness, complexity, and confusions. We'll study biography with the use of some of the most resonant, compelling examples of the genre. Together we'll read books about poets Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes, Henry James Aspern Papers, the brilliant novel on biographical writing, A. S. Byatt's Possession, and Norman Mailer on Marilyn Monroe. How one chooses one topic over another; the differences and similarities between the representation of lives in fiction and biography; the benefits and pitfalls of an intense identification with one's own subjects these and other matters will be examined. We'll meet in San Francisco with local writers wrestling with issues of this sort, and students will be encouraged to try their hands at writing about lives based on research, personal observation, or both.

HISTORY 110B. Renaissance to Revolution: Early Modern Europe. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 10B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 110B.) Few historical settings offer a more illuminating perspective on our world today than old-regime Europe. Few cast a darker shadow. Science and the enlightened ambition to master nature and society, the emergence of statehood and its grasp for human mobility, bloodshed and coexistence in the face of religious fragmentation, as well as capitalism and the birth of modern finance: this course surveys some of the most consequential developments in European societies between the late fifteenth and the early nineteenth century.

HISTORY 112. Medicine and Disease in the Ancient World. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 12. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for HISTORY 112.) This course explores medicine and disease through case studies from civilizations of the ancient world such as Egypt, Greece, and Peru. We will discuss how these cultures conceptualized disease, and in turn, how they contended with illnesses. Lectures will address different forms of illness through medical texts, art, and human remains. Weekly discussion will incorporate evidence from these sources to explore both their potential and their limitations.

HISTORY 113. Before Globalization: Understanding Premodern World History. 3-5 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 147.) This course covers the history of the world from 60,000 years ago until 1500 by asking big questions: Why did civilizations develop the way they did? What factors were responsible for similarities and differences between different parts of the world? What does this mean for our newly globalized world?.

HISTORY 115D. Europe in the Middle Ages, 300-1500. 3-5 Units.

This course provides an introduction to Medieval Europe from the fall of Rome to the Renaissance. While the framework of the course is chronological, we¿ll concentrate particularly on the structure of medieval society. Rural and urban life, kingship and papal government, wars and plagues provide the context for our examination of the lives of medieval people, what they believed, and how they interacted with other, both within Christendom and beyond it.
Same as: HISTORY 15D, RELIGST 115X

HISTORY 116. Traders and Crusaders in the Medieval Mediterranean. 3-5 Units.

Trade and crusade were inextricably interconnected in the high Middle Ages. As merchant ships ferried knights and pilgrims across the Mediterranean, rulers borrowed heavily to finance their expeditions, while military expansion opened new economic opportunities. Course themes include the origins of the Crusading movement; the rise of Venice and other maritime powers; the pivotal roles of the Byzantine and Mongol Empires; relations between Christians, Muslims, and Jews; new military, maritime, and commercial technologies; and the modern legacy of the Crusades.
Same as: HISTORY 16

HISTORY 116N. Howard Zinn and the Quest for Historical Truth. 3 Units.

With more than two million copies in print, Howard Zinn¿s A People's History is a cultural icon. We will use Zinn¿s book to probe how we determine what was true in the past. A People's History will be our point of departure, but our journey will visit a variety of historical trouble spots: debates about whether the US was founded as a Christian nation, Holocaust denial, and the "Birther" controversy of President Obama.
Same as: EDUC 116N

HISTORY 11SC. How Is a Buddhist. 2 Units.

Buddhism as a system of thought, a culture, a way of life, a definition of reality, a method for investigating it, and a mental, physical, and social practice. Buddhism as a total phenomenon. Readings, films, music, and art. How Buddhist practices constitue the world of the Buddhist.

HISTORY 11W. Service-Learning Workshop on Issues of Education Equity. 1 Unit.

Introduces students to a variety of issues at stake in the public education of at-risk high school youth in California. Participants will hear from some of the leading faculty in the School of Education as well as the Departments of Psychology, Sociology, and others, who will share perspectives on the problems and challenges of educating a diverse student body in the state's public school system. The service-learning component of the workshop is a mentoring project (Stanford Students for Educational Equity) with junior class history students from East Palo Alto Academy High School, a Stanford charter school.
Same as: CSRE 11W

HISTORY 12. Medicine and Disease in the Ancient World. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 112. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 112.) This course explores medicine and disease through case studies from civilizations of the ancient world such as Egypt, Greece, and Peru. We will discuss how these cultures conceptualized disease, and in turn, how they contended with illnesses. Lectures will address different forms of illness through medical texts, art, and human remains. Weekly discussion will incorporate evidence from these sources to explore both their potential and their limitations.

HISTORY 120A. The Russian Empire, 1450-1800. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 20A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 120A.) Explores rise of Russian state and expanse of empire; patterns of governance of a Eurasian empire; strategies and institutions of governance; survey of various ethnic and religious groups in empire and their varied cultures and political economies; gender and family; serfdom; Russian Orthodox religion and culture; reforms and Europeanization of 18th century.

HISTORY 120B. The Russian Empire. 5 Units.

From Peter the Great to the Bolsheviks. Russia as an empire; its varied regions, including the Caucasus, Central Asia, Ukraine, Poland, and the Baltics. Focus is on the politics and cultures of empire. Sources include novels, political tracts, paintings, music, and other primary sources.

HISTORY 120C. 20th-Century Russian and Soviet History. 5 Units.

The Soviet polity from the 1917 Revolution to its collapse in 1991. Essentials of Marxist ideology; the Russian Empire in 1917. Causation in history; interpretations of the Revolution; state building in a socialist polity; social engineering through collectivization of agriculture, force-paced industrialization, and cultural revolution; terror as concept and practice; nationality policies in a multiethnic socialist empire; the routinization, decline, and collapse of the revolutionary ethos; and the legacy of the Soviet experiment in the new Russia.

HISTORY 125. Dark Century: Eastern Europe After 1900. 3-5 Units.

Major historical trends in 20th-century E. European history. Empires and national movements. The creation of independent Eastern Europe after WW I; social movements and the emergence of dictatorships and fascism in the inter-war period. WW II, Stalinism, and destalinization in contemporary E. Europe.
Same as: HISTORY 25A

HISTORY 126B. Protestant Reformation. 3-5 Units.

The emergence of Protestant Christianity in 16th-century Europe. Analysis of writings by evangelical reformers (Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, Sattler, Hubmeier, Müntzer) and study of reform movements (Lutheran, Reformed, Anabaptist, Spiritualist) in their medieval context and as expressions of new and influential visions of Christian belief, life, social order.
Same as: RELIGST 126

HISTORY 12N. The Early Roman Emperors: HIstory, Biography, and Fiction. 3 Units.

Preference to freshmen. The politics, drama, and characters of the period after the fall of the Roman Republic in 49 B.C.E. Issues of liberty and autocracy explored by Roman writers through history and biography. The nature of history writing, how expectations about literary genres shape the materials, the line between biography and fiction,and senatorial ideology of liberty. Readings include: Tacitus' Annals, Suetonius' Lives of the Caesers, and Robert Graves' I Claudius and episodes from the BBC series of the same title.

HISTORY 131G. From Oil to Opium: Commodities and Consumption In European and Global History, 1800-present. 5 Units.

This course surveys the origins and impact of encounters at several sites of European empires: Qing China, India, Africa, the Pacific, and the Caribbean. The course conducts its inquiry from several angles, focusing on the way Western imperial systems affected politics, law, economics, and culture. Students will grapple with key concepts, including financial imperialism and neocolonialism; they will also learn about such specialized topics as the laws of imperial expansion. While the course will spend ample time covering the effects of imperialism at home, it will equally engage with its effects abroad.

HISTORY 132. Ordinary Lives: A Social History of the Everyday in Early Modern Europe. 5 Units.

What war meant for foot soldiers and the peasants across whose fields they marched. Ordinary people's lives in the eras of Machiavelli, Shakespeare, the Reformation, and the scientific revolution. Topics include: birth, marriage, and death; city life and peasant culture; lay encounters with religious and intellectual ideas; war and crime; and gender and sexuality.

HISTORY 137. The Holocaust. 4-5 Units.

The emergence of modern racism and radical anti-Semitism. The Nazi rise to power and the Jews. Anti-Semitic legislation in the 30s. WW II and the beginning of mass killings in the East. Deportations and ghettos. The mass extermination of European Jewry.
Same as: HISTORY 337, JEWISHST 183, JEWISHST 383

HISTORY 137A. Europe, 1945-2002. 5 Units.

Europe's transformation from the end of WW II to an expanded EU. Political, cultural, economic, and social history. Topics: postwar reconstruction, Cold War, consumer versus socialist culture, collapse of Communism, postcommunist integration.

HISTORY 138A. Germany and the World Wars, 1870-1990. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 38A. Majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 138A.) This course examines Germany's tumultuous history from the Second Empire through the end of the Cold War. During this time, Germany ushered in five regimes and two world wars, seesawing between material ruin and economic prosperity on the frontline of Europe¿s military and ideological rifts. Beginning with Bismarck¿s wars of unification, the class spans World War One, the Weimar Republic, the rise of Nazism, World War Two, the Holocaust, the division of communist East and capitalist West Germany, and the fall of the Iron Curtain.
Same as: JEWISHST 138A

HISTORY 139. Modern Britain and the British Empire. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 39. History majors and others taking 5 units, register in 139.) From American Independence to the latest war in Iraq. Topics include: the rise of the modern British state and economy; imperial expansion and contraction; the formation of class, gender, and national identities; mass culture and politics; the world wars; and contemporary racial politics. Focus is on questions of decline, the fortunes and contradictions of British liberalism in an era of imperialism, and the weight of the past in contemporary Britain.

HISTORY 140. World History of Science. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 40. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 140.) The earliest developments in science, the prehistoric roots of technology, the scientific revolution, and global voyaging. Theories of human origins and the oldest known tools and symbols. Achievements of the Mayans, Aztecs, and native N. Americans. Science and medicine in ancient Greece, Egypt, China, Africa, and India. Science in medieval and Renaissance Europe and the Islamic world including changing cosmologies and natural histories. Theories of scientific growth and decay; how science engages other factors such as material culture and religions.

HISTORY 140A. The Scientific Revolution. 5 Units.

What do people know and how do they know it? What counts as scientific knowledge? In the 16th and 17th centuries, understanding the nature of knowledge engaged the attention of individuals and institutions including Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Newton, the early Royal Society, and less well-known contemporaries. New meanings of observing, collecting, experimenting, and philosophizing, and political, religious, and cultural ramifications in early modern Europe.

HISTORY 145A. Africa Until European Conquest. 5 Units.

Episodes in African history from the earliest records up until European partition of the continent, focusing on how knowledge about the natural, social, and spiritual worlds was linked to the exercise of power. The effects of technological innovations on states and other forms of social complexity; use of religious beliefs and practices to legitimate or critique authority. The effects of slave trades and imperial conquest on these forms of authority.

HISTORY 145B. Africa in the 20th Century. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 45B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 145B.) The challenges facing Africans from when the continent fell under colonial rule until independence. Case studies of colonialism and its impact on African men and women drawn from West, Central, and Southern Africa. Novels, plays, polemics, and autobiographies written by Africans.
Same as: AFRICAAM 145B

HISTORY 146. History of Humanitarian Aid in sub-Saharan Africa. 4-5 Units.

Explores humanitarian endeavors through the era of the slave trade, colonialism, the Cold War and the present. Our focus is both local and global examining international humanitarian policy and the effects and perceptions of humanitarian aid within different African localities. Assignments use primary and secondary sources including organizational reports, ethnographies, memoirs and film. Topics: anti-slave trade and abolition movements, `civilizing¿ missions, development, refugees, peacekeeping, famine and women's rights.

HISTORY 147. History of South Africa. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 47. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 147.) Introduction, focusing particularly on the modern era. Topics include: precolonial African societies; European colonization; the impact of the mineral revolution; the evolution of African and Afrikaner nationalism; the rise and fall of the apartheid state; the politics of post-apartheid transformation; and the AIDS crisis.
Same as: AFRICAAM 147, CSRE 174

HISTORY 148. The Egyptians. 3-5 Units.

Overview of ancient Egyptian pasts, from predynastic times to Greco-Roman rule, roughly 3000 BCE to 30 BCE. Attention to archaeological sites and artifacts; workings of society; and cultural productions, both artistic and literary. Participation in class is required.
Same as: AFRICAAM 30, CLASSICS 82, HISTORY 48

HISTORY 149C. The Slave Trade. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 49C. History majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 149C.) Slave trades and forms of slavery in W. Africa from 1000 to 1885; impacts on lives, social organization, and political structures. Slavery in Islam, the slave market in the Mediterranean and Middle East, and the Saharan slave trade. Slavery within Africa, growth of the Atlantic trade, the Middle Passage, and war and trade that produced slaves. Impact of the Industrial Revolution and European abolition movements on the use of slaves and warfare in Africa. The relationship between slaving and the European conquest of Africa.

HISTORY 14N. Making the Middle Ages. 3 Units.

Through hands-on engagement with Stanford¿s diverse collections of medieval artifacts-- from grungy coins to lavish manuscripts-- this course offers an introduction to the cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean world from 400-1400 CE. In addition, the course will explore competing contemporary understandings of the "Middle Ages" and the role of the "medieval" in shaping what it means to be "modern".

HISTORY 150A. Colonial and Revolutionary America. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 50A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for HISTORY 150A.) Survey of the origins of American society and polity in the 17th and 18th centuries. Topics: the migration of Europeans and Africans and the impact on native populations; the emergence of racial slavery and of regional, provincial, Protestant cultures; and the political origins and constitutional consequences of the American Revolution.
Same as: AMSTUD 150A

HISTORY 150B. Nineteenth Century America. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 50B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150B.) Territorial expansion, social change, and economic transformation. The causes and consequences of the Civil War. Topics include: urbanization and the market revolution; slavery and the Old South; sectional conflict; successes and failures of Reconstruction; and late 19th-century society and culture.
Same as: AFRICAAM 150B, AMSTUD 150B

HISTORY 150C. The United States in the Twentieth Century. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 50C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150C.) This course begins around 1900, when women and most African-Americans could not vote; automobiles were virtually unknown and computers unimaginable; and the U.S. was a minor power overshadowed by Europe. Yet fierce debates over the purpose of government and role of the U.S. in the world animated national politics, as they do today. This course surveys U.S. politics, culture, and social movements to answer the question: How did we get from there to here? Suitable for non-majors and majors.
Same as: AMSTUD 150C

HISTORY 151. The American West. 5 Units.

The American West is characterized by frontier mythology, vast distances, marked aridity, and unique political and economic characteristics. This course integrates several disciplinary perspectives into a comprehensive examination of Western North America: its history, physical geography, climate, literature, art, film, institutions, politics, demography, economy, and continuing policy challenges. Students examine themes fundamental to understanding the region: time, space, water, peoples, and boom and bust cycles.
Same as: AMSTUD 124A, ARTHIST 152, ENGLISH 124, POLISCI 124A

HISTORY 152. History of American Law. 5 Units.

(Formerly Law 318. Now Law 3504.) This course examines the growth and development of American legal institutions with particular attention to crime and punishment, slavery and race relations, the role of law in developing the economy, and the place of lawyers in American society, from colonial times to the present. Special Instructions: Any student may write a paper in lieu of the final exam with consent of instructor. After the term begins, students accepted into the course can transfer from section (01) into section (02), which meets the R requirement, with consent of the instructor. Elements used in grading: Final exam or paper. Automatic grading penalty waived for writers. Cross-listed with History (HISTORY 152 Consent of instructor required) & (HISTORY 352B).
Same as: HISTORY 352B

HISTORY 153. CREATION OF THE CONSTITUTION. 5 Units.

(Same as LAW 230.) The course begins with readings setting forth the intellectual and experiential background of the framing, including common law and natural rights theory, republicanism, economic & political scientific ideas, and colonial and post-Independence experience. We then study large parts of the debates at the Constitutional Convention, primarily using Madison's Notes. Next come the ratification debates, including readings from antifederalist writers, about half of The Federalist, and overviews of the Virginia and New York ratification conventions. We conclude with the addition of the Bill of Rights. Classes consist of a combination of lecture and extensive participation by students. Elements used in grading: Exam.

HISTORY 154. American Intellectual and Cultural History to the Civil War. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 54. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 154.) How Americans considered problems such as slavery, imperialism, and sectionalism. Topics include: the political legacies of revolution; biological ideas of race; the Second Great Awakening; science before Darwin; reform movements and utopianism; the rise of abolitionism and proslavery thought; phrenology and theories of human sexuality; and varieties of feminism. Sources include texts and images.
Same as: AMSTUD 154

HISTORY 155. American Constitutional History from the Civil War to the War on Poverty. 5 Units.

(Same as LAW 7008.) This course addresses U.S. constitutional history from the post-Civil War Reconstruction period through the mid-20th century. Because of the breadth of the subject matter, the view will necessarily be partial. In particular we will take as our focus the way the Constitution has provided a point of political mobilization for social movements challenging economic and social inequality. Topics covered include: Civil War Reconstruction and restoration; the rise of corporate capitalism and efforts to constrain it; Progressive Era regulation; the New Deal challenge to federalism and the anti-New Deal backlash; government spending; WWII and the Japanese Internment; the Civil Rights Era, and the War on Poverty. Readings will include both legal and historical materials with a focus on the relationship between law and society. Readings will include both legal and historical materials with a focus on the relationship between law and society. Elements used in grading: Class Participation, Attendance, Written Assignments, Final Paper. Paper extensions will be granted with instructor permission. No automatic grading penalty for late papers.
Same as: AMSTUD 155

HISTORY 155D. The Asian American Movement: A History of Activism. 3-5 Units.

The "Asian American Movement" was born in the late 1960s inspired by other movements for social change and justice in the era. Activism among Asians in America has a longer history and a continuity to today. We will examine past, present, and future and consider issues of racial/ethnic identity, of inequality, and of injustice. And we will explore avenues that sought remedy and progress. Political, social, cultural, gender and sexuality, and international dimensions will be considered.
Same as: AMSTUD 155D, ASNAMST 155D, HISTORY 55D

HISTORY 156. American Economic History. 5 Units.

The American economy from colonial times to the present, illustrating the role of history in economic life. Topics: U.S. economic development in global and comparative context; slavery as an economic system; emergence of American technology and business organization; economics of the Great Depression and the New Deal; post-World War II economic performance and social change; globalization, information technology, and inequality. Prerequisite: 1 or 1V.
Same as: AMSTUD 116

HISTORY 156G. Women and Medicine in US History: Women as Patients, Healers and Doctors. 5 Units.

Women's bodies in sickness and health, and encounters with lay and professional healers from the 18th century to the present. Historical consttruction of thought about women's bodies and physical limitations; sexuality; birth control and abortion; childbirth; adulthood; and menopause and aging. Women as healers, including midwives, lay physicians, the medical profession, and nursing.
Same as: AMSTUD 156H, FEMGEN 156H

HISTORY 157. The Constitution: A Brief History. 5 Units.

A broad survey of the Constitution, from its Revolutionary origins to the contemporary disputes over interpretation. Topics include the invention of the written constitution and interpretative canons; the origins of judicial review; the Civil War and Reconstruction as constitutional crises; the era of substantive due process; the rights revolution; and the Constitution in wartime.
Same as: AMSTUD 157, POLISCI 128S

HISTORY 158C. History of Higher Education in the U.S.. 3-5 Units.

Major periods of evolution, particularly since the mid-19th century. Premise: insights into contemporary higher education can be obtained through its antecedents, particularly regarding issues of governance, mission, access, curriculum, and the changing organization of colleges and universities.
Same as: AMSTUD 165, EDUC 165, EDUC 265

HISTORY 15D. Europe in the Middle Ages, 300-1500. 3-5 Units.

This course provides an introduction to Medieval Europe from the fall of Rome to the Renaissance. While the framework of the course is chronological, we¿ll concentrate particularly on the structure of medieval society. Rural and urban life, kingship and papal government, wars and plagues provide the context for our examination of the lives of medieval people, what they believed, and how they interacted with other, both within Christendom and beyond it.
Same as: HISTORY 115D, RELIGST 115X

HISTORY 15N. Inequality: the Last 100,000 Years. 3 Units.

(Formerly CLASSHIS 13N.) This seminar traces the evolution of resource inequality from the Stone Age to the present. Only this long-term perspective reveals the forces that drive inequality and allows us to address two key questions: what causes inequality, and what factors have been capable of reducing it, at least for a while? We are going to confront challenging arguments: that inequality has been closely tied up with overall economic and human development, and that over the long course of history, war, revolution and pestilence were the most effective equalizers of income and wealth. This class will help you appreciate contexts and complexities that are usually obscured by partisan polemics and short-term thinking. Seminar participants will be directly involved in the instructor's current research project on the history of inequality.
Same as: CLASSICS 28N

HISTORY 16. Traders and Crusaders in the Medieval Mediterranean. 3-5 Units.

Trade and crusade were inextricably interconnected in the high Middle Ages. As merchant ships ferried knights and pilgrims across the Mediterranean, rulers borrowed heavily to finance their expeditions, while military expansion opened new economic opportunities. Course themes include the origins of the Crusading movement; the rise of Venice and other maritime powers; the pivotal roles of the Byzantine and Mongol Empires; relations between Christians, Muslims, and Jews; new military, maritime, and commercial technologies; and the modern legacy of the Crusades.
Same as: HISTORY 116

HISTORY 161. The Politics of Sex: Work, Family, and Citizenship in Modern American Women's History. 3-5 Units.

This course explores the transition from Victorian to modern American womanhood by asking how Native, European, African, Mexican, and Asian American women navigated the changing sexual, economic, and political landscapes of the twentieth century. Through secondary readings, primary sources, films, music, and literature we explore the opportunities and boundaries on groups of women in the context of historical events that included immigration, urbanization, wartime, depression, the Cold War, as well as recurrent feminist and conservative political movements.
Same as: AMSTUD 161, CSRE 162, FEMGEN 161, HISTORY 61

HISTORY 163. A History of North American Wests. 5 Units.

The history, peoples, and natural systems of a region that has never been contained within a single empire or nation state, but has been united by the movement of peoples, species, and things. Topics include smallpox, horses, gold, salmon, rivers, coal, and oil.

HISTORY 164C. From Freedom to Freedom Now: African American History, 1865-1965. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 64C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 164C.) Explores the working lives, social worlds, political ideologies and cultural expressions of African Americans from emancipation to the early civil rights era. Topics include: the transition from slavery to freedom, family life, work, culture, leisure patterns, resistance, migration and social activism. Draws largely on primary sources including autobiographies, memoirs, letters, personal journals, newspaper articles, pamphlets, speeches, literature, film and music.
Same as: AMSTUD 164C

HISTORY 166B. Immigration Debates in America, Past and Present. 3-5 Units.

Examines the ways in which the immigration of people from around the world and migration within the United States shaped American nation-building and ideas about national identity in the twentieth century. Focuses on how conflicting ideas about race, gender, ethnicity, and citizenship with respect to particular groups led to policies both of exclusion and integration. Part One begins with the ways in which the American views of race and citizenship in the colonial period through the post-Reconstruction Era led to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 and subsequently to broader exclusions of immigrants from other parts of Asia, Southern and Eastern Europe, and Mexico. Explores how World War II and the Cold War challenged racial ideologies and led to policies of increasing liberalization culminating in the passage of the 1965 Immigration Act, which eliminated quotas based on national origins and opened the door for new waves of immigrants, especially from Asia and Latin America. Part Two considers new immigration patterns after 1965, including those of refugees, and investigates the contemporary debate over immigration and immigration policy in the post 9/11 era as well as inequalities within the system and the impact of foreign policy on exclusions and inclusions.
Same as: CSRE 166B, HISTORY 366B

HISTORY 167A. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle. 3-5 Units.

Using the unique documentary resources and publications of Stanford's King Research and Education Institute, this course will be taught by Professor Carson and his colleagues at the Institute. It will provide a general introduction to the life and legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr., as well as devote attention to the movements he inspired. In addition to lectures, the course will include presentations of documentaries such as Eyes on the Prize. Students will be expected to read the required texts, participate in class discussions, and take a final exam or submit a research paper (or an audio-visual project developed in consultation with the professor).

HISTORY 168D. Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Inner Life and Global Vision. 3-5 Units.

Martin Luther King, Jr., was the 20th-century's best-known African-American leader, but the religious roots of his charismatic leadership are far less widely known. The documents assembled and published by Stanford's King Research and Education Institute provide the source materials for this exploration of King's swift rise to international prominence as an articulate advocate of global peace and justice.
Same as: AFRICAAM 68D, AMSTUD 168D, CSRE 68, HISTORY 68D

HISTORY 170C. Modern Latin America. 3-5 Units.

This course examines Latin American history from independence to the present day. Key issues include nationalism, urbanization, culture, and revolution. Sources include writings in the social sciences as well as primary documents, fiction, and film.
Same as: HISTORY 70C

HISTORY 172A. Mexico: From Colony to Nation, or the History of an impossible Republic?. 5 Units.

Was a republican form of government even possible in 19th-century Mexico after 300 years of colonial rule under the Spanish monarchy? Was the Spanish colonial heritage a positive or a negative legacy according to 19th-century Mexican politicians? How were they to forge a new national identity with so many ethnically and culturally diverse peoples throughout the territory? Just how ¿traditional¿ was, in fact, the colonial period? These are some of the questions we will explore in this course. Journeying from the late colonial period (c.1700) to the 35-year dictatorship known as El Porfiriato (1876-1911) we will examine how Mexico¿s diverse indigenous peoples adapted to both colonial and postcolonial rule, how they actively participated in politics and political discourse to preserve their cultures, customs and colonial privileges, and how after independence in 1821, a new republican political culture was forged. Mexico was not an impossible republic, but rather another kind of republic.

HISTORY 174. Mexico Since 1876: HIstory of a "Failed State"?. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 374.) This course is an introduction to the history and diverse peoples of modern Mexico from 1876 to the present. Through lectures, discussions, primary and secondary readings, short documentaries, and written assignments, students will critically explore and analyze the multiplicity of historical processes, events and trends that shaped and were shaped by Mexicans over the course of a century. The course will cover some of the social and political dimensions of rural social change, urbanization and industrialization, technological innovation and misuse, environmental degradation and conservation, education, ideology, culture and media, migration, and the drug trade.

HISTORY 177D. U.S. Intervention and Regime Change in 20th Century Latin America. 5 Units.

Policy discussions of regime change by US politicians, journalists and pundits usually focus on Iraq, Iran, Syria and North Korea, often with little or no historical context or perspective. This course does the opposite and takes seriously the proverbial saying "if history is any guide..." by examining U.S. interventions in Latin America, a region where so-called preventive regime change (covert as well as overt) has been operative policy for well over a century. Investigates the rationales, motivations and strategies behind U.S.-backed or engineered regime changes in Mexico in the 1910s, Guatemala in the 1950s, Chile in the 1970s, and Nicaragua in the 1980s.

HISTORY 180. The Ottoman Empire: Conquest, Coexistence, and Coffee. 3-5 Units.

The Ottoman Empire ruled the Middle East, North Africa and Eastern Europe from the 15th to the early 20th centuries. How did the Ottoman enterprise appear in the frontier region between Christendom and the Islamic world? How were diverse peoples, religions, and regions integrated under the Ottoman order? Was there an Ottoman Mediterranean and Indian Ocean? How did reform movements in Islamic, Christian and Jewish thinking transform Ottoman societies? Topics include the Ottoman Empire between Europe and Eastern Islamic World; merchants and their markets; elite, urban, rural and nomadic lives; women, family, childhood and sexuality; life, afterlife and dreams. Special emphasis will be given to coffee and coffee houses which shaped public life in the Ottoman World since the 16th century. The survey ends with the rise of nationalisms, inter-communal violence and the disintegration of the Ottoman world.
Same as: HISTORY 80

HISTORY 181B. Formation of the Contemporary Middle East. 5 Units.

Focusing on the period from World War I to the recent past, the course emphasizes the eastern Arab world Egypt, greater Syria, and Iraq plus Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Iran, and Israel. Themes include: integration of the region into the world economy; imperialism and the formation of the contemporary state system; competing forms of identity (national states, pan-Arab nationalism, Islam) and ideology (liberalism, Marxism, fascism, Islamism); changing gender relations; Palestine/Israel, decolonization, the Cold War; the transition from British to U.S. hegemony; and several contemporary crises.

HISTORY 182C. Making of the Islamic World, 600-1500. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 82C. Majors and other taking 5 units, register for 182C.) The History of Islam and Muslim peoples from 600-1500. Topics include Muhammad and his community; the early Arab conquests and empires; sectarian movements; formation of Islamic belief, thought, legal culture and religious institutions; transregional Sufi and learned networks; family and sexuality; urban, rural and nomadic life; non-Muslim communities; the development of Mediterranean and Indian Ocean trade; relations with Byzantium, the Latin West, China; the Crusades and the Mongols.

HISTORY 182G. Making Palestine Visible. 3-5 Units.

Israel-Palestine is one of the most difficult subjects to talk about, in large part because we in the United States do not have much exposure to Palestinian history, culture, and politics in their own terms. This course aims to humanize Palestinians and asks why Palestinian claims to rights are illegible for much of the American public. We begin to answer this question by examining a broad sampling of history, structures of power and law, culture, and contemporary political issues.
Same as: COMPLIT 82, COMPLIT 182, CSRE 82G, HISTORY 82G

HISTORY 185B. Jews in the Contemporary World: Faith and Ethnicity, Vulnerability and Visibility. 4-5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 85B.) This course explores the full expanse of Jewish life today and in the recent past. The inner workings of religious faith, the content of Jewish identify shorn of belief, the interplay between Jewish powerlessness and influence, the myth and reality of Jewish genius, the continued pertinence of antisemitism, the rhythms of Jewish economic life ¿ all these will be examined in weekly lectures, classroom discussion, and with the use of a widely diverse range of readings, films, and other material. Explored in depth will the ideas and practices of Zionism, the content of contemporary secularism and religious Orthodoxy, the impact Holocaust, the continued crisis facing Israel and the Palestinians. Who is to be considered Jewish, in any event, especially since so many of the best known (Spinoza, Freud, Marx) have had little if anything to do with Jewish life with their relationships to it indifferent, even hostile?.
Same as: CSRE 185B, HISTORY 385C, JEWISHST 185B, REES 185B

HISTORY 187D. Zionism and Its Critics. 4-5 Units.

Zionism from its genesis in the 1880s up until the establishment of the state of Israel in May, 1948, exploring the historical, ideological and political dimensions of Zionism. Topics include: the emergence of Zionist ideology in connection to and as a response to challenges of modernity; emancipation; Haskalah (Jewish enlightenment); other national and ideological movements of the period; the ideological crystallization of the movement; and the immigration waves to Palestine.

