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COMM 1. Introduction to Communication. 5 Units.

Our world is being transformed by media technologies that change how we interact with one another and perceived the world around us. These changes are all rooted in communication practices, and their consequences touch on almost all aspects of life. In COMM 1 we will examine the effects of media technologies on psychological life, on industry, and on communities local and global through theorizing and demonstrations and critiques of a wide range of communication products and services.

COMM 104W. Reporting, Writing, and Understanding the News. 5 Units.

Techniques of news reporting and writing. The value and role of news in democratic societies. Gateway class to journalism. Prerequisite for all COMM 177/277 classes. Limited enrollment. Preference to COMM majors.

COMM 106. Communication Research Methods. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 206.) Conceptual and practical concerns underlying commonly used quantitative approaches, including experimental, survey, content analysis, and field research in communication. Pre- or corequisite: STATS 60 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 206

COMM 107S. Media, Culture, and the Politics of Gender. 3 Units.

This course aims to provide a survey of various media and their role in the discursive construction of gender in and through culture. The first three weeks serve as an introduction to the historical and sociopolitical dimensions of gender, its intersection with media, and theoretical approaches to understanding it and political approaches to challenging it. Beginning with historical constructions of the gender binary, Foucault's Herculine Barbin an unearthed diary of a French hermaphrodite who lived an adolescent life in a Catholic orphanage for girls from about 1860-1870, is reclassified as a man, and commits suicide ¿ provides a provocative look at the historical construction of gender binaries. nThe remainder of the course then tackles a range of media and examples of how they portray gender as well as examples of how they may be used to subvert oppressive gender roles or binaries, focusing on: the novel, film, music videos, news, and social media. Far from exhaustive, the readings and the topics covered are to provide a better, broader, but still-limited understanding of how media and culture construct gender, and how this also dramatically impacts the lives of queer and gender nonconforming individuals. For this reason, while the course does deal extensively with notions of masculinity, sexualization and objectification of, or the effects of sexism on, cisgendered women, a heavy focus of the course across many topics is on transgender individuals in media. These individuals, like Herculine in her time, unsettle this simplistic opposition through their very being and representation in public.

COMM 108. Media Processes and Effects. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 208.) The process of communication theory construction including a survey of social science paradigms and major theories of communication. Recommended: 1 or PSYCH 1.
Same as: COMM 208

COMM 109S. Psychology of Technology & Human-Technology Interaction. 3 Units.

Products of design surround us, and shape our lives. This course will explore the human relationship with technology from a psychological point of view, and probe how technology can be designed to work in concert with those who use it. To survey this vast space, the course will cover seminal readings in the areas of human factors, human-computer interaction, product design, and psychology. The course will also delve into the area of design, with a collaborative final project integrating design and psychology.

COMM 110S. Social Media and Information Sharing. 3 Units.

Social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and Myspace, are used as platforms to share information about oneself and others. These new media provide a variety of novel ways to share information (e.g. 'Like', 'Re-tweet', 'Share', etc.) and change the way individuals maintain and create relationships. The goal of this course is to understand emotional and motivational aspects of social media use and examine its potential consequences on individuals' opinions and preferences. In the first half of the course, students will be introduced to theories in communication and psychology to have the foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying media use. In the second half of the course, students will develop original research ideas and have group discussions to further explore and refine those ideas. At the end of the course, students will demonstrate their knowledge of psychological and emotional processes underlying media use and be able to evaluate the individual/social implications of social media use.

COMM 112S. Welcome to Cyberspace. 3 Units.

This class is designed to interrogate the spatial metaphors often used to describe the Internet. What is "cyberspace" and where do we go when we go "offline"? What is gained through thinking of the Internet as a space and what opportunities are missed? What does this have to do with our physical bodies, capitalism, and the government? During this course we will use historical and contemporary academic writing and literature to interrogate the Internet as a space and a communication technology, and think through the meaning of digital spaces in American culture, business and government.

COMM 113. Computational Methods in the Civic Sphere. 4-5 Units.

The widespread availability of public data provides a rich opportunity for those who can efficiently filter, interpret, and visualize information. Course develops necessary technical skills for data collection, analysis, and publication, including data mining and web visualization, with a focus on civic affairs and government accountability. Open to all majors and a range of technical skill levels. Involves tackling new tools and technical concepts in the pursuit of engaging, public-facing projects. (Graduate students enroll in 213). Prerequisite COMM 273D, CS 106A, or CS 106B.
Same as: COMM 213

COMM 114S. Media and Identities in the Globalizing Era. 3 Units.

Globalization, as an imperfect but veritable buzzword, has been used both popularly and academically to describe how the world has become increasingly interconnected in multiple ways. As the Canadian media scholar Marshall McLuhan's famous coined phrase--the "Global Village"-- suggests, the advancement of media technology revolutionizes the ways human beings connect and communicate with one another. By the word "globalizing" (in the title), the course construes trends of globalization both as on-going and deepening processes, and as an ensemble of powerful cultural, economic and social forces productively shaping our lived experiences. With the booming circulation of media/cultural products worldwide and the surging mobility of populations across boundaries, new questions arise: to what extent is the globalization of media production and consumption molded in the Western, especially American, culture? How do non-Western audience consume, interpret and appropriate American products? How do transnational migrants/diaspora negotiate their identities in relation to media representations? What role do new media and digital technology play in the deepening of the globalization processes?nnThrough a critical/cultural examination of the relevant literature and cases, the course helps students better understand topics and issues related to media and identities in the globalizing era. The first half of the course will concentrate on the globalization/localization of media production, the transnational media flows and cultural consumption. The interlocking economic, cultural and political factors that drive these processes are unpacked. The latter half of the course will be devoted to issues about cultural identities, migration and diaspora as well as media representation in multicultural societies. Throughout the course, the roles of both old and new media will be studied in the transnational and global contexts.

COMM 116. Journalism Law. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for 216.) Laws and regulation impacting journalists. Topics include libel, privacy, news gathering, protection sources, fair trial and free press, theories of the First Amendment, and broadcast regulation. Prerequisite: Journalism M.A. student or advanced Communication major.
Same as: COMM 216

COMM 117S. Machines as Media. 3-4 Units.

Technological change has always been surrounded by two competing narratives: that of opportunity and human flourishing, versus that of displacement and alienation. This course explores the idea that machines themselves are media in terms of which people - to use the words of James Carey - represent, maintain, adapt, and share their hopes and fears about the world. By the end of the course, students will have developed a vocabulary for thinking about technology's role in the ways that people have made sense of utopia and dystopia. Readings will include a mix of theory and historical case studies. From the first category, possible authors include Jacques Ellul, Leo Marx, Norman O. Brown, Martin Heidegger, Walter Benjamin, and Jessica Riskin. From the second category, possible topics include 18th-century automata, the English and French Luddite movements, the American Machine Breakers movement, Taylorism and technocracy. Note: preparation and participation in discussion are the primary course requirements. Enrollment at 3 units requires a short final paper, while a more substantial paper is required at 4 units.

COMM 120W. Digital Media in Society. 4-5 Units.

Contemporary debates concerning the social and cultural impact of digital media. Topics include the historical origins of digital media, cultural contexts of their development and use, and influence of digital media on conceptions of self, community, and state. Priority to juniors, seniors, and graduate students.
Same as: AMSTUD 120, COMM 220

COMM 121. Behavior and Social Media. 5 Units.

This course examines behavioral approaches to understanding social media. The course will begin by discussing the design factors that shape behavior online, considering research in human-computer interaction that reflects and reveals communication practices and contexts. Next, the course will examine the psychological aspects of computer-mediated communication and virtual collaboration, including impression formation and management, deception, audience and social networks. Finally, the course will explore the ways in which human behavior is situated inside of social and institutional structures and cultural formations; and with that in mind, it will examine the complex interactions between behavior, society, and information technology.

COMM 124. Lies, Trust, and Tech. 4-5 Units.

Deception is one of the most significant and pervasive social phenomena of our age. Lies range from the trivial to the very serious, including deception between friends and family, in the workplace, and in security and intelligence contexts. At the same time, information and communication technologies have pervaded almost all aspects of human communication, from everyday technologies that support interpersonal interactions to, such as email and instant messaging, to more sophisticated systems that support organization-level interactions. Given the prevalence of both deception and communication technology in our personal and professional lives, an important set of questions have recently emerged about how humans adapt their deceptive practices to new communication and information technologies, including how communication technology affects the practice of lying and the detection of deception, and whether technology can be used to identify deception.
Same as: COMM 224

COMM 125. Perspectives on American Journalism. 4-5 Units.

An examination of American journalism, focusing on how news is produced, distributed, and financially supported. Emphasis on current media controversies and puzzles, and on designing innovations in discovering and telling stories. (Graduate students register for COMM 225.).
Same as: AMSTUD 125, COMM 225

COMM 127X. The Ethics of Anonymity. 1 Unit.

When is it ethical to conceal your identity or to permit another to remain anonymous? What is the value to remaining unknown, and what might be the cost? Does anonymity free you to think, act, or be in ways you wouldn't otherwise? What else might it allow or constrain? How might your answers differ depending on the circumstances or context? In this one-unit lunchtime seminar, guest speakers will discuss topics that might include: anonymous sources in journalism; anonymity online; the history of anonymous authorship and attribution; whistleblowers and confidential informants; anonymous egg or sperm donors and birth parents; anonymity vs. confidentiality for research participants; anonymity and art; technology and anonymity.
Same as: CSRE 127X, ETHICSOC 2

COMM 130N. The idea of a free press. 3-4 Units.

Preference to freshmen. An examination of the meaning of freedom of the press, tied to but not bound by various Supreme Court rulings on the scope and purpose of the First Amendment's speech and press clauses. Discussions will include a look at the recent and rapid computerization of communication and what it portends for the future of a free press.

COMM 131. Media Ethics and Responsibility. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 231.) The development of professionalism among American journalists, emphasizing the emergence of objectivity as a professional and the epistemological norm. An applied ethics course where questions of power, freedom, and truth autonomy are treated normatively so as to foster critical thinking about the origins and implications of commonly accepted standards of responsible journalism.
Same as: COMM 231

COMM 133. Need to Know: The Tension between a Free Press and National Security Decision Making. 4-5 Units.

This seminar examines the dynamic interaction at the highest levels of government and the media when news coverage of secret national security policy and operations impinges on United States defense, diplomatic and intelligence activities and decision making and affects the American political system. Prime examples: intelligence information about Russian hacking operations during the 2016 presidential election campaign, the unverified intelligence dossier on Donald Trump's Russian connections, the torrent of secret NSA programs disclosed by Edward Snowden. Students explore attitudes, practices, and actions by the media and the government through a series of case studies and simulations. Former editors, reporters, and government officials appear as guest speakers, including Michael Hayden, former director of the NSA and CIA. The goal of the course is to inform students about the vital but often fraught relationship between a free press and the government in a democratic society. For advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Application for enrollment required. The instructor is a former Washington bureau chief of The New York Times. Email Kiley Roache (kiley@stanford.edu) to request an application. Completed applications are due by 6pm (pacific) on March 25, 2017. Early applications welcome.
Same as: COMM 233

COMM 135. Deliberative Democracy and its Critics. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the theory and practice of deliberative democracy and engages both in a dialogue with critics. Can a democracy which emphasizes people thinking and talking together on the basis of good information be made practical in the modern age? What kinds of distortions arise when people try to discuss politics or policy together? The course draws on ideas of deliberation from Madison and Mill to Rawls and Habermas as well as criticisms from the jury literature, from the psychology of group processes and from the most recent normative and empirical literature on deliberative forums. Deliberative Polling, its applications, defenders and critics, both normative and empirical, will provide a key case for discussion.
Same as: AMSTUD 135, COMM 235, COMM 335, POLISCI 234P, POLISCI 334P

COMM 137W. The Dialogue of Democracy. 4-5 Units.

All forms of democracy require some kind of communication so people can be aware of issues and make decisions. This course looks at competing visions of what democracy should be and different notions of the role of dialogue in a democracy. Is it just campaigning or does it include deliberation? Small scale discussions or sound bites on television? Or social media? What is the role of technology in changing our democratic practices, to mobilize, to persuade, to solve public problems? This course will include readings from political theory about democratic ideals - from the American founders to J.S. Mill and the Progressives to Joseph Schumpeter and modern writers skeptical of the public will. It will also include contemporary examinations of the media and the internet to see how those practices are changing and how the ideals can or cannot be realized.
Same as: AMSTUD 137, COMM 237, POLISCI 232T, POLISCI 332T

COMM 138. Deliberative Democracy Practicum: Applying Deliberative Polling. 3-5 Units.

In this course, students will work directly on a real-world deliberative democracy project using the method of Deliberative Polling. Students in this course will work in partnership with the Center for Deliberative Democracy at Stanford, a research center devoted to the research in democracy and public opinion around the world. This unique practicum will allow students to work on an actual Deliberative Polling project on campus. In just one quarter, the students will prepare for, implement, and analyze the results for an Deliberative Polling project. This is a unique opportunity that allows students to take part in the entire process of a deliberative democracy project. Through this practicum, students will apply quantitative and qualitative research methods in a local community or local high school and subsequently, analyze the relevant quantitative and qualitative data. Students will explore the underlying challenges and complexities of what it means to actually do community-engaged research in the real world. As such, this course will provide students with skills and experience in research design in deliberative democracy, community and stakeholder engagement, and the practical aspects of working in local communities. This practicum is a collaboration between the Center for Deliberative Democracy, the Bill Lane Center for the American West and the Haas Center for Public Service.nnCDD website: http://cdd.stanford.edunBill Lane Center website: http://west.stanford.edunHass Center website: https://haas.stanford.edu.
Same as: COMM 238, CSRE 38

COMM 140Q. Bubbles, Booms, and Busts: Representing the Economy. 3 Units.

This course examines how various cultural representations of the economy shape popular imagination and everyday life. Focusing on the US, we will look at advertising, journalism, fiction, television, film, music, and finance industry texts to explore the representation of financial risk, crisis, and inequality for lay audiences at different historical moments. Students will be introduced to a range of disciplinary and methodological approaches to finance and representation including media studies, critical finance studies, history, sociology, and anthropology as we explore media production from such periods as the Depression era, postwar middle class growth, 1980 and 1990s financialization, and the 2008 financial crisis and its aftermath.

COMM 142W. Media Economics. 4-5 Units.