HISTORY 190. Early Chinese Thought. 3-5 Units.

This lecture course examines the emergence of critical thought in early China. After a brief study of the social and political changes that made this emergence possible, it looks at the nature and roles of the thinkers, and finally their ideas about the social order, the state, war and the army, the family, the cosmos, and the self (both physical and mental). Some brief comparisons with early Greek thought.
Same as: HISTORY 90

HISTORY 191D. China: The Northern and Southern Dynasties. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 91D. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 191D.) Examines one of the most dynamic periods of Chinese history with the emergence of the institutional religions (Buddhism and Daoism), the development of the garden as an art form, the rise of landscape as a theme of verse and art, the invention of lyric poetry, and the real beginnings of the southward spread of Chinese civilization.

HISTORY 193. Late Imperial China. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 93. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 193.) A survey of Chinese history from the 11th century to the collapse of the imperial state in 1911. Topics include absolutism, gentry society, popular culture, gender and sexuality, steppe nomads, the Jesuits in China, peasant rebellion, ethnic conflict, opium, and the impact of Western imperialism.
Same as: CHINA 183, FEMGEN 193

HISTORY 194B. Japan in the Age of the Samurai. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 94B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 194B.) From the Warring States Period to the Meiji Restoration. Topics include the three great unifiers, Tokugawa hegemony, the samurai class, Neoconfucian ideologies, suppression of Christianity, structures of social and economic control, frontiers, the other and otherness, castle-town culture, peasant rebellion, black marketing, print culture, the floating world, National Studies, food culture, samurai activism, black ships, unequal treaties, anti-foreign terrorism, restorationism, millenarianism, modernization as westernization, Japan as imagined community.

HISTORY 194G. Humanities Core: Technology and Media in Modern China and Japan. 3-5 Units.

This course considers the political, economic, social, cultural, and artistic effects of the introduction of new technologies and media to modern China and Japan. The methodology will integrate techniques gleaned from the disciplines of history and literary studies. Our cross-discipline exploration will encompass printed books and images, language reform, communication technology, serialized fiction and commercial journalism, propaganda and censorship, cinema, comics, animation and television, gaming, and the internet. Through examination of these topics we will investigate a wide range of issues including nationality, ethnic identity, class, revolution, cultural identification, gender, sexuality, literacy, colonialism, imperialism, consumerism, materialism, and globalism, to name just a few. Throughout the course we will be attentive not only to the ways that new technology and media are represented in cultural materials but also how they are materialized in these products through the acts of adaptation, translation, transliteration, and remediation.nnStudents will survey, collect, and synthesize archival materials, engage in media analysis, and undertake close readings to illuminate narrative strategies and other signifying effects. This work will in part be facilitated by the Massive Multiplayer Humanities pedagogical model, which involves flipped classrooms, faculty curated online archives, and student initiated group work.
Same as: CHINA 119, HUMCORE 23, JAPAN 119

HISTORY 195. Modern Korean History. 4-5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 95. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195.) This lecture course provides a general introduction to the history of modern Korea. Themes include the characteristics of the Chosôn dynasty, reforms and rebellions in the nineteenth century, Korean nationalism; Japan's colonial rule and Korean identities; decolonization and the Korean War; and the different state-building processes in North and South, South Korea's democratization in 1980s, and the current North Korean crisis.
Same as: HISTORY 395

HISTORY 195C. Modern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 95C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195C.) Japan's modern transformation from the late 19th century to the present. Topics include: the Meiji revolution; industrialization and social dislocation; the rise of democracy and empire; total war and US occupation; economic miracle and malaise; Japan as soft power; and politics of memory. Readings and films focus on the lived experience of ordinary men and women across social classes and regions.

HISTORY 198. History of Modern China. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 98. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 198.) Do you want to understand Modern China? If so, this course is for you. And even if you've studied China before, or grew up there, this course will deepen and challenge your perspectives. Through vivid and propulsive lectures - drawing on fiction, film, political essays, and more - Professor Tom Mullaney will chart out China¿s historical transformations from 1800 to today, equipping you to speak and write intelligently about Chinese politics, society, economy, culture, gender, ethnicity, and international affairs.

HISTORY 198G. Beijing, Shanghai, and the Structure of China. 3-5 Units.

China's modern history through the rivalry of its two most important cities. The course begins in the nineteenth century, contrasting Beijing, the classic imperial capital and a foreign foundation paradoxically celebrated as the embodiment of "traditional" China, with Shanghai, a treaty port and demographic/economic center of China, but identified as a "foreign" city. After following the cities' history through the warlord period, the "Shanghai decade" of Nationalist rule, and the Japanese occupation, the course examines the two cities' developments under Mao and Deng. The course concludes with a look at their current relations and roles, and the transformed nature of China's cities.

HISTORY 1B. Global History: The Early Modern World, 1300 to 1800. 3-5 Units.

Topics include early globalization and cross-cultural exchanges; varying and diverse cultural formations in different parts of the world; the growth and interaction of empires and states; the rise of capitalism and the economic divergence of "the west"; changes in the nature of technology, including military and information technologies; migration of ideas and people (including the slave-trade); disease, climate, and environmental change over time. Designed to accommodate beginning students, non-majors, and more advanced history students.

HISTORY 1C. Global History: Empires, Technology, and Modernity. 3-5 Units.

How did the power of states evolve around the globe during the modern period? And how did it shape global experiences of modernity? In this course we will examine the development of technologies of rule from the eighteenth to the twenty-first century, from the age of empires and revolutions, through the world wars, the Cold War, and the war on terror. We will look at the political, social, cultural, and intellectual roots behind their invention and their results on the ground. In doing so, we will attempt to grasp the way they have shaped the history and experience of modernity. The course offers a broad overview not of a particular region but of the wider set of processes and technologies that connected the historical experiences of far-flung human communities. Topics include the evolution of government bureaucracies and classificatory schemes; the industrial revolution; technologies of rebellion and revolution; technologies of trade, including maps, ships, guns, and railroads; liberalism's urban technologies; airpower; the history and practice of development; camps and borders; and anti-colonial critiques of these various tools of empire. Through these, we will attempt to make sense of how the technologies of imperial power have shaped the bonds and inequalities of global capitalism and the world of nation-states. We will focus on different case studies each week to trace the unfolding of large-scale processes. Students will read primary sources (produced in the period) and historians¿ analyses of the events from a distance. The class is appropriate for beginning students, non-majors, and more advanced history students, and may be taken for different levels of credit.

HISTORY 201. Shaping & Contesting the Past in Public Spaces. 5 Units.

Gateway course for Public History/Public Service track. Examines various ways history is used outside of the classroom, and its role in political/cultural debates in the U.S. and abroad. Showcases careers in public history with guest speakers.
Same as: AFRICAAM 102, CSRE 201

HISTORY 201C. The U.S., U.N. Peacekeeping, and Humanitarian War. 5 Units.

The involvement of U.S. and the UN in major wars and international interventions since the 1991 Gulf War. The UN Charter's provisions on the use of force, the origins and evolution of peacekeeping, the reasons for the breakthrough to peacemaking and peace enforcement in the 90s, and the ongoing debates over the legality and wisdom of humanitarian intervention. Case studies include Croatia and Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda, Kosovo, East Timor, and Afghanistan. * Course satisfies the WiM requirement for International Relations majors.
Same as: INTNLREL 140C

HISTORY 201E. Life Under Nazism. 4-5 Units.

This course explores everyday life in the Third Reich. Moving inside political events, students will examine daily experiences in the Nazi state-- from Hitler's tumultuous rise to power through the end of World War Two. We will see how people navigated new ideologies, practices, anti-Semitism, war, and mass murder. Through analysis of memoirs, diaries, essays, novels, propaganda, scholarship, and film, students will investigate how social and political developments can reveal the very boundaries between self and society.
Same as: HISTORY 301E

HISTORY 201J. Objects of History: From "Material Culture" to "Making". 4-5 Units.

This class considers objects as historical sources. It surveys diverse approaches to the study and display of physical evidence, from "material culture" to "making." These explorations of object-oriented research will inform the course's hands-on components, working with objects and replicating historical experiences. With its focus on the question of what historical knowledge can be gained through interactivity, the course is suited to students whose interests include museums and public history, reenactment and performance, the maker movement, or interdisciplinary methodology.
Same as: HISTORY 301J

HISTORY 201K. A History of the Global Left: Revolutionary Movements against Empire. 4-5 Units.

This class will trace the formation of trans-regional movements against imperialism in the modern period that helped create a "global Left." We will read contemporary works by thinkers such as Lord Byron, Karl Marx, Mohandas K. Gandhi, Annie Besant, and Faiz Ahmad Faiz, as well as historical studies of these figures and the movements in which they figured. Key topics include the American Revolution, the Indian "Mutiny" of 1857, the Ghadar movement, Pan-Islamism, Irish nationalism, and global communism.
Same as: HISTORY 301K

HISTORY 202D. The History of Genocide. 4-5 Units.

This course will explore the history, politics, and character of genocide from the beginning of world history to the present. It will also consider the ways that the international system has developed to prevent and punish genocide.
Same as: HISTORY 302D

HISTORY 202G. Peoples, Armies and Governments of the Second World War. 4-5 Units.

Clausewitz conceptualized war as always consisting of a trinity of passion, chance, and reason, mirrored, respectively, in the people, army and government. Following Clausewitz, this course examines the peoples, armies, and governments that shaped World War II. Analyzes the ideological, political, diplomatic and economic motivations and constraints of the belligerents and their resulting strategies, military planning and fighting. Explores the new realities of everyday life on the home fronts and the experiences of non-combatants during the war, the final destruction of National Socialist Germany and Imperial Japan, and the emerging conflict between the victors. How the peoples, armies and governments involved perceived their possibilities and choices as a means to understand the origins, events, dynamics and implications of the greatest war in history.
Same as: HISTORY 302G

HISTORY 202K. The Holocaust and Its Aftermath. 4-5 Units.

This seminar gives an overview over different aspects of the history of the Holocaust and its aftermath and will examine key issues in recent Holocaust historiography and questions of memory and representation. Special emphasis is put on the nature of the historian's task, as viewed through the lens of historians of the Holocaust, as well as to the significance of the Holocaust in history and how it has changed over time. The course will confront students with historiographical texts and historical documents, with photography and film, works of scholarship and art.
Same as: HISTORY 302K, JEWISHST 282K, JEWISHST 382K

HISTORY 203. Premodern Economic Cultures. 4-5 Units.

Modern economists have made a science of studying the aggregate effects of individual choices. This science is based on the realities of personal freedom and individual choice. Prior to the modern era, however, different realities comprised very different economic cultures: moral economies in which greed was evil and generosity benefitted the patron¿s soul; familial collectives operating within historical conditioned diasporas; economies of obligation that threatened to collapse under their own weight as economic structures shifted. In this course we will be reading cross-culturally to develop an understanding of the shared and distinct elements of premodern economic cultures.
Same as: HISTORY 303

HISTORY 203C. History of Ignorance. 5 Units.

Scholars pay a lot of attention to knowledge--how it arises and impacts society--but much less attention has been given to ignorance, even though its impacts are equally profound. Here we explore the political history of ignorance, through case studies including: corporate denials of harms from particular products (tobacco, asbestos), climate change denialism, and creationist rejections of Darwinian evolution. Students will be expected to produce a research paper tracing the origins and impact of a particular form of ignorance.

HISTORY 203K. Trauma and History: Intergenerational suffering and collective healing. 1 Unit.

This course will examine trauma as a historical process, following the intergenerational impacts of history's darker dramas, analyzing collective strategies for coping and healing after trauma, and asking whether we can speak of "traumatized societies." Readings for graduate students will include Ben Shephard's A War of Nerves, Didier Fassin and Richard Rechtman's The Empire of Trauma, and selections from Yael Danieli, ed., Intergenerational Handbook of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma. Colloquium will be discussion-oriented, but will also include guest discussants from around the world. The course will culminate in a conference to be held at Stanford, June 4-6: "Soul Wounds: Trauma and Healing Across Generations." Undergraduate requirements for 1 credit: Attend weekly "Mind, Body, and Culture" workshop and first hour of Wednesday morning discussion, attend some part of conference on June 4-6. Graduate requirements for 4-5 credits: Attend workshop, read weekly, discussion on Wednesday mornings, write a paper and if desired present at conference.

HISTORY 204. What is History?. 5 Units.

An introduction to the discipline of history, designed for current or prospective History majors. Focusing on methods and theories of historical inquiry, students will learn how historians frame problems, collect and analyze evidence, and contribute to on-going debates. Through a series of case studies or exemplary works of historical study, the course will also explore different genres of historical writing (such as narrative, biography, social history) and different methodological approaches to history (such as Annales school, microhistory, and cultural history).

HISTORY 204A. Reimagining History: Creative Approaches to the Past. 4-5 Units.

This class explores, through analysis and practice, the ways in which history can be told, produced, and experienced through means other than traditional scholarly narratives. Approaches include graphic histories, literary non-fiction and travel writing, film, art installations, reenactments, video games, and historical fiction. A final project will require students to produce their own innovative work of history.
Same as: HISTORY 304A

HISTORY 204D. Advanced Topics in Agnotology. 4-5 Units.

Advanced research into the history of ignorance. Our goal will be to explore how ignorance is created, maintained and destroyed, using case studies from topics such as tobacco denialism, global climate denialism, and other forms of resistance to knowledge making. Course culminates in a research paper on the theory and practice of agnotology, the science of ignorance.
Same as: HISTORY 304D

HISTORY 205F. Digital History: Concepts, Methods, Problems. 5 Units.

This course confronts the current and potential influence of digital media on the theory and practice of history. We will focus on resources enabling new forms of scholarship, looking at tools for visualization and text analysis for generating historical interpretations, and explore alternative forms of publishing, design, and research. The course covers a range of readings along with a critical engagement with tools and resources. Students will also contribute to a digital spatial exhibit on the history of Silicon Valley.

HISTORY 205G. Creative Political Thinking: From Machiavelli to Madison. 4-5 Units.

How can we account for creativity and innovation in political thinking? Are these qualities simply a product of political expediency and rhetorical urgency, or do they also depend on qualities of mind and historical contingencies that have to be studied individually? This class will explore these questions with three noteworthy cases: Niccolo Machiavelli, John Locke, and James Madison. Extensive reading in both primary writings and secondary sources.
Same as: HISTORY 305G, POLISCI 235J, POLISCI 335J

HISTORY 205K. The Age of Revolution: America, France, and Haiti. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the "Age of Revolution," spanning the 18th and 19th centuries. Primarily, this course will focus on the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions (which overthrew both French and white planter rule). Taken together, these events reshaped definitions of citizenship, property, and government. But could republican principles-- color-blind in rhetoric-- be so in fact? Could nations be both republican and pro-slavery? Studying a wide range of primary materials, this course will explore the problem of revolution in an age of empires, globalization, and slavery.
Same as: AFRICAAM 205K, HISTORY 305K

HISTORY 206A. City, Society, Literature- 19th Century Histories. 4 Units.

This course examines the rise of modern cities through an analysis of urban society and the imaginative literature of the 1800s.
Same as: HISTORY 306A, URBANST 106

HISTORY 206B. Intoxicated: Commodities & Globalization in the Early Modern World. 4-5 Units.

Early modern Europe experienced an influx of foreign goods, including coffee, sugar, chocolate, tea, and drugs, that ushered in a new era of global commerce. Yet, these developments also had consequences: the large-scale enslavement and relocation of human beings and the violent subjugation of local populations in the name of empire. A wider range of goods from far-flung places entered the grasp of a larger swath of society, but from where, by what means, and at what cost?.
Same as: HISTORY 306B

HISTORY 206E. CAPITALS: How Cities Shape Cultures, States, and People. 3-5 Units.

This course takes students on a trip to eight capital cities, at different moments in time: Renaissance Florence, Golden Age Madrid, Colonial Mexico City, Enlightenment and Romantic Paris, Existential and Revolutionary St. Petersburg, Roaring Berlin, Modernist Vienna, and bustling Buenos Aires. While exploring each place in a particular historical moment, we will also consider the relations between culture, power, and social life. How does the cultural life of a country intersect with the political activity of a capital? How do large cities shape our everyday experience, our aesthetic preferences, and our sense of history? Why do some cities become cultural capitals? Primary materials for this course will consist of literary, visual, sociological, and historical documents (in translation); authors we will read include Boccaccio, Lope de Vega, Sor Juana, Montesquieu, Baudelaire, Dostoyevsky, Irmgard Keun, Freud, and Borges. Note: To be eligible for WAYS credit, you must take the course for a minimum of 3 Units and a Letter Grade.
Same as: COMPLIT 100, DLCL 100, FRENCH 175, GERMAN 175, ILAC 175, ITALIAN 175, URBANST 153

HISTORY 206J. Resist, Rebel, Revolt: A Global History. 4-5 Units.

This course will explore the inspirations and contexts of political, social, intellectual, and cultural forms of resistance in modern global history. Historical subjects will include anti-capitalism, anti-colonialism, resistance to Fascism and Nazism, anti-Communism, civil rights movements, human rights campaigns, and contemporary forms of dissidence.
Same as: HISTORY 306J

HISTORY 207. Biography and History. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between biographical and historical writing, primarily in Europe and America. Problems of methodology, evidence, dispassion, and empathy. Texts: biographies, critical literature on biographical work, and novels (A. S. Byatt's Possession, Bernard Malamud's Dubin's Lives) that illuminate the intellectual underpinnings of biographical labor.
Same as: HISTORY 308

HISTORY 207B. Environment, Technology and Revolution in World History. 4-5 Units.

Exploration of historiographical and interdisciplinary methodologies and approaches to intersections among environmental, technological, and revolutionary social change in diverse geographical and temporal contexts. Readings include broad theoretical and synthetic works as well as case studies of American, French, Mexican, Russian, Chinese, and Hungarian revolutions.

HISTORY 207C. The Global Early Modern. 4-5 Units.

In what sense can we speak of "globalization" before modernity? What are the characteristics and origins of the economic system we know as "capitalism"? When and why did European economies begin to diverge from those of other Eurasian societies? With these big questions in mind, the primary focus will be on the history of Europe and European empires, but substantial readings deal with other parts of the world, particularly China and the Indian Ocean. HISTORY 307C is a prerequisite for HISTORY 402 (Spring quarter).
Same as: HISTORY 307C

HISTORY 207S. Digital Humanities: Concepts, Tools, Problems. 4-5 Units.

How can digital tools benefit research in history and neighboring disciplines? The aim of this seminar is to equip students with basic skills in some of the most important digital tools currently used by scholars in the humanities and social sciences. Individual classes will focus on Geographic Information Systems (GIS), web mapping, digital network analysis, data visualization, and digital publishing formats. As part of the exercise to use digital methods, students will develop collaborative digital projects. No prior technical skills are needed for this course.
Same as: HISTORY 407K

HISTORY 208. Private Lives, Public Stories: Autobiography in Women's History. 5 Units.

Changing contexts of women's lives and how women's actions have shaped and responded to those contexts.

HISTORY 208A. Science and Law in History. 4-5 Units.

How the intertwined modern fields of science and law, since the early modern period, together developed central notions of fact, evidence, experiment, demonstration, objectivity, and proof.
Same as: HISTORY 308A

HISTORY 208B. Women Activists' Response to War. 4-5 Units.

Theoretical issues, historical origins, changing forms of women's activism in response to war throughout the 20th century, and contemporary cases, such as the Russian Committee of Soldiers Mothers, Bosnian Mothers of Srebrenica, Serbian Women in Black, and the American Cindy Sheehan. Focus is on the U.S. and Eastern Europe, with attention to Israel, England, and Argentina.
Same as: FEMGEN 208B, HISTORY 308B

HISTORY 208K. Global Capitalism and the Global South. 5 Units.

Is modern capitalism a European innovation or a global phenomenon? Can there be different manifestations of capitalism in different local, regional, national, and imperial contexts? What role has the Global South played in the history of capitalism? This course examines the ways that capitalism has innovated, destroyed, and matured from the 17th to 20th centuries. It explores the themes of business, trade, labor, agriculture, gender, and race with a focus on the Middle East, Africa, and East and South Asia.

HISTORY 208S. Facing the Past: The Politics of Retrospective Justice. 5 Units.

Forms of injustice in history including slavery, genocide, ethnic cleansing, mass rape, forced religious conversion, and torture of prisoners. Mechanisms developed over the last century to define, deter, and alleviate the effects of such offenses, including war crimes tribunals, truth commissions, national apologies, and monetary reparations. Case studies chart the international field of retrospective justice, exploring the legal, political, and moral implications of confronting traumatic pasts.

HISTORY 209B. The Idea of Politics. 4-5 Units.

Can we live without politics? Is politics indispensable for humanity and vice-versa? The idea of politics is that it must transform, through human action, conditions of collective life. But the 20th century produced colliding beliefs about what that life might be and what the human being itself might look like. Explore whether, after the century, we might still think of politics as an ethical idea and the "human" as foundational political category. Keywords: Civility, Cruelty, Friendship, Empire, Democracy, Humanism, Animals.
Same as: HISTORY 309B

HISTORY 209C. Liberalism and Violence. 4-5 Units.

Does LIberalism have a theory of violence? What does modern political thought, in privileging humanity and rights, share with "terrorists" and "rogue states?" How is liberalism transformed by the use of religion and death for political ends? We read key thinkers of modern life- Adorno, Arendt, Agamben, Benjamin, Derrida, Fanon, Foucault, Gandhi, Heidegger, and Schmitt- to interrogate the relationship between religion, sacrifice, and democracy. At the center are connections between war and modern life, and between violence and non-violence.
Same as: HISTORY 309C

HISTORY 209D. Postcolonialism and Universalism. 4-5 Units.

Key texts and motifs from postcolonial theory: empire, class, exile, suffering, textuality, archive in juxtaposition to 20th-century philosophical questions about universal history and the relevance of humanist inquiry.
Same as: HISTORY 309A

HISTORY 209F. Maps in the Early Modern World. 4-5 Units.

The significance of cartographic enterprise across the early modern world. Political, economic, and epistemological imperatives that drove the proliferation of nautical charts, domain surveys, city plans, atlases, and globes; the types of work such artifacts performed for their patrons, viewers, and subjects. Contributions of indigenous knowledge to imperial maps; the career of the map in commerce, surveillance, diplomacy, conquest, and indoctrination. Sources include recent research from Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
Same as: HISTORY 309F

HISTORY 209S. Research Seminar for Majors. 5 Units.

Required of History majors. How to conduct original, historical research and analysis, including methods such as using the libraries and archives at Stanford and elsewhere, and working collaboratively to frame topics, identify sources, and develop analyses. Autumn quarter focuses on gender, race, sexuality and History of Science; Winter quarter on early modern travel and Europe before 1500; Spring quarter on American political history and open topic.

HISTORY 20A. The Russian Empire, 1450-1800. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 120A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 120A.) Explores rise of Russian state and expanse of empire; patterns of governance of a Eurasian empire; strategies and institutions of governance; survey of various ethnic and religious groups in empire and their varied cultures and political economies; gender and family; serfdom; Russian Orthodox religion and culture; reforms and Europeanization of 18th century.

HISTORY 20N. Russia in the Early Modern European Imagination. 4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. The contrast between the early modern image of Europe as free, civilized, democratic, rational, and clean against the notion of New World Indians, Turks, and Chinese as savage. The more difficult, contemporary problem regarding E. Europe and Russia which seemed both European and exotic. Readings concerning E. Europe and Russia from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment; how they construct a positive image of Europe and conversely a negative stereotype of E. Europe. Prerequisite: PWR 1.

HISTORY 216. Women and the Book: Scribes, Artists, and Readers from Late Antiquity through the Fourteenth Century. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the cultural worlds of medieval women through particular attention to the books that they owned, commissioned, and created. Beginning with the earliest Christian centuries, the course proceeds chronologically, charting women¿s book ownership, scribal and artistic activity, and patronage from Late Antiquity through the fourteenth century. In addition to examining specific manuscripts (in facsimile, or digitally), we will consider ancillary questions to do with women¿s authorship, education and literacy, reading patterns, devotional practices, and visual traditions and representation.
Same as: ARTHIST 206H, FEMGEN 216, HISTORY 316

HISTORY 217S. Minorities In Medieval Europe. 5 Units.

This course examines attitudes towards outsider groups within medieval society and the treatment of these groups by medieval Christians. Heretics, Jews, Muslims, homosexuals, prostitutes and usurers occupied ambivalent and at time dangerous positions within a society that increasingly defined itself as Christian. Differences in the treatment of these various 'outcast' groups, their depiction in art, their legal segregation, and their presumed association with demonic activity are addressed through discussion, and readings from primary and secondary source material.
Same as: RELIGST 217X

HISTORY 218. The Holy Dead: Saints and Spiritual Power in Medieval Europe. 4-5 Units.

Examines the cult of saints in medieval religious thought and life. Topics include martyrs, shrines, pilgrimage, healing, relics, and saints' legends.
Same as: HISTORY 318, RELIGST 218X, RELIGST 318X

HISTORY 219C. Science, Technology, and Modernity in the Soviet Union. 5 Units.

Science and technology were integral to the Soviet claim to offer a vision of modernity superior to that of Western capitalism. Science and technology would flourish; society would develop on a scientific basis. The results were more complex than the vision. Topics to be covered: science and Marxism-Leninism; the Lysenko affair; the R&D system; the role of the secret police; the atomic project; the space race; missile development; Andrei Sakharov; technology and innovation.
Same as: HISTORY 319C

HISTORY 220G. Demons, Witches, Old Believers, Holy Fools, and Folk Belief: Popular Religion in Russia. 4-5 Units.

19th and early 20th centuries. Peasants, parish priests, witches, possessed persons, cults and sects, old believers, saints, and women's religious communities. Nominally Christian, and members of the Orthodox Church, Russians embraced beliefs and customs that combined teaching from Church and folk traditions.
Same as: HISTORY 320G, REES 220G, REES 320G

HISTORY 221A. Men, Women, and Power in Early Modern Russia, 1500-1800. 5 Units.

Social values, gender relations, and social change in an era of rapid change; challenges to established norms by new constructions of deviance (witchcraft, religious reform, and revolt) and new standards of civility; encounters with non-Russians and the construction of national consciousness. Social values as political ethos: patrimonial autocracy and the reality of female rule in the late 17th and 18th century.

HISTORY 221B. The 'Woman Question' in Modern Russia. 5 Units.

Russian radicals believed that the status of women provided the measure of freedom in a society and argued for the extension of rights to women as a basic principle of social progress. The social status and cultural representations of Russian women from the mid-19th century to the present. The arguments and actions of those who fought for women's emancipation in the 19th century, theories and policies of the Bolsheviks, and the reality of women's lives under them. How the status of women today reflects on the measure of freedom in post-Communist Russia.
Same as: FEMGEN 221B

HISTORY 222. Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe and Russia. 4-5 Units.

Explores criminal law in early modern Europe and Russia, ca 1500-1800, in law and in practice. Engages debates about use of exemplary public executions as tactic of governance, and about gradual decline in "violence" in Europe over this time. Explores practice of accusatory and inquisitory judicial procedures, judicial torture, forms of punishment, concepts of justice.
Same as: HISTORY 322A

HISTORY 223. Art and Ideas in Imperial Russia. 4-5 Units.

Poetry, novels, symphonic music, theater, opera, painting, design, and architecture: what they reveal about the politics and culture of tsarist Russia.
Same as: HISTORY 323

HISTORY 223E. Cities of Empire: An Urban Journey through Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean. 3-5 Units.

This course explores the cities of the Habsburg, Ottoman and Russian empires in the dynamic and turbulent period of their greatest transformation from the 19th century through the Two World Wars. Through the reading of urban biographies of Venice and Trieste, Vienna, Budapest, Cracow, Lviv, Sarajevo, Belgrade, Salonica, and Odessa, we consider broad historical trends of political, economic, and social modernization, urbanization, identity formation, imperialism, cosmopolitanism, and orientalism. As vibrant centers of coexistence and economic exchange, social and cultural borderlands, and sites of transgression, these cities provide an ideal lens through which to examine these themes in the context of transition from imperial to post-imperial space.
Same as: HISTORY 323E, REES 204, REES 304

HISTORY 224A. The Soviet Civilization. 4-5 Units.

Socialist visions and practices of the organization of society and messianic politics; the Soviet understanding of mass violence, political and ethnic; and living space. Primary and secondary sources. Research paper or historiographical essay.
Same as: HISTORY 424A, REES 224A

HISTORY 224C. Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Traces the history of genocide in the 20th century and the question of humanitarian intervention to stop it, a topic that has been especially controversial since the end of the Cold War. The pre-1990s discussion begins with the Armenian genocide during the First World War and includes the Holocaust and Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s. Coverage of genocide and humanitarian intervention since the 1990s includes the wars in Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo, the Congo and Sudan.
Same as: HISTORY 324C, JEWISHST 284C, JEWISHST 384C, PEDS 224

HISTORY 226E. Famine in the Modern World. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Examines the major famines of modern history, the controversies surrounding them, and the reasons that famine persists in our increasingly globalized world. Focus is on the relative importance of natural, economic, and political factors as causes of famine in the modern world. Case studies include the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s; the Bengal famine of 1943-44; the Soviet famines of 1921-22 and 1932-33; China's Great Famine of 1959-61; the Ethiopian famines of the 1970s and 80s, and the Somalia famines of the 1990s and of 2011.
Same as: HISTORY 326E, PEDS 226

HISTORY 227D. All Quiet on the Eastern Front? East Europe and Russia in the First World War. 3-5 Units.

Until recently history has been comparatively quiet about the experience of World War I in the east. Far from being a peripheral theater of war, however, the experiences of war on the Eastern Front were central to shaping the 20th century. Not only was the first shot of the war fired in the east, it was also the site of the most dramatic political revolution. Using scholarly texts, literature and film, this course combines political, military, cultural and social approaches to introduce the causes, conduct and consequences of World War I with a focus on the experiences of soldiers and civilians on the Eastern Front. Topics include: the war of movement, occupation, extreme violence against civilians, the Armenian genocide, population exchanges, the Russian Revolution and civil war, and the disintegration of empires and rise of nation-states.
Same as: HISTORY 327D, REES 227, REES 327

HISTORY 228. Circles of Hell: Poland in World War II. 5 Units.

Looks at the experience and representation of Poland's wartime history from the Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939) to the aftermath of Yalta (1945). Examines Nazi and Soviet ideology and practice in Poland, as well as the ways Poles responded, resisted, and survived. Considers wartime relations among Polish citizens, particularly Poles and Jews. In this regard, interrogates the traditional self-characterization of Poles as innocent victims, looking at their relationship to the Holocaust, thus engaging in a passionate debate still raging in Polish society.
Same as: HISTORY 328, JEWISHST 282, JEWISHST 382

HISTORY 229A. Nationhood and Belonging: Poles and Jews. 3 Units.