Uses economics to examine the generation and consumption of information in communication markets. Covers concepts that play a large role in information economics, including public goods, economies of scale, product differentiation, and externalities. Looks at individuals¿ information demands as consumers, producers, audience members, and voters. Topics include economics of Internet, sustainability of accountability journalism, and marketplace of ideas.
Same as: COMM 242

COMM 143W. Communication Policy and Regulation. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on the development, implementation, and evaluation of policies affecting communication markets. Policy issues include universal service, digital divide, Internet regulation, intellectual property, privacy, television violence, content diversity, media ownership, antitrust, and impact of news on government accountability. Examines political economy of communication policy and the evolution of policies across time.
Same as: COMM 243

COMM 145. Personality and Digital Media. 4-5 Units.

Personality describes people's characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving. This course will introduce students to the ways personality is expressed in digital devices (e.g., computers, smartphones) and platforms (e.g., social networks, virtual worlds). Readings and lectures will introduce students to theories of personality, the practice of assessing personality, and the broader societal implications of having mediated personalities. Course assignments will require students to apply the course concepts to explore personality expression in various digitally mediated contexts.
Same as: COMM 245

COMM 151. The First Amendment: Freedom of Speech and Press. 4-5 Units.

Introduction to the constitutional protections for freedom of speech, press, and expressive association. All the major Supreme Court cases dealing with issues such as incitement, libel, hate speech, obscenity, commercial speech, and campaign finance. There are no prerequisites, but a basic understanding of American government would be useful. In addition to a final and midterm exam, students participate in a moot court on a hypothetical case. (Grad students register for COMM 251).
Same as: COMM 251, POLISCI 125P

COMM 152. Constitutional Law. 3 Units.

This course covers Supreme Court case law concerning governmental powers, equal protection, and certain fundamental rights. The course investigates the constitutional foundation for democratic participation in the United States, covering topics such as the Fourteenth Amendment's protections against discrimination on grounds of race, gender, and other classifications, as well as the individual rights to voting and intimate association, and an introduction to First Amendment rights of free speech and press. Students will be evaluated on class participation, a midterm moot court with both a written and oral component, and a take-home final exam. Lectures will be twice per week and a discussion section once per week.
Same as: COMM 252, POLISCI 126P

COMM 153. Political Campaigning in the Internet Age. 3 Units.

This course will acquaint students with the changing environment for campaigns posed by the rise of the Internet. So much of the traditional way analysts have understood campaigns has revolved around television as the primary mode of campaign communication. The rise of the Internet, nonlinear television programming, and mobile communication enables new forms of campaigning. This course will examine the relevant social science on these topics, while at the same time bringing in guest lecturers from industry, campaigns, and media. Requirements: Students will be required to complete a 25 page research paper on a topic relevant to the course.
Same as: COMM 253

COMM 153A. Policy, Politics, and the Presidency: Understanding the 2016 Campaign from Start to Finish. 2 Units.

(Same as LAW 7057). In 2016, Americans will once again go to the polls to select a new president. But what will actually happen behind-the-scenes between now and then is largely a mystery to most. This course will introduce students to the nuts-and-bolts of a presidential campaign. Each week, we will explore a different topic related to running for the presidency -- policy formation, communications, grassroots strategy, digital outreach, campaign finance -- and feature high-profile guest speakers who have served in senior roles on both Democratic and Republican campaigns. Students, guests, and faculty will also participate in discussions on how these topics will relate to the 2016 presidential contest, which will begin in earnest over the course of the quarter.
Same as: COMM 253A, POLISCI 72, PUBLPOL 146, PUBLPOL 246

COMM 154. The Politics of Algorithms. 4-5 Units.

Algorithms have become central actors in today's digital world. In areas as diverse as social media, journalism, education, healthcare, and policing, computing technologies increasingly mediate communication processes. This course will provide an introduction to the social and cultural forces shaping the construction, institutionalization, and uses of algorithms. In so doing, we will explore how algorithms relate to political issues of modernization, power, and inequality. Readings will range from social scientific analyses to media coverage of ongoing controversies relating to Big Data. Students will leave the course with a better appreciation of the broader challenges associated with researching, building, and using algorithms.
Same as: COMM 254, CSRE 154T, SOC 154

COMM 157. Information Control in Authoritarian Regimes. 4-5 Units.

Does information help autocrats and dictators stay in power? Or does information help topple authoritarian regimes? This course will examine how authoritarian regimes try to control information through surveillance, propaganda, and censorship, what influences the effectiveness of these information control measures, and how changes in technology (Internet, social media, mobile) affect the dynamics of information control.
Same as: COMM 257, COMM 357

COMM 158. Censorship and Propaganda. 4-5 Units.

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Same as: COMM 258

COMM 162. Campaigns, Voting, Media, and Elections. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the theory and practice of American campaigns and elections. First, we will attempt to explain the behavior of the key players -- candidates, parties, journalists, and voters -- in terms of the institutional arrangements and political incentives that confront them. Second, we will use current and recent election campaigns as "laboratories" for testing generalizations about campaign strategy and voter behavior. Third, we examine selections from the academic literature dealing with the origins of partisan identity, electoral design, and the immediate effects of campaigns on public opinion, voter turnout, and voter choice. As well, we'll explore issues of electoral reform and their more long-term consequences for governance and the political process.
Same as: COMM 262, POLISCI 120B

COMM 164. The Psychology of Communication About Politics in America. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on how politicians and government learn what Americans want and how the public's preferences shape government action; how surveys measure beliefs, preferences, and experiences; how poll results are criticized and interpreted; how conflict between polls is viewed by the public; how accurate surveys are and when they are accurate; how to conduct survey research to produce accurate measurements; designing questionnaires that people can understand and use comfortably; how question wording can manipulate poll results; corruption in survey research.
Same as: COMM 264, POLISCI 124L, PSYCH 170

COMM 166. Virtual People. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 266.) The concept of virtual people or digital human representations; methods of constructing and using virtual people; methodological approaches to interactions with and among virtual people; and current applications. Viewpoints including popular culture, literature, film, engineering, behavioral science, computer science, and communication.
Same as: COMM 266

COMM 171. Moving Pictures: Video Journalism for mobile and social platforms. 3-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for 271.) Examine video journalism¿s crucial role in digital news media across mobile and social media platforms. What are the specific needs of mobile platforms? How is new technology utilized to produce effective video news content? We'll examine case studies and hear from guest speakers about innovations in video journalism. Students produce short video journalism pieces using mobile tools, optimized for viewing on mobile devices. Prerequisite: Journalism MA student or instructor's consent.
Same as: COMM 271

COMM 172. Media Psychology. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 272.) The literature related to psychological processing and the effects of media. Topics: unconscious processing; picture perception; attention and memory; emotion; the physiology of processing media; person perception; pornography; consumer behavior; advanced film and television systems; and differences among reading, watching, and listening.
Same as: COMM 272

COMM 176. Advanced Digital Media Production. 4-5 Units.

In-depth reporting and production using audio, images and video. Focus on an in-depth journalism project with appropriate uses of digital media: audio, photography, graphics, and video. Topics include advanced field techniques and approaches (audio, video, still) and emphasis on creating a non-fiction narrative arc in a multimedia piece of 10-12 minutes. Prerequisite: COMM 275 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 276

COMM 177A. Computational Journalism. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on using data and algorithms to lower the cost of discovering stories or telling stories in more engaging and personalized ways. Project based assignments based on real-world challenges faced in newsrooms. Prior experience in journalism or computational thinking helpful. Prerequisite: COMM 273D, COMM 113/213, or the consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 277A

COMM 177C. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Environmental Journalism. 4-5 Units.