Examines changing conceptions of nationhood in Poland, late-19th century to present, with focus on place of Jews in Polish society. What conditions fostered the early political sense of the nation? Why was it replaced with integral nationalism, and for some, fascism? How did Jews relate to their homeland? Emphasis on post-1918 history: impact of independence, Great Depression, West European fascism, World War II, imposition of communist rule, and collapse of the Soviet Bloc. Considers current Polish-Jewish relations.
Same as: HISTORY 329A, JEWISHST 289A, JEWISHST 389A

HISTORY 22S. From 'superfluous women' to the 'Yolocaust': The Experience of War in 20th Century Europe. 5 Units.

Through a variety of primary sources, including diaries, photographs, letters, and artifacts this course explores the multiplicity of ways in which Europeans experienced the great conflicts that swept the continent in the 20th century. The unprecedented impact of these wars will be traced in stories of those whose voices have been marginalized in conventional historiography. This course encourages and guides students in their first forays into archival work in a hands-on approach to developing ways of thinking historically.

HISTORY 230A. The Witness in Modern History: Memoir, Reportage, Image. 5 Units.

The rise of the witness as icon and debates about its reliability as a historical source. The power of eyewitness accounts to convict accused criminals, inspire indignation about war and genocide, and attract attention to humanitarian crises. Their notorious unreliability due to exaggeration and misapprehension. Sources include reportage, photography, and documentary film. Case studies include criminal cases, war, poverty, and natural disasters.

HISTORY 230C. Paris: Capital of the Modern World. 4-5 Units.

This course explores how Paris, between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries, became the political, cultural, and artistic capital of the modern world. It considers how the city has both shaped and been shaped by the tumultuous events of modern history- class conflict, industrialization, imperialism, war, and occupation. It will also explore why Paris became the major world destination for intellectuals, artists and writers. Sources will include films, paintings, architecture, novels, travel journals, and memoirs.
Same as: FRENCH 140, FRENCH 340

HISTORY 230D. Europe in the World, 1789-Present. 4-5 Units.

The European conquest of parts of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific by European merchants, missionaries, armies, and administrators had significant, and often cataclysmic, effects on indigenous political alliances, cultural practices, and belief systems. But were the effects of expansion entirely one-sided? What impact did the experiences of colonialism have on European politics, culture,and Europe's relations with the rest of the world? Explores how interaction between Europe and the rest of the world redefined the political, racial, sexual, and religious boundaries of both Europe and its colonies and gave rise to the more "globalized' society we live in today.
Same as: HISTORY 330D

HISTORY 231E. Paper, Printing, and Digital Revolutions: Transformations of the Book. 4-5 Units.

What is a book? This seminar explores the conceptual implications of approximately two millennia of transformations in the physical and material properties of books. How have the meaning and authority we assign the written word changed as technologies of book production and dissemination have evolved, and how have they remained continuous? Topics covered include the rise of the medieval manuscript codex, the emergence of print culture in early modern Europe, and current debates over the nature of text in the digital age.
Same as: HISTORY 331E

HISTORY 232B. Heretics, Prostitutes and Merchants: The Venetian Empire. 5 Units.

Between 1200-1600, Venice created a powerful empire at the boundary between East and West that controlled much of the Mediterranean, with a merchant society that allowed social groups, religions, and ethnicities to coexist. Topics include the features of Venetian society, the relationship between center and periphery, order and disorder, orthodoxy and heresy, the role of politics, art, and culture in the Venetian Renaissance, and the empire's decline as a political power and reinvention as a tourist site and living museum.
Same as: ITALIAN 232B

HISTORY 232C. European Security Since World War Two. 4-5 Units.

This course looks at European security during the Cold War and up to the present. There are many historical controversies to be examined, e.g. the enlargement of NATO, as well as theoretical and doctrinal debates, e.g. about extended deterrence and detente.
Same as: HISTORY 332C, POLISCI 116A

HISTORY 232E. Crooks, Quacks, and Courtesans: Jacobean City Comedy. 5 Units.

We will read a series of plays set in or around early modern London, written by playwrights such as Ben Jonson, Thomas Middleton, and John Marston. The course will explore the plays¿ hilarious representations of the London underworld, with its confidence tricksters and naive victims, as well as more serious topics such as social mobility and social relations, economic expansion, disease transmission, and the built environment. Plays studied will include: The Alchemist, Epicene, The Roaring Girl, A Chaste Maid In Cheapside, The Dutch Courtesan..
Same as: ENGLISH 240A, ENGLISH 340A, HISTORY 332E

HISTORY 232G. Early Modern Cities. 4-5 Units.

Colloquium on the history of early modern European cities, covering urbanization, street life, neighborhoods, fortifications, guilds and confraternities, charity, vagrancy, and begging, public health, city-countryside relationship, urban constitutions, and confederations. Assignments include annotated bibliography, book review, and a final paper. Second-quarter continuation of research seminar available (HIST299S or HIST402).
Same as: HISTORY 332G

HISTORY 233C. Two British Revolutions. 4-5 Units.

Current scholarship on Britain,1640-1700, focusing on political and religious history. Topics include: causes and consequences of the English civil war and revolution; rise and fall of revolutionary Puritanism; the Restoration; popular politics in the late 17th century; changing contours of religious life; the crisis leading to the Glorious Revolution; and the new order that emerged after the deposing of James II.
Same as: HISTORY 333C

HISTORY 233G. Catholic Politics in Europe, 1789-1992. 5 Units.

What led to the creation of a specifically Catholic mass politics? How did these parties and movements interact with the Vatican and the wider Church? What accounts for political Catholicism's involvement in clerical-fascist states and its important role in shaping the EU? Sources focus on monographs. Research paper using primary sources.

HISTORY 233K. The Invention of the Modern Republic. 4-5 Units.

Examines the history of republican thinking in the Atlantic World from the Renaissance to the French Revolution.
Same as: HISTORY 333K

HISTORY 235. The Renaissance of War: Politics, Technology, and War in Late Medieval and Renaissance Italy. 5 Units.

The dynamic societies of the Italian Peninsula of the 14th to 16th centuries "prosperous, astonishingly creative, politically fractious, and endemically violent" produced sweeping, deeply consequential changes. Among these were new developments in the theory and practice of war, politics, and diplomacy that laid the foundations for the modern state system and European military power. The class covers: new diplomatic practice; the Military Revolution; state-building; war finance; court culture; and the intersection of these with the shimmering brilliance of Renaissance culture.

HISTORY 235C. Readings in the Supernatural. 4-5 Units.

Class will read and discuss a selection of monographs, scholarly essays, and primary sources on the rich supernatural world of early modern Europe. We will discuss how fairies, werewolves, nightmares, and trolls all became witches, how the binary of angels and demons figured in European thought, and how the marginalized imaginary was reconstituted in theatre and fiction.
Same as: HISTORY 335C

HISTORY 235F. Camus. 4-5 Units.

"The Don Draper of Existentialism" for Adam Gopnik, "the ideal husband of contemporary letters" for Susan Sontag, and "the admirable conjunction of a man, of an action, and of a work" for Sartre, Camus embodies the very French figure of the "intellectuel engagé," or public intellectual. From his birth in 1913 into a poor family in Algeria to the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1957, from Saint Germain-des-Prés to his predilection for the mediterranean culture, Camus captured the quest for universalism, for the politics of justice, and engaged in the great ethical battles of his time, from the fight against nazism and communism, from questioning colonial rules to the haunting Algerian War, and his complex "silence" over the war. Camus the Algerian, Camus the moralist, Camus the Resistant: through readings and films, we will explore his multiple, long-lasting legacies. Readings from Albert Camus, Kamel Daoud, Mouloud Feraoun, Alice Kaplan, Orhan Pamuk, A.B. Yehoshua, Assia Djebar, Jean-Paul Sartre, Yasmina Khadra. Movies include "The Stranger," and "Far from Men." This course is a gateway for French Studies, with special emphasis on oral proficiency. Taught in French.
Same as: CSRE 129, FRENCH 129

HISTORY 236. The Ethics of Imperialism. 5 Units.

Can a commitment to liberty, progress, and universal rights be reconciled with imperialism? The ethical underpinnings of empire; how modern Europeans provided ethical and political justifications for colonial expansion. How European ideals were used to defend and justify inequality, violence, and genocide. The ethics of American-driven globalization and humanitarianism. Texts include primary sources, philosophical treatises, and historical studies.

HISTORY 236F. The End of the World As They Knew It: Culture, Cafés, and Crisis in Europe, 1880-1918. 4-5 Units.

The years stretching from roughly 1880 to end of the First World War were marked by profound social upheaval and an intense burst of creativity. This seminar will focus on the major cultural movements and big ideas of the period. Topics covered include the rise of mass culture and cinema, the origins of psychoanalysis, anti-Semitism and Zionism, new anxieties about sexuality and the ¿New Woman,¿ anarchism, decadence, degeneration, and Dada ¿ with cameos from Bernhardt, Freud, Klimt, Nietzsche, Toulouse-Lautrec, Wilde, Zola, and other luminaries of the age.
Same as: HISTORY 336F

HISTORY 237D. The French Revolution and the Birth of Modern Politics. 4-5 Units.

(Students who have taken HISTORY 134 should not enroll in this course.) This course will focus on the birth of modern politics in the French Revolution. The goal will be to understand the structural contradictions of the French monarchy in the pre-revolutionary period, the reasons for the monarchy's failure to resolve those contradictions, and the political dynamic unleashed as they were solved by the revolutionary action of 1789. Sovereignty, democracy, rights, representation, and terror will be principal themes. Lectures will be combined with close reading and discussions of political and philosophical writings of the period.
Same as: HISTORY 337D

HISTORY 237F. 20th Century British History through the Hoover Archives. 4-5 Units.

From the rich resources of the Hoover Institution, the students in this course will select a particular archive (war posters, politician, spy, literary figure, diplomat, etc. etc.) to investigate, to write about,discuss in class, and, it is hoped, present in an exhibition at the Hoover, learning museum skills along the way as well as the history of Britain in the 20th century.
Same as: HISTORY 337F

HISTORY 237G. Outer Space Exploration in Germany in the Twentieth Century. 1-5 Unit.

Since the nineteenth century, Germans, like their counterparts around the world, have considered the meaning and the role of humanity in outer space. As space travel developed from a dream to a reality, and as Germany changed borders and political systems among empires, dictatorships, socialist states, and capitalist states, German interest in spaceflight remained, although the meaning found in the stars changed dramatically. This course considers Germans' dreams of and predictions for outer space travel alongside German technological developments in spaceflight. It includes the different German states throughout the century, including Weimar Germany, National Socialism, East Germany, and West Germany. The course looks at science fiction films and novels, newspaper reports, scientific developments, and German space engineering projects, which together demonstrate how and why space travel often found high levels of support in Germany. Students will engage in historical and cultural analysis through course readings, discussions, and assignments.nNOTE: To be eligible for WAYS credit, you must take this course for a minimum of 3 units and a letter grade.
Same as: GERMAN 275

HISTORY 238G. Ethnography of the Late Middle Ages: Social history and popular culture in the age of the plague. 4-5 Units.

During the late Middle Ages, as Europe was recovering from the devastation of the Black Death, political reorganization contributed to a burst of archival documentation that allows historians richly detailed glimpses of societies in transition. We will be reading selected scholarly articles and monographs covering such topics as persecution, prechristian cultural remnants, folk theologies, festival cultures, peasant revolts, heresy, and the advent of the diabolic witch.
Same as: HISTORY 338G

HISTORY 238J. The European Scramble for Africa: Origins and Debates. 5 Units.

Why and how did Europeans claim control of 70% of African in the late nineteenth century? Students will engage with historiographical debates ranging from the national (e.g. British) to the topical (e.g. international law). Students will interrogate some of the primary sources on which debaters have rested their arguments. Key discussions include: the British occupation of Egypt; the autonomy of French colonial policy; the mystery of Germany¿s colonial entry; and, not least, the notorious Berlin Conference of 1884-1885.

HISTORY 239C. Humanities Core: Great Books, Big Ideas -- Europe, Modern. 3-4 Units.

This three-quarter sequence asks big questions of major texts in the European and American tradition. What is a good life? How should society be organized? Who belongs? How should honor, love, sin, and similar abstractions govern our actions? What duty do we owe to the past and future? This third and final quarter focuses on the modern period, from the rise of revolutionary ideas to the experiences of totalitarianism and decolonization in the twentieth century. Authors include Locke, Mary Shelley, Marx, Nietzsche, Freud, Weber, Primo Levi, and Frantz Fanon.
Same as: DLCL 13, FRENCH 13, HUMCORE 13, PHIL 13

HISTORY 239F. Empire and Information. 4-5 Units.

How do states see? How do they know what they know about their subjects, citizens, economies, and geographies? How does that knowledge shape society, politics, identity, freedom, and modernity? Focus is on the British imperial state activities in S. Asia and Britain: surveillance technologies and information-gathering systems, including mapping, statistics, cultural schemata, and intelligence systems, to render geographies and social bodies legible, visible, and governable.
Same as: HISTORY 339F

HISTORY 239G. The Algerian Wars. 3-5 Units.

This course offers to study the Algerian Wars since the French conquest of Algeria (1830-1847) to the Algerian civil war of the 1990s. We will revisit the ways in which the wars have been narrated in historical and political discourse, and in literature. A special focus will be given to the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962). The course considers the continuing legacies surrounding this traumatic conflict in France and Algeria and the delicate re-negotiation of the French nation-state that resulted. A key focus will be on the transmission of collective memory through transnational lenses. We will examine how the French and Algerian states, but also civil societies (Pieds-Noirs, Arabs, Kabyles, Jews, veterans, Harkis, "suitcase carriers") have instrumentalized the memories of the war for various ends, through analyses of commemorative events and monuments. Readings from Alexis de Tocqueville, Albert Camus, Frantz Fanon, Mouloud Feraoun, Rachid Mimouni, Wassyla Tamzali, Germaine Tillion, Pierre Nora, Benjamin Stora, Todd Shepard, Sarah Stein, Pierre Vidal-Naquet, James Lesueur. Movies include "The Battle of Algiers," "Indigènes," and "Viva Laldjérie." Taught in English.
Same as: CSRE 249, FRENCH 249

HISTORY 239H. Colonialism and Empire in Modern Europe. 5 Units.

To better understand the history of modern Europe within a global context, explores the following questions: What impact did more than a century of colonialism have on the social lives, cultural attitudes, political loyalties, and intellectual world views of European women and men during the nineteenth century? What accounts for the resiliency of empire during a period of rapid global change that witnessed the rise of modern democracy, economic liberalism, ethnic nationalism, and international socialism?.

HISTORY 23N. The Soviet Union and the World: View from the Hoover Archives. 3 Units.

This course seeks to explore the Soviet Union's influence on the world from 1917 to its end in 1991 from a variety of perspectives. Hoover Institution archival holdings will be the basic sources for the course.

HISTORY 240. The History of Evolution. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the history of evolutionary biology from its emergence around the middle of the eighteenth century. We will consider the continual engagement of evolutionary theories of life with a larger, transforming context: philosophical, political, social, economic, institutional, aesthetic, artistic, literary. Our goal will be to achieve a historical rich and nuanced understanding of how evolutionary thinking about life has developed to its current form.
Same as: BIO 340, HISTORY 340

HISTORY 240G. Science and Empire, 1600-1800. 5 Units.

During the scientific revolution of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, European states carved out vast colonial empires in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. How did empires make science and how did science make empires? In this course, we will explore the history of the global exchange of people, objects, and knowledge. We will consider how early modern science, medicine, and technology helped create global empires, while emerging across the division of the world into "the West and the rest.".

HISTORY 241D. Einstein and the Structure of Reality. 4-5 Units.

Albert Einstein once remarked "One cannot help but be in awe when one contemplates the mysteries of the marvelous structure of reality. It is enough if one tries to contemplate only a little of this mystery each day." In this course we will contemplate the history, science, and philosophy involved in three pathbreaking and contentious episodes in Einstein's lifelong quest to unveil the structure of reality: the special theory of relativity, the general theory of relativity, and the quantum theory.
Same as: HISTORY 341D

HISTORY 242F. Medicine in an Age of Empires. 4-5 Units.

This course connects changing ways of understanding the body and disease in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to the business of empire. How did new ideas and methods of selling medicine relate to the rise of state-sponsored violence, resource extraction, global trade, and enslaved labor? Following black ritual practitioners in the Caribbean, apothecaries in England, and scientists abroad reveals the diversity of medical traditions and knowledge production in the early modern period that formed the basis of modern medicine today.
Same as: HISTORY 342F

HISTORY 243G. Tobacco and Health in World History. 4-5 Units.

Cigarettes are the world's leading cause of death--but how did we come into this world, where 6 trillion cigarettes are smoked every year? Here we explore the political, cultural, and technological origins of the cigarette and cigarette epidemic, using the tobacco industry's 80 million pages of secret documents. Topics include the history of cigarette advertising and cigarette design, the role of the tobacco industry in fomenting climate change denial, and questions raised by the testimony of experts in court.
Same as: HISTORY 343G

HISTORY 243S. Human Origins: History, Evidence, and Controversy. 4-5 Units.

Research seminar. Debates and controversies include: theories of human origins; interpretations of fossils, early art, and the oldest tools; the origin and fate of the Neanderthals; evolutionary themes in literature and film; visual rhetoric and cliché in anthropological dioramas and phyletic diagrams; the significance of hunting, gathering, and grandmothering; climatological theories and neocatastrophic geologies; molecular anthropology; the impact of racial theories on human origins discourse. Background in human evolution not required.
Same as: HISTORY 443A

HISTORY 244C. The History of the Body in Science, Medicine, and Culture. 4-5 Units.

The human body as a natural and cultural object, historicized. The crosscultural history of the body from the 18th century to the present. Topics include: sciences of sex and race; medical discovery of particular body parts; human experimentation, foot binding, veiling, and other bodily coverings; thinness and obesity; notions of the body politic.
Same as: HISTORY 444C

HISTORY 245G. Law and Colonialism in Africa. 4-5 Units.

Law in colonial Africa provides an opportunity to examine the meanings of social, cultural, and economic change in the anthropological, legal, and historical approaches. Court cases as a new frontier for the social history of Africa. Topics: meanings of conflicts over marriage, divorce, inheritance, property, and authority.
Same as: HISTORY 348D

HISTORY 246. The Dynamics of Change in Africa. 4-5 Units.

Crossdisciplinary colloquium; required for the M.A. degree in African Studies. Open to advanced undergraduates and PhD students. Addresses critical issues including patterns of economic collapse and recovery; political change and democratization; and political violence, civil war, and genocide. Focus on cross-cutting issues including the impact of colonialism; the role of religion, ethnicity, and inequality; and Africa's engagement with globalization.
Same as: AFRICAST 301A, HISTORY 346, POLISCI 246P, POLISCI 346P

HISTORY 247C. Revolutionary Mothers, National Fathers: Household, Politics and Nation in 20th Century Africa. 5 Units.

A luta continua! This cry, Latin for "the struggle continues," evokes sub-Saharan African liberation struggles. Yet histories of these struggles sometimes cast them narrowly: as quests to transform European colonies into African-governed sovereign nation-states; struggles led by men; or public struggles, conducted in government buildings or on the streets. This course examines how freedom fighting intersected with other processes: changing gender norms, ethnic or religious identification, and labor or housing conditions, paying attention to ways political struggles came into homes.

HISTORY 25. St. Petersburg: A Cultural Biography. 1 Unit.

This course explores the rich cultural heritage of St. Petersburg: art, architecture, urban planning, literature, dance, music, theater. Lectures will be extensively slide-illustrated, particularly on architecture and art. The course will meet Thursday evenings 7:00-9:00 pm as part of the Continuing Studies Program (CSP) for adult students; undergraduate students are welcome to participate by enrolling in this 1-unit History course. Readings will be posted in Coursework for CSP participants and will be available but optional for undergraduate students. Satisfactory credit for undergraduates will be earned by attending 80% of the lectures and by submitting a 5-page paper on a topic of the student's choice utilizing the CSP assigned readings and sources suggested by the instructor.

HISTORY 250A. History of California Indians. 5 Units.

Demographic, political, and economic history of California Indians, 1700s-1950s. Processes and events leading to the destruction of California tribes, and their effects on the groups who survived. Geographic and cultural diversity. Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo-American periods. The mission system.
Same as: CSRE 117S, NATIVEAM 117S

HISTORY 250E. Taxing America: From the Puritans to Prop. 13. 5 Units.

Taxes have shaped American society and politics since before the Revolution. And they've been extremely controversial just as long. In this course we'll try to understand American society and government by looking at the politics of taxation from the colonial period to the twentieth century. Topics include the legitimacy of taxation, the constitution, economic development, inequality, gender, and race.

HISTORY 251J. The End of American Slavery, 1776-1865. 5 Units.

How did the deeply entrenched institution of American slavery come to an end? The stories behind this ninety-year transformation are more complex than most people know. This course will examine the particular conditions between 1861 and 1865 that enabled final abolition, and the competing forces between 1776 and 1860 that fostered slavery's preservation and expansion. Throughout, we will encounter a wide range of historical figures, including southerners who tried to undermine slavery, and northerners who helped to defend it.

HISTORY 252B. Diplomacy on the Ground: Case Studies in the Challenges of Representing Your Country. 5 Units.

The tragic death of Ambassador Chris Stevens has recently highlighted the dangers of diplomacy in the modern era. This class will look at how Americans in embassies have historically confronted questions such as authoritarian rule, human rights abuses, violent changes of government, and covert action. Case studies will include the Berlin embassy in the 1930s, Tehran in 1979, and George Kennan's experiences in Moscow, among others. Recommended for students contemplating careers in diplomatic service. * Course satisfies the WiM requirement for International Relations majors.
Same as: INTNLREL 174

HISTORY 252C. The Old South: Culture, Society, and Slavery. 5 Units.

This course explores the political, social, and cultural history of the antebellum American South, with an emphasis on the history of African-American slavery. Topics include race and race making, slave community and resistance, gender and reproduction, class and immigration, commodity capitalism, technology, disease and climate, indigenous Southerners, white southern honor culture, the Civil War, and the region's place in national mythmaking and memory.
Same as: AFRICAAM 252C

HISTORY 252E. From Gold Rush to Google Bus: History of San Francisco. 4 Units.

This class will examine the history of San Francisco from Native American and colonial settlement through the present. Focus is on social, environmental, and political history, with the theme of power in the city. Topics include Native Americans, the Gold Rush, immigration and nativism, railroads and robber barons, earthquake and fire, progressive reform and unionism, gender, race and civil rights, sexuality and politics, counterculture, redevelopment and gentrification. Students write final project in collaboration with ShapingSF, a participatory community history project documenting and archiving overlooked stories and memories of San Francisco. (Cardinal Course certified by the Haas Center).
Same as: AMSTUD 150X, URBANST 150

HISTORY 254. Popular Culture and American Nature. 5 Units.

Despite John Muir, Aldo Leopold, and Rachel Carson, it is arguable that the Disney studios have more to do with molding popular attitudes toward the natural world than politicians, ecologists, and activists. Disney as the central figure in the 20th-century American creation of nature. How Disney, the products of his studio, and other primary and secondary texts see environmentalism, science, popular culture, and their interrelationships.

HISTORY 254D. Religion and War in America. 4 Units.

Scholars have devoted much attention to wars in American history, but have not agreed as to whether religion was a major cause or simply a cover for political, economic, and other motives. We will compare interpretations that leave religion out, with those that take it into account. We will also look at the impact of war on the religious lives of ordinary Americans. We will examine both secondary as well as primary sources, beginning with King Philip's War in the 17th century, and ending with the "War on Terror" in the present day.
Same as: AMSTUD 105R, CSRE 105, HISTORY 354D, RELIGST 105

HISTORY 254G. The Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution. 5 Units.

Why did Britain's North American colonies declare independence from an empire they had long revered? What did the American Revolution mean for the people who experienced it? In this course we will explore the explosive origins of the American republic. Topics: revolutionary ideology, empire, the federal constitution, slavery, social conflict, and the international consequences of the American Revolution.

HISTORY 255. Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Social Gospel and the Struggle for Justice. 5 Units.

The religious and political thought of Martin Luther King, Jr., using the documentary resources of the King Institute at Stanford. His social gospel Christianity and prophetic message of radical social transformation. Readings include the forthcoming The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., Volume VI: Advocate of the Social Gospel.

HISTORY 255D. Racial Identity in the American Imagination. 4-5 Units.

From Sally Hemings to Barack Obama, this course explores the ways that racial identity has been experienced, represented, and contested throughout American history. Engaging historical, legal, and literary texts and films, this course examines major historical transformations that have shaped our understanding of racial identity. This course also draws on other imaginative modes including autobiography, memoir, photography, and music to consider the ways that racial identity has been represented in American society. Most broadly, this course interrogates the problem of American identity and examines the interplay between racial identity and American identity.
Same as: AFRICAAM 255, AMSTUD 255D, CSRE 255D, HISTORY 355D

HISTORY 255E. Education, Race, and Inequality in African American History, 1880-1990. 3-5 Units.

Seminar. The relationship among race, power, inequality, and education from the 1880s to the 1990s. How schools have constructed race, the politics of school desegregation, and ties between education and the late 20th-century urban crisis.
Same as: AFRICAAM 116, AMSTUD 216, CSRE 216X, EDUC 216

HISTORY 256. 350 Years of America-China Relations. 4-5 Units.

The history of turbulent relations, military conflict, and cultural clashes between the U.S. and China, and the implications for the domestic lives of these increasingly interconnected countries. Diplomatic, political, social, cultural, and military themes from early contact to the recent past.
Same as: EASTASN 256, HISTORY 356

HISTORY 256E. The American Civil War. 5 Units.

What was it like to live in the United States during the Civil War? This course uses the lenses of racial/ethnic identity, gender, class, and geography (among others) to explore the breadth of human experience during this singular moment in American history. It illuminates the varied ways in which Americans, in the Union states and the Confederate states, struggled to move forward and to find meaning in the face of unprecedented division and destruction.
Same as: AFRICAAM 256E, AMSTUD 256E

HISTORY 256G. Constructing Race and Religion in America. 4-5 Units.

This seminar focuses on the interrelationships between social constructions of race, and social interpretations of religion in America. How have assumptions about race shaped religious worldviews? How have religious beliefs shaped racial attitudes? How have ideas about religion and race contributed to notions of what it means to be "American"? We will look at primary and secondary sources, and at the historical development of ideas and practices over time.
Same as: AMSTUD 246, CSRE 246, HISTORY 356G, RELIGST 246, RELIGST 346

HISTORY 257. Was the American Revolution a Social Revolution?. 4-5 Units.

What kind of a revolution was the American Revolution? The revolution gave colonial Americans political independence from Britain to found the United States. But did the revolution also transform American society in its wake? This course explores how historians and historical participants alike have answered this question paying attention to historical changes (or lack thereof) that took place in American society between c. 1750-1820 as well as grappling with what conceptually constitutes a "social" revolution in the first place.
Same as: HISTORY 357

HISTORY 257C. LGBT/Queer Life in the United States. 4-5 Units.

An introductory course that explores LGBT/Queer social, cultural, and political history in the United States. By analyzing primary documents that range from personal accounts (private letters, autobiography, early LGBT magazines, and oral history interviews) to popular culture (postcards, art, political posters, lesbian pulp fiction, and film) to medical, military, and legal papers, students will understand how the categories of gender and sexuality have changed over the past 150 years. This class investigates the relationship among queer, straight and transgender identities. Seminar discussions will question how the intersections of race, class, gender, and sexuality influenced the construction of these categories.
Same as: FEMGEN 140D, FEMGEN 240D

HISTORY 258B. History of Education in the United States. 3-5 Units.

How education came to its current forms and functions, from the colonial experience to the present. Focus is on the 19th-century invention of the common school system, 20th-century emergence of progressive education reform, and the developments since WW II. The role of gender and race, the development of the high school and university, and school organization, curriculum, and teaching.
Same as: AMSTUD 201, EDUC 201

HISTORY 258E. History of School Reform: Origins, Policies, Outcomes, and Explanations. 3-5 Units.

Strongly recommended for students in the POLS M.A. program; others welcome. Focus is on 20th-century U.S. Intended and unintended patterns in school change; the paradox of reform that schools are often reforming but never seem to change much; rhetorics of reform and factors that inhibit change. Case studies emphasize the American high school.nnThis course is strongly recommended for POLS students pursuing K ¿ 12 leadership.
Same as: EDUC 220D

HISTORY 259A. Poverty and Homelessness in America. 4-5 Units.

Service learning. Students participate in a two quarter internship at a local shelter for homeless individuals or families. Readings include historical, social science, and social commentary literature. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center).

HISTORY 259E. American Interventions, 1898-Present. 5 Units.

This class seeks to examine the modern American experience with limited wars, beginning with distant and yet pertinent cases, and culminating in the war in Iraq. Although this class will examine war as a consequence of foreign policy, it will not focus primarily on presidential decision making. Rather, it will place wartime policy in a broader frame, considering it alongside popular and media perceptions of the war, the efforts of antiwar movements, civil-military relations, civil reconstruction efforts, and conditions on the battlefield. We will also examine, when possible, the postwar experience.
Same as: HISTORY 359E, INTNLREL 168A

HISTORY 25A. Dark Century: Eastern Europe After 1900. 3-5 Units.

Major historical trends in 20th-century E. European history. Empires and national movements. The creation of independent Eastern Europe after WW I; social movements and the emergence of dictatorships and fascism in the inter-war period. WW II, Stalinism, and destalinization in contemporary E. Europe.
Same as: HISTORY 125

HISTORY 25N. Stalin's Europe, 1944-1948. 3 Units.

This freshman seminar explores the history of wartime and postwar Europe through the lenses of the communist parties of Europe, the anti-Soviet forces on the continent, the devastation of the civilian population, and the intentions and actions of the Soviet Union on the one hand, and the United States on the other. We will analyze issues of resistance and collaboration under the Nazis, Allied occupation, and the division of Europe. We will also consider the forcible displacement of peoples and the fate of Jewish survivors. The idea is to understand the harsh and complex realities of European life and politics in this crucial time frame spanning war and peace. One can discover the beginnings of the Cold War in this period, the first signs of the "Iron Curtain," and the origins of the European Union. Our sources for the reconstruction of European life at this crucial time include documents, memoirs, literature, film, and various collections at the Hoover Archives. In addition to analyzing written and visual materials in discussion, presentations, and short essays, you will engage in a quarter long project on one thematic or country study during this period.

HISTORY 260. California's Minority-Majority Cities. 4-5 Units.

Historical development and the social, cultural, and political issues that characterize large cities and suburbs where communities of color make up majority populations. Case studies include cities in Los Angeles, Santa Clara, and Monterey counties. Comparisons to minority-majority cities elsewhere in the U.S. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center).
Same as: CSRE 260, URBANST 169

HISTORY 260K. Exploring American Religious History. 4 Units.

This course will trace how contemporary beliefs and practices connect to historical trends in the American religious landscape.
Same as: AMSTUD 91, CSRE 91, RELIGST 91

HISTORY 261. Race, Gender, and Class in Jim Crow America. 5 Units.

How African American life and labor were redefined from 1890-1954. Topics include family life, work, leisure patterns, transnational relations, cultural expressions emphasizing literature and music, resistance and social activisim. Primary sources including visual materials, literature, and film; historical interpretations of the period.

HISTORY 261G. Presidents and Foreign Policy in Modern History. 5 Units.

Nothing better illustrates the evolution of the modern presidency than the arena of foreign policy. This class will examine the changing role and choices of successive presidential administrations over the past century, examining such factors as geopolitics, domestic politics, the bureaucracy, ideology, psychology, and culture. Students will be encouraged to think historically about the institution of the presidency, while examining specific case studies, from the First World War to the conflicts of the 21st century.
Same as: INTNLREL 173

HISTORY 263D. Junipero Serra. 3-5 Units.

Why is Junipero Serra considered a representative figure of California? How have assessments of Serra evolved over the last 200 years? Why does his name appear so often on our campus? In this course we will consider these and other questions in terms of Spanish empire, Native American history, California politics of memory and commemoration, among other approachs. Requirements include weekly reading, class discussion, a field trip to Carmel Mission, short writing assignments, and a formal debate on the ethics naming university or public buildings after historical figures with contested pasts. Taught in English.

HISTORY 265. Writing Asian American History. 5 Units.

Recent scholarship in Asian American history, with attention to methodologies and sources. Topics: racial ideologies, gender, transnationalism, culture, and Asian American art history. Primary research paper.
Same as: AMSTUD 265, ASNAMST 265, HISTORY 365

HISTORY 265G. African-American Independent Film- On Both Sides of the Camera. 4-5 Units.

From D. W. Griffith's controversial "Birth of A Nation" (1915) to Nate Parker's also controversial "Birth of a Nation" (2016), Black Americans have played roles in Hollywood movies while also seeking to define how they are depicted in these movies. This course will introduce students to this history by featuring works of pioneering black filmmakers who challenged Hollywood racial stereotypes and created alternative images of the African-American experience.
Same as: HISTORY 365G

HISTORY 267E. Martin Luther King, Jr. - His Life, Ideas, and Legacy. 4-5 Units.

Using the unique documentary resources and publications of Stanford's King Research and Education Institute, this course will provide a general introduction to King's life, visionary ideas, and historical significance. In addition to lectures and discussions, the course will include presentations of documentaries such as Eyes on the Prize. Students will be expected to read the required texts, participate in class discussions, and submit a research paper or an audio-visual project developed in consultation with the professor.
Same as: AFRICAAM 267E, AMSTUD 267E

HISTORY 268C. Poverty in America. 4-5 Units.

During the twentieth century, Americans launched numerous bold efforts to reduce poverty in the United States. Federal welfare policy, community-based programs, academic research, philanthropic charity, and grassroots activism committed time and resources to the cause, but poverty-- and inequality-- have persisted. Why? This seminar considers the origins, implementation, and consequences of these remedies, noting in particular how race, gender, citizenship, family composition, and geography have shaped the lives of those in poverty and the public and private responses to it.
Same as: AMSTUD 268C, CSRE 268C, HISTORY 368C

HISTORY 26SC. Art and Ideas in Russian Culture. 2 Units.

The course explores the most important trends in Russian creative arts from the early period through the nineteenth century, exploring the ideas that were behind the production and reception of various types of Russian art. It tracks the major cultural changes in Russian history, primarily the transformation from a world shaped by Orthodox religious art (icons, frescos) to a world shaped by West European canons. Peter I (ruled 1682-1725) forcibly imposed cultural Westernization on his elites (not the peasant or merchant classes). Noblemen were forced to dress in European clothes, adopt European etiquette and pastimes (dancing), design their homes in European architectural styles and fill them with art painted (by Europeans and Russians) to European tastes, including portraits. By the nineteenth century, artists were using art as a political statement, allegorically criticizing autocratic reality in their choice of topics, particularly historical paintings. Throughout we explore art in the context of ideas -- why were various kinds of art produced? what were their intended purposes? who were their intended audiences? How can we appreciate creative works as art when they weren't intended to be art, such as icons? They were considered holy objects, actors in liturgical worship. Similarly, realist paintings of the nineteenth century were intended as critique more than art, as were penny broadsheets that circulated. Other works, such as portraits of noblemen and decorative elements on maps, were intended to assert social status or political authority. So the course is an opportunity to join appreciation of creative works with a more historical and cultural assessment of their production and reception. Students will be asked to write a paper on one particular work of art an icon, a portrait, an oil painting. This course should be interesting to students interested in the broad sweep of Russian history as well as in medieval religious art (especially Orthodox) and modern European art. Class sessions will discuss assigned readings and images posted to class art gallery from Professor Kollmann's extensive collection of images of Russian icons and art. Students will report on their research paper along the way, culminating in formal presentations. Field trips and events are planned to various works of Russian art in the area, including: Cantor Art Museum (small collection of icons, including a 17th c icon; De Basily Room, Hoover Institution (18th-c Russian portraits; Art Collection, Hoover Institution Library (rare editions of Russian art publications, late 19th c.); Green Library Special Collections (facsimile edition of 16th-c illustrated historical chronicle); Rumsey Map Center, Green Library (18th-c Russian maps and their decorative cartouches); Legion of Honor, San Francisco (Makovskii's great canvas in his Boyar's Wedding series); Christ the Savior Church (Orthodox Church of America), 12th and Anza, San Francisco. Discussion with parish priest Rev. Philip Halliwell. To see icons in situ in small neighborhood parish and discuss the role and theory of icons in Orthodox liturgy with Fr Halliwell; The Joy of All who Sorrow Cathedral, Geary St., San Francisco (Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia). To see icons in situ in large, imposing cathedral; Katia's Restaurant, San Francisco (authentic Russian cuisine); Fort Ross, northern California (restored Russian fortress and chapel; art in situ;Viewing of movie Andrei Rublev, about an icon painter in 15th-c Russia.

HISTORY 270E. Queer History of the Americas. 4-5 Units.

This course will examine LGBT history in the Americas. It traces the development of homosexuality as a category of analysis; the construction of trans identity; the ways in which same-sex desire and gender identity were regulated over time; and queer people's struggles for recognition, liberation, and, ultimately, rights.
Same as: HISTORY 370E

HISTORY 271. Mexicans in the United States. 5 Units.

This course explores the lives and experiences of Mexicans living in the United States, from 1848 to the present. Themes and topics include: the legacies of colonialism, the Mexican-American War, transnational migration, the effects of economic stratification, race and racialization, and the impact of sexual and gender ideologies on the lives of Mexicans residing north of the border.
Same as: AMSTUD 271, CHILATST 171, CSRE 171H

HISTORY 272D. Teaching Mexican American History in High School. 5 Units.

The purpose of the course is two fold: 1) to expose students to salient historical themes and topics in Mexican American history, and 2) to establish a mentoring project with students currently enrolled in Mexican American history courses at Luis Valdez Leadership Academy (LVLA) high school in San Jose. Students will gain a broad understanding of Mexican American history, especially since the early twentieth century, with a particular focus on the Chicano Movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Students must also commit to enrollment in Hist 272F in spring quarter.
Same as: CHILATST 272A, CSRE 272A

HISTORY 272F. Teaching Mexican American History in High School, Part II. 5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 272D. This course is the second part of a continuing course about teaching Mexican American history in high school. In addition to continuing the mentoring work with students at Luis Valdez Leadership Academy, the spring quarter course will focus on the conceptualization, design, and development of a website that will provide resources for U.S. history teachers who seek information about Mexican American history. Students will identify primary sources, bibliographies, lesson plans, and other materials for use by high school teachers.
Same as: CHILATST 272B, CSRE 272B

HISTORY 273. The European Expansion. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between European monarchies and their colonial domains from the 16th-18th centuries. Reasons for expansion, methods, and results. Case studies include the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English domains in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Readings include primary and secondary sources.
Same as: HISTORY 373A

HISTORY 273C. Caribbean Migration to the United States. 4-5 Units.

The course will explore the history of Caribbean migration to the United States.
Same as: AFRICAAM 273C, CSRE 273, HISTORY 373C

HISTORY 273E. The Emergence of Nations in Latin America: Independence Through 1880. 4-5 Units.

This course provides an introduction to the main themes of nineteenth-century Latin American history, including independence from Spain, the emergence of various nation-states, and the development of a new social, political, and economic order in the region.
Same as: HISTORY 373E

HISTORY 274E. Urban Poverty and Inequality in Latin America. 5 Units.

We examine historical issues of social inequality, poverty, crime, industrialization, globalization, and environment in major Latin American cities.

HISTORY 274G. Public Space, the Private Sphere, and Dictatorship in Latin America. 5 Units.

Recently, questions about the use of force, the state's monopoly on violence, and freedom of expression have taken on a new importance in the US. In Latin America, these issues were a focus of activism in the 1960s and 1970s. This course will consider everyday life and artistic interventions in urban space as acts of resistance, focusing on the idea that public space is central to the expression of freedom, paying special attention to the role of women.

HISTORY 275B. History of Modern Mexico. 4-5 Units.

Surveys the history of governance, resistance, and identity formation in Mexico from the nineteenth century to the present. Explores Mexico's historical struggles to achieve political stability, economic prosperity, and social justice and examines how regional, class, ethnic, and gender differences have figured prominently in the shaping of Mexican affairs. Topics include Mexico's wars and their legacies, the power of the state, violence and protest, debates over the meaning of "Mexicanness," youth culture, and the politics of indigenismo.
Same as: AMSTUD 275B, CHILATST 275B, CSRE 275B, HISTORY 375C

HISTORY 276K. The Nature State: Latin American Conservation in Global Perspective. 4-5 Units.

This colloquium studies the history of conservation as a way to understand (territorial) state formation. It examines Latin America from a global perspective by comparing case studies from around the world. It examines how various political arrangements allowed for nature protection, the creation and functioning of institutions and bureaucracies in charge of protected areas, what these developments tell us about citizenship, the role of science in state formation, and the implications of different environments in the building of national territories.
Same as: HISTORY 376K

HISTORY 278D. Race, Ethnicity, and the Environment in Latin America. 4-5 Units.

In a long sweep from the late eighteenth century to today, this seminar explores how race, ethnicity and the environment intersect in Latin American history, with emphasis on Colombia. It will inspect the meaning of the concepts of race and ethnicity and examine how the histories of black and indigenous peoples are better understood by taking the environment --both materially and symbolically-- into account. We will read a variety scholarly works, as well as primary sources.
Same as: HISTORY 378D

HISTORY 278S. The Ethical Challenges of Climate Change. 4-5 Units.

This course explores the ethical challenges of climate change from historical, social, economic, political, cultural and scientific perspectives. These include the discovery of global warming over two centuries, the rise of secular and religious denialism and skepticism toward the scientific consensus on it, the dispute between developed and developing countries over how to forge a binding global agreement to mitigate it, and the "role morality" of various actors (scientists, politicians, fossil fuel companies, the media and ordinary individuals) in the US in assessing ethical responsibility for the problem and its solutions.
Same as: HISTORY 478

HISTORY 279. Latin American Development: Economy and Society, 1800-2014. 4-5 Units.

The newly independent nations of Latin America began the 19th century with economies roughly equal to the U.S. and Canada. What explains the economic gap that developed since 1800? Why are some Latin American nations rich and others poor and how have societies changed over time? Marxist, dependency, neoclassical, and institutionalist interpretive frameworks are explored. The effects of globalization on Latin American economic growth, autonomy, and potential for social justice are examined and debated.
Same as: HISTORY 379

HISTORY 279D. Modern Brazil: Economy, Society & Culture. 4-5 Units.

This course addresses the history of modern Brazil from independence in 1822 to the present day. The class focuses on theories of economic development, social structure and change, and cultural life in Brazil's diverse regions.
Same as: HISTORY 379D

HISTORY 27SC. American Road Trips. 2 Units.

"Nothing behind me, everything ahead of me, as is ever so on the road." --Jack Kerouac, On the Road, 1957. From Jack Kerouac's On the Road to Cheryl Strayed's Wild, this Sophomore College explores epic road trips of the twentieth century. Travel is a fundamental social and cultural practice through which Americans have constructed ideas about the self, society, the nation, the past, and the future. The open road, as it is often called, offered excitement, great adventure, and the space for family bonding and memory making. But the footloose and fancy-free nature of travel that the Beat Generation novelist Jack Kerouac waxed lyrical about in the 1957 classic On the Road were available to some travelers but not to others. Engaging historical and literary texts, as well as imaginative modes including film, autobiography, memoir, photography, and music, we will consider the ways that travel and road trips have been represented in American society. This course explores the following questions: How did men and women experience travel differently? How did the motivations for travel change over time? What role did race, ethnicity, class, relationships, and sexuality play in these trips? This Sophomore College examines how writers have explored the theme of travel, American writing, American history and culture, and American life. Students will work together to plan a road trip of their own which the class will take during the period of the Sophomore College.

HISTORY 281A. Twentieth-Century Iraq: A Political and Social History. 5 Units.

The colonial experience, creation of the modern Iraqi state, and transition to military dictatorship. Political movements, religious and tribal elements, and their relation to the state. Geopolitical context.

HISTORY 281B. Modern Egypt. 4-5 Units.

From the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Topics: European imperialism, the political economy of cotton, rise of nationalism, gender and the nation, minorities, the coup of 1952, positive neutralism and the Cold War, and the neo-liberal reconstruction of Egypt.
Same as: HISTORY 381B

HISTORY 282. The United States and the Middle East since 1945. 4-5 Units.

Since the end of WW II, U.S. interests in the Middle East have traditionally been defined as access to oil at a reasonable price, trade and markets, containing the influence of the Soviet Union, and the security of Israel. Is this the full range of U.S. interests? How has the pursuit of these interests changed over time? What forces have shaped U.S. policy? What is the impact of U.S. policy on the region itself?.
Same as: HISTORY 382

HISTORY 283. Middle East Oil and Global Economy. 4-5 Units.

The class studies Middle East oil in the global economy using the method of political economy. Topics addressed include: origins of the Middle East oil industry; the Seven Sisters international oil cartel; Aramco and the U.S.-Saudi alliance; the post-World War II petroleum order; petroleum, the crisis of 1971-82, and the rise of a new regime of capital accumulation regulated neo-liberal economic orthodoxy and "Washington Consensus" policies- commonly referred to as "globalization" since the 1990s.
Same as: HISTORY 383

HISTORY 283G. Place, Nature, and Life: Production of Space in European and Muslim History. 4-5 Units.

How did people experience, produce and imagine their physical and spiritual environment, their past and future, their immediate places and far geographies, life and afterlife in Europe and the Muslim Eurasia throughout history? How did political, legal and economic organizations configure and claim spaces in different time and geographies in Europe and the Muslim world? In addition to various case studies, primary texts and visual depictions, the theoretical framework of discussions will be based on texts by Lefebvre, Foucault, Soja, de Certeau, Yi-Fu Tuan, J.B. Jackson, Casey, Harvey.
Same as: HISTORY 383G

HISTORY 284F. Empires, Markets and Networks: Early Modern Islamic World and Beyond, 1500-1800. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on political regimes, economic interactions and sociocultural formations in the early modern Balkans and Middle East to Central and South Asia. Topics include complex political systems of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires; experiences of various Muslim, Christian, Jewish and Hindu, as well as urban, rural and nomadic communities; consolidation of transregional commerce and cultural exchange; incorporation of the Islamic world in the global economy; transimperial networks of the Muslim and Non-Muslim merchants, scholars and sufis.
Same as: HISTORY 384F

HISTORY 286. Jews Among Muslims in Modern Times. 4-5 Units.

The history of Jewish communities in the lands of Islam and their relations with the surrounding Muslim populations from the time of Muhammad to the 20th century. Topics: the place of Jews in Muslim societies, Jewish communal life, variation in the experience of communities in different Muslim lands, the impact of the West in the Modern period, the rise of nationalisms, and the end of Jewish life in Muslim countries.
Same as: HISTORY 386, JEWISHST 286, JEWISHST 386

HISTORY 287C. Zionism and its Critics. 5 Units.

Zionism from its genesis in the 1880s up until the establishment of the state of Israel in May, 1948, exploring the historical, ideological and political dimensions of Zionism. Topics include: the emergence of Zionist ideology in connection to and as a response to challenges of modernity; emancipation; Haskalah (Jewish enlightenment); other national and ideological movements of the period; the ideological crystallization of the movement; and the immigration waves to Palestine.

HISTORY 288D. American Jewish History: Learning to be Jewish in America. 2-4 Units.

This course will be a seminar in American Jewish History through the lens of education. It will address both the relationship between Jews and American educational systems, as well as the history of Jewish education in America. Plotting the course along these two axes will provide a productive matrix for a focused examination of the American Jewish experience. History students must take course for at least 3 units.
Same as: AMSTUD 279X, EDUC 279, JEWISHST 297X, RELIGST 279X

HISTORY 290. North Korea in Historical Perspective. 4-5 Units.

This colloquium will approach North Korea from a longer historical perspective and also discuss the country's current crisis and its future. Themes will include the northern region in colonial Korea, Kim Il Sung and Manchurian guerrillas, the USSR and North Korean Revolution, the reconstruction after the Korean War, Juche ideology and the political system, the everyday life of North Korea people, the Cold War and North Korean diplomacy, culture and mass performance, the great famine and economy in transition, the military and nuclear development, and refugees and the succession of leadership.
Same as: HISTORY 390

HISTORY 290E. Movies and Empire in East Asia. 4-5 Units.

Cinema was invented in the 1890s and simultaneously introduced to East Asia. This colloquium explores how this new medium changed the cultural and social landscape of East Asia and how the visual power of films also affected the culture politics of empires in the region. The themes include cinema and urban spaces, cultural imperialism, film images and gender discourse, colonial modernity, Americanism and Asianism, the visual and the textual, wartime propaganda, and Hollywood movies and cold war empires.
Same as: HISTORY 390E

HISTORY 291J. East Asian Environmental History. 4-5 Units.

Traversing 2,500 years of history, this colloquium begins with conceptions of nature, agricultural time, and agriculture in ancient East Asia, proceeds to look closely at the environmental history of China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, and then concludes with environmental issues in East Asia from a contemporary perspective.
Same as: HISTORY 391J

HISTORY 292D. Japan in Asia, Asia in Japan. 4-5 Units.

How Japan and Asia mutually shaped each other in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Focus is on Japanese imperialism in Asia and its postwar legacies. Topics include: pan-Asianism and orientalism; colonial modernization in Korea and Taiwan; collaboration and resistance; popular imperialism in Manchuria; total war and empire; comfort women and the politics of apology; the issue of resident Koreans; and economic and cultural integration of postwar Asia.
Same as: HISTORY 392D

HISTORY 292F. Culture and Religions in Korean History. 4-5 Units.

This colloquium explores the major themes of Korean history before 1800 and the role of culture and religions in shaping the everyday life of Chosôn-dynasty Koreans. Themes include the aristocracy and military in the Koryô dynasty, Buddhism and Confucianism in the making of Chosôn Korea, kingship and court culture, slavery and women, family and rituals, death and punishment, and the Korean alphabet (Hangûl) and print culture.
Same as: HISTORY 392F

HISTORY 292J. Sino-Korean Relations, Past and Present. 3-5 Units.

Korea and China have long been intertwined in their political, economic, and cultural histories. The depth of this historical relationship has enormous ramifications for East Asia today. This course will investigate the history of Korea-China relations from its deep roots in the ancient past, through its formative periods in the early modern period and the age of imperialism, to the contemporary era. Topics to be covered include formation of Chinese and Korean national identity, Sino-Korean cultural exchange, premodern Chinese empire in East Asia, China and Korea in the wake of Western and Japanese imperialism, communist revolutions in East Asia, the Korean War, and China's relations with a divided Korea in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Particular attention will be paid to how the modern and contemporary ramifications of past historical relations and how contemporary Chinese and Koreans interpret their own and each others' pasts.nThis course will ask students to engage with diverse interpretations of the past and to consider how a common history is interpreted by different audiences and for different purposes. What are the implications of divergent memories of a single historical event for Chinese and Korean political, cultural, and ethnic identities? How are political, cultural, and ethnic identities constructed through engagement with difference? And what is at stake in different constructions of identity?In addressing these issues, students will also engage in social inquiry. They will be asked to understand how political ideology, economic organization, and social forces have shaped the character of Sino-Korean relations. What are the economic and political institutions that influence these relations in each time period? How do ideologies like Confucianism, Communism, or free-market liberalism interface with Chinese and Korean societies and impact their relations?.
Same as: CHINA 156, CHINA 256, KOREA 156, KOREA 256

HISTORY 293A. Research Seminar on Political Thought. 4-5 Units.

A series of texts and documents that form the heart of what Marx and Engels called "the colonial question". Discussions center on specific themes relating to each student's research topic and/or interests. The seminar will be organized around a set of core common readings and weekly discussions, supplemented by a designed list of secondary texts and primary materials. Themes include: secularism, religion, state, capital, empire, anticolonialism, gender, democracy, textual and print cultures, cinema, political and legal theory, and history of economic thought. 400-level options allows students to do a two-quarter sequence, with the Spring devoted to writing up the research paper.
Same as: HISTORY 493

HISTORY 293E. Female Divinities in China. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the fundamental role of powerful goddesses in Chinese religion. It covers the entire range of imperial history and down to the present. It will look at, among other questions, what roles goddesses played in the spirit world, how this is related to the roles of human women, and why a civilization that excluded women from the public sphere granted them a dominant place, in the religious sphere. It is based entirely on readings in English.
Same as: FEMGEN 293E, HISTORY 393E, RELIGST 257X, RELIGST 357X

HISTORY 294C. First Encounters: China and the West, 1500-1860. 4-5 Units.

For four hundred years, the peoples of China and the West have engaged with each other. What happened when worlds and world-views came into contact? In this course, we will explore the experience of encounter and its cultural impact on two largely distinct, but never isolated societies. We will study the history of cross-cultural exchange between China and the West to see how each emerged through dialogue with the other and to understand the roots of our own interconnected world.
Same as: HISTORY 394C

HISTORY 294D. Manchuria: Cradle of Conflict, Cockpit of Asia. 4-5 Units.

How did Manchuria become Chinese? This course utilizes the dual waves of early twentieth-century writings and a wide array of recent scholarship dealing with Manchuria to explore the formation of nation-states out of the Qing and Japanese empires in Northeast Asia through the lenses of opium, migration, cities, warlords, and memoir. This course will be of interest to students concerned with developing transcultural understandings of Northeast Asian history.
Same as: HISTORY 394D

HISTORY 294J. Science, Power, and Knowledge: East Asia to 1900. 3-5 Units.

In the early modern period, East Asian societies featured long-established institutions of learning and traditions of knowledge. This course examines the relationship between knowledge and power in East Asia societies prior to 1900. It explores how knowledge production operated in late imperial China (1550-1900), Chos'n Korea (1392-1910), and Tokugawa Japan (1600-1868). Among the themes addressed are: the state's role in patronizing science and knowledge; major intellectual movements; engagement with Western science and religion; East Asian statecraft; and East Asian understandings of space and geography. nTaking a holistic perspective, it places science and technology in 1) a social and cultural context 2) in relation to other bodies and fields of knowledge 3) in comparison to other societies in a similar historical time period. A socially embedded perspective on knowledge and science seeks to appreciate how politics, society, and knowledge are integrated, and in particular how science and knowledge can be both instruments and sites of political power. By exploring these links, the course will also illustrate how our modern disciplinary categories of natural science,social science and the humanities cannot be taken for granted and the areas of knowledge they cover can be deeply intertwined. nnThe course will also address these issues historically and across geographic regions in East Asia and beyond. The comparative lens and frameworks these perspectives can offer will bring an awareness of the diverse traditions of knowledge production in East Asia. Its examination of East Asian encounters with Western paradigms of knowledge throughout the early modern period will also illustrate how communication occurs across cultural, social, and linguistic barriers and how diverse world-views were managed in these encounters. These encounters of knowledge-exchange between Jesuit missionaries, Ming literati, Korean aristocrats, and Japanese doctors also show how cultural identities were constructed, reinforced, and challenged. These identities, expressed through the mastery of knowledge, are essential for understanding how East Asian reckoned with growing pressures to adopt Western industrial technology and military science in the late nineteenth century.
Same as: CHINA 157, CHINA 257, JAPAN 157, JAPAN 257, KOREA 157, KOREA 257

HISTORY 295F. Race and Ethnicity in East Asia. 4-5 Units.

Intensive exploration of major issues in the history of race and ethnicity in China, Japan, and Korea from the early modern period to the present day.
Same as: ASNAMST 295F, CSRE 295F, HISTORY 395F

HISTORY 296. Communism and Revolution in China. 5 Units.

From the formation of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1921 through the 1949 founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Topics include: early theories of socialism in China; the relationship between Chinese communism and the Communist International and Soviet Union; agrarian reformulation of communism by Mao; the communist-nationalist civil war; the Communist Revolution of 1949; and the consolidation of communist power in the PRC.

HISTORY 296C. The Making of Modern India. 4-5 Units.

What does the history of the modern world look like as seen through India's history? Through an examination of ancient India and the development of Hindu and Buddhist communities, to the influx of Muslims and the rise of the Mughal Empire, to European colonialism, Gandhi and anti-colonial movements, to Partition, Independence, Bollywood, and the rise of Hindu nationalist political parties, this course will provide a fresh lens to not only view India's history, but India's role in shaping the modern world.
Same as: HISTORY 396C

HISTORY 296F. Short Stories from India and Pakistan. 3-5 Units.

The course introduces the main periods and trends of 20th- and 21st-century Urdu short story: Progressive Writers' Movement, Partition literature, Modernism, contemporary fiction. Classes include close reading and discussion of selected short stories, with special focus on prominent themes such as social problems; personal loss, exile, displacement, alienation, and questions of identity; gender and sexuality; history, memory, and nostalgia; myth and imagination. Readings include: Premchand, Manto, Ismat Chughtai, Qurratulain Hyder, Intizar Husain, Naiyer Masud. All readings are in English.
Same as: ICA 296F

HISTORY 297. The Cold War and East Asia. 5 Units.

Explores how East Asia negotiated superpower rivalry and global ideological competition during the Cold War. Considers the ways in which China, Japan, and Korea were more than battlegrounds for US-Soviet contestation and played active roles in defining the nature and dynamics of the conflict. Re-examines conventional narratives and periodizations against alternative conceptual models and interpretive frameworks highlighting the constructed nature of the struggle as well as the role of historical and cultural factors in shaping the East Asian experience.
Same as: HISTORY 397

HISTORY 297F. Religion and Power in the Making of Modern South Asia. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the diverse ways that religious traditions have been involved in the brokering of power in South Asia from the late seventeenth century to the present day. We will examine the intersection of religion and power in different arenas, including historical memory, religious festivals, language politics, and violent actions. At the core of our inquiry is how religion is invoked in political contexts (and vice-versa), public displays of religiosity, and the complex dynamics of religion and the state. Among other issues, we will particularly engage with questions of religious identity, knowledge, and violence. Undergraduates must enroll in RELIGST 255 for 5 units. Graduate students must enroll RELIGST 355 for 3-5 units. HISTORY297F must be taken for 4-5 units.
Same as: RELIGST 255, RELIGST 355

HISTORY 299A. Senior Research I. 1-5 Unit.

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HISTORY 299B. Senior Research II. 1-5 Unit.

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HISTORY 299C. Senior Research III. 1-5 Unit.

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HISTORY 299D. Tooling Up for Digital Humanities. 1 Unit.

What are the digital humanities? The twenty-first century presents new opportunities in the humanities, such as unprecedented access to millions upon millions of digitized sources along with powerful technological tools to study those sources. Yet it also raises new challenges, such as the responsible and effective use of technology, and defining the nature of digital scholarship and communication. This workshop offers an introduction to fundamental concepts, methods, and issues within the growing field of digital humanities, including managing your online identity, digitizing sources, managing databases, text mining, spatial analysis, visualization, and pedagogy.

HISTORY 299H. Junior Honors Colloquium. 1 Unit.

Required of junior History majors planning to write a History honors thesis during senior year. Meets four times during the quarter.

HISTORY 299M. Undergraduate Directed Research: Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute. 1-4 Unit.

May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 299P. Undergraduate Directed Research: Pioneering Women. 1 Unit.

May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 299S. Undergraduate Directed Research and Writing. 1-5 Unit.

May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 299T. Tough Questions. 1 Unit.

A H&S initiative course.
Same as: HISTORY 399T

HISTORY 299X. Preparing for International Field Work: Public Service or Research. 1 Unit.

Open to students in all classes, those planning internships abroad and those planning research, from juniors with honors theses and sophomores with Chappell Lougee grants to freshmen thinking ahead. Introduces resources on campus for planning international research and service. Raises issues that need to be considered in advance of going abroad: ethical concerns, Human Subjects Protocol, networking, personal safety and gender issues, confronting cultural differences. Exposes students to research methods: case studies, interviewing, working in foreign libraries and archives.
Same as: HISTORY 399A

HISTORY 301E. Life Under Nazism. 4-5 Units.

This course explores everyday life in the Third Reich. Moving inside political events, students will examine daily experiences in the Nazi state-- from Hitler's tumultuous rise to power through the end of World War Two. We will see how people navigated new ideologies, practices, anti-Semitism, war, and mass murder. Through analysis of memoirs, diaries, essays, novels, propaganda, scholarship, and film, students will investigate how social and political developments can reveal the very boundaries between self and society.
Same as: HISTORY 201E

HISTORY 301J. Objects of History: From "Material Culture" to "Making". 4-5 Units.

This class considers objects as historical sources. It surveys diverse approaches to the study and display of physical evidence, from "material culture" to "making." These explorations of object-oriented research will inform the course's hands-on components, working with objects and replicating historical experiences. With its focus on the question of what historical knowledge can be gained through interactivity, the course is suited to students whose interests include museums and public history, reenactment and performance, the maker movement, or interdisciplinary methodology.
Same as: HISTORY 201J

HISTORY 301K. A History of the Global Left: Revolutionary Movements against Empire. 4-5 Units.