Advanced reporting and writing course in the specific practices and standards of environmental journalism. This course begins with the assumption that students already know how to research and relay the essential facts of almost any environmental story. Students will go beyond the basics of journalistic practice, both as reporters and storytellers. Emphasis on magazine-style writing, with the goal of producing stories that stand on fact but move like fiction, that have protagonists and antagonists, that create suspense, that reveal character through dialogue and action, and that pay off with resonant finales. Limited enrollment: preference to students in the Earth Systems Master of Arts, Environmental Communication Program and the Graduate Journalism Program. Prerequisite: COMM 104, or EARTHSYS 191, or consent of instructor. Admission by application only, available from thayden@stanford.edu. Applications due Nov. 30, 2016. (Meets Earth Systems WIM requirement.).
Same as: COMM 277C, EARTHSYS 177C, EARTHSYS 277C

COMM 177D. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Narrative Journalism. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 277D.) How to report, write, edit, and read long-form narrative nonfiction, whether for magazines, news sites or online venues. Tools and templates of story telling such as scenes, characters, dialogue, and narrative arc. How the best long-form narrative stories defy or subvert conventional wisdom and bring fresh light to the human experience through reporting, writing, and moral passion. Prerequisite: 104 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 277D

COMM 177E. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Telling the Story. 4-5 Units.

This workshop will offer secrets to good storytelling, and constructive feedback every step of the way on a significant piece of journalism you want to publish. The instructor, a senior editor who has helped New York Times reporters win 10 Pulitzer Prizes, will teach the course along with some of those reporters as well as other journalists with expertise in various aspects of storytelling. The sessions will include 1) elements of a great story; 2) finding a great story; 3) reporting a story; 4) writing the proposal; 5) making a story come alive online; 6) giving feedback on and editing a story; 7) assuring your story gets maximum readership online. Your piece could be one you conceive for this class, or one you have already begun reporting. Prerequisite: COMM 104 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 277E

COMM 177I. Becoming a Watchdog: Investigative Reporting Techniques. 4-5 Units.

Graduate students register for COMM 277I.) Learn how to apply an investigative and data mindset to journalism, from understanding how to background an individual or entity using online databases to compiling or combining disparate sets of information in ways that unveil wrongdoing or mismanagement. Focuses on mining texts, tracking associations, and using visualizations. Stories produced apply investigative techniques to beat reporting, breaking news, and long form journalism. Prerequisite: COMM 104W, or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 277I

COMM 177S. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Sports Journalism. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 277S.) Workshop. An examination of American sports writing from the 1920's Golden Age of Sports to present. Students become practitioners of the sports writing craft in an intensive laboratory. Hones journalistic skills such as specialized reporting, interviewing, deadline writing, creation of video projects, and conceptualizing and developing stories for print and online. Prerequisite: 104 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 277S

COMM 177Y. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Foreign Correspondence. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 277Y.) Study how being a foreign correspondent has evolved and blend new communication tools with clear narrative to tell stories from abroad in a way that engages a diversifying American audience in the digital age. Prerequisite: COMM 104W, COMM 279, or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 277Y

COMM 195. Honors Thesis. 5 Units.

Qualifies students to conduct communication research. Student must apply for department honors thesis program during Spring Quarter of junior year.

COMM 199. Individual Work. 1-5 Unit.

For students with high academic standing. May be repeated for credit.

COMM 1B. Media, Culture, and Society. 5 Units.

The institutions and practices of mass media, including television, film, radio, and digital media, and their role in shaping culture and social life. The media's shifting relationships to politics, commerce, and identity.
Same as: AMSTUD 1B

COMM 206. Communication Research Methods. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 206.) Conceptual and practical concerns underlying commonly used quantitative approaches, including experimental, survey, content analysis, and field research in communication. Pre- or corequisite: STATS 60 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 106

COMM 208. Media Processes and Effects. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 208.) The process of communication theory construction including a survey of social science paradigms and major theories of communication. Recommended: 1 or PSYCH 1.
Same as: COMM 108

COMM 212. Models of Democracy. 3-5 Units.

Ancient and modern varieties of democracy; debates about their normative and practical strengths and the pathologies to which each is subject. Focus is on participation, deliberation, representation, and elite competition, as values and political processes. Formal institutions, political rhetoric, technological change, and philosophical critique. Models tested by reference to long-term historical natural experiments such as Athens and Rome, recent large-scale political experiments such as the British Columbia Citizens' Assembly, and controlled experiments.
Same as: COMM 312

COMM 213. Computational Methods in the Civic Sphere. 4-5 Units.

The widespread availability of public data provides a rich opportunity for those who can efficiently filter, interpret, and visualize information. Course develops necessary technical skills for data collection, analysis, and publication, including data mining and web visualization, with a focus on civic affairs and government accountability. Open to all majors and a range of technical skill levels. Involves tackling new tools and technical concepts in the pursuit of engaging, public-facing projects. (Graduate students enroll in 213). Prerequisite COMM 273D, CS 106A, or CS 106B.
Same as: COMM 113

COMM 216. Journalism Law. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for 216.) Laws and regulation impacting journalists. Topics include libel, privacy, news gathering, protection sources, fair trial and free press, theories of the First Amendment, and broadcast regulation. Prerequisite: Journalism M.A. student or advanced Communication major.
Same as: COMM 116

COMM 220. Digital Media in Society. 4-5 Units.

Contemporary debates concerning the social and cultural impact of digital media. Topics include the historical origins of digital media, cultural contexts of their development and use, and influence of digital media on conceptions of self, community, and state. Priority to juniors, seniors, and graduate students.
Same as: AMSTUD 120, COMM 120W

COMM 224. Lies, Trust, and Tech. 4-5 Units.

Deception is one of the most significant and pervasive social phenomena of our age. Lies range from the trivial to the very serious, including deception between friends and family, in the workplace, and in security and intelligence contexts. At the same time, information and communication technologies have pervaded almost all aspects of human communication, from everyday technologies that support interpersonal interactions to, such as email and instant messaging, to more sophisticated systems that support organization-level interactions. Given the prevalence of both deception and communication technology in our personal and professional lives, an important set of questions have recently emerged about how humans adapt their deceptive practices to new communication and information technologies, including how communication technology affects the practice of lying and the detection of deception, and whether technology can be used to identify deception.
Same as: COMM 124

COMM 225. Perspectives on American Journalism. 4-5 Units.

An examination of American journalism, focusing on how news is produced, distributed, and financially supported. Emphasis on current media controversies and puzzles, and on designing innovations in discovering and telling stories. (Graduate students register for COMM 225.).
Same as: AMSTUD 125, COMM 125

COMM 231. Media Ethics and Responsibility. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 231.) The development of professionalism among American journalists, emphasizing the emergence of objectivity as a professional and the epistemological norm. An applied ethics course where questions of power, freedom, and truth autonomy are treated normatively so as to foster critical thinking about the origins and implications of commonly accepted standards of responsible journalism.
Same as: COMM 131

COMM 233. Need to Know: The Tension between a Free Press and National Security Decision Making. 4-5 Units.