This class will trace the formation of trans-regional movements against imperialism in the modern period that helped create a "global Left." We will read contemporary works by thinkers such as Lord Byron, Karl Marx, Mohandas K. Gandhi, Annie Besant, and Faiz Ahmad Faiz, as well as historical studies of these figures and the movements in which they figured. Key topics include the American Revolution, the Indian "Mutiny" of 1857, the Ghadar movement, Pan-Islamism, Irish nationalism, and global communism.
Same as: HISTORY 201K

HISTORY 302D. The History of Genocide. 4-5 Units.

This course will explore the history, politics, and character of genocide from the beginning of world history to the present. It will also consider the ways that the international system has developed to prevent and punish genocide.
Same as: HISTORY 202D

HISTORY 302G. Peoples, Armies and Governments of the Second World War. 4-5 Units.

Clausewitz conceptualized war as always consisting of a trinity of passion, chance, and reason, mirrored, respectively, in the people, army and government. Following Clausewitz, this course examines the peoples, armies, and governments that shaped World War II. Analyzes the ideological, political, diplomatic and economic motivations and constraints of the belligerents and their resulting strategies, military planning and fighting. Explores the new realities of everyday life on the home fronts and the experiences of non-combatants during the war, the final destruction of National Socialist Germany and Imperial Japan, and the emerging conflict between the victors. How the peoples, armies and governments involved perceived their possibilities and choices as a means to understand the origins, events, dynamics and implications of the greatest war in history.
Same as: HISTORY 202G

HISTORY 302J. Federal Indian Law. 4-5 Units.

(Same as LAW 600.) This course will provide an overview of the field of federal Indian law. It will consider the origins and scope of tribal sovereignty as recognized under federal law, as well as current federal law on tribal legislative, executive, and judicial authority. It will also explore the division of authority between tribal, federal, and state governments; federal statutory schemes governing Natives and Native nations; and constitutional issues affecting Natives. Additional current legal issues which may be covered include Native land claims, gaming, family law, religious and cultural rights, and natural resources. Elements used in grading: Class Participation, Final Exam.

HISTORY 302K. The Holocaust and Its Aftermath. 4-5 Units.

This seminar gives an overview over different aspects of the history of the Holocaust and its aftermath and will examine key issues in recent Holocaust historiography and questions of memory and representation. Special emphasis is put on the nature of the historian's task, as viewed through the lens of historians of the Holocaust, as well as to the significance of the Holocaust in history and how it has changed over time. The course will confront students with historiographical texts and historical documents, with photography and film, works of scholarship and art.
Same as: HISTORY 202K, JEWISHST 282K, JEWISHST 382K

HISTORY 303. Premodern Economic Cultures. 4-5 Units.

Modern economists have made a science of studying the aggregate effects of individual choices. This science is based on the realities of personal freedom and individual choice. Prior to the modern era, however, different realities comprised very different economic cultures: moral economies in which greed was evil and generosity benefitted the patron¿s soul; familial collectives operating within historical conditioned diasporas; economies of obligation that threatened to collapse under their own weight as economic structures shifted. In this course we will be reading cross-culturally to develop an understanding of the shared and distinct elements of premodern economic cultures.
Same as: HISTORY 203

HISTORY 303C. History of Ignorance. 4-5 Units.

Scholars pay a lot of attention to knowledge--how it arises and impacts society--but much less attention has been given to ignorance, even though its impacts are equally profound. Here we explore the political history of ignorance, through case studies including: corporate denials of harms from particular products (tobacco, asbestos), climate change denialism, and creationist rejections of Darwinian evolution. Students will be expected to produce a research paper tracing the origins and impact of a particular form of ignorance.

HISTORY 303F. Words and Things in the History of Classical Scholarship. 4-5 Units.

How have scholars used ancient texts and objects since the revival of the classical tradition? How did antiquarians study and depict objects and relate them to texts and reconstructions of the past? What changed and what stayed the same as humanist scholarship gave way to professional archaeologists, historians, and philologists? Focus is on key works in the history of classics, such as Erasmus and Winckelmann, in their scholarly, cultural, and political contexts, and recent critical trends in intellectual history and the history of disciplines.
Same as: CLASSICS 331

HISTORY 303K. Trauma and History: Intergenerational suffering and collective healing. 4-5 Units.

This course will examine trauma as a historical process, following the intergenerational impacts of history's darker dramas, analyzing collective strategies for coping and healing after trauma, and asking whether we can speak of "traumatized societies." Readings for graduate students will include Ben Shephard's A War of Nerves, Didier Fassin and Richard Rechtman's The Empire of Trauma, and selections from Yael Danieli, ed., Intergenerational Handbook of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma. Colloquium will be discussion-oriented, but will also include guest discussants from around the world. The course will culminate in a conference to be held at Stanford, June 4-6: "Soul Wounds: Trauma and Healing Across Generations." Undergraduate requirements for 1 credit: Attend weekly "Mind, Body, and Culture" workshop and first hour of Wednesday morning discussion, attend some part of conference on June 4-6. Graduate requirements for 4-5 credits: Attend workshop, read weekly, discussion on Wednesday mornings, write a paper and if desired present at conference.

HISTORY 304. Approaches to History. 4-5 Units.

Required of first-year History Ph.D. students. This course explores ideas and debates that have animated historical discourse and shaped historiographical practice over the past half-century or so. The works we will be discussing raise fundamental questions about how historians imagine the past as they try to write about it, how they constitute it as a domain of study, how they can claim to know it, and how (and why) they argue about it.

HISTORY 304A. Reimagining History: Creative Approaches to the Past. 4-5 Units.

This class explores, through analysis and practice, the ways in which history can be told, produced, and experienced through means other than traditional scholarly narratives. Approaches include graphic histories, literary non-fiction and travel writing, film, art installations, reenactments, video games, and historical fiction. A final project will require students to produce their own innovative work of history.
Same as: HISTORY 204A

HISTORY 304D. Advanced Topics in Agnotology. 4-5 Units.

Advanced research into the history of ignorance. Our goal will be to explore how ignorance is created, maintained and destroyed, using case studies from topics such as tobacco denialism, global climate denialism, and other forms of resistance to knowledge making. Course culminates in a research paper on the theory and practice of agnotology, the science of ignorance.
Same as: HISTORY 204D

HISTORY 305. Graduate Pedagogy Workshop. 1 Unit.

Required of first-year History Ph.D. students. Perspectives on pedagogy for historians: course design, lecturing, leading discussion, evaluation of student learning, use of technology in teaching lectures and seminars. Addressing today's classroom: sexual harassment issues, integrating diversity, designing syllabi to include students with disabilities.

HISTORY 305C. Graduate Workshop Series. 1 Unit.

This is a 1-credit course for which only regular attendance is required, and graduate students may audit any or all of the sessions as they find useful. The majority of the course addresses questions of research, grant writing, and professionalization, while the last few sessions offer general guidance on preparing for the job market.

HISTORY 305G. Creative Political Thinking: From Machiavelli to Madison. 4-5 Units.

How can we account for creativity and innovation in political thinking? Are these qualities simply a product of political expediency and rhetorical urgency, or do they also depend on qualities of mind and historical contingencies that have to be studied individually? This class will explore these questions with three noteworthy cases: Niccolo Machiavelli, John Locke, and James Madison. Extensive reading in both primary writings and secondary sources.
Same as: HISTORY 205G, POLISCI 235J, POLISCI 335J

HISTORY 305K. The Age of Revolution: America, France, and Haiti. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the "Age of Revolution," spanning the 18th and 19th centuries. Primarily, this course will focus on the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions (which overthrew both French and white planter rule). Taken together, these events reshaped definitions of citizenship, property, and government. But could republican principles-- color-blind in rhetoric-- be so in fact? Could nations be both republican and pro-slavery? Studying a wide range of primary materials, this course will explore the problem of revolution in an age of empires, globalization, and slavery.
Same as: AFRICAAM 205K, HISTORY 205K

HISTORY 306. Beyond Borders: Approaches to Transnational History. 4-5 Units.

This core colloquium for the Transnational, International, and Global (TIG) field will introduce students to the major historiographical trends, methodological challenges, and theoretical approaches to studying and writing transnational histories.

HISTORY 306A. City, Society, Literature- 19th Century Histories. 4 Units.

This course examines the rise of modern cities through an analysis of urban society and the imaginative literature of the 1800s.
Same as: HISTORY 206A, URBANST 106

HISTORY 306B. Intoxicated: Commodities & Globalization in the Early Modern World. 4-5 Units.

Early modern Europe experienced an influx of foreign goods, including coffee, sugar, chocolate, tea, and drugs, that ushered in a new era of global commerce. Yet, these developments also had consequences: the large-scale enslavement and relocation of human beings and the violent subjugation of local populations in the name of empire. A wider range of goods from far-flung places entered the grasp of a larger swath of society, but from where, by what means, and at what cost?.
Same as: HISTORY 206B

HISTORY 306D. World History: Graduate Colloquium. 4 Units.

How do historians engage the global scale in the classroom as well as in research? The world history canon including Toynbee, McNeill, Braudel, Wolf, and Wallerstein; contrasting approaches, recent research, and resources for teaching. Recommended: concurrent enrollment in HISTORY 306K.

HISTORY 306F. Identities and Identification in the Atlantic World. 4-5 Units.

How identities and processes of identification changed in Europe, Africa, and the Americas during the early modern period and as a result of the engagement of the inhabitants of these three continents in the Atlantic world.

HISTORY 306G. Colonial Law. 4-5 Units.

Examines the relationship between law and colonialism in Latin America, Africa and Asia during both the early modern and the modern period. By reading some of the seminal works that have been published on this issue, we will seek to understand how law both facilitated and limited colonialism and how colonialism, in turn, had modified the legal systems that had existed previously. Attention will also be given to law an an acculturating agent and to the legal arena as a sphere for conflict resolution, negotiation,and identity formation.

HISTORY 306J. Resist, Rebel, Revolt: A Global History. 4-5 Units.

This course will explore the inspirations and contexts of political, social, intellectual, and cultural forms of resistance in modern global history. Historical subjects will include anti-capitalism, anti-colonialism, resistance to Fascism and Nazism, anti-Communism, civil rights movements, human rights campaigns, and contemporary forms of dissidence.
Same as: HISTORY 206J

HISTORY 306K. World History Pedagogy Workshop. 1 Unit.

Students draft a syllabus and create a curriculum module for use in a world history lecture course. Corequisite: HISTORY 306D, recommended.

HISTORY 307A. Legal History Workshop. 4-5 Units.

(Same as LAW 372.) The Legal History Workshop is designed as a forum in which faculty and students from both the Law School and the History Department can discuss some of the best work now being done in the field of legal history. Every other week, an invited speaker will present his or her current research for discussion. This year the theme of the Workshop will be Conservative Legal Movements from 1950 to the Present. Speakers will include Reva Siegel, the Nicholas deB. Katzenbach Professor of Law at Yale Law School, and Thomas Sugrue, the David Boies Professor of History and Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania, as well several other scholars of law, the social sciences and humanities writing about this topic. In the week prior to a given speaker's presentation, the class will meet as a group to discuss secondary literature relevant to understanding and critiquing the speaker's research. Students will then read the speaker's paper in advance of the following week's workshop presentation. Special Instructions: Students are required to write a brief response to each speaker's paper. There will be a total of four speakers, and thus four papers. Guidance will be provided concerning how to frame these response papers, which will be due every two weeks - i.e., on the day before speaker presents and students will receive "W" writing credit. Students taking the course to receive "R" research credit are required to write a research paper on a legal history topic that they choose (in consultation with the professor). After the term begins, students accepted into the course can transfer from section (01) into section (02), which meets the R requirement, with consent of the instructor. Students taking the course for R credit can take the course for either 2 or 3 units, depending on the paper length. Elements used in grading: Class participation, attendance, assignments and final paper. This course is open to first-year Law School students. Writing (W) credit is for students entering prior to Autumn 2012.

HISTORY 307C. The Global Early Modern. 4-5 Units.

In what sense can we speak of "globalization" before modernity? What are the characteristics and origins of the economic system we know as "capitalism"? When and why did European economies begin to diverge from those of other Eurasian societies? With these big questions in mind, the primary focus will be on the history of Europe and European empires, but substantial readings deal with other parts of the world, particularly China and the Indian Ocean. HISTORY 307C is a prerequisite for HISTORY 402 (Spring quarter).
Same as: HISTORY 207C

HISTORY 308. Biography and History. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between biographical and historical writing, primarily in Europe and America. Problems of methodology, evidence, dispassion, and empathy. Texts: biographies, critical literature on biographical work, and novels (A. S. Byatt's Possession, Bernard Malamud's Dubin's Lives) that illuminate the intellectual underpinnings of biographical labor.
Same as: HISTORY 207

HISTORY 308A. Science and Law in History. 4-5 Units.

How the intertwined modern fields of science and law, since the early modern period, together developed central notions of fact, evidence, experiment, demonstration, objectivity, and proof.
Same as: HISTORY 208A

HISTORY 308B. Women Activists' Response to War. 4-5 Units.

Theoretical issues, historical origins, changing forms of women's activism in response to war throughout the 20th century, and contemporary cases, such as the Russian Committee of Soldiers Mothers, Bosnian Mothers of Srebrenica, Serbian Women in Black, and the American Cindy Sheehan. Focus is on the U.S. and Eastern Europe, with attention to Israel, England, and Argentina.
Same as: FEMGEN 208B, HISTORY 208B

HISTORY 308F. Law and Humanities Workshop: History, Literature, and Philosophy. 4-5 Units.

(Formerly LAW 516, now LAW 3515.) The Law and Humanities Workshop: History, Literature, and Philosophy is designed as a forum in which faculty and students from the Law School and from various humanities departments can discuss some of the best work now being done in law and humanities. Every other week, an invited speaker will present his or her current research for discussion. In the week prior to a given speaker's presentation, the class will meet as a group to discuss secondary literature relevant to understanding and critiquing the speaker's research. Students will then read the speaker's paper in advance of the following week's workshop presentation. Enrollment will be limited to 30 students-- 20 from SLS who will be selected by lottery and 10 from H&S. Elements used in grading: Class participation, attendance, and writing assignments.

HISTORY 309A. Postcolonialism and Universalism. 4-5 Units.

Key texts and motifs from postcolonial theory: empire, class, exile, suffering, textuality, archive in juxtaposition to 20th-century philosophical questions about universal history and the relevance of humanist inquiry.
Same as: HISTORY 209D

HISTORY 309B. The Idea of Politics. 4-5 Units.

Can we live without politics? Is politics indispensable for humanity and vice-versa? The idea of politics is that it must transform, through human action, conditions of collective life. But the 20th century produced colliding beliefs about what that life might be and what the human being itself might look like. Explore whether, after the century, we might still think of politics as an ethical idea and the "human" as foundational political category. Keywords: Civility, Cruelty, Friendship, Empire, Democracy, Humanism, Animals.
Same as: HISTORY 209B

HISTORY 309C. Liberalism and Violence. 4-5 Units.

Does LIberalism have a theory of violence? What does modern political thought, in privileging humanity and rights, share with "terrorists" and "rogue states?" How is liberalism transformed by the use of religion and death for political ends? We read key thinkers of modern life- Adorno, Arendt, Agamben, Benjamin, Derrida, Fanon, Foucault, Gandhi, Heidegger, and Schmitt- to interrogate the relationship between religion, sacrifice, and democracy. At the center are connections between war and modern life, and between violence and non-violence.
Same as: HISTORY 209C

HISTORY 309E. History Meets Geography. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on developing competence in GIS computer applications and applying it to historical problems. Previous experience with GIS not required. Recommended: complete the GIS tutorial in Branner Library before the course starts.

HISTORY 309F. Maps in the Early Modern World. 4-5 Units.

The significance of cartographic enterprise across the early modern world. Political, economic, and epistemological imperatives that drove the proliferation of nautical charts, domain surveys, city plans, atlases, and globes; the types of work such artifacts performed for their patrons, viewers, and subjects. Contributions of indigenous knowledge to imperial maps; the career of the map in commerce, surveillance, diplomacy, conquest, and indoctrination. Sources include recent research from Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
Same as: HISTORY 209F

HISTORY 309G. Paleography of Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts. 3-5 Units.

Introductory course in the history of writing and of the book, from the late antique period until the advent of printing. Opportunity to learn to read and interpret medieval manuscripts through hands-on examination of original materials in Special Collections of Stanford Libraries as well as through digital images. Offers critical training in the reading of manuscripts for students from departments as diverse as Classics, History, Philosophy, Religious Studies, English, and the Division of Languages Cultures and Literatures.
Same as: CLASSICS 215, DLCL 209, RELIGST 204

HISTORY 30C. Culture and Society in Reformation England. 3 Units.

(Same as History 130C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 130C.) Focuses on the appeal of both Reformed and Catholic ideas in the political and cultural contexts of early modern Europe. Topics include: the Lutheran revolt; the spread of Protestant ideas; Calvin's Geneva; the English Reformation; Tridentine reform and the Jesuits; toleration and the underground churches; wars and religious violence; and the making of European confessional identities. Sources include sermons, religious polemic, autobiographies, graphic prints, poetry, and music.

HISTORY 311A. Family, Gender, and Production in Ancient Rome. 4-5 Units.

Seminar. The household as the basic unit of production in Rome in the context of family relations and ideologies of gender. Methodological challenges of doing social and economic history from literary, epigraphic, and literary texts. Demography of family and kinship in ancient Rome. Ideologies of gender and family roles and their influence on economic production. Economic theories of the family and human capital.

HISTORY 311G. Big Ancient History. 4-5 Units.

How the shift away from thinking about European history in terms of a western civilization model toward embedding it in stories of how global history affects research and teaching on ancient Greece and Rome. Conventional, evolutionary, and global history narratives of the past 5,000 to 15,000 years and some new ideas about how Greco-Roman history might fit into different storylines.

HISTORY 313. Core Colloquium: Graduate Readings in Medieval History. 4-5 Units.

This course serves as a graduate-level introduction to major themes, problems, methods, and historiographical traditions in medieval European history.

HISTORY 315. Advanced Paleography. 5 Units.

This course will train students in the transcription and editing of original Medieval and Early Modern textual materials from c. 1000 to 1600, written principally in Latin and English (but other European languages are possible, too). Students will hone their archival skills, learning how to describe, read and present a range of manuscripts and single-leaf documents, before turning their hand to critical interpretation and editing. Students, who must already have experience of working with early archival materials, will focus on the full publication of one individual fragment or document as formal assessment.
Same as: CLASSICS 216, RELIGST 329X

HISTORY 316. Women and the Book: Scribes, Artists, and Readers from Late Antiquity through the Fourteenth Century. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the cultural worlds of medieval women through particular attention to the books that they owned, commissioned, and created. Beginning with the earliest Christian centuries, the course proceeds chronologically, charting women¿s book ownership, scribal and artistic activity, and patronage from Late Antiquity through the fourteenth century. In addition to examining specific manuscripts (in facsimile, or digitally), we will consider ancillary questions to do with women¿s authorship, education and literacy, reading patterns, devotional practices, and visual traditions and representation.
Same as: ARTHIST 206H, FEMGEN 216, HISTORY 216

HISTORY 318. The Holy Dead: Saints and Spiritual Power in Medieval Europe. 4-5 Units.

Examines the cult of saints in medieval religious thought and life. Topics include martyrs, shrines, pilgrimage, healing, relics, and saints' legends.
Same as: HISTORY 218, RELIGST 218X, RELIGST 318X

HISTORY 319B. Secularity. 4-5 Units.

Classic theories of secularity. Is a secular world possible? How does, historically seen, the notion of the secular emerge, impose itself, and get challenged? Readings include Max Weber, E. Durkheim, R.A. Markus, Carl Schmitt, and Hans Blumenberg, and studies bearing on the Middle Ages, English monastic secularization, the French Revolution, and 20th-century political religions.

HISTORY 319C. Science, Technology, and Modernity in the Soviet Union. 5 Units.

Science and technology were integral to the Soviet claim to offer a vision of modernity superior to that of Western capitalism. Science and technology would flourish; society would develop on a scientific basis. The results were more complex than the vision. Topics to be covered: science and Marxism-Leninism; the Lysenko affair; the R&D system; the role of the secret police; the atomic project; the space race; missile development; Andrei Sakharov; technology and innovation.
Same as: HISTORY 219C

HISTORY 320G. Demons, Witches, Old Believers, Holy Fools, and Folk Belief: Popular Religion in Russia. 4-5 Units.

19th and early 20th centuries. Peasants, parish priests, witches, possessed persons, cults and sects, old believers, saints, and women's religious communities. Nominally Christian, and members of the Orthodox Church, Russians embraced beliefs and customs that combined teaching from Church and folk traditions.
Same as: HISTORY 220G, REES 220G, REES 320G

HISTORY 321A. State, Society and Nation in Modern Russian Historiography. 4-5 Units.

Main trends of Russian intellectual history as seen through major historians' treatment of Muscovy: Romanticism, Slavophilism, Hegelianism, Populism, Social Democracy, New Idealism, and Marxism-Leninism.

HISTORY 321B. Imperial Russian Historiography. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 322A. Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe and Russia. 4-5 Units.

Explores criminal law in early modern Europe and Russia, ca 1500-1800, in law and in practice. Engages debates about use of exemplary public executions as tactic of governance, and about gradual decline in "violence" in Europe over this time. Explores practice of accusatory and inquisitory judicial procedures, judicial torture, forms of punishment, concepts of justice.
Same as: HISTORY 222

HISTORY 323. Art and Ideas in Imperial Russia. 4-5 Units.

Poetry, novels, symphonic music, theater, opera, painting, design, and architecture: what they reveal about the politics and culture of tsarist Russia.
Same as: HISTORY 223

HISTORY 323B. Research Methodologies in Early Modern Russian History. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 323E. Cities of Empire: An Urban Journey through Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean. 3-5 Units.

This course explores the cities of the Habsburg, Ottoman and Russian empires in the dynamic and turbulent period of their greatest transformation from the 19th century through the Two World Wars. Through the reading of urban biographies of Venice and Trieste, Vienna, Budapest, Cracow, Lviv, Sarajevo, Belgrade, Salonica, and Odessa, we consider broad historical trends of political, economic, and social modernization, urbanization, identity formation, imperialism, cosmopolitanism, and orientalism. As vibrant centers of coexistence and economic exchange, social and cultural borderlands, and sites of transgression, these cities provide an ideal lens through which to examine these themes in the context of transition from imperial to post-imperial space.
Same as: HISTORY 223E, REES 204, REES 304

HISTORY 324C. Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Traces the history of genocide in the 20th century and the question of humanitarian intervention to stop it, a topic that has been especially controversial since the end of the Cold War. The pre-1990s discussion begins with the Armenian genocide during the First World War and includes the Holocaust and Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s. Coverage of genocide and humanitarian intervention since the 1990s includes the wars in Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo, the Congo and Sudan.
Same as: HISTORY 224C, JEWISHST 284C, JEWISHST 384C, PEDS 224

HISTORY 324F. The Caucasus and the Muslim World. 4-5 Units.

The linkages connecting the societies of the Caucasus to Muslim communities in Iran, Russia, the Ottoman Empire and Turkey, S. Asia, and the Middle East.

HISTORY 325A. Dark Century: Eastern Europe After 1900. 4-5 Units.

Major historical trends in 20th-century E. European history. Empires and national movements. The creation of independent Eastern Europe after WW I; social movements and the emergence of dictatorships and fascism in the inter-war period. WW II, Stalinism, and destalinization in contemporary E. Europe.

HISTORY 326A. Modern Europe: Society and Politics. 5 Units.

The goal of this course is to introduce graduate students to major works of history and literature in the field of nineteenth and early-twentieth century history. A colloquia will be given in tandem with a research seminar.

HISTORY 326C. Graduate Colloquium on Balkan History. 4-5 Units.

Designed for History Ph.D. students to develop competence in the history and historiography of the modern Balkans, from the French Revolution to the present. Areas of study include the influence of empires on the region, the rise of nationalism and nation states, the dilemmas of independence, the emergence and decline of communism in the region, and the recurrence of war and ethnic conflict.

HISTORY 326E. Famine in the Modern World. 3 Units.

Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Examines the major famines of modern history, the controversies surrounding them, and the reasons that famine persists in our increasingly globalized world. Focus is on the relative importance of natural, economic, and political factors as causes of famine in the modern world. Case studies include the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s; the Bengal famine of 1943-44; the Soviet famines of 1921-22 and 1932-33; China's Great Famine of 1959-61; the Ethiopian famines of the 1970s and 80s, and the Somalia famines of the 1990s and of 2011.
Same as: HISTORY 226E, PEDS 226

HISTORY 327D. All Quiet on the Eastern Front? East Europe and Russia in the First World War. 3-5 Units.

Until recently history has been comparatively quiet about the experience of World War I in the east. Far from being a peripheral theater of war, however, the experiences of war on the Eastern Front were central to shaping the 20th century. Not only was the first shot of the war fired in the east, it was also the site of the most dramatic political revolution. Using scholarly texts, literature and film, this course combines political, military, cultural and social approaches to introduce the causes, conduct and consequences of World War I with a focus on the experiences of soldiers and civilians on the Eastern Front. Topics include: the war of movement, occupation, extreme violence against civilians, the Armenian genocide, population exchanges, the Russian Revolution and civil war, and the disintegration of empires and rise of nation-states.
Same as: HISTORY 227D, REES 227, REES 327

HISTORY 328. Circles of Hell: Poland in World War II. 5 Units.

Looks at the experience and representation of Poland's wartime history from the Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939) to the aftermath of Yalta (1945). Examines Nazi and Soviet ideology and practice in Poland, as well as the ways Poles responded, resisted, and survived. Considers wartime relations among Polish citizens, particularly Poles and Jews. In this regard, interrogates the traditional self-characterization of Poles as innocent victims, looking at their relationship to the Holocaust, thus engaging in a passionate debate still raging in Polish society.
Same as: HISTORY 228, JEWISHST 282, JEWISHST 382

HISTORY 329A. Nationhood and Belonging: Poles and Jews. 3 Units.

Examines changing conceptions of nationhood in Poland, late-19th century to present, with focus on place of Jews in Polish society. What conditions fostered the early political sense of the nation? Why was it replaced with integral nationalism, and for some, fascism? How did Jews relate to their homeland? Emphasis on post-1918 history: impact of independence, Great Depression, West European fascism, World War II, imposition of communist rule, and collapse of the Soviet Bloc. Considers current Polish-Jewish relations.
Same as: HISTORY 229A, JEWISHST 289A, JEWISHST 389A

HISTORY 330. Core Colloquium on Early Modern Europe: Ancien Regime. 4-5 Units.

Topics in the social, political, and religious history of Western Europe, 1550-1789, with an emphasis on France. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 330A. Early Modern Colloquium. 4-5 Units.

Historiographical survey from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment. Topics include Renaissance, Reformation, European expansion, state and nation building, printing, military, and scientific revolutions, origins of Enlightenment. Designed to prepare students doing either a primary or secondary graduate field in early modern European history.

HISTORY 330D. Europe in the World, 1789-Present. 4-5 Units.

The European conquest of parts of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific by European merchants, missionaries, armies, and administrators had significant, and often cataclysmic, effects on indigenous political alliances, cultural practices, and belief systems. But were the effects of expansion entirely one-sided? What impact did the experiences of colonialism have on European politics, culture,and Europe's relations with the rest of the world? Explores how interaction between Europe and the rest of the world redefined the political, racial, sexual, and religious boundaries of both Europe and its colonies and gave rise to the more "globalized' society we live in today.
Same as: HISTORY 230D

HISTORY 331B. Core Colloquium on Modern Europe: The 19th Century. 4-5 Units.

The major historical events and historiographical debates of the long 19th century from the French Revolution to WW I.

HISTORY 331D. Core Colloquium on Modern Europe: Intellectual History. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 331E. Paper, Printing, and Digital Revolutions: Transformations of the Book. 4-5 Units.

What is a book? This seminar explores the conceptual implications of approximately two millennia of transformations in the physical and material properties of books. How have the meaning and authority we assign the written word changed as technologies of book production and dissemination have evolved, and how have they remained continuous? Topics covered include the rise of the medieval manuscript codex, the emergence of print culture in early modern Europe, and current debates over the nature of text in the digital age.
Same as: HISTORY 231E

HISTORY 332C. European Security Since World War Two. 4-5 Units.

This course looks at European security during the Cold War and up to the present. There are many historical controversies to be examined, e.g. the enlargement of NATO, as well as theoretical and doctrinal debates, e.g. about extended deterrence and detente.
Same as: HISTORY 232C, POLISCI 116A

HISTORY 332E. Crooks, Quacks, and Courtesans: Jacobean City Comedy. 5 Units.

We will read a series of plays set in or around early modern London, written by playwrights such as Ben Jonson, Thomas Middleton, and John Marston. The course will explore the plays¿ hilarious representations of the London underworld, with its confidence tricksters and naive victims, as well as more serious topics such as social mobility and social relations, economic expansion, disease transmission, and the built environment. Plays studied will include: The Alchemist, Epicene, The Roaring Girl, A Chaste Maid In Cheapside, The Dutch Courtesan..
Same as: ENGLISH 240A, ENGLISH 340A, HISTORY 232E

HISTORY 332G. Early Modern Cities. 4-5 Units.

Colloquium on the history of early modern European cities, covering urbanization, street life, neighborhoods, fortifications, guilds and confraternities, charity, vagrancy, and begging, public health, city-countryside relationship, urban constitutions, and confederations. Assignments include annotated bibliography, book review, and a final paper. Second-quarter continuation of research seminar available (HIST299S or HIST402).
Same as: HISTORY 232G

HISTORY 333C. Two British Revolutions. 4-5 Units.

Current scholarship on Britain,1640-1700, focusing on political and religious history. Topics include: causes and consequences of the English civil war and revolution; rise and fall of revolutionary Puritanism; the Restoration; popular politics in the late 17th century; changing contours of religious life; the crisis leading to the Glorious Revolution; and the new order that emerged after the deposing of James II.
Same as: HISTORY 233C

HISTORY 333K. The Invention of the Modern Republic. 4-5 Units.

Examines the history of republican thinking in the Atlantic World from the Renaissance to the French Revolution.
Same as: HISTORY 233K

HISTORY 334F. Science, Technology, and Empire. 4-5 Units.

How modern Europe came to be connected to thennwider world through repeated cycles of expansion, circulation, andnnexchange from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Using weeklynnthemes and in-depth discussions of ¿watershed¿ moments, nnthe roles played by colonialism, migration, commerce, warfare,nntelecommunications, and popular culture in redefining the place ofnnEurope in a changing global landscape will be explored.