This seminar examines the dynamic interaction at the highest levels of government and the media when news coverage of secret national security policy and operations impinges on United States defense, diplomatic and intelligence activities and decision making and affects the American political system. Prime examples: intelligence information about Russian hacking operations during the 2016 presidential election campaign, the unverified intelligence dossier on Donald Trump's Russian connections, the torrent of secret NSA programs disclosed by Edward Snowden. Students explore attitudes, practices, and actions by the media and the government through a series of case studies and simulations. Former editors, reporters, and government officials appear as guest speakers, including Michael Hayden, former director of the NSA and CIA. The goal of the course is to inform students about the vital but often fraught relationship between a free press and the government in a democratic society. For advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Application for enrollment required. The instructor is a former Washington bureau chief of The New York Times. Email Kiley Roache (kiley@stanford.edu) to request an application. Completed applications are due by 6pm (pacific) on March 25, 2017. Early applications welcome.
Same as: COMM 133

COMM 235. Deliberative Democracy and its Critics. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the theory and practice of deliberative democracy and engages both in a dialogue with critics. Can a democracy which emphasizes people thinking and talking together on the basis of good information be made practical in the modern age? What kinds of distortions arise when people try to discuss politics or policy together? The course draws on ideas of deliberation from Madison and Mill to Rawls and Habermas as well as criticisms from the jury literature, from the psychology of group processes and from the most recent normative and empirical literature on deliberative forums. Deliberative Polling, its applications, defenders and critics, both normative and empirical, will provide a key case for discussion.
Same as: AMSTUD 135, COMM 135, COMM 335, POLISCI 234P, POLISCI 334P

COMM 237. The Dialogue of Democracy. 4-5 Units.

All forms of democracy require some kind of communication so people can be aware of issues and make decisions. This course looks at competing visions of what democracy should be and different notions of the role of dialogue in a democracy. Is it just campaigning or does it include deliberation? Small scale discussions or sound bites on television? Or social media? What is the role of technology in changing our democratic practices, to mobilize, to persuade, to solve public problems? This course will include readings from political theory about democratic ideals - from the American founders to J.S. Mill and the Progressives to Joseph Schumpeter and modern writers skeptical of the public will. It will also include contemporary examinations of the media and the internet to see how those practices are changing and how the ideals can or cannot be realized.
Same as: AMSTUD 137, COMM 137W, POLISCI 232T, POLISCI 332T

COMM 238. Deliberative Democracy Practicum: Applying Deliberative Polling. 3-5 Units.

In this course, students will work directly on a real-world deliberative democracy project using the method of Deliberative Polling. Students in this course will work in partnership with the Center for Deliberative Democracy at Stanford, a research center devoted to the research in democracy and public opinion around the world. This unique practicum will allow students to work on an actual Deliberative Polling project on campus. In just one quarter, the students will prepare for, implement, and analyze the results for an Deliberative Polling project. This is a unique opportunity that allows students to take part in the entire process of a deliberative democracy project. Through this practicum, students will apply quantitative and qualitative research methods in a local community or local high school and subsequently, analyze the relevant quantitative and qualitative data. Students will explore the underlying challenges and complexities of what it means to actually do community-engaged research in the real world. As such, this course will provide students with skills and experience in research design in deliberative democracy, community and stakeholder engagement, and the practical aspects of working in local communities. This practicum is a collaboration between the Center for Deliberative Democracy, the Bill Lane Center for the American West and the Haas Center for Public Service.nnCDD website: http://cdd.stanford.edunBill Lane Center website: http://west.stanford.edunHass Center website: https://haas.stanford.edu.
Same as: COMM 138, CSRE 38

COMM 242. Media Economics. 4-5 Units.

Uses economics to examine the generation and consumption of information in communication markets. Covers concepts that play a large role in information economics, including public goods, economies of scale, product differentiation, and externalities. Looks at individuals¿ information demands as consumers, producers, audience members, and voters. Topics include economics of Internet, sustainability of accountability journalism, and marketplace of ideas.
Same as: COMM 142W

COMM 243. Communication Policy and Regulation. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on the development, implementation, and evaluation of policies affecting communication markets. Policy issues include universal service, digital divide, Internet regulation, intellectual property, privacy, television violence, content diversity, media ownership, antitrust, and impact of news on government accountability. Examines political economy of communication policy and the evolution of policies across time.
Same as: COMM 143W

COMM 245. Personality and Digital Media. 4-5 Units.

Personality describes people's characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving. This course will introduce students to the ways personality is expressed in digital devices (e.g., computers, smartphones) and platforms (e.g., social networks, virtual worlds). Readings and lectures will introduce students to theories of personality, the practice of assessing personality, and the broader societal implications of having mediated personalities. Course assignments will require students to apply the course concepts to explore personality expression in various digitally mediated contexts.
Same as: COMM 145

COMM 251. The First Amendment: Freedom of Speech and Press. 4-5 Units.

Introduction to the constitutional protections for freedom of speech, press, and expressive association. All the major Supreme Court cases dealing with issues such as incitement, libel, hate speech, obscenity, commercial speech, and campaign finance. There are no prerequisites, but a basic understanding of American government would be useful. In addition to a final and midterm exam, students participate in a moot court on a hypothetical case. (Grad students register for COMM 251).
Same as: COMM 151, POLISCI 125P

COMM 252. Constitutional Law. 3 Units.

This course covers Supreme Court case law concerning governmental powers, equal protection, and certain fundamental rights. The course investigates the constitutional foundation for democratic participation in the United States, covering topics such as the Fourteenth Amendment's protections against discrimination on grounds of race, gender, and other classifications, as well as the individual rights to voting and intimate association, and an introduction to First Amendment rights of free speech and press. Students will be evaluated on class participation, a midterm moot court with both a written and oral component, and a take-home final exam. Lectures will be twice per week and a discussion section once per week.
Same as: COMM 152, POLISCI 126P

COMM 253. Political Campaigning in the Internet Age. 3 Units.

This course will acquaint students with the changing environment for campaigns posed by the rise of the Internet. So much of the traditional way analysts have understood campaigns has revolved around television as the primary mode of campaign communication. The rise of the Internet, nonlinear television programming, and mobile communication enables new forms of campaigning. This course will examine the relevant social science on these topics, while at the same time bringing in guest lecturers from industry, campaigns, and media. Requirements: Students will be required to complete a 25 page research paper on a topic relevant to the course.
Same as: COMM 153

COMM 253A. Policy, Politics, and the Presidency: Understanding the 2016 Campaign from Start to Finish. 2 Units.

(Same as LAW 7057). In 2016, Americans will once again go to the polls to select a new president. But what will actually happen behind-the-scenes between now and then is largely a mystery to most. This course will introduce students to the nuts-and-bolts of a presidential campaign. Each week, we will explore a different topic related to running for the presidency -- policy formation, communications, grassroots strategy, digital outreach, campaign finance -- and feature high-profile guest speakers who have served in senior roles on both Democratic and Republican campaigns. Students, guests, and faculty will also participate in discussions on how these topics will relate to the 2016 presidential contest, which will begin in earnest over the course of the quarter.
Same as: COMM 153A, POLISCI 72, PUBLPOL 146, PUBLPOL 246

COMM 254. The Politics of Algorithms. 4-5 Units.