HISTORY 335. The Renaissance of War: Politics, Technology, and War in Late Medieval and Renaissance Italy. 4-5 Units.

The dynamic societies of the Italian Peninsula of the 14th to 16th centuries "prosperous, astonishingly creative, politically fractious, and endemically violent" produced sweeping, deeply consequential changes. Among these were new developments in the theory and practice of war, politics, and diplomacy that laid the foundations for the modern state system and European military power. The class covers: new diplomatic practice; the Military Revolution; state-building; war finance; court culture; and the intersection of these with the shimmering brilliance of Renaissance culture.

HISTORY 335C. Readings in the Supernatural. 4-5 Units.

Class will read and discuss a selection of monographs, scholarly essays, and primary sources on the rich supernatural world of early modern Europe. We will discuss how fairies, werewolves, nightmares, and trolls all became witches, how the binary of angels and demons figured in European thought, and how the marginalized imaginary was reconstituted in theatre and fiction.
Same as: HISTORY 235C

HISTORY 336. Modern France. 4-5 Units.

(Daughton).

HISTORY 336E. Humanities+Design: Visualizing the Grand Tour. 4-5 Units.

Study of the eighteenth-century Grand Tour of Italy through visualization tools of the digital age. Critical readings in both visual epistemology and current Grand Tour studies; interrogating the relationship between quantitative and qualitative approaches in digital humanities; what new insights in eighteenth-century British travel to Italy does data visualization offer us? Students will transform traditional texts and documents into digital datasets, developing individual data analysis projects using text mining, data capture and visualization techniques.
Same as: CLASSICS 396, DLCL 396

HISTORY 336F. The End of the World As They Knew It: Culture, Cafés, and Crisis in Europe, 1880-1918. 4-5 Units.

The years stretching from roughly 1880 to end of the First World War were marked by profound social upheaval and an intense burst of creativity. This seminar will focus on the major cultural movements and big ideas of the period. Topics covered include the rise of mass culture and cinema, the origins of psychoanalysis, anti-Semitism and Zionism, new anxieties about sexuality and the ¿New Woman,¿ anarchism, decadence, degeneration, and Dada ¿ with cameos from Bernhardt, Freud, Klimt, Nietzsche, Toulouse-Lautrec, Wilde, Zola, and other luminaries of the age.
Same as: HISTORY 236F

HISTORY 337. The Holocaust. 4-5 Units.

The emergence of modern racism and radical anti-Semitism. The Nazi rise to power and the Jews. Anti-Semitic legislation in the 30s. WW II and the beginning of mass killings in the East. Deportations and ghettos. The mass extermination of European Jewry.
Same as: HISTORY 137, JEWISHST 183, JEWISHST 383

HISTORY 337C. Street History: Learning the Past in School and Out. 3-5 Units.

Interdisciplinary. Since Herodotus, history and memory have competed to shape minds: history cultivates doubt and demands interpretation; memory seeks certainty and detests that which thwarts its aims. History and memory collide in modern society, often violently. How do young people become historical amidst these forces; how do school, family, nation, and mass media contribute to the process?.
Same as: EDUC 356

HISTORY 337D. The French Revolution and the Birth of Modern Politics. 4-5 Units.

(Students who have taken HISTORY 134 should not enroll in this course.) This course will focus on the birth of modern politics in the French Revolution. The goal will be to understand the structural contradictions of the French monarchy in the pre-revolutionary period, the reasons for the monarchy's failure to resolve those contradictions, and the political dynamic unleashed as they were solved by the revolutionary action of 1789. Sovereignty, democracy, rights, representation, and terror will be principal themes. Lectures will be combined with close reading and discussions of political and philosophical writings of the period.
Same as: HISTORY 237D

HISTORY 337F. 20th Century British History through the Hoover Archives. 4-5 Units.

From the rich resources of the Hoover Institution, the students in this course will select a particular archive (war posters, politician, spy, literary figure, diplomat, etc. etc.) to investigate, to write about,discuss in class, and, it is hoped, present in an exhibition at the Hoover, learning museum skills along the way as well as the history of Britain in the 20th century.
Same as: HISTORY 237F

HISTORY 338A. Graduate Colloquium in Modern British History, Part I. 4-5 Units.

Influential approaches to problems in British, European, and imperial history. The 19th-century British experience and its relationship to Europe and empire. National identity, the industrial revolution, class formation, gender, liberalism, and state building. Goal is to prepare specialists and non-specialists for oral exams.

HISTORY 338B. MODERN BRITISH HISTORY PART II. 4-5 Units.

Themes include empire and racism, the crisis of liberalism, the rise of the welfare state, national identity, the experience of total war, the politics of decline, and modernity and British culture.

HISTORY 338G. Ethnography of the Late Middle Ages: Social history and popular culture in the age of the plague. 4-5 Units.

During the late Middle Ages, as Europe was recovering from the devastation of the Black Death, political reorganization contributed to a burst of archival documentation that allows historians richly detailed glimpses of societies in transition. We will be reading selected scholarly articles and monographs covering such topics as persecution, prechristian cultural remnants, folk theologies, festival cultures, peasant revolts, heresy, and the advent of the diabolic witch.
Same as: HISTORY 238G

HISTORY 339F. Empire and Information. 4-5 Units.

How do states see? How do they know what they know about their subjects, citizens, economies, and geographies? How does that knowledge shape society, politics, identity, freedom, and modernity? Focus is on the British imperial state activities in S. Asia and Britain: surveillance technologies and information-gathering systems, including mapping, statistics, cultural schemata, and intelligence systems, to render geographies and social bodies legible, visible, and governable.
Same as: HISTORY 239F

HISTORY 339H. Modern European History in a Global Age. 4-5 Units.

How scholars can write the history of modern Europe in a way that integrates global and transnational perspectives. Discussed the methodological challenges and merits of various approaches and reviews relevant theoretical and interdisciplinary models for how this can best be done. Topics include globalization, migration, internationalism, colonialism, post-colonialism, modern warfare, and the media.

HISTORY 340. The History of Evolution. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the history of evolutionary biology from its emergence around the middle of the eighteenth century. We will consider the continual engagement of evolutionary theories of life with a larger, transforming context: philosophical, political, social, economic, institutional, aesthetic, artistic, literary. Our goal will be to achieve a historical rich and nuanced understanding of how evolutionary thinking about life has developed to its current form.
Same as: BIO 340, HISTORY 240

HISTORY 341D. Einstein and the Structure of Reality. 4-5 Units.

Albert Einstein once remarked "One cannot help but be in awe when one contemplates the mysteries of the marvelous structure of reality. It is enough if one tries to contemplate only a little of this mystery each day." In this course we will contemplate the history, science, and philosophy involved in three pathbreaking and contentious episodes in Einstein's lifelong quest to unveil the structure of reality: the special theory of relativity, the general theory of relativity, and the quantum theory.
Same as: HISTORY 241D

HISTORY 342. Darwin in the History of Life. 4-5 Units.

Origins and impact of evolutionary theory from the nineteenth century to the present. Early theories of fossils, the discovery of deep time and uniformitarian geology, debates over evolution vs. extinction, the origin of life, and human origins; the rise of anthropology and racial theory; the changing challenge of creationism, the abuse of evolution in eugenics and Nazi racial hygiene; and new discoveries in the realm of extreme life, evo-devo, neocatastrophism, and the new technological frontier of biomimicry. Attendance at the lectures of HISTORY 142 is required.

HISTORY 342F. Medicine in an Age of Empires. 4-5 Units.

This course connects changing ways of understanding the body and disease in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to the business of empire. How did new ideas and methods of selling medicine relate to the rise of state-sponsored violence, resource extraction, global trade, and enslaved labor? Following black ritual practitioners in the Caribbean, apothecaries in England, and scientists abroad reveals the diversity of medical traditions and knowledge production in the early modern period that formed the basis of modern medicine today.
Same as: HISTORY 242F

HISTORY 343G. Tobacco and Health in World History. 4-5 Units.

Cigarettes are the world's leading cause of death--but how did we come into this world, where 6 trillion cigarettes are smoked every year? Here we explore the political, cultural, and technological origins of the cigarette and cigarette epidemic, using the tobacco industry's 80 million pages of secret documents. Topics include the history of cigarette advertising and cigarette design, the role of the tobacco industry in fomenting climate change denial, and questions raised by the testimony of experts in court.
Same as: HISTORY 243G

HISTORY 344. Narrative Knowing. 1-2 Unit.

Philosophers and historians have been debating the status of narrative explanation for well over 50 years. Until quite recently, a supposed dichotomy between natural science and history has shaped the discussion. Beginning from the origins, history, and limitations of the dichotomy, this seminar will explore how claims for narrative understanding and explanation have come to occupy an increasingly important role in the natural sciences as well as the social sciences. Some classic contributors are Hempel, Danto, Mink, Kuhn, White, Ricouer, Geertz, and Ginzburg. Current authors include Roth, Rheinberger, Kitcher, Beatty, Morgan, and (yes) Wise.
Same as: PHIL 344

HISTORY 345A. Africa in the Era of the Slave Trade. 4-5 Units.

The slave trade, including the trans-Saharan, Indian Ocean, and trans-Atlantic trades, constituted nearly a millennium of interaction with the wider world and set in motion transformations in African societies, polities, and cultures. Topics include the debates about slavery in Africa, the impact of the slave trade on African societies, state formation, economic change, religious change, and household change in the period before the scramble for Africa in the late 19th century.

HISTORY 346. The Dynamics of Change in Africa. 4-5 Units.

Crossdisciplinary colloquium; required for the M.A. degree in African Studies. Open to advanced undergraduates and PhD students. Addresses critical issues including patterns of economic collapse and recovery; political change and democratization; and political violence, civil war, and genocide. Focus on cross-cutting issues including the impact of colonialism; the role of religion, ethnicity, and inequality; and Africa's engagement with globalization.
Same as: AFRICAST 301A, HISTORY 246, POLISCI 246P, POLISCI 346P

HISTORY 348D. Law and Colonialism in Africa. 4-5 Units.

Law in colonial Africa provides an opportunity to examine the meanings of social, cultural, and economic change in the anthropological, legal, and historical approaches. Court cases as a new frontier for the social history of Africa. Topics: meanings of conflicts over marriage, divorce, inheritance, property, and authority.
Same as: HISTORY 245G

HISTORY 349. Bodies, Technologies, and Natures in Africa. 4-5 Units.

This interdisciplinary course explores how modern African histories, bodies, and natures have been entangled with technological activities. Viewing Africans as experts and innovators, we consider how technologies have mediated, represented, or performed power in African societies. Topics include infrastructure, extraction, medicine, weapons, communications, sanitation, and more. Themes woven through the course include citizenship, mobility, labor, bricolage, in/formal economies, and technopolitical geographies, among others. Readings draw from history, anthropology, geography, and social/cultural theory.

HISTORY 351A. Core in American History, Part I. 4-5 Units.

May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 351B. Core in American History, Part II. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 351C. Core in American History, Part III. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 351D. Core in American History, Part IV. 4-5 Units.

May be repeated once for credit.

HISTORY 351E. Core in American History, Part V. 4-5 Units.

Required of all first-year United States History Ph.D. students. Topics in Twentieth Century United States History.

HISTORY 351F. Core in American History, Part VI. 4-5 Units.

Required of all first-year Ph.D. students in U.S. History.

HISTORY 352B. History of American Law. 5 Units.

(Formerly Law 318. Now Law 3504.) This course examines the growth and development of American legal institutions with particular attention to crime and punishment, slavery and race relations, the role of law in developing the economy, and the place of lawyers in American society, from colonial times to the present. Special Instructions: Any student may write a paper in lieu of the final exam with consent of instructor. After the term begins, students accepted into the course can transfer from section (01) into section (02), which meets the R requirement, with consent of the instructor. Elements used in grading: Final exam or paper. Automatic grading penalty waived for writers. Cross-listed with History (HISTORY 152 Consent of instructor required) & (HISTORY 352B).
Same as: HISTORY 152

HISTORY 353D. Approaches to American Legal History. 4-5 Units.

(Same as LAW 651.) Legal history may once have been primarily devoted to exploring legal doctrines and key judicial opinions, and thus to be of interest mainly to legal scholars and lawyers. Now, the best writing in legal history resembles historical writing more generally, and the study of legal ideas and practices is increasingly integrated with social, intellectual, cultural, and political history. Examines recent writings in American legal history, ranging broadly across time and space to ask how the field reflects developments in historical writing more generally, and how the use of legal materials affects our understanding of major aspects of American history.

HISTORY 354D. Religion and War in America. 4 Units.

Scholars have devoted much attention to wars in American history, but have not agreed as to whether religion was a major cause or simply a cover for political, economic, and other motives. We will compare interpretations that leave religion out, with those that take it into account. We will also look at the impact of war on the religious lives of ordinary Americans. We will examine both secondary as well as primary sources, beginning with King Philip's War in the 17th century, and ending with the "War on Terror" in the present day.
Same as: AMSTUD 105R, CSRE 105, HISTORY 254D, RELIGST 105

HISTORY 355D. Racial Identity in the American Imagination. 4-5 Units.

From Sally Hemings to Barack Obama, this course explores the ways that racial identity has been experienced, represented, and contested throughout American history. Engaging historical, legal, and literary texts and films, this course examines major historical transformations that have shaped our understanding of racial identity. This course also draws on other imaginative modes including autobiography, memoir, photography, and music to consider the ways that racial identity has been represented in American society. Most broadly, this course interrogates the problem of American identity and examines the interplay between racial identity and American identity.
Same as: AFRICAAM 255, AMSTUD 255D, CSRE 255D, HISTORY 255D

HISTORY 356. 350 Years of America-China Relations. 4-5 Units.

The history of turbulent relations, military conflict, and cultural clashes between the U.S. and China, and the implications for the domestic lives of these increasingly interconnected countries. Diplomatic, political, social, cultural, and military themes from early contact to the recent past.
Same as: EASTASN 256, HISTORY 256

HISTORY 356G. Constructing Race and Religion in America. 4-5 Units.

This seminar focuses on the interrelationships between social constructions of race, and social interpretations of religion in America. How have assumptions about race shaped religious worldviews? How have religious beliefs shaped racial attitudes? How have ideas about religion and race contributed to notions of what it means to be "American"? We will look at primary and secondary sources, and at the historical development of ideas and practices over time.
Same as: AMSTUD 246, CSRE 246, HISTORY 256G, RELIGST 246, RELIGST 346

HISTORY 357. Was the American Revolution a Social Revolution?. 4-5 Units.

What kind of a revolution was the American Revolution? The revolution gave colonial Americans political independence from Britain to found the United States. But did the revolution also transform American society in its wake? This course explores how historians and historical participants alike have answered this question paying attention to historical changes (or lack thereof) that took place in American society between c. 1750-1820 as well as grappling with what conceptually constitutes a "social" revolution in the first place.
Same as: HISTORY 257

HISTORY 359E. American Interventions, 1898-Present. 5 Units.

This class seeks to examine the modern American experience with limited wars, beginning with distant and yet pertinent cases, and culminating in the war in Iraq. Although this class will examine war as a consequence of foreign policy, it will not focus primarily on presidential decision making. Rather, it will place wartime policy in a broader frame, considering it alongside popular and media perceptions of the war, the efforts of antiwar movements, civil-military relations, civil reconstruction efforts, and conditions on the battlefield. We will also examine, when possible, the postwar experience.
Same as: HISTORY 259E, INTNLREL 168A

HISTORY 362G. The Pivotal Decade in U.S. History: 1960's or 1970's?. 4-5 Units.

Which had more lasting impact, the civil war of the 1960s or the conservative revolt of the 1970s? Should the 1970s supersede the 1960s as a pivotal moment when something happened of considerable importance to historians? Considers this debate of the decades comparatively and thematically, addressing topics including civil rights, foreign policy, electoral politics, popular culture, law, economics, labor, and social movement organizing.

HISTORY 365. Writing Asian American History. 5 Units.

Recent scholarship in Asian American history, with attention to methodologies and sources. Topics: racial ideologies, gender, transnationalism, culture, and Asian American art history. Primary research paper.
Same as: AMSTUD 265, ASNAMST 265, HISTORY 265

HISTORY 365G. African-American Independent Film- On Both Sides of the Camera. 4-5 Units.

From D. W. Griffith's controversial "Birth of A Nation" (1915) to Nate Parker's also controversial "Birth of a Nation" (2016), Black Americans have played roles in Hollywood movies while also seeking to define how they are depicted in these movies. This course will introduce students to this history by featuring works of pioneering black filmmakers who challenged Hollywood racial stereotypes and created alternative images of the African-American experience.
Same as: HISTORY 265G

HISTORY 366B. Immigration Debates in America, Past and Present. 3-5 Units.

Examines the ways in which the immigration of people from around the world and migration within the United States shaped American nation-building and ideas about national identity in the twentieth century. Focuses on how conflicting ideas about race, gender, ethnicity, and citizenship with respect to particular groups led to policies both of exclusion and integration. Part One begins with the ways in which the American views of race and citizenship in the colonial period through the post-Reconstruction Era led to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 and subsequently to broader exclusions of immigrants from other parts of Asia, Southern and Eastern Europe, and Mexico. Explores how World War II and the Cold War challenged racial ideologies and led to policies of increasing liberalization culminating in the passage of the 1965 Immigration Act, which eliminated quotas based on national origins and opened the door for new waves of immigrants, especially from Asia and Latin America. Part Two considers new immigration patterns after 1965, including those of refugees, and investigates the contemporary debate over immigration and immigration policy in the post 9/11 era as well as inequalities within the system and the impact of foreign policy on exclusions and inclusions.
Same as: CSRE 166B, HISTORY 166B

HISTORY 368C. Poverty in America. 4-5 Units.

During the twentieth century, Americans launched numerous bold efforts to reduce poverty in the United States. Federal welfare policy, community-based programs, academic research, philanthropic charity, and grassroots activism committed time and resources to the cause, but poverty-- and inequality-- have persisted. Why? This seminar considers the origins, implementation, and consequences of these remedies, noting in particular how race, gender, citizenship, family composition, and geography have shaped the lives of those in poverty and the public and private responses to it.
Same as: AMSTUD 268C, CSRE 268C, HISTORY 268C

HISTORY 36N. Gay Autobiography. 4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Gender, identity, and solidarity as represented in nine autobiographies: Isherwood, Ackerley, Duberman, Monette, Louganis, Barbin, Cammermeyer, Gingrich, and Lorde. To what degree do these writers view sexual orientation as a defining feature of their selves? Is there a difference between the way men and women view identity? What politics follow from these writers' experiences?.
Same as: FEMGEN 36N

HISTORY 370. Graduate Colloquium on Colonial Latin American History. 4-5 Units.

Sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. Indigenous cultures. The arrival of Europeans and its impact on native and European societies. Culture, religion and institutions, and everyday life. The independence period and the formation of new nations.

HISTORY 370E. Queer History of the Americas. 4-5 Units.

This course will examine LGBT history in the Americas. It traces the development of homosexuality as a category of analysis; the construction of trans identity; the ways in which same-sex desire and gender identity were regulated over time; and queer people's struggles for recognition, liberation, and, ultimately, rights.
Same as: HISTORY 270E

HISTORY 371. Graduate Colloquium: Explorations in Latin American History and Historiography. 4-5 Units.

Introduction to modern Latin American history and historiography, including how to read and use primary sources for independent research.

HISTORY 372A. Mexico: From Colony to Nation or the History of an Impossible Republic?. 5 Units.

Was a republican form of government even possible in 19th-century Mexico after 300 years of colonial rule under the Spanish monarchy? Was the Spanish colonial heritage a positive or a negative legacy according to 19th-century Mexican politicians? How were they to forge a new national identity with so many ethnically and culturally diverse peoples throughout the territory? Just how ¿traditional¿ was, in fact, the colonial period? These are some of the questions we will explore in this course. Journeying from the late colonial period (c.1700) to the 35-year dictatorship known as El Porfiriato (1876-1911) we will examine how Mexico¿s diverse indigenous peoples adapted to both colonial and postcolonial rule, how they actively participated in politics and political discourse to preserve their cultures, customs and colonial privileges, and how after independence in 1821, a new republican political culture was forged. Mexico was not an impossible republic, but rather another kind of republic.

HISTORY 373A. The European Expansion. 4-5 Units.

The relationship between European monarchies and their colonial domains from the 16th-18th centuries. Reasons for expansion, methods, and results. Case studies include the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English domains in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Readings include primary and secondary sources.
Same as: HISTORY 273

HISTORY 373C. Caribbean Migration to the United States. 4-5 Units.

The course will explore the history of Caribbean migration to the United States.
Same as: AFRICAAM 273C, CSRE 273, HISTORY 273C

HISTORY 373E. The Emergence of Nations in Latin America: Independence Through 1880. 4-5 Units.

This course provides an introduction to the main themes of nineteenth-century Latin American history, including independence from Spain, the emergence of various nation-states, and the development of a new social, political, and economic order in the region.
Same as: HISTORY 273E

HISTORY 374. Mexico Since 1876: History of a "Failed State"?. 5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 174.) This course is an introduction to the history and diverse peoples of modern Mexico from 1876 to the present. Through lectures, discussions, primary and secondary readings, short documentaries, and written assignments, students will critically explore and analyze the multiplicity of historical processes, events and trends that shaped and were shaped by Mexicans over the course of a century. The course will cover some of the social and political dimensions of rural social change, urbanization and industrialization, technological innovation and misuse, environmental degradation and conservation, education, ideology, culture and media, migration, and the drug trade.

HISTORY 375B. Borders and Borderlands in Modern Mexico. 4-5 Units.

Surveys the history of Mexico's borders and borderlands from the nineteenth century to the present. Examines theoretical conceptualizations of the borderlands as well as the historical development of identities and geographic borders within and around Mexico. Topics include the legacies of war, map making, the construction of lo Mexicano, the politics of culture, and migrations to, from, and through Mexico. Analyzes the prevailing trends in Mexicanist historiography.

HISTORY 375C. History of Modern Mexico. 4-5 Units.

Surveys the history of governance, resistance, and identity formation in Mexico from the nineteenth century to the present. Explores Mexico's historical struggles to achieve political stability, economic prosperity, and social justice and examines how regional, class, ethnic, and gender differences have figured prominently in the shaping of Mexican affairs. Topics include Mexico's wars and their legacies, the power of the state, violence and protest, debates over the meaning of "Mexicanness," youth culture, and the politics of indigenismo.
Same as: AMSTUD 275B, CHILATST 275B, CSRE 275B, HISTORY 275B

HISTORY 376K. The Nature State: Latin American Conservation in Global Perspective. 4-5 Units.

This colloquium studies the history of conservation as a way to understand (territorial) state formation. It examines Latin America from a global perspective by comparing case studies from around the world. It examines how various political arrangements allowed for nature protection, the creation and functioning of institutions and bureaucracies in charge of protected areas, what these developments tell us about citizenship, the role of science in state formation, and the implications of different environments in the building of national territories.
Same as: HISTORY 276K

HISTORY 378A. The Logic of Authoritarian Government, Ancient and Modern. 5 Units.

If authoritarianism is less economically efficient than democracy, and if authoritarianism is a less stable form of political organization than democracy, then why are there more authoritarian governments than democracies? To address this paradox, focus is on theoretical and empirical literature on authoritarian governments, and related literatures on the microeconomic analysis of property rights and credible commitments.

HISTORY 378D. Race, Ethnicity, and the Environment in Latin America. 4-5 Units.

In a long sweep from the late eighteenth century to today, this seminar explores how race, ethnicity and the environment intersect in Latin American history, with emphasis on Colombia. It will inspect the meaning of the concepts of race and ethnicity and examine how the histories of black and indigenous peoples are better understood by taking the environment --both materially and symbolically-- into account. We will read a variety scholarly works, as well as primary sources.
Same as: HISTORY 278D

HISTORY 379. Latin American Development: Economy and Society, 1800-2014. 4-5 Units.

The newly independent nations of Latin America began the 19th century with economies roughly equal to the U.S. and Canada. What explains the economic gap that developed since 1800? Why are some Latin American nations rich and others poor and how have societies changed over time? Marxist, dependency, neoclassical, and institutionalist interpretive frameworks are explored. The effects of globalization on Latin American economic growth, autonomy, and potential for social justice are examined and debated.
Same as: HISTORY 279

HISTORY 379D. Modern Brazil: Economy, Society & Culture. 4-5 Units.

This course addresses the history of modern Brazil from independence in 1822 to the present day. The class focuses on theories of economic development, social structure and change, and cultural life in Brazil's diverse regions.
Same as: HISTORY 279D

HISTORY 37S. Love and Lust in the French Empire, 1830-1962. 5 Units.

Can we write the history of private life? Throughout this course, we will try out different historical approaches to the history of intimate matters in the French Empire. Beyond a more complete understanding of what colonialism was like, studying the intimate draws attention to the societal norms and anxieties of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Patriarchy, racism, and classism the power structures inherent in colonialism¿produce fruitful sites for prying into intimate matters. To that end, we will probe a wide variety of primary sources, including novels, films, paintings, letters, diaries, travel accounts produced by male and female Europeans, Africans, Arabs, and East Asians. Topics covered through these sources include, colonial masculinity and femininity; divorce; homosexuality; prostitution; and sexual violence. We will transcend racial and class divides, and cover a diverse geography including, France, North and West Africa, and Vietnam.
Same as: FEMGEN 37S, FRENCH 157

HISTORY 381. Economic and Social History of the Modern Middle East. 4-5 Units.

The integration of the Middle East into the world capitalist market on a subordinate basis and the impact on economic development, class formation, and politics. Alternative theoretical perspectives on the rise and expansion of the international capitalist market are combined with possible case studies of Egypt, Iraq, and Palestine.

HISTORY 381B. Modern Egypt. 4-5 Units.

From the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Topics: European imperialism, the political economy of cotton, rise of nationalism, gender and the nation, minorities, the coup of 1952, positive neutralism and the Cold War, and the neo-liberal reconstruction of Egypt.
Same as: HISTORY 281B

HISTORY 382. The United States and the Middle East since 1945. 4-5 Units.

Since the end of WW II, U.S. interests in the Middle East have traditionally been defined as access to oil at a reasonable price, trade and markets, containing the influence of the Soviet Union, and the security of Israel. Is this the full range of U.S. interests? How has the pursuit of these interests changed over time? What forces have shaped U.S. policy? What is the impact of U.S. policy on the region itself?.
Same as: HISTORY 282

HISTORY 382F. History of Modern Turkey. 4-5 Units.

Social, political and cultural history of Modern Turkey from the last decades of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century until Today. Themes include transformation from a multi-national empire to a national republic; Islam, secularism and radical modernism; military, bureaucracy and democratic experience; economic development, underdevelopment and class; Istanbul, Ankara and provincial Turkey; socialism, conservatism(s), and Kurdish challenge; Turkey in Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia; gender, sexuality and family; popular culture, soccer, and film industry; Post-Modernism, Neo-Ottomanism, and the New-Turkey; The class also include reading works of Turkish literature and watching movies by Turkish directors.

HISTORY 382G. Israel from the Margins. 4-5 Units.

Although secular, European Jews form a minority of the population of the State of Israel, and its history is typically narrated and interpreted from that perspective. Israel looks like a rather different place if it is seen and understood from the point of view of Middle Eastern and North African Jews,including those indigenous to the country before the advent of the modern Zionist movement, orthodox and ultra-orthodox Jews, Palestinian Arabs (nearly twenty percent of Israel's population today), migrant workers (about 200,000), and women. This course does not suggest that their perspectives are necessarily more real or true, only that an understanding of Israel that does not adequately consider them is necessarily false.

HISTORY 383. Middle East Oil and Global Economy. 4-5 Units.

The class studies Middle East oil in the global economy using the method of political economy. Topics addressed include: origins of the Middle East oil industry; the Seven Sisters international oil cartel; Aramco and the U.S.-Saudi alliance; the post-World War II petroleum order; petroleum, the crisis of 1971-82, and the rise of a new regime of capital accumulation regulated neo-liberal economic orthodoxy and "Washington Consensus" policies- commonly referred to as "globalization" since the 1990s.
Same as: HISTORY 283

HISTORY 383G. Place, Nature, and Life: Production of Space in European and Muslim History. 4-5 Units.

How did people experience, produce and imagine their physical and spiritual environment, their past and future, their immediate places and far geographies, life and afterlife in Europe and the Muslim Eurasia throughout history? How did political, legal and economic organizations configure and claim spaces in different time and geographies in Europe and the Muslim world? In addition to various case studies, primary texts and visual depictions, the theoretical framework of discussions will be based on texts by Lefebvre, Foucault, Soja, de Certeau, Yi-Fu Tuan, J.B. Jackson, Casey, Harvey.
Same as: HISTORY 283G

HISTORY 384F. Empires, Markets and Networks: Early Modern Islamic World and Beyond, 1500-1800. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on political regimes, economic interactions and sociocultural formations in the early modern Balkans and Middle East to Central and South Asia. Topics include complex political systems of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires; experiences of various Muslim, Christian, Jewish and Hindu, as well as urban, rural and nomadic communities; consolidation of transregional commerce and cultural exchange; incorporation of the Islamic world in the global economy; transimperial networks of the Muslim and Non-Muslim merchants, scholars and sufis.
Same as: HISTORY 284F

HISTORY 385A. Core Colloquium in Jewish History, 17th-19th Centuries. 4-5 Units.

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Same as: JEWISHST 385A

HISTORY 385B. Graduate Colloquium in Modern Jewish History. 4-5 Units.

Instructor consent required.
Same as: JEWISHST 385B

HISTORY 385C. Jews in the Contemporary World: Faith and Ethnicity, Vulnerability and Visibility. 4-5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 85B.) This course explores the full expanse of Jewish life today and in the recent past. The inner workings of religious faith, the content of Jewish identify shorn of belief, the interplay between Jewish powerlessness and influence, the myth and reality of Jewish genius, the continued pertinence of antisemitism, the rhythms of Jewish economic life ¿ all these will be examined in weekly lectures, classroom discussion, and with the use of a widely diverse range of readings, films, and other material. Explored in depth will the ideas and practices of Zionism, the content of contemporary secularism and religious Orthodoxy, the impact Holocaust, the continued crisis facing Israel and the Palestinians. Who is to be considered Jewish, in any event, especially since so many of the best known (Spinoza, Freud, Marx) have had little if anything to do with Jewish life with their relationships to it indifferent, even hostile?.
Same as: CSRE 185B, HISTORY 185B, JEWISHST 185B, REES 185B

HISTORY 385K. History of Modern Antisemitism: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. 4-5 Units.

The articulations of anti-Jewish hatred from the advent of Jewish emancipation in Europe. The legacy of premodern Christian demonization and its modern protean transformations as they penetrated and annexed new currents of ideology, notions of identity (social, national, racial), taste, and aesthetics. A history of ideas, representations, and stereotypes, and their relation to historical experience, action, and mobilization. Europe is the focus; case studies also include the Middle East and elsewhere.

HISTORY 386. Jews Among Muslims in Modern Times. 4-5 Units.

The history of Jewish communities in the lands of Islam and their relations with the surrounding Muslim populations from the time of Muhammad to the 20th century. Topics: the place of Jews in Muslim societies, Jewish communal life, variation in the experience of communities in different Muslim lands, the impact of the West in the Modern period, the rise of nationalisms, and the end of Jewish life in Muslim countries.
Same as: HISTORY 286, JEWISHST 286, JEWISHST 386

HISTORY 386B. The Ottoman Empire in the Age of Revolutions, 1750-1850. 4-5 Units.

Investigates the Ottoman World (the Balkans and the Middle East under the Ottoman Empire) in the Age of Revolutions in the global context. While the Ottoman World is the primary interest, developments in Europe, India and China are also discussed in a comparative perspective. Topics include military and fiscal transformation; regionalism; urban life and formations of public spheres; political crisis, social disturbances and political violence; transformation in the ethnoreligious structures, gender relations and family life; protonationalism in the Balkans and Egypt.

HISTORY 387C. Zionism and Its Critics. 4-5 Units.

Zionism from its genesis in the 1880s up until the establishment of the state of Israel in May, 1948, exploring the historical, ideological and political dimensions of Zionism. Topics include: the emergence of Zionist ideology in connection to and as a response to challenges of modernity; emancipation; Haskalah (Jewish enlightenment); other national and ideological movements of the period; the ideological crystallization of the movement; and the immigration waves to Palestine.

HISTORY 387K. Gentlemen and Jews: History of the Jews of England. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on key chapters in the cultural and political histories of Britain and itsnnJews, between 1650 and 1950 and examines the advantages, as well as possible difficulties, that emerge when connecting Anglo-Jewish history to mainstream British history. What is unique about Jewish emancipation in England, and what are its connections to the formation of British national identity? Is there unique path in which Jewish Enlightenment developed in England? What was the contribution of Jews to British Imperialism? Is there a cultural affinity betweennnEnglish philosemitism and liberalism?.

HISTORY 38A. Germany and the World Wars, 1870-1990. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 138A. Majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in 138A.) This course examines Germany's tumultuous history from the Second Empire through the end of the Cold War. During this time, Germany ushered in five regimes and two world wars, seesawing between material ruin and economic prosperity on the frontline of Europe¿s military and ideological rifts. Beginning with Bismarck¿s wars of unification, the class spans World War One, the Weimar Republic, the rise of Nazism, World War Two, the Holocaust, the division of communist East and capitalist West Germany, and the fall of the Iron Curtain.
Same as: JEWISHST 38A

HISTORY 39. Modern Britain and the British Empire. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 139. History majors and others taking 5 units, register in 139.) From American Independence to the latest war in Iraq. Topics include: the rise of the modern British state and economy; imperial expansion and contraction; the formation of class, gender, and national identities; mass culture and politics; the world wars; and contemporary racial politics. Focus is on questions of decline, the fortunes and contradictions of British liberalism in an era of imperialism, and the weight of the past in contemporary Britain.

HISTORY 390. North Korea in Historical Perspective. 4-5 Units.

This colloquium will approach North Korea from a longer historical perspective and also discuss the country's current crisis and its future. Themes will include the northern region in colonial Korea, Kim Il Sung and Manchurian guerrillas, the USSR and North Korean Revolution, the reconstruction after the Korean War, Juche ideology and the political system, the everyday life of North Korea people, the Cold War and North Korean diplomacy, culture and mass performance, the great famine and economy in transition, the military and nuclear development, and refugees and the succession of leadership.
Same as: HISTORY 290

HISTORY 390A. Major Topics in Modern Chinese History: Qing/Republican Transition. 4-5 Units.

Continuities and discontinuities in society, economy, politics, culture, and thought during the transition from the Qing dynasty to the republic. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 390E. Movies and Empire in East Asia. 4-5 Units.

Cinema was invented in the 1890s and simultaneously introduced to East Asia. This colloquium explores how this new medium changed the cultural and social landscape of East Asia and how the visual power of films also affected the culture politics of empires in the region. The themes include cinema and urban spaces, cultural imperialism, film images and gender discourse, colonial modernity, Americanism and Asianism, the visual and the textual, wartime propaganda, and Hollywood movies and cold war empires.
Same as: HISTORY 290E

HISTORY 391. East Asia in the Early Buddhist Age. 4-5 Units.

Evolution of cities in imperial China through early imperial, medieval, and early modern periods. Topics include physical structure, social order, cultural forms, economic roles, relations to rural hinterlands, and the contrast between imperial capitals and other cities. Comparative examination of cases from European history.

HISTORY 391B. The City in Imperial China. 4-5 Units.

The evolution of cities in the early imperial, medieval, and early modern periods. Topics include physical structure, social order, cultural forms, economic roles, relations to rural hinterlands, and the contrast between imperial capitals and other cities. Comparative cases from European history. Readings include primary and secondary sources, and visual materials.

HISTORY 391C. Early Imperial China. 4-5 Units.

The first millennium of imperial China, what endured over the centuries, and the major changes that took place in the political, social, and intellectual realms. Topics include the evolving geographic and environmental background, cities, the countryside, kinship, relations with the outer world, religion, philosophy,and literature. Also examines the nature of empire as a distinctive political form.

HISTORY 391J. East Asian Environmental History. 4-5 Units.

Traversing 2,500 years of history, this colloquium begins with conceptions of nature, agricultural time, and agriculture in ancient East Asia, proceeds to look closely at the environmental history of China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, and then concludes with environmental issues in East Asia from a contemporary perspective.
Same as: HISTORY 291J

HISTORY 392D. Japan in Asia, Asia in Japan. 4-5 Units.

How Japan and Asia mutually shaped each other in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Focus is on Japanese imperialism in Asia and its postwar legacies. Topics include: pan-Asianism and orientalism; colonial modernization in Korea and Taiwan; collaboration and resistance; popular imperialism in Manchuria; total war and empire; comfort women and the politics of apology; the issue of resident Koreans; and economic and cultural integration of postwar Asia.
Same as: HISTORY 292D

HISTORY 392E. The Historical Roots of Modern East Asia. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on China and Japan before and during their transition to modernity. The populous, urbanized, economically advanced, and culturally sophisticated Ming empire and Muromachi shogunate in the 16th century when Europeans first arrived. How the status quo had turned on its head by the early 20th century when European and American steamships dominated the Pacific, China was in social and political upheaval, and Japan had begun its march to empire.
Same as: HISTORY 92A

HISTORY 392F. Culture and Religions in Korean History. 4-5 Units.

This colloquium explores the major themes of Korean history before 1800 and the role of culture and religions in shaping the everyday life of Chosôn-dynasty Koreans. Themes include the aristocracy and military in the Koryô dynasty, Buddhism and Confucianism in the making of Chosôn Korea, kingship and court culture, slavery and women, family and rituals, death and punishment, and the Korean alphabet (Hangûl) and print culture.
Same as: HISTORY 292F

HISTORY 392G. Modern Korea. 4-5 Units.

Examines seminal works and major historical debates in the study of modern Korea. Topics include the state and society in the Choson dynasty, reform and rebellion in the nineteenth century, colonization, gender and colonial modernity, national identity and assimilation, wartime colonial Korea, decolonization and the North Korean revolution, the Korean War and its aftermath, the Pak Chung Hee regime and labor relations, and democratization.

HISTORY 393. Frontier Expansion and Ethnic Statecraft in the Qing Empire. 4-5 Units.

The legacy of the Qing dynasty in the territorial boundaries claimed by the People's Republic of China including the frontier zones that lie outside China proper. How the Qing acquired and ruled its frontier territories. Growth and migration of the Han Chinese population. How the dynasty's Manchu rulers managed ethnic difference. Consequences of Qing expansionism and ethnic statecraft for subject peoples and for the dynasty itself. At what point and by what processes did the Qing become China.

HISTORY 393A. State, Society, and Economy in Qing Dynasty China. 4-5 Units.

Historical scholarship on China during the Qing period, including the gentry, civil examinations, and the debate about social mobility; merchants, cities, and the debate about civil society/public sphere; taxation, local security, and famine relief; heterodoxy, collective violence, and rebellion; and rival approaches (neo-Malthusian, neo-conservative, and neo-Marxist) to understanding the high Qing economy.

HISTORY 393C. Late Imperial China. 4-5 Units.

A survey of Chinese history from the 11th century to the collapse of the imperial state in 1911. Topics include absolutism, gentry society, popular culture, gender and sexuality, steppe nomads, the Jesuits in China, peasant rebellion, ethnic conflict, opium, and the impact of Western imperialism.
Same as: CHINA 383C

HISTORY 393E. Female Divinities in China. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the fundamental role of powerful goddesses in Chinese religion. It covers the entire range of imperial history and down to the present. It will look at, among other questions, what roles goddesses played in the spirit world, how this is related to the roles of human women, and why a civilization that excluded women from the public sphere granted them a dominant place, in the religious sphere. It is based entirely on readings in English.
Same as: FEMGEN 293E, HISTORY 293E, RELIGST 257X, RELIGST 357X

HISTORY 394C. First Encounters: China and the West, 1500-1860. 4-5 Units.

For four hundred years, the peoples of China and the West have engaged with each other. What happened when worlds and world-views came into contact? In this course, we will explore the experience of encounter and its cultural impact on two largely distinct, but never isolated societies. We will study the history of cross-cultural exchange between China and the West to see how each emerged through dialogue with the other and to understand the roots of our own interconnected world.
Same as: HISTORY 294C

HISTORY 394D. Manchuria: Cradle of Conflict, Cockpit of Asia. 4-5 Units.

How did Manchuria become Chinese? This course utilizes the dual waves of early twentieth-century writings and a wide array of recent scholarship dealing with Manchuria to explore the formation of nation-states out of the Qing and Japanese empires in Northeast Asia through the lenses of opium, migration, cities, warlords, and memoir. This course will be of interest to students concerned with developing transcultural understandings of Northeast Asian history.
Same as: HISTORY 294D

HISTORY 395. Modern Korean History. 4-5 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 95. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195.) This lecture course provides a general introduction to the history of modern Korea. Themes include the characteristics of the Chosôn dynasty, reforms and rebellions in the nineteenth century, Korean nationalism; Japan's colonial rule and Korean identities; decolonization and the Korean War; and the different state-building processes in North and South, South Korea's democratization in 1980s, and the current North Korean crisis.
Same as: HISTORY 195

HISTORY 395F. Race and Ethnicity in East Asia. 4-5 Units.

Intensive exploration of major issues in the history of race and ethnicity in China, Japan, and Korea from the early modern period to the present day.
Same as: ASNAMST 295F, CSRE 295F, HISTORY 295F

HISTORY 395J. Gender and Sexuality in Chinese History. 4-5 Units.

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Same as: CHINGEN 395, FEMGEN 395J

HISTORY 396C. The Making of Modern India. 4-5 Units.

What does the history of the modern world look like as seen through India's history? Through an examination of ancient India and the development of Hindu and Buddhist communities, to the influx of Muslims and the rise of the Mughal Empire, to European colonialism, Gandhi and anti-colonial movements, to Partition, Independence, Bollywood, and the rise of Hindu nationalist political parties, this course will provide a fresh lens to not only view India's history, but India's role in shaping the modern world.
Same as: HISTORY 296C

HISTORY 397. The Cold War and East Asia. 5 Units.

Explores how East Asia negotiated superpower rivalry and global ideological competition during the Cold War. Considers the ways in which China, Japan, and Korea were more than battlegrounds for US-Soviet contestation and played active roles in defining the nature and dynamics of the conflict. Re-examines conventional narratives and periodizations against alternative conceptual models and interpretive frameworks highlighting the constructed nature of the struggle as well as the role of historical and cultural factors in shaping the East Asian experience.
Same as: HISTORY 297

HISTORY 399A. Preparing for International Field Work: Public Service or Research. 1 Unit.

Open to students in all classes, those planning internships abroad and those planning research, from juniors with honors theses and sophomores with Chappell Lougee grants to freshmen thinking ahead. Introduces resources on campus for planning international research and service. Raises issues that need to be considered in advance of going abroad: ethical concerns, Human Subjects Protocol, networking, personal safety and gender issues, confronting cultural differences. Exposes students to research methods: case studies, interviewing, working in foreign libraries and archives.
Same as: HISTORY 299X

HISTORY 399E. Preparing for International Field Research: Public Svc or Research, Electronic Version. 1 Unit.

Restricted to students studying at a Stanford Overseas Studies campus; same course content as HISTORY 299X. Problems involved in research abroad: ethical issues; safety; security and conduct; human subjects protocol. Methodologies of research: interviewing, networking, case studies, participant observation, large surveys. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

HISTORY 399P. Archives-Based Teaching Practicum. 1 Unit.

Through hands-on exercises and key readings, students will learn about basic archival handling techniques, usage guidelines, security issues, principles of archival organization, and bibliographic literacy around archival and Special Collections materials, along with an insiders tour of Stanford University Special Collections. During the second, students will partake in a hands-on session using Special Collections materials, with a class session enactment that demonstrates the program¿s concepts. Note: Enrollment only open to PhD students (ANY department) with instructor permission required.

HISTORY 399T. Tough Questions. 1 Unit.

A H&S initiative course.
Same as: HISTORY 299T

HISTORY 399W. Graduate Directed Reading. 1-10 Unit.

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HISTORY 3B. Transhistory: Gender Diversity from Medieval to Modern. 1-3 Unit.

This series of six lectures explores the history of gender crossings and transgressions, broadly defined. Several Stanford faculty members and one visitor will present historical interpretations of how and why individuals crossed gender boundaries in the past, as well as how different societies have reacted to gender crossing. The topics range from medieval to modern times and across geographic regions, including Europe, China, South Asia and the Americas.
Same as: FEMGEN 3B

HISTORY 3D. DANGEROUS IDEAS. 1 Unit.

Ideas matter. Concepts such as equality, progress, and tradition have inspired social movements, shaped political systems, and dramatically influenced the lives of individuals. Others, like freedom of the press, fact versus fiction, and citizenship play an important role in contemporary debates in the United States. All of these ideas are contested, and they have a real power to change lives, for better and for worse. In this one-unit class we will examine these dangerous ideas. Each week, a faculty member from a different department in the humanities and arts will explore a concept that has shaped human experience across time and space. Some weeks will have short reading assignments, but you are not required to purchase any materials.
Same as: ARTHIST 36, EALC 36, ENGLISH 71, MUSIC 36H, PHIL 36

HISTORY 3E. Michelle Obama in American Culture. 1 Unit.

Never before has the United States had a First Lady like Michelle Obama. During her eight years in the White House, Michelle Obama transformed traditional meanings of womanhood, marriage, motherhood, and style and created new possibilities for what it means to be strong and what it means to be beautiful. No First Lady has ever been so scrutinized but also so beloved: from her J. Crew dresses to her Let's Move campaign, from her vegetable gardens to her chiseled arms, and from her powerful speeches to her casual and always authentic personality. This class examines the impact on American culture of the most popular First Lady in American history.
Same as: AFRICAAM 3E, AMSTUD 3E, CSRE 3E, FEMGEN 3E

HISTORY 3F. The Changing Face of War: Introduction to Military History. 3-5 Units.

Introduces students to the rich history of military affairs and, at the same time, examines the ways in which we think of change and continuity in military history. How did war evolve from ancient times, both in styles of warfare and perceptions of war? What is the nature of the relationship between war and society? Is there such a thing as a Western way of war? What role does technology play in transforming military affairs? What is a military revolution and can it be manufactured or induced? Chronologically following the evolution of warfare from Ancient Greece to present day so-called new wars, we will continuously investigate how the interdependencies between technological advances, social change, philosophical debates and economic pressures both shaped and were influenced by war.
Same as: HISTORY 103F

HISTORY 4. Introduction to Geospatial Humanities. 3-5 Units.

This course introduces undergraduate students to the theory and methods of the geospatial humanities, understood broadly as the application of GIS techniques and other quantitative methods in the humanistic study of social and cultural patterns in past and present settings.
Same as: HISTORY 104

HISTORY 40. World History of Science. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 140. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 140.) The earliest developments in science, the prehistoric roots of technology, the scientific revolution, and global voyaging. Theories of human origins and the oldest known tools and symbols. Achievements of the Mayans, Aztecs, and native N. Americans. Science and medicine in ancient Greece, Egypt, China, Africa, and India. Science in medieval and Renaissance Europe and the Islamic world including changing cosmologies and natural histories. Theories of scientific growth and decay; how science engages other factors such as material culture and religions.

HISTORY 401B. Spatial History, Part II. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: 401A.

HISTORY 406. Graduate Research Seminar on Colonial Law. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 306G.

HISTORY 407K. Digital Humanities: Concepts, Tools, Problems. 4-5 Units.

How can digital tools benefit research in history and neighboring disciplines? The aim of this seminar is to equip students with basic skills in some of the most important digital tools currently used by scholars in the humanities and social sciences. Individual classes will focus on Geographic Information Systems (GIS), web mapping, digital network analysis, data visualization, and digital publishing formats. As part of the exercise to use digital methods, students will develop collaborative digital projects. No prior technical skills are needed for this course.
Same as: HISTORY 207S

HISTORY 40A. The Scientific Revolution. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 140A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for HISTORY 140A.) What do people know and how do they know it? What counts as scientific knowledge? In the 16th and 17th centuries, understanding the nature of knowledge engaged the attention of individuals and institutions including Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Newton, the early Royal Society, and less well-known contemporaries. New meanings of observing, collecting, experimenting, and philosophizing, and political, religious, and cultural ramifications in early modern Europe.

HISTORY 414A. Medieval History. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 414B. Medieval History. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 421A. Early Modern Russia. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 422A. Research Seminar on the History of the Russian Empire. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 422B. Research Seminar in Imperial Russia. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 424A. The Soviet Civilization. 4-5 Units.

Socialist visions and practices of the organization of society and messianic politics; the Soviet understanding of mass violence, political and ethnic; and living space. Primary and secondary sources. Research paper or historiographical essay.
Same as: HISTORY 224A, REES 224A

HISTORY 424C. The End of Communism in Europe. 4-5 Units.

Causes, course, and consequences.

HISTORY 42S. The Circle of Life: Visions of Nature in Modern Science, Religion, Politics and Culture. 5 Units.

A new understanding of nature emerged in the 1700s that fundamentally altered our perception of the living world and humanity's relationship with it. By tracing the evolution of this understanding forward, we gain insight into the interactions among science, religion, politics and culture. Topics include: nature in Romantic science, poetry and art; Darwin's theory of evolution and its afterlife in science, literature and popular culture; the science and politics of the 20th-century environmental movement; and the philosophical presuppositions underlying modern debates about biodiversity. In addition to close readings of canonical texts and contemporary commentaries, students will be introduced to digital history methods. Students will design their own final projects in consultation with the instructor.

HISTORY 430. Graduate Research Seminar: Early Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 332G. Students may research any aspect of late medieval, Renaissance, and early modern history, ca. 1300-1800. Students wishing to take this seminar must enroll in HISTORY 332G: Early Modern Cities in Autumn 2017.

HISTORY 430A. Graduate Research Seminar: Early Modern Europe. 3-5 Units.

Students will begin a research project on any aspect of early modern European history, 1400-1800, by taking HISTORY 430A in winter quarter as the first quarter of this two-quarter sequence. Enrollment by permission of instructor.

HISTORY 431. Early Modern Things. 4-5 Units.

How do objects reveal their histories? What can be learned about the past by studying things? The material culture of early modern Europe, ca 1450-1750. Recent work on the circulation, use, and consumption of things, starting with the Columbian exchange which expanded the material horizons of the early modern world in the late 15th century, exploring challenges to the meaning of things in the age of the Reformation and Scientific Revolution, and ending with the birth of consumer society in the 18th century How did the meaning of things and people's relationships to them change over these centuries? What objects, ordinary and extraordinary, secular and sacred, natural and man-made, came to define the emerging features of the early modern world?.

HISTORY 433A. Research Seminar in Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

Students will complete an article-length research paper based on primary sources.

HISTORY 433B. Research Seminar in Modern Europe. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 433A.

HISTORY 438. European History Workshop. 1 Unit.

All European history graduate students in residence register for this weekly workshop, at which dissertation chapters and prospectuses, papers, and grant proposals by students and faculty are read and discussed.

HISTORY 439A. Graduate Research Seminar: Modern Britain and the British Empire. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 439B. Graduate Research Seminar: Modern Britain and the British Empire II. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 44. Women and Gender in Science, Medicine and Engineering. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 144. Majors and others taking 5 units, enroll in HISTORY 144.) Men's and women's roles in science, medicine, and engineering over the past 200 years with a focus on the present. What efforts are underway globally to transform research institutions so that both men's and women's careers can flourish? How have science and medicine studied and defined males and females? How can we harness the creative power of gender analysis to enhance knowledge and spark innovation?.

HISTORY 443A. Human Origins: History, Evidence, and Controversy. 4-5 Units.

Research seminar. Debates and controversies include: theories of human origins; interpretations of fossils, early art, and the oldest tools; the origin and fate of the Neanderthals; evolutionary themes in literature and film; visual rhetoric and cliché in anthropological dioramas and phyletic diagrams; the significance of hunting, gathering, and grandmothering; climatological theories and neocatastrophic geologies; molecular anthropology; the impact of racial theories on human origins discourse. Background in human evolution not required.
Same as: HISTORY 243S

HISTORY 444. Graduate Research Seminar: Gender in Science, Medicine, and Engineering. 5 Units.

Theory and practice of gender in STEM. 1. "Fix the Numbers of Women" focuses on increasing women's participation; 2. "Fix the Institutions" promotes gender equality in careers through structural change in research organizations; 3. "Fix the Knowledge" or "gendered innovations" stimulates excellence in science and technology by integrating gender analysis into research. Seminar explores harnessing the creative power of gender analysis to enhance knowledge and spark innovation.
Same as: FEMGEN 444

HISTORY 444C. The History of the Body in Science, Medicine, and Culture. 4-5 Units.

The human body as a natural and cultural object, historicized. The crosscultural history of the body from the 18th century to the present. Topics include: sciences of sex and race; medical discovery of particular body parts; human experimentation, foot binding, veiling, and other bodily coverings; thinness and obesity; notions of the body politic.
Same as: HISTORY 244C

HISTORY 445A. Research Seminar in African History. 4-5 Units.

Primary sources such as government records and missionary archives. Students present work in progress. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

HISTORY 445B. Research Seminar in African History. 4-5 Units.

Primary sources such as government records and missionary archives. Students present work in progress. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

HISTORY 459A. Grad Research Seminar in U.S. History. 4-5 Units.

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HISTORY 45B. Africa in the Twentieth Century. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 145B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 145B.) The challenges facing Africans from when the continent fell under colonial rule until independence. Case studies of colonialism and its impact on African men and women drawn from West, Central, and Southern Africa. Novels, plays, polemics, and autobiographies written by Africans.

HISTORY 45S. The Cold War and the Shaping of Modern Africa. 5 Units.

This course considers the options and obstacles facing Africa during the Cold War, covering the period from the 1940s to the 2000s. Topics include the Cold War histories of Ghana, Algeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Tanzania, and South Africa, among others. The legacies of the Cold War for contemporary Africa will also be discussed. This course will also focus on how to manage large source bases and ways to engage with diverse primary sources including film and literature.
Same as: AFRICAAM 45S

HISTORY 460. Research Seminar in America in the World. 4-5 Units.

Ways to place American history in an international context. Comparative, transnational, diplomatic, and world systems are approaches to complete a research paper based on research into primary materials. Historical methodologies, research strategies, and essay projects. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 461A. Graduate Research Seminar on the History of Women, Gender, the Family, and Sexuality. 4-5 Units.

Instructor consent required for non-History graduate students. Seminar introduces graduate students to current issues and methods in the history of women, gender, the family, and sexuality in the United States. After an initial period of working on secondary and primary source bibliographies, and some discussion of secondary readings, each student will choose a topic for an original research paper (20-30 pages) based on primary sources. Each student will complete a first draft of the paper by late May and a revised paper by the end of Spring Quarter.
Same as: FEMGEN 461A

HISTORY 461B. Graduate Research Seminar on the History of Women, Gender, the Family, and Sexuality Part II. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: 461A.nnInstructor consent required for non-History graduate students.
Same as: FEMGEN 461B

HISTORY 47. History of South Africa. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 147. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 147.) Introduction, focusing particularly on the modern era. Topics include: precolonial African societies; European colonization; the impact of the mineral revolution; the evolution of African and Afrikaner nationalism; the rise and fall of the apartheid state; the politics of post-apartheid transformation; and the AIDS crisis.
Same as: AFRICAAM 47, CSRE 74

HISTORY 471A. Environmental History of Latin America. 5 Units.

What role did the natural environment play in the emergence of Latin America as a distinct geographical and socio-cultural world region? How do we analyze the historical relationship between the regions rich and seemingly abundant natural resources and its status as underdeveloped? What historical consequences did this relationship have and what alternative, more sustainable developmental paths can we envision for the future in light of the past that we will study? In this course, students will become familiar with the historiography on Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Cuba and Honduras that has explored these questions through a variety of approaches, methodologies and points of view.

HISTORY 471B. Environmental History of Latin America. 5 Units.

What role did the natural environment play in the emergence of Latin America as a distinct geographical and socio-cultural world region? How do we analyze the historical relationship between the region's rich and seemingly abundant natural resources and its status as 'underdeveloped'? What historical consequences did this relationship have and what alternative, more sustainable developmental paths can we envision for the future in light of the past that we will study? In this course, students will become familiar with the historiography on Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Cuba and Honduras that has explored these questions through a variety of approaches, methodologies and points of view.

HISTORY 472. The Caribbean. 4-5 Units.

This course will examine the social history of the Caribbean.

HISTORY 478. The Ethical Challenges of Climate Change. 4-5 Units.

This course explores the ethical challenges of climate change from historical, social, economic, political, cultural and scientific perspectives. These include the discovery of global warming over two centuries, the rise of secular and religious denialism and skepticism toward the scientific consensus on it, the dispute between developed and developing countries over how to forge a binding global agreement to mitigate it, and the "role morality" of various actors (scientists, politicians, fossil fuel companies, the media and ordinary individuals) in the US in assessing ethical responsibility for the problem and its solutions.
Same as: HISTORY 278S

HISTORY 47N. Global History of Death and Dying. 4 Units.

Does death have a history? Explores the changing realities of, attitudes towards and ways of coping with death. The role of death in shaping the modern world via the global slave trades, imperial conquests, pandemics, wars and genocides. Ways people have made sense of death in extraordinary circumstances and during calmer times. Continuities and transformations in death rituals, intellectual and philosophical debates about the personal and social meanings of death, and the consequences of ways and patterns of dying.

HISTORY 48. The Egyptians. 3-5 Units.

Overview of ancient Egyptian pasts, from predynastic times to Greco-Roman rule, roughly 3000 BCE to 30 BCE. Attention to archaeological sites and artifacts; workings of society; and cultural productions, both artistic and literary. Participation in class is required.
Same as: AFRICAAM 30, CLASSICS 82, HISTORY 148

HISTORY 481. Research Seminar in Middle East History. 4-5 Units.

Student-selected research topics. May be repeated for credit.
Same as: JEWISHST 287S, JEWISHST 481

HISTORY 486A. Graduate Research Seminar in Jewish History. 4-5 Units.

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Same as: JEWISHST 486A

HISTORY 486B. Graduate Research Seminar in Jewish History. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 486A.
Same as: JEWISHST 486B

HISTORY 48Q. South Africa: Contested Transitions. 4 Units.

Preference to sophomores. The inauguration of Nelson Mandela as president in May 1994 marked the end of an era and a way of life for South Africa. The changes have been dramatic, yet the legacies of racism and inequality persist. Focus: overlapping and sharply contested transitions. Who advocates and opposes change? Why? What are their historical and social roots and strategies? How do people reconstruct their society? Historical and current sources, including films, novels, and the Internet.
Same as: AFRICAAM 48Q

HISTORY 491A. Modern Korea Research Seminar. 4-5 Units.

This graduate seminar prepares students to undertake research using Korean-language sources on a variety of themes in modern Korea. Students will identify characteristics of major online and offline archives in Korean studies, learn essential skills in investigating primary sources, and analyze selected sample documents in class.

HISTORY 491B. Modern Korea Research Seminar. 4-5 Units.

This graduate seminar prepares students to undertake research using Korean-language sources on a variety of themes in modern Korea. Students will identify characteristics of major online and offline archives in Korean studies, learn essential skills in investigating primary sources, and analyze selected sample documents in class.

HISTORY 492B. Origins of Technical Medicine in the Han Dynasty. 4-5 Units.

How medicine as a technical, text-based art monopolized by specialists was established under the Han Dynasty in competition with practices aimed at nourishing life and securing longevity.

HISTORY 493. Research Seminar on Political Thought. 4-5 Units.

A series of texts and documents that form the heart of what Marx and Engels called "the colonial question". Discussions center on specific themes relating to each student's research topic and/or interests. The seminar will be organized around a set of core common readings and weekly discussions, supplemented by a designed list of secondary texts and primary materials. Themes include: secularism, religion, state, capital, empire, anticolonialism, gender, democracy, textual and print cultures, cinema, political and legal theory, and history of economic thought. 400-level options allows students to do a two-quarter sequence, with the Spring devoted to writing up the research paper.
Same as: HISTORY 293A

HISTORY 496A. Research Seminar in Chinese History. 4-5 Units.

First part of a two part sequence. Primary sources and research methods to be used in the study of modern Chinese history.

HISTORY 496B. Research Seminar in Chinese History. 4-5 Units.

Second part of a two part sequence. Primary sources and research methods to be used in the study of modern Chinese history. Prerequisite: HISTORY 496A.

HISTORY 497A. Maps and Gazetteers as Sources for East Asian History. 4-5 Units.

For graduate students of early modern or modern East Asia. Includes weekend workshop on Chinese historical GIS with Harvard's Peter Bol. Students work with the Stanford Spatial History Lab to develop analytical techniques. Prerequisite: background in GIS.

HISTORY 497B. Maps and Gazetters as Sources for East Asian History, Part 2. 4-5 Units.

Prerequisite: HISTORY 497A.

HISTORY 498D. Japanese Imperial Archives, Part 2. 4-5 Units.