Algorithms have become central actors in today's digital world. In areas as diverse as social media, journalism, education, healthcare, and policing, computing technologies increasingly mediate communication processes. This course will provide an introduction to the social and cultural forces shaping the construction, institutionalization, and uses of algorithms. In so doing, we will explore how algorithms relate to political issues of modernization, power, and inequality. Readings will range from social scientific analyses to media coverage of ongoing controversies relating to Big Data. Students will leave the course with a better appreciation of the broader challenges associated with researching, building, and using algorithms.
Same as: COMM 154, CSRE 154T, SOC 154

COMM 257. Information Control in Authoritarian Regimes. 4-5 Units.

Does information help autocrats and dictators stay in power? Or does information help topple authoritarian regimes? This course will examine how authoritarian regimes try to control information through surveillance, propaganda, and censorship, what influences the effectiveness of these information control measures, and how changes in technology (Internet, social media, mobile) affect the dynamics of information control.
Same as: COMM 157, COMM 357

COMM 258. Censorship and Propaganda. 4-5 Units.

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Same as: COMM 158

COMM 262. Campaigns, Voting, Media, and Elections. 4-5 Units.

This course examines the theory and practice of American campaigns and elections. First, we will attempt to explain the behavior of the key players -- candidates, parties, journalists, and voters -- in terms of the institutional arrangements and political incentives that confront them. Second, we will use current and recent election campaigns as "laboratories" for testing generalizations about campaign strategy and voter behavior. Third, we examine selections from the academic literature dealing with the origins of partisan identity, electoral design, and the immediate effects of campaigns on public opinion, voter turnout, and voter choice. As well, we'll explore issues of electoral reform and their more long-term consequences for governance and the political process.
Same as: COMM 162, POLISCI 120B

COMM 264. The Psychology of Communication About Politics in America. 4-5 Units.

Focus is on how politicians and government learn what Americans want and how the public's preferences shape government action; how surveys measure beliefs, preferences, and experiences; how poll results are criticized and interpreted; how conflict between polls is viewed by the public; how accurate surveys are and when they are accurate; how to conduct survey research to produce accurate measurements; designing questionnaires that people can understand and use comfortably; how question wording can manipulate poll results; corruption in survey research.
Same as: COMM 164, POLISCI 124L, PSYCH 170

COMM 266. Virtual People. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 266.) The concept of virtual people or digital human representations; methods of constructing and using virtual people; methodological approaches to interactions with and among virtual people; and current applications. Viewpoints including popular culture, literature, film, engineering, behavioral science, computer science, and communication.
Same as: COMM 166

COMM 271. Moving Pictures: Video Journalism for mobile and social platforms. 3-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for 271.) Examine video journalism¿s crucial role in digital news media across mobile and social media platforms. What are the specific needs of mobile platforms? How is new technology utilized to produce effective video news content? We'll examine case studies and hear from guest speakers about innovations in video journalism. Students produce short video journalism pieces using mobile tools, optimized for viewing on mobile devices. Prerequisite: Journalism MA student or instructor's consent.
Same as: COMM 171

COMM 272. Media Psychology. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 272.) The literature related to psychological processing and the effects of media. Topics: unconscious processing; picture perception; attention and memory; emotion; the physiology of processing media; person perception; pornography; consumer behavior; advanced film and television systems; and differences among reading, watching, and listening.
Same as: COMM 172

COMM 273D. Public Affairs Data Journalism I. 4 Units.

Even before the ubiquity of Internet access and high-powered computers, public accountability reporting relied on the concerted collection of observations and analytical problem-solving. We study the methods, and the data, used to discover leads and conduct in-depth reporting on public affairs, including election finance and safety regulations. Students gain practical experience with the digital tools and techniques of computer-assisted reporting. Prerequisite: Journalism M.A. student.

COMM 274D. Public Affairs Data Journalism II. 4 Units.

Learn how to find, create and analyze data to tell news stories with public service impact. Uses relational databases, advanced queries, basic statistics, and mapping to analyze data for storytelling. Assignments may include stories, blog posts, and data visualizations, with at least one in-depth project based on data analysis. Prerequisites: COMM 273D or Journalism M.A. student.

COMM 275. Multimedia Storytelling: Reporting and Production Using Audio, Still Images, and Video. 3-4 Units.

Multimedia assignments coordinated with deadline reporting efforts in COMM 273 from traditional news beats using audio, still photography, and video. Use of digital audio recorders and audio production to leverage voice-over narration, interviews, and natural sound; use of digital still cameras and audio to produce audio slideshows; and the combination of these media with video in post-production with Final Cut Pro. Prerequisite: Journalism M.A. student. Corequisite: COMM 273.

COMM 276. Advanced Digital Media Production. 4-5 Units.

In-depth reporting and production using audio, images and video. Focus on an in-depth journalism project with appropriate uses of digital media: audio, photography, graphics, and video. Topics include advanced field techniques and approaches (audio, video, still) and emphasis on creating a non-fiction narrative arc in a multimedia piece of 10-12 minutes. Prerequisite: COMM 275 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 176

COMM 277A. Computational Journalism. 4-5 Units.

Focuses on using data and algorithms to lower the cost of discovering stories or telling stories in more engaging and personalized ways. Project based assignments based on real-world challenges faced in newsrooms. Prior experience in journalism or computational thinking helpful. Prerequisite: COMM 273D, COMM 113/213, or the consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 177A

COMM 277C. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Environmental Journalism. 4-5 Units.

Advanced reporting and writing course in the specific practices and standards of environmental journalism. This course begins with the assumption that students already know how to research and relay the essential facts of almost any environmental story. Students will go beyond the basics of journalistic practice, both as reporters and storytellers. Emphasis on magazine-style writing, with the goal of producing stories that stand on fact but move like fiction, that have protagonists and antagonists, that create suspense, that reveal character through dialogue and action, and that pay off with resonant finales. Limited enrollment: preference to students in the Earth Systems Master of Arts, Environmental Communication Program and the Graduate Journalism Program. Prerequisite: COMM 104, or EARTHSYS 191, or consent of instructor. Admission by application only, available from thayden@stanford.edu. Applications due Nov. 30, 2016. (Meets Earth Systems WIM requirement.).
Same as: COMM 177C, EARTHSYS 177C, EARTHSYS 277C

COMM 277D. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Narrative Journalism. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 277D.) How to report, write, edit, and read long-form narrative nonfiction, whether for magazines, news sites or online venues. Tools and templates of story telling such as scenes, characters, dialogue, and narrative arc. How the best long-form narrative stories defy or subvert conventional wisdom and bring fresh light to the human experience through reporting, writing, and moral passion. Prerequisite: 104 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 177D

COMM 277E. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Telling the Story. 4-5 Units.

This workshop will offer secrets to good storytelling, and constructive feedback every step of the way on a significant piece of journalism you want to publish. The instructor, a senior editor who has helped New York Times reporters win 10 Pulitzer Prizes, will teach the course along with some of those reporters as well as other journalists with expertise in various aspects of storytelling. The sessions will include 1) elements of a great story; 2) finding a great story; 3) reporting a story; 4) writing the proposal; 5) making a story come alive online; 6) giving feedback on and editing a story; 7) assuring your story gets maximum readership online. Your piece could be one you conceive for this class, or one you have already begun reporting. Prerequisite: COMM 104 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 177E

COMM 277I. Becoming a Watchdog: Investigative Reporting Techniques. 4-5 Units.