Second part of a two-quarter research graduate seminar on Japanese imperialism in Asia. Students complete research papers based on research conducted for History 498C; the class meets occasionally to report on progress and discuss working drafts. Prerequisite: History 498C.

HISTORY 499X. Graduate Research. 1-10 Unit.

Units by arrangement. May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 4N. A World History of Genocide. 3-5 Units.

Reviews the history of genocide from ancient times until the present. Defines genocide, both in legal and historical terms, and investigates its causes, consequences, and global dimensions. Issues of prevention, punishment, and interdiction. Main periods of concern are the ancient world, Spanish colonial conquest; early modern Asia; settler genocides in America, Australia, and Africa; the Armenian genocide and the Holocaust; genocide in communist societies; and late 20th century genocide.
Same as: JEWISHST 4N

HISTORY 50A. Colonial and Revolutionary America. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 150A. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150A.) Survey of the origins of American society and polity in the 17th and 18th centuries. Topics: the migration of Europeans and Africans and the impact on native populations; the emergence of racial slavery and of regional, provincial, Protestant cultures; and the political origins and constitutional consequences of the American Revolution.

HISTORY 50B. Nineteenth Century America. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 150B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register in 150B.) Territorial expansion, social change, and economic transformation. The causes and consequences of the Civil War. Topics include: urbanization and the market revolution; slavery and the Old South; sectional conflict; successes and failures of Reconstruction; and late 19th-century society and culture.
Same as: AFRICAAM 50B

HISTORY 50C. The United States in the Twentieth Century. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 150C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 150C.) This course begins around 1900, when women and most African-Americans could not vote; automobiles were virtually unknown and computers unimaginable; and the U.S. was a minor power overshadowed by Europe. Yet fierce debates over the purpose of government and role of the U.S. in the world animated national politics, as they do today. This course surveys U.S. politics, culture, and social movements to answer the question: How did we get from there to here? Suitable for non-majors and majors.

HISTORY 50K. John F. Kennedy: Fifty Years Later. 1 Unit.

November 22, 2013 marks the 50th anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's assassination. Half a century on, our visually saturated culture remains besotted with images of the youthful president and his strikingly photogenic family. But the passage of time has also yielded new perspectives on Kennedy's presidency and on his era. November 22, 1963 may well come to be remembered not only as the day when the life of a promising young leader was violently cut short, but also as the pivot between two distinct eras in American history. Ironically, though Kennedy was the first World War II veteran to reach the White House, his death heralded the end of the long postwar season of national pride, optimism, confidence, and widely shared prosperity¿and may have opened the road to the great catastrophe that was the Vietnam War. His passing also helped to pry open the portals to historic changes in the lives of millions of African Americans, as witnessed by Lyndon Johnson's artful invocation of the fallen president to bring about passage of the epic civil rights legislation of the late 1960s. nnThis course will examine the postwar domestic and international settings in which Kennedy rose to and exercised power. It will probe our continuing fascination with his character and with his family; his role as a Cold Warrior, especially in the tense confrontation known as the Cuban Missile Crisis; and his relation to the African American struggle to bury Jim Crow. We will conclude with an assessment of the longer-term historical consequence of his brief moment in the arenas of celebrity and power. Guest speakers will include noted Kennedy biographer Robert Dallek; Johnson biographer Bruce Schulman; Taylor Branch, acclaimed biographer of Martin Luther King, Jr.; and Stanford's own Jennifer Burns, historian of modern America.

HISTORY 51K. Election 2016. 1 Unit.

The 2016 Presidential Election season has been anything but ordinary. So much in the Democratic and Republican primaries consistently defied conventional wisdom and upended the predictions of experts. This course will attempt, with the help of distinguished guests, to make sense of an election that defies all historical precedent and to take stock of the health of American democracy.nClass is jointly offered for Continuing Studies students and Stanford students. As a 1 unit, online course for Stanford students, enrollment is unlimited. Registration for the course offers online access to a livestream of each class session, participation in online discussions, access to course website and materials, and admission to a lottery for attending each class in person.
Same as: CSRE 51K, POLISCI 51K

HISTORY 51S. American Travel, Tourism and Empire in the Pacific, 1880s-1970s. 5 Units.

What does it mean to be a traveler or a tourist? Is travel a form of empire or exploitation? Can it ever be an innocent form of economic and cultural exchange? This class will examine how cultures of travel and tourism helped everyday Americans understand and shape the country's political, social, and economic challenges from the 1880s to 1970s, as the U.S. evolved from a continental empire, into an overseas empire, and finally into an informal empire.
Same as: AMSTUD 51S, CSRE 51S

HISTORY 52Q. Democracy in Crisis: Learning from the Past. 3 Units.

This Sophomore Seminar will focus on U.S. democracy and will use a series of case studies of major events in our national history to explore what happened and why to American democracy at key pressure points. This historical exploration should shed light on how the current challenges facing American democracy might best be handled.
Same as: EDUC 122Q, POLISCI 20Q

HISTORY 54N. African American Women's Lives. 3 Units.

This course encourages students to think critically about historical sources and to use creative and rigorous historical methods to recover African American women¿s experiences, which often have been placed on the periphery of American history and American life.
Same as: AFRICAAM 54N, AMSTUD 54N, CSRE 54N, FEMGEN 54N

HISTORY 54Q. African American Women's Lives. 3-4 Units.

Preference to sophomores. African American women have been placed on the periphery of many historical documents. This course will encourage students to think critically about historical sources and to use creative and rigorous historical methods to recover African American women¿s experiences. Drawing largely on primary sources such as letters, personal journals, literature and film, this course explores the everyday lives of African American women in 19th- and 20th-century America. We will begin in our present moment with a discussion of Michelle Obama and then we will look back on the lives and times of a wide range of African American women including: Charlotte Forten Grimké, a 19th-century reformer and teacher; Nella Larsen, a Harlem Renaissance novelist; Josephine Baker, the expatriate entertainer and singer; and Ida B. Wells and Ella Baker, two luminaries of civil rights activism. We will examine the struggles of African American women to define their own lives and improve the social, economic, political and cultural conditions of black communities. Topics will include women¿s enslavement and freedom, kinship and family relations, institution and community building, violence, labor and leisure, changing gender roles, consumer and beauty culture, social activism, and the politics of sexuality.
Same as: AFRICAAM 54Q, AMSTUD 54Q, FEMGEN 54Q

HISTORY 54S. The American Civil War. 5 Units.

Few events in American history match the significance of the Civil War, a conflict that freed 4 million people held in bondage and left 750,000 men dead. This course will explore the war from a range of perspectives, including those of Union and Confederate soldiers, African Americans, women, and Native Americans. Based on the documents these different groups left behind, as well as the histories they inspired, we will seek to understand how the Civil War was experienced and commemorated. Priority given to history majors and minors.

HISTORY 55D. The Asian American Movement: A History of Activism. 3-5 Units.

The "Asian American Movement" was born in the late 1960s inspired by other movements for social change and justice in the era. Activism among Asians in America has a longer history and a continuity to today. We will examine past, present, and future and consider issues of racial/ethnic identity, of inequality, and of injustice. And we will explore avenues that sought remedy and progress. Political, social, cultural, gender and sexuality, and international dimensions will be considered.
Same as: AMSTUD 155D, ASNAMST 155D, HISTORY 155D

HISTORY 55Q. The Origins of the Modern American City, 1865-1920. 3 Units.

Are we living in a new Gilded Age? To answer this question, we go back to the original Gilded Age, as well as its successor, the Progressive Era. How did urban Americans around the turn of the twentieth century deal with stark inequalities of class, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality? And what can we learn from their struggles for our own time? Students use primary and secondary sources in digital and print formats. Possible field trip to San Francisco.
Same as: AMSTUD 25Q, URBANST 25Q

HISTORY 57E. State of the Union 2014. 1 Unit.

This course will examine major themes that contribute to the health, or disease, of the US body politic. Challenges and opportunities abound: we live in an age of rising inequality, dazzling technological innovation, economic volatility, geopolitical uncertainty, and the accumulating impact of climate change. These conditions confront our political leaders and us as citizens of a democracy plagued by dysfunction. What are the implications for the body politic? Led by Rob Reich (Political Science, Stanford), David Kennedy (History, Stanford), and James Steyer (CEO, Common Sense Media), the course will bring together distinguished analysts of American politics. Together, we will examine the following topics: inequality; energy and the environment; media and technology; the economy; and the 2014 midterm elections. The course is designed for the entire Stanford community: jointly offered for undergraduate and graduate students at Stanford (through listings in Political Science and History) and for community members through the Continuing Studies Program. For students, the course is available for 1 credit. This course may not be taken for a Letter Grade.
Same as: POLISCI 57E

HISTORY 5A. History of Information: From Moveable Type to Machine Learning. 3-5 Units.

Students who have taken HISTORY 205A/305A should not enroll in this course. Information has a history-- and it's not the one we've been told by Silicon Valley. In a series of propulsive, empirically rich, and provocative lectures and discussions, this course deep-dives into the history of information and IT, including moveable type, telegraphy, typewriting, personal computing, gaming, social media, algorithms, machine learning, Digital Humanities, and more. You will leave the course with entirely new perspectives on information, including how IT shapes-- and is shaped by-- culture, nationality, gender, ethnicity, economy, and environment.
Same as: HISTORY 105A

HISTORY 60N. Revolutionaries and Founders. 3 Units.

Americans remain fascinated by the revolutionary generation which secured independence and established a national constitutional republic. Books about the founders come steadily from the presses, some describing the lives of individual revolutionaries, others trying to analyze and explain what made these events possible. This seminar will approach the Revolution through both a biographical and analytical framework, relying both on scholarly writings and the massive array of primary sources that are readily available through letterpress editions and on-line. The course will rely on the instructor's own recent book, Revolutionaries: A New History of the Invention of America, which carries the story from the crisis around the Boston Tea Party of 1773 through the end of President Washington's first administration. The course will be divided evenly between modern scholarship and the careful reading of original materials, and students will write short essays that will involve the analysis of explanatory problems, the close interpretation of documents, and the crafting of historical narratives. Topics to be discussed will include the outbreak of the revolution, constitution-making at both the state and national levels of government, the conduct of the war, and the legacies that Americans particularly associate with Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton.

HISTORY 61. The Politics of Sex: Work, Family, and Citizenship in Modern American Women's History. 3-5 Units.

This course explores the transition from Victorian to modern American womanhood by asking how Native, European, African, Mexican, and Asian American women navigated the changing sexual, economic, and political landscapes of the twentieth century. Through secondary readings, primary sources, films, music, and literature we explore the opportunities and boundaries on groups of women in the context of historical events that included immigration, urbanization, wartime, depression, the Cold War, as well as recurrent feminist and conservative political movements.
Same as: AMSTUD 161, CSRE 162, FEMGEN 161, HISTORY 161

HISTORY 61N. The Worlds of Thomas Jefferson. 3 Units.

Thomas Jefferson assumed many roles during his life-- Founding Father, revolutionary, and author of the Declaration of Independence; natural scientist, inventor, and political theorist; slaveholder, founder of a major political party, and President of the United States. This introductory seminar explores these many worlds of Jefferson, both to understand the multifaceted character of the man and the broader historical contexts that he inhabited and did so much to shape.

HISTORY 63N. The Feminist Critique: The History and Politics of Gender Equality. 3-4 Units.

This course explores the long history of ideas about gender and equality. Each week we read, dissect, compare, and critique a set of primary historical documents (political and literary) from around the world, moving from the 15th century to the present. We tease out changing arguments about education, the body, sexuality, violence, labor, politics, and the very meaning of gender, and we place feminist critics within national and global political contexts.
Same as: AMSTUD 63N, CSRE 63N, FEMGEN 63N

HISTORY 64. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Modern America. 4-5 Units.

How ethnicity influenced the American experience and how prevailing attitudes about racial and ethnic groups over time have affected the historical and contemporary reality of the nation's major minority populations. Focus is on the past two centuries.
Same as: CSRE 64

HISTORY 68D. Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Inner Life and Global Vision. 3-5 Units.

Martin Luther King, Jr., was the 20th-century's best-known African-American leader, but the religious roots of his charismatic leadership are far less widely known. The documents assembled and published by Stanford's King Research and Education Institute provide the source materials for this exploration of King's swift rise to international prominence as an articulate advocate of global peace and justice.
Same as: AFRICAAM 68D, AMSTUD 168D, CSRE 68, HISTORY 168D

HISTORY 68S. New Orleans: An American City?. 5 Units.

Some scholars argue that New Orleans is not quite an American city, but is instead a cultural hybrid of Europe, Africa, and the Caribbean. This course will investigate that claim by studying New Orleans from its colonial period to the present. Topics include colonial empires, the role of New Orleans as the largest slave market in North America, the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, Civil Rights, Carnival, tourism, religion, and state and federal responses to Hurricane Katrina, among others.
Same as: AMSTUD 68S, URBANST 68S

HISTORY 69Q. American Road Trips. 4 Units.

"Nothing behind me, everything ahead of me, as is ever so on the road." --Jack Kerouac, On the Road, 1957. From Jack Kerouac's On the Road to Cheryl Strayed's Wild, this course explores epic road trips of the twentieth century. Travel is a fundamental social and cultural practice through which Americans have constructed ideas about the self, the nation, the past, and the future. The open road, as it is often called, offered excitement, great adventure, and the space for family bonding and memory making. But the footloose and fancy-free nature of travel that Jack Kerouac celebrated was available to some travelers but not to all. Engaging historical and literary texts, film, autobiography, memoir, photography, and music, we will consider the ways that travel and road trips have been represented in American culture. This course examines the following questions: How did men and women experience travel differently? How did the motivations for travel change over time? What role did race, ethnicity, class, relationships, and sexuality play in these trips? Students will work together to plan a road trip of their own which the class will take during the quarter.
Same as: AMSTUD 109Q

HISTORY 6Q. Fairy Spotting: A Practicum in Historical Inquiry. 3 Units.

A guided mini-research inquiry into the fae and related historical phenomena: stories about and beliefs in non-human, sentient beings with a separate society and different physical reality.

HISTORY 70C. Modern Latin America. 3-5 Units.

This course examines Latin American history from independence to the present day. Key issues include nationalism, urbanization, culture, and revolution. Sources include writings in the social sciences as well as primary documents, fiction, and film.
Same as: HISTORY 170C

HISTORY 71S. American Political Thought from the Civil War to the Cold War. 5 Units.

This course explores America's most important political tradition: liberalism. What does liberalism mean? Does it mean something different today than it did in the past? Using multiple textual and visual sources, students will grapple with how Americans remade liberalism in the 19th and 20th centuries and how political thinkers have understood its meaning over time. We will see how American liberalism was shaped by factors of race, gender, and class and by competing ideologies like conservatism and socialism.

HISTORY 73S. History of the Police in the United States: Slave Patrols to Ferguson. 5 Units.

How did police come to have the power to use violence? Themes: growth of professional policing, creation of private police forces and vigilantism, and public portrayals of police--by Hollywood and the press. The historical relationship between race and the administration of policing is a central question. Students will hone the methodology necessary to examine primary sources such as police memoirs, court records, police files, detective novels, music videos and photographs. The course fulfills the departmental Sources and Methods requirement. Priority given to history majors and minors.

HISTORY 74. Mexico Since 1876: History of a "Failed State"?. 3 Units.

This course is an introduction to the history and diverse peoples of modern Mexico from 1876 to the present. Through lectures, discussions, primary and secondary readings, short documentaries, and written assignments, students will critically explore and analyze the multiplicity of historical processes, events and trends that shaped and were shaped by Mexicans over the course of a century. The course will cover some of the social and political dimensions of rural social change, urbanization and industrialization, technological innovation and misuse, environmental degradation and conservation, education, ideology, culture and media, migration, and the drug trade.

HISTORY 74S. Sounds of the Century: Popular Music and the United States in the 20th Century. 5 Units.

What can popular music teach us about the pst? What can we learn about music if we study it historically? This course grapples with these two questions by examining various examples of American music in the 20th century, as well as more conventional historical sources, scholarly books, and essays. Will pay special attention to how issues of race, gender, sexuality, class, and nation were reflected in and produced by people's interactions with music, inside and outside American borders.

HISTORY 78Q. Film and History of Latin American Revolutions and Counterrevolutions. 3 Units.

In this course we will watch and critique films made about Latin America's 20th century revolutions focusing on the Mexican, Cuban, Chilean and Nicaraguan revolutions. We will analyze the films as both social and political commentaries and as aesthetic and cultural works, alongside archivally-based histories of these revolutions.

HISTORY 7D. Rise and Fall of Atlantic Slavery, 1500 to 1900. 3-5 Units.

Between 1500 and 1900, about 12 million people were forcibly removed from Africa and transported to the Americas to work as slaves. This course explores the history of racial slavery in the Atlantic world and its lasting significance. Topics include the Middle Passage, the development of racism, the trans-Atlantic slave trade, the slave experience, resistance, African-American cultures, abolitionism, the process of emancipation, reparations, and the perpetuation of slavery and other forms of unfree labor.
Same as: AFRICAAM 107D, HISTORY 107D

HISTORY 7E. Islamic Routes: Archaeology and Heritage of Muslim Societies. 3-5 Units.

How has archaeology changed our knowledge of the spread of Islam and past Muslim societies? How does archaeology shape heritage debates, conflicts and ideas about Islam today? Topics include the city and urban change, secular and religious life, gender, economy, and globalization. These topics are explored using archaeological and critical heritage approaches. Focus is on examples drawn from Syria-Palestine, Egypt, Iraq, Arabian Peninsula, India, and Africa. Sources include archaeological data and material culture, historical texts in translation, and photography.
Same as: ANTHRO 13A, ARCHLGY 13, HISTORY 107E

HISTORY 7G. Making Anglo-American Capitalism. 3-5 Units.

This course addresses capitalism in global perspective to identify the roots of our current economic system. We will consider theories about capitalism, the politics and policies of implementation, and the human and environmental consequences through topics such as the imperial political economy, consumerism, plantation economies, the East India Company, and the rise of credit. Embedding markets in a range of social relations, cultural practices, and institutional arrangements, reveals how capital became an -ism in specific and knowable historical circumstances.
Same as: HISTORY 107G

HISTORY 7S. Stanford Collects: A History of Collecting. 5 Units.

Leland Stanford, Jr. was a curator extraordinaire. His collecting shaped Stanford into a university, an archive, a library, and a museum. Students will explore Stanford's campus collections to discover how objects and artifacts tell the history not only of the university, but also Palo Alto, California, and the American West writ large. The course is hosted in Green Library and features visits to the Cantor Arts Center, Stanford University Archaeology Collections, and more. All majors welcome. Priority given to history majors and minors.
Same as: ARTHIST 278S

HISTORY 80. The Ottoman Empire: Conquest, Coexistence, and Coffee. 3-5 Units.

The Ottoman Empire ruled the Middle East, North Africa and Eastern Europe from the 15th to the early 20th centuries. How did the Ottoman enterprise appear in the frontier region between Christendom and the Islamic world? How were diverse peoples, religions, and regions integrated under the Ottoman order? Was there an Ottoman Mediterranean and Indian Ocean? How did reform movements in Islamic, Christian and Jewish thinking transform Ottoman societies? Topics include the Ottoman Empire between Europe and Eastern Islamic World; merchants and their markets; elite, urban, rural and nomadic lives; women, family, childhood and sexuality; life, afterlife and dreams. Special emphasis will be given to coffee and coffee houses which shaped public life in the Ottoman World since the 16th century. The survey ends with the rise of nationalisms, inter-communal violence and the disintegration of the Ottoman world.
Same as: HISTORY 180

HISTORY 802. TGR Dissertation. 0 Units.

Units by arrangement.

HISTORY 82C. Making of the Islamic World, 600-1500. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 182C. Majors and other taking 5 units, register for 182C.) The History of Islam and Muslim peoples from 600-1500. Topics include Muhammad and his community; the early Arab conquests and empires; sectarian movements; formation of Islamic belief, thought, legal culture and religious institutions; transregional Sufi and learned networks; family and sexuality; urban, rural and nomadic life; non-Muslim communities; the development of Mediterranean and Indian Ocean trade; relations with Byzantium, the Latin West, China; the Crusades and the Mongols.

HISTORY 82G. Making Palestine Visible. 3-5 Units.

Israel-Palestine is one of the most difficult subjects to talk about, in large part because we in the United States do not have much exposure to Palestinian history, culture, and politics in their own terms. This course aims to humanize Palestinians and asks why Palestinian claims to rights are illegible for much of the American public. We begin to answer this question by examining a broad sampling of history, structures of power and law, culture, and contemporary political issues.
Same as: COMPLIT 82, COMPLIT 182, CSRE 82G, HISTORY 182G

HISTORY 83S. Refugees of Palestine and Syria: History, Identity, and Politics of Exile in the Middle East. 5 Units.

Mass displacements of Palestinians (1948, 1967) and Syrians (2011-) remain crucial to our understanding of history and politics of the modern Middle East. The course topics include the media's role in alleviating or worsening refugee crises, the Palestinian "right of return," and the place of religion in the Syrian civil war. By looking at autobiographies, graffiti, revolutionary posters, and music, we will study the construction of refugee identities, through the prism of race, ethnicity, statelessness, gender, and sexual orientation. Priority given to history majors and minors.

HISTORY 84N. The American Empire in the Middle East. 4 Units.

What have been the traditional objectives of U.S. policy in the Middle East since the end of World War II? What forces shape U.S. policy towards the Middle East? Did those interests and the means employed to pursue them change substantially after the demise of the Soviet Union? What has been the impact of U.S. policy on the region itself? The three principal cases to be examined are Afghanistan, Iraq and Israel/Palestine.

HISTORY 85B. Jews in the Contemporary World: Faith and Ethnicity, Visibility and Vulnerability. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 185B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 185B.) This course explores the full expanse of Jewish life today and in the recent past. The inner workings of religious faith, the content of Jewish identify shorn of belief, the interplay between Jewish powerlessness and influence, the myth and reality of Jewish genius, the continued pertinence of antisemitism, the rhythms of Jewish economic life ¿ all these will be examined in weekly lectures, classroom discussion, and with the use of a widely diverse range of readings, films, and other material. Explored in depth will the ideas and practices of Zionism, the content of contemporary secularism and religious Orthodoxy, the impact Holocaust, the continued crisis facing Israel and the Palestinians. Who is to be considered Jewish, in any event, especially since so many of the best known (Spinoza, Freud, Marx) have had little if anything to do with Jewish life with their relationships to it indifferent, even hostile?.
Same as: CSRE 85B, JEWISHST 85B, REES 85B

HISTORY 85S. A History of Strangers: Jews in the Mediterranean. 5 Units.

A community needs outsiders. Sometimes it needs them to provide material things, but always it needs them to define itself. Focusing on Jews in the early-modern Mediterranean (1450-1750), this course asks questions about the nature of community, the causes and effects of exclusion, and processes of creating the "other." We will look at primary sources produced by "strangers" and so-called "host" societies. Sources include travelogues, maps, novels, poetry, paintings, contracts, Ottoman edicts, Italian charters, and rulings from religious courts.
Same as: JEWISHST 85S

HISTORY 86Q. Blood and Money: The Origins of Antisemitism. 4-5 Units.

For over two millennia, Jews and Judaism have been the object of sustained anxieties, fears, and fantasies, which have in turn underpinned repeated outbreaks of violence and persecution. This course will explore the development and impact of antisemitism from Late Antiquity to the Enlightenment, including the emergence of the Blood libel, the association between Jews and moneylending, and the place of Judaism in Christian and Islamic theology. No prior background in history or Jewish studies is necessary. Prerequisite: PWR 1.
Same as: JEWISHST 86Q

HISTORY 8C. Sugar and Slavery, Race and Revolution: The Caribbean 1450-1888. 3-5 Units.

This course examines race and slavery across British, French, and Spanish islands, plus Brazil. The intensity of Caribbean slavery produced societies where more people were enslaved than free. The idea of "black" was invented and contested as Caribbean inhabitants leaned on African roots to shape new cultures. Sugar production sparked global wars and planted the seed of modern financial systems. Black people fought back, in ways large and small, marking the beginning of emancipation with the Haitian Revolution.
Same as: AFRICAAM 18C, CSRE 108C, HISTORY 108C

HISTORY 8N. Women Against War!. 4 Units.

Course examines the presumed connection between women and peace and the political activity and authority this has inspired from the time of the ancient Greeks to the present. Begins with theoretical issues and historical origins of women¿s peace movements. Analyzes the changing forms of women¿s activism, exploring questions of motivation, legitimization, methods, values, goals, results, limitations, linkages to other issues of social justice, and the public reception of women¿s activist response to war.

HISTORY 90. Early Chinese Thought. 3-5 Units.

This lecture course examines the emergence of critical thought in early China. After a brief study of the social and political changes that made this emergence possible, it looks at the nature and roles of the thinkers, and finally their ideas about the social order, the state, war and the army, the family, the cosmos, and the self (both physical and mental). Some brief comparisons with early Greek thought.
Same as: HISTORY 190

HISTORY 90S. The Forgotten War: The Korean War in Historical Perspective. 5 Units.

This course examines the history of the Korean War (1950-53), a pivotal moment in modern world history. Using sources across seven countries including photographs, film, maps, diaries, literature, music, declassified military communiqués and psychological warfare materials, we will examine the war as a complex, multidimensional human phenomenon. Along the way we will find that the Korean War sheds light on a range of contemporary issues including US-China relations, the War on Terror, and America's larger place in the world. Priority given to history majors and minors.
Same as: AMSTUD 90S, KOREA 155X

HISTORY 91D. China: The Northern and Southern Dynasties. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 191D. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 191D.) Examines one of the most dynamic periods of Chinese history with the emergence of the institutional religions (Buddhism and Daoism), the development of the garden as an art form, the rise of landscape as a theme of verse and art, the invention of lyric poetry, and the real beginnings of the southward spread of Chinese civilization.

HISTORY 92A. The Historical Roots of Modern East Asia. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on China and Japan before and during their transition to modernity. The populous, urbanized, economically advanced, and culturally sophisticated Ming empire and Muromachi shogunate in the 16th century when Europeans first arrived. How the status quo had turned on its head by the early 20th century when European and American steamships dominated the Pacific, China was in social and political upheaval, and Japan had begun its march to empire.
Same as: HISTORY 392E

HISTORY 93. Late Imperial China. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 193. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 193.) A survey of Chinese history from the 11th century to the collapse of the imperial state in 1911. Topics include absolutism, gentry society, popular culture, gender and sexuality, steppe nomads, the Jesuits in China, peasant rebellion, ethnic conflict, opium, and the impact of Western imperialism.
Same as: CHINA 93, FEMGEN 93

HISTORY 94B. Japan in the Age of the Samurai. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 194B. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 194B.) From the Warring States Period to the Meiji Restoration. Topics include the three great unifiers, Tokugawa hegemony, the samurai class, Neoconfucian ideologies, suppression of Christianity, structures of social and economic control, frontiers, the other and otherness, castle-town culture, peasant rebellion, black marketing, print culture, the floating world, National Studies, food culture, samurai activism, black ships, unequal treaties, anti-foreign terrorism, restorationism, millenarianism, modernization as westernization, Japan as imagined community.

HISTORY 95. Modern Korean History. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 195. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195.) This lecture course provides a general introduction to the history of modern Korea. Themes include the characteristics of the Chosôn dynasty, reforms and rebellions in the nineteenth century, Korean nationalism; Japan's colonial rule and Korean identities; decolonization and the Korean War; and the different state-building processes in North and South, South Korea's democratization in 1980s, and the current North Korean crisis.

HISTORY 95C. Modern Japanese History: From Samurai to Pokemon. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 195C. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 195C.) Japan's modern transformation from the late 19th century to the present. Topics include: the Meiji revolution; industrialization and social dislocation; the rise of democracy and empire; total war and US occupation; economic miracle and malaise; Japan as soft power; and politics of memory. Readings and films focus on the lived experience of ordinary men and women across social classes and regions.

HISTORY 95N. Maps in the Modern World. 4-5 Units.

Preference to freshmen. Focus is on cutting-edge research. Topics: the challenge of grasping the globe as a whole; geography's roots in empire; maps as propaganda and as commodities; the cultural production of scale; and the cartography of imaginery worlds.Sources include resources in the Green Library Special Collections and in the Stanford Spatial History Lab.

HISTORY 95S. Protest in Modern China. 5 Units.

How has protest impacted the history of China? In this course, we study the history of state-citizen confrontation from the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911 to the Occupy Central movement in 2014. We seek to understand the politics of civic engagement in China today as part of politicized, global conversation about human rights, democracy, and revolution. We will examine a wide range of primary sources, explore archival offerings on campus, and hone critical reading and analytical writing skills.
Same as: PUBLPOL 95S

HISTORY 98. The History of Modern China. 3 Units.

(Same as HISTORY 198. History majors and others taking 5 units, register for 198.) Do you want to understand Modern China? If so, this course is for you. And even if you've studied China before, or grew up there, this course will deepen and challenge your perspectives. Through vivid and propulsive lectures - drawing on fiction, film, political essays, and more - Professor Tom Mullaney will chart out China¿s historical transformations from 1800 to today, equipping you to speak and write intelligently about Chinese politics, society, economy, culture, gender, ethnicity, and international affairs.

HISTORY 98N. Beijing, Shanghai, and the Structure of Modern China. 3 Units.

This course examines the transformation of China from the late empire to the present by studying the nature of its two greatest cities. Topics examined will include the evolving physical structure of the cities, their changing relations to the Chinese state and the outside world, shifting understandings of the urban population/crowd, the changing nature of time, new modes of self-definition through patterns of consumption, the cities as topics of literature and movies, and the nature of urban modernity.

HISTORY 9N. How to Start Your Own Country: Sovereignty and State-Formation in Modern History. 3 Units.

What does it mean to start a country, or to acquire and possess sovereignty over a territory? This course will examine the historical evolution of fundamental concepts in our international system: state formation, statehood, and sovereignty. Each week will spotlight a case-study in which sovereignty and statehood have appeared greatly confused and hotly contested. These include: the UK-China lease for control of Hong Kong; the US Naval Station in Guantanamo Bay; the corporate state of the legendary British East India Company; and Disney World.

HISTORY 9S. Censorship & Propaganda: From Renaissance to Revolution. 5 Units.

Information is power. From the fifteenth through eighteenth centuries, a shadowy world of illicit communication challenged church and state. We'll explore the resulting communication wars as waged through print, art, architecture, and theatre. We'll read banned, scandalous and satirical works by Niccolò Machiavelli, Martin Luther and Benjamin Franklin among many others. From the archives to the digital humanities, students will gain new tools to explore the politics and historical development of information control.
Same as: DLCL 106