Graduate students register for COMM 277I.) Learn how to apply an investigative and data mindset to journalism, from understanding how to background an individual or entity using online databases to compiling or combining disparate sets of information in ways that unveil wrongdoing or mismanagement. Focuses on mining texts, tracking associations, and using visualizations. Stories produced apply investigative techniques to beat reporting, breaking news, and long form journalism. Prerequisite: COMM 104W, or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 177I

COMM 277S. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Sports Journalism. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 277S.) Workshop. An examination of American sports writing from the 1920's Golden Age of Sports to present. Students become practitioners of the sports writing craft in an intensive laboratory. Hones journalistic skills such as specialized reporting, interviewing, deadline writing, creation of video projects, and conceptualizing and developing stories for print and online. Prerequisite: 104 or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 177S

COMM 277Y. Specialized Writing and Reporting: Foreign Correspondence. 4-5 Units.

(Graduate students register for COMM 277Y.) Study how being a foreign correspondent has evolved and blend new communication tools with clear narrative to tell stories from abroad in a way that engages a diversifying American audience in the digital age. Prerequisite: COMM 104W, COMM 279, or consent of instructor.
Same as: COMM 177Y

COMM 278. Journalism and Imaginative Writing in America. 5 Units.

Walt Whitman spent twenty-five years as a journalist before publishing his first book of poems. Mark Twain was a journalist for twenty years before publishing his first novel. Topics include examination of how writers¿ backgrounds in journalism shaped the poetry or fiction for which they are best known; study of recent controversies surrounding writers who blurred the line between journalism and fiction. Writers include Whitman, Fanny Fern, Twain, Pauline Hopkins, Theodore Dreiser, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Ernest Hemingway, Meridel LeSueur.
Same as: AMSTUD 257

COMM 279. News Reporting & Writing Fundamentals. 3-4 Units.

Learn beat reporting and writing skills including source development, interviewing, and story structure for news and features. Emphasis on developing news judgment, clear writing skills, and an ability to execute stories on deadline. Exercises and assignments mimic a newsroom. Students pursue local beats with a focus on public issues and complement written pieces with relevant data analyses and multimedia components. Prerequisite: Journalism M.A. student. Corequisite: COMM 275.

COMM 280. Virtual Reality Journalism in the Public Sphere. 4 Units.

The immersive space (cinematic VR and virtual reality) is journalism's newest and most exciting reporting and storytelling tool. We survey best practices and methods in this emerging medium and learn 360-degree video production and postproduction. Teams will illuminate issues and provoke conversation in the public sphere. Prerequisite: Preference to Journalism M.A. students.

COMM 281. Exploring Computational Journalism. 3 Units.

This course will explore the evolving field of computational journalism. Students will research and discuss the state of the field, and do projects in areas such as understanding the media ecosystem, stimulating media creation, and assessing media impact. Admission by application; please email James Hamilton at jayth@stanford.edu to request application.
Same as: CS 206

COMM 289P. Journalism Thesis. 2-4 Units.

MA thesis course. Focuses on development of in-depth journalism project, culminating in work of publishable quality.

COMM 290. Media Studies M.A. Project. 1-2 Unit.

Individual research for coterminal Media Studies students.

COMM 291. Graduate Journalism Seminar. 1 Unit.

Required of students in the graduate program in Journalism. Forum for current issues in the practice and performance of the press. The seminar frequently features Bay Area Journalists as guest speakers. May be repeated for credit.

COMM 299. Individual Work. 1-4 Unit.

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COMM 301. Communication Research, Curriculum Development and Pedagogy. 1 Unit.

Designed to prepare students for teaching and research in the Department of Communication. Students will be trained in developing curriculum and in pedagogical practices, and will also be exposed to the research programs of various faculty members in the department. Required of all Ph.D. students.

COMM 307. Summer Institute in Political Psychology. 3 Units.

Lectures, discussion groups, and workshops addressing many applications of psychology to the analysis of political behavior. Public opinion, international relations, political decision-making, attitudes and beliefs, prejudice, social influence and persuasion, terrorism, news media influence, foreign policy, socialization, social justice.

COMM 308. Graduate Seminar in Political Psychology. 1-3 Unit.

For students interested in research in political science, psychology, or communication. Methodological techniques for studying political attitudes and behaviors. May be repeated for credit.
Same as: POLISCI 324

COMM 311. Theory of Communication. 1-5 Unit.

Basic communication theory for first-year Ph.D. students in the Department of Communication. Introduction to basic writings and concepts in communication research. The goal is an introduction to issues in the field that are common in communication research. First half of the class will emphasize classic literature about field organization, history and theory. Second half will emphasize contemporary theory in areas that students select.

COMM 312. Models of Democracy. 3-5 Units.

Ancient and modern varieties of democracy; debates about their normative and practical strengths and the pathologies to which each is subject. Focus is on participation, deliberation, representation, and elite competition, as values and political processes. Formal institutions, political rhetoric, technological change, and philosophical critique. Models tested by reference to long-term historical natural experiments such as Athens and Rome, recent large-scale political experiments such as the British Columbia Citizens' Assembly, and controlled experiments.
Same as: COMM 212

COMM 314. Ethnographic Methods. 1-5 Unit.

This course offers an introduction to the practice and politics of ethnographic fieldwork. It provides a "how to" of ethnographic research, in which students will conduct an ethnographic project of their own, complemented by weekly readings and discussions. In the process, we will discuss the theory and epistemology of fieldwork, along with the practicalities and politics of fieldwork in different domains. We will examine different stages of ethnographic research (entering the field, conducting and recording fieldwork, exiting the field and writing it up), different methods (observations, interviews, "going along"), as well as distinct styles of ethnographic work (virtual ethnography, organizational ethnography, narrative ethnography, etc.). The course will serve as a participative workshop for students to exchange field notes, share practical advice, and consolidate their research interests. Prerequisite: Communication Ph.D. student, or consent of instructor.
Same as: SOC 319

COMM 317. The Philosophy of Social Science. 1-5 Unit.

Approaches to social science research and their theoretical presuppositions. Readings from the philosophy of the social sciences. Research design, the role of experiments, and quantitative and qualitative research. Cases from communication and related social sciences. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

COMM 318. Quantitative Social Science Research Methods. 1-5 Unit.

An introduction to a broad range of social science research methods that are widely used in PhD work. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

COMM 320G. Advanced Topics in New Media and American Culture. 1-5 Unit.

This course deals with advanced issues in computing and American cultural history since World War II. Primarily for Ph.D. students. Prerequisite: 220 or consent of instructor.

COMM 324. Language and Technology. 3-5 Units.

In this course we develop a model of how language reflects social and psychological dynamics in social media and other technologically-mediated contexts. The course lays out the main stages of analyzing language to understand social dynamics, including using theory to identify key discourse features, feature extraction, and classification and prediction. The course will draw on action-oriented language approaches to understand how people use language (e.g., grounding and joint action models), and then build on this approach to understand how discourse features from natural language can be used to answer questions from a wide range of social science questions, and ultimately, to the design of new technologies.

COMM 326. Advanced Topics in Human Virtual Representation. 1-5 Unit.

Topics include the theoretical construct of person identity, the evolution of that construct given the advent of virtual environments, and methodological approaches to understanding virtual human representation. Prerequisite: PhD student or consent of instructor.

COMM 335. Deliberative Democracy and its Critics. 3-5 Units.

This course examines the theory and practice of deliberative democracy and engages both in a dialogue with critics. Can a democracy which emphasizes people thinking and talking together on the basis of good information be made practical in the modern age? What kinds of distortions arise when people try to discuss politics or policy together? The course draws on ideas of deliberation from Madison and Mill to Rawls and Habermas as well as criticisms from the jury literature, from the psychology of group processes and from the most recent normative and empirical literature on deliberative forums. Deliberative Polling, its applications, defenders and critics, both normative and empirical, will provide a key case for discussion.
Same as: AMSTUD 135, COMM 135, COMM 235, POLISCI 234P, POLISCI 334P

COMM 339. Questionnaire Design for Surveys and Laboratory Experiments: Social and Cognitive Perspectives. 4 Units.

The social and psychological processes involved in asking and answering questions via questionnaires for the social sciences; optimizing questionnaire design; open versus closed questions; rating versus ranking; rating scale length and point labeling; acquiescence response bias; don't-know response options; response choice order effects; question order effects; social desirability response bias; attitude and behavior recall; and introspective accounts of the causes of thoughts and actions.
Same as: POLISCI 421K, PSYCH 231

COMM 345. Personality Expression in Digitally Mediated Contexts. 1-5 Unit.

Digital devices (e.g., computers, smartphones, wearables) and platforms (e.g., social media sites, forums, virtual worlds) mediate much of our daily life. Each time we use digital media for communication, information seeking, or entertainment, we leave behind psychologically revealing digital footprints. In this course, we will explore how digital footprints can be used to understand individual differences in thinking, feeling, and behaving. Class activities and assignments will require students to apply the concepts to their own research projects.

COMM 350. New Media and Journalism. 1-5 Unit.

New media technologies are transforming how people create and consume information. In this course, we study journalism as an organized field of practice to examine what digital technologies change -- and what they don't change -- about production, diffusion, and reception of news around the globe. The course will cover topics such as changing professional boundaries in a networked environment; the decentralization of news production with social media platforms; the changes in editorial judgement related to automation; the construction of algorithmic audiences; and the promises and challenges associated with data journalism. Moving beyond simplistic analyses of the internet as a universal explanation for all changes in journalism, this course explores how new technologies interact with existing practices, representations, and institutions.
Same as: SOC 326

COMM 354. Data Worlds: From Quantification to Computing Cultures. 1-5 Unit.

This course provides a critical examination of how technologies of quantification affect communication processes in different institutional contexts. Drawing on classical social theory, history, media theory, and science and technology issues, the class explores how processes of quantification - offline and online - interact with institutions, meanings, and practices. Examples are drawn from a broad range of fields, including the history of statistics, the construction of development indicators, and the algorithmic productions of emotions. By analyzing how older forms of quantification relate to more recent development in computing techniques and cultures, the course provides a framework for understanding the role of quantification in increasingly mediated environments.

COMM 357. Information Control in Authoritarian Regimes. 4-5 Units.

Does information help autocrats and dictators stay in power? Or does information help topple authoritarian regimes? This course will examine how authoritarian regimes try to control information through surveillance, propaganda, and censorship, what influences the effectiveness of these information control measures, and how changes in technology (Internet, social media, mobile) affect the dynamics of information control.
Same as: COMM 157, COMM 257

COMM 360G. Political Communication. 1-5 Unit.

An overview of research in political communication with particular reference to work on the impact of the mass media on public opinion and voting behavior. Limited to Ph.D. students. Prerequisite: 260 or consent of instructor.
Same as: POLISCI 425

COMM 361. Law of Democracy. 3-5 Units.

Combined with LAW 7036 (formerly Law 577). This course is intended to give students a basic understanding of the themes in the legal regulation of elections and politics. We will cover all the major Supreme Court cases on topics of voting rights, reapportionment/redistricting, ballot access, regulation of political parties, campaign finance, and the 2000 presidential election controversy. The course pays particular attention to competing political philosophies and empirical assumptions that underlie the Court's reasoning while still focusing on the cases as litigation tools used to serve political ends. Elements used in grading: Class participation and one day take home final exam. (POLISCI 327C; LAW 577).
Same as: POLISCI 327C

COMM 362. Topics in Political Communication: Media Bias, Selective Exposure, and Political Polarization. 1-5 Unit.

This course surveys theories of media bias, biased processing of information, and the empirical challenges facing researchers attempting to link changes in the composition of audiences to attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. (Limited to PhD students).
Same as: POLISCI 425S

COMM 372G. Seminar in Psychological Processing. 1-5 Unit.

Limited to Ph.D. students. Advanced topics. Prerequisite: 272 or consent of instructor.

COMM 378. Media and Time. 1-5 Unit.

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COMM 380. Curriculum Practical Training. 1-5 Unit.

Practical experience in the communication industries. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Meets requirements for Curricular Practical Training for students on F-1 visas. (Staff).

COMM 382. Research in Computational Social Science. 1-5 Unit.

Massive datasets are increasingly available for research as digital technologies pervade our lives. These data represent new opportunities for social science research, but prominent examples of data science research bear little resemblance to the research designs of social scientific inquiry. In this course, we use machine learning and statistical tools on large-scale datasets to answer social science questions of cause and effect. Familiarity with Python recommended. Enrollment limited to PhD students in COMM or Social Science who have completed or are currently taking graduate quantitative methods sequences in Economics, Political Science, Sociology, or Statistics. Contact blazzari@stanford.edu for a permission number to enroll (please include a current CV).

COMM 384. Media Technology Theory. 3-5 Units.

This course surveys major theoretical approaches to the study of media technologies, including Frankfurt School critical theory, media archaeology, actor network theory, science and technology studies, platform studies and theories of critical making. By the end of the course, students should have a rich familiarity with the literature in this area, as well as with exemplary empirical studies conducted within each tradition. Preference to Ph.D. students in Communication and Art and Art History. Consent of instructor required for non-PhD students.
Same as: ARTHIST 465

COMM 386. Media Cultures of the Cold War. 3-5 Units.

The intersection of politics, aesthetics, and new media technologies in the U.S. between the end of WW II and the fall of the Berlin Wall. Topics include the aesthetics of thinking the unthinkable in the wake of the atom bomb; abstract expressionism and 'modern man' discourse; game theory, cybernetics, and new models of art making; the rise of television, intermedia, and the counterculture; and the continuing influence of the early cold war on contemporary media aesthetics. Readings from primary and secondary sources in art history, communication, and critical theory.
Same as: ARTHIST 475

COMM 397. Minor Research Project. 1-6 Unit.

Individual research for Ph.D. candidates. Course may be repeated for credit.

COMM 398. Major Research Project. 1-6 Unit.

Individual research for Ph.D. candidates.

COMM 399. Advanced Individual Work. 1-9 Unit.

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COMM 801. TGR Project. 0 Units.

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COMM 802. TGR Dissertation. 0 Units.

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COMM 86SI. College Media Lab: digital and reporting skills for student journalists. 1-2 Unit.

Journalism, especially college journalism, is undergoing rapid change in the 21st century. As native digital users, we are uniquely positioned to create and innovate in the new media landscape. This class is designed to provide students with a hands-on education in digitally-fluent college media reporting. Topics include photo, video and data reporting, media rights and responsibilities, and communications careers outside of journalism. The 'basics' of writing, blogging, and reporting the news will be taught and applied throughout the quarter. Guest lectures from professional reporters, academics, and communications professionals. Work completed for this class can be submitted to The Stanford Daily for publication. Pizza provided